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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 19 NUMBER 2 . JUNE 1965 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N. Y. 10017

SOCIALIZATION FOR COMPETENCE by M. Brewster Smith • WHAT do we know, and what do we need to know, about the conditions under which persons come to function as competent members of society? The question arises with new urgency as crash programs and longer-term plans burgeon in every quarter in belated but unfortunately hasty attempts to instill competence in the poor and culturally deprived. It was in this context of contemporary social action that the Committee on Socialization and Social Structure l in the spring of 1964 considered the topic of socialization for competence. It seemed to the committee that examination of the assumptions underlying some of these programs of intervention and planned social change might help to clarify conceptual issues and identify research needs concerning socialization processes as they bear upon the positive outcomes of socialization. Preliminary discussions, in which Leonard S. Cottrell, Jr. and Isidor Chein participated, suggested that a number of active lines of investigation and conceptualization do indeed seem to be converging on a potentially

congruent formulation. The strands of current interest that the committee brought into view turned out to arise from a much wider array of research contexts than it had initially been concerned with-ranging from the effects of early experience on the neonate to the evocation of competence in newly independent developing countries. Bringing these strands together for examination and critical discussion at a conference based on carefully prepared working papers seemed to the committee intellectually exciting and likely to be valuable to all concerned. The conference? held in San Juan, Puerto Rico on April 29 - May 2, 1965, could only begin to approach the synthesis toward which the committee was aspiring, but it amply confirmed the committee's expectations that the diverse lines of interest represented would be mutually relevant and that a clearer formulation of issues would emerge from the confrontation.

• The author is Professor of Psychology and, beginning in July, Director of the Institute of Human Development at the University of California, Berkeley. During 1964-65 he has been on leave as Fellow of the Center for Advan~ed Study in the Behavioral Sciences and Special Research Fellow of the National Institute of Mental Health. He is a member of the Council's Committee on Socialization and Social Structure and was the chairman of the conference that he reports on here. 1 The committee has been concerned since its appointment in 1960 with the interrelationship of social structure, socialization processes, and personality. It has sought to advance research in this area through the support of locally based work groups developing the conceptualization of selected problems, through commissioned surveys of research resources and of selected foreign literatures, and through research conferences. The committee consists of John A. Clausen (chairman), Orville G. Brim, Jr., Alex Inkeles, Ronald Lippitt, Eleanor E. Maccoby, and M. Brewster Smith; staff, Ben Willerman. The work of the committee is supported by a grant to the Council from the National Institute of Mental Health.

Two working papers considered at the outset served to establish a common framework: "Competence as a Basic Concept in the Growth of Personality," by Robert W. White, and "A Note on Social Structure and the Socialization of Competence," by Alex Inkeles. The polarity

CONTRASTING APPROACHES

2 In addition to the members of the committee, participants in the conference were: Joseph M. Bobbitt, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Nathan S. Caplan, University of Michigan; Elizabeth Colson, University of California, Berkeley; Elizabeth B. Davis, Department of Psychiatry, Harlem Hospital; Edward Devereux, and William F. Whyte, Cornell University; J. MeV. Hunt, University of lllinois; Patricia Minuchin, Bank Street College of Education; Bernard C. Rosen, University of Nebraska; Juan A. Rossello, University of Puerto Rico; Richard Snyder, Northwestern University; Burton L. White, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Robert W. White, Harvard University; and R. S. Ezekiel, University of Michigan (recorder).

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which these papers presented-between the developmental vicissitudes of individual motivation (White) and the requirements for manning a given social system (Inkeles)-as starting points for analysis confronted the conference again and again in subsequent discussion. Talk of beginning the analysis of any particular problem in socialization for competence "from the right end" became one of the jokes of the conference, as there was clearly no agreeing about which end this might be. According to White, the child from infancy experiences a biologically given and pleasurable sense of efficacy that accompanies his maturing engagements with his environment and becomes the basis for intrinsic motivation toward competence.s Such motivation, as White sees it, is independent of extrinsic social rewards and punishments though not uninfluenced by them. Offered in opposition to what was formerly orthodox motivational doctrine-according to which the child's behavior is "shaped" by external forces, first by the reward of physiological drives, then through reinforcement via "secondary" motives of social origin-White's provisional reappraisal of the basis of motivation puts more emphasis on the child's spontaneous activity, on his own role as agent in the socialization process. Without denying the role of social approval and disapproval in channeling the directions and setting the standards according to which the child may experience a sense of competence, White emphasizes that the child will experience efficacy most clearly when the achievement is his own, perhaps even attained against the pressures of socializing agents. The strategy of desirable socialization practice that seems to follow is one that encourages and supports the child in solving his problems for himself rather than providing him with solutions. Such a strategy counts on the emergence and deepening of the intrinsic motivation that comes from the gratifications of effective action. If the socializing agents rely heavily on the extrinsic rewards of approval or disapproval, the child's potential intrinsic motivation may be stultified; he may continue to be governed by external incentives like grades, money, or prestige rather than by the intrinsic satisfactions that he gets from dealing effectively with his world. For Inkeles, socialization research that starts with the early development of the organism, rather than with the concerns of the socializers, begins "at the wrong end." His definition of competence incorporates a societal referent: "the ability to attain and perform in three sets of statuses: those which one's society will normally assign one, those in the repertoire of one's social system that one may reasonably aspire to, and those which one might reasonably invent or elaborate for oneself." Such See Robert W. White, "Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence," Psychological Review, 66 (1959), 297-333. S

a concept, which includes the individual's capacity to move to new statuses and to elaborate new roles, is broader than the outcome of successful socialization as usually conceived. A major intent of Inkeles' paper wase to draw attention to "some of the qualities of individuals which are of most interest to society [but] which seem largely or wholly to escape systematic study by students of socialization." In modern industrial society as it is emerging the world over, competence in the spheres of family, occupation, and community would seem to require a common set of qualities that are presumably developed in the course of socialization: among them, minimal levels of skill in the symbol systems of language, arithmetic, and time; information as to where to go for what, and when; interpersonal skills that insure the protection of one's interests and the maintenance of stable and satisfying relations with intimates, peers, and authorities; and certain specifiable kinds of psychological defenses and of cognitive, affective, and conative styles. Such qualities are not evenly distributed among individuals or among social strata and ethnic groups. For Inkeles, research on socialization might strategically start with an attempt to account for these observed and important differences in the outcomes of socialization. His paper contained examples of how the place of a particular family in the gross social structure may result in_ differential influences on the child's attainment of the_ components of competence. The disparity or gap between the papers by White and Inkeles posed an underlying and fruitful problem to which conference discussion repeatedly returned. White regards competence, at least in its origins, as generic and transculturally relevant; Inkeles, starting with outcomes, stresses its cultural and situational specificity. White emphasizes continuities with the exploratory and activity drives of animals; Inkeles, articulation with the requirements of the functioning social system. The conception of competence with which each works is hewn to fit his own divergent theoretical purposes. Yet discussion showed that there is no essential clash between the two points of view. The problem, rather, is how to make them meet: how to formulate and understand the interplay between processes of the kind described by White in the social contexts and with the socially relevant results with which Inkeles is concerned. There would seem to be no "right end" from which to attack this problem. EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE

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play between intrinsic factors (as emphasized by Robert White) and reflected social appraisal (as emphasized by Mead and Sullivan 4) in the emergence of the self. We need a theory of the self that is less programmatic and doctrinaire, more closely based on empirical observation of the sort exemplified by Held and White for sensorimotor development. Self-concept, self-esteem, self-confidence would seem to be intimately linked with the concept of competence in Robert White's usage. J. McV. Hunt suggested a general schema to embrace early cognitive development. At first the infant is reactive, a captive of his field of stimulation. Change in this field evokes from him the "orienting response," which is followed by reduction of tension and arousal. In a second phase the infant's repeated perceptual encounters give rise to recognition. Here we find the beginnings of intention, when the child seeks repeatedly to match perceptual input to the images or inner standards that he has attained through previous experience. When the match is regained, he smiles. In the third phase he develops an interest in novelty on the basis of his now firm expectation that things should be recognizable. With the attention and arousal value of the familiar now at a reduced level, the child begins to seek the new. Aspiration, frustration, and joy come into play. Hunt sees the phenomena of competence motivation, described by Robert White, becoming relevant in this phase. Elizabeth Davis found this schema challenging in regard to the deprivations of slum children: after rich early sensory stimulation, they suffer from both a poverty of objects and a lack of consistency in perceptual experiences. Interest in the work on early experience, expressed in the conference discussion, clearly reflected hopes that research can establish the relevance of this experience to functioning in later childhood and maturity.

dramatically in discussion of the working paper on "Competence and Sensorimotor Development," by Richard M. Held and Burton L. White (introduced to the conference by the latter). The paper described the results of ongoing studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, particularly, of how enriching the stimulus properties of the environment affects the development of visual attention and grasping among institutionalized normal infants. The careful and detailed observations in these studies illustrated the kind of systematic work that is needed on many aspects of early psychological development before our account can be more than conjectural. Burton White saw the trend of the findings as congruent with Robert White's ideas: the infant develops competences through self-initiated activity, and his gains from sensory enrichment in the sensorimotor sphere seem to be associated with gains in babbling and the precursors of speech. Data are not yet at hand, however, to permit other than speculative extrapolation from these studies of early sensorimotor development to the emergence of more general competences with the attainment of language and reflective selfhood. The conference was reminded by John Clausen of the lack of correlation between infant mental tests (primarily sensorimotor) and later measures of intelligence in which language and conceptual abilities playa principal role. Is there continuity or discontinuity between competence at the sensorimotor and linguistic-conceptual levels? For an answer longitudinal research is required, to follow up the later results of interventions that accelerate sensorimotor development in infants. It was noted that observed discontinuities may have their sources in the social environment: as infants, Negro children in slums may experience a richness of sensory stimulation as well as of maternal warmth and support, only to encounter severe deprivation at the stage when meaningful and linguistically organized experience becomes relevant. According to the sociological tradition of G. H. Mead, as Orville Brim pointed out, the infant can only know that he is "effective" after he has attained the symbolic capacities that go with speech and emerging selfhood. This view assumes an inherent discontinuity. Smith, in his discussion of the paper by Held and White, suggested rather that our formulations concerning the origins and development of the self need review and revision to integrate what we are beginning to know about the intrinsic effects of the child's self-initiated activities with the results of reflected appraisals of his qualities and performances by others (as emphasized by Mead and the symbolic interactionist tradition). If we are to understand the continuity or discontinuity between infancy and childhood, we must gain a better grasp of the inter-

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION The paper by Bernard C. Rosen, "Some Structural Sources of Achievement Motivation and Values: Family and Society," introduced another conceptual issue which was clarified in discussion. Rosen's paper reviewed the body of research on familial and other social structural determinants of achievement motivation and values, initiated by David McClelland, and his own research on the topic, particularly in Brazil where the traditional fatherdominated family seems especially ill-designed to foster achievement motivation in sons. The need for achievement in this sense involves striving to attain standards of excellence, and has been found to be associated with 4 G. H. Mead, Mind, Self, and Society, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934; Harry Stack Sullivan, Conceptions of Modem Psychiatry, 2nd ed., New York: W. W. Norton Be Company, 1953.

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achievement training by both parents and independence training especially by the father. Warm but dominating mothers who are much concerned with their sons' performance contribute to high need for achievement in sons; dominating fathers, to low achievement motivation. A central influence in the learning of achievement motivation is the parents' conditional approval. Discussion initiated by Eleanor Maccoby questioned the superficial similarity between achievement motivation thus conceived and competence motivation as described by Robert White. Achievement motivation, she noted, involves performance for the sake of social approval; competence motivation involves being able to risk disapproval in order to do what one wants. No doubt, effective performance is often for the sake of approval, but is this at a cost? She cited Martin Hoffman's studies of how children acquire values. Hoffman found that when parents use the threat of conditional withdrawal of love as a preferred technique of socialization, children tend to internalize values according to what he termed the "conventional" pattern, involving rigid, black and white values and a tendency toward repression. The contrasting "humanistic" pattern leaves the children more in touch with their own feelings; their parents use induction techniques that amount to an appeal to competence. In the present context we would probably regard these children as more competent. Mrs. Maccoby saw the need for more data on the costs of withdrawal of love as a technique of socialization. Robert White regarded competence as a much more general term than need for achievement. Strivings for competence appear long before social evaluation is set on them. Need for achievement is a late, highly socialized, narrowly channeled form of competence motivation. White questioned the concept of independence training as used in Rosen's discussion of the sources of the achievement motive. Actual independence on the part of the child may not be correlated with independence training. True independence may emerge more often than not in opposition to parental pressure. Parents who try to inculcate independence deliberately may produce a docile child rather than a truly independent one. It is not enough to characterize the training in terms of the parent's aims. A parent can try to foster independence and achievement in a child, and get instead a docile, guilt-ridden, intimidated individual. The question is what happens to the child's sense of efficacy. SCHOOL AND PEER GROUP Two working papers dealt with socialization contexts outside the family that bear on how competence develops. One, presented to the conference by Edward

Devereux and written in collaboration with Urie Bronfenbrenner, George Suci, and R. R. Rodgers ("Adults and Peers as Sources of Conformity and Autonomy") was a progress report on current cross-national research at _ Cornell University that promises to throw light on t h e . differential impact of adults and peers on the development of conformity and autonomy in children. The issues raised in discussion of this paper do not lend themselves to ready summary here. The other, introduced by Patricia Minuchin and written in collaboration with Barbara Biber, "The Role of the School in the Socialization of Competence," presented an intensive study of fourth-grade children in two "traditional" and two "modem" or "changing" schools-all good schools drawing from a middle-class clientele. The contrasting educational orientations of the two types of schools were developed in some detail in the paper. According to Biber and Minuchin, the "traditional" orientation emphasizes factual information and specific skills in a context that depends saliently on the comparative appraisal of achievement. No particular effort is made to encourage the child to incorporate what he learns in his developing self-system. The "modem" orientation, on the other hand, tries to build on the child's native and intrinsic curiosity, on his active initiative路in the learning process. Intellectual mastery in terms of the child's own organization of knowledge is valued rather than the level of factual attainment. The child is helped to discover the self-relevance of what he learns; interplay between the subjective and objective is encouraged. In the conference discussion, striking correspondences were apparent on the one hand between the "modem" orientation and Roben White's views about the conditions under which intrinsic competence motivation develops; on the other, between the "traditional" orientation and the conception of achievement motivation elaborated in Rosen's paper. Mrs. Minuchin's examples of good "modem" classroom practice illustrated strategies that seemed to follow from White's views. Details of research method and findings discussed in the paper brought before the conference the difficult problems of measurement involved in appraising the consequences of the alternative educational strategies. The not entirely consistent results of the Bank Street study also suggested the possibility that the advantages of the "modem" approach for the development of greater self-differentiation, intrinsic motivation, and autonomy are perhaps to be had only at the cost of some handicap in academic attainment as appraised by standard achievement tests. To clarify the issue of value priorities that seems to be implicit here, one would need longitudinal & data on the performance of the same children at later" stages in their educational careers. Again, as in connec-

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tion with the paper by Held and White, the question of continuity or discontinuity between different segments of the sequence of development arises as crucial, and the necessary evidence is still to be gathered. That issues touching on deep commitments to alternative values are indeed involved seemed clear from the spirited discussion, aspects of which echoed themes that have become familiar in arguments about "progressive education" in parent groups, or about graduate education in university departments. Brim gave the sharpest formulation to the underlying issue: Is the development of strong need for achievement an asset or a liability? American society has thrived when it was manned by a middle class that was highly oriented toward achievement-perhaps at a toll for the individual. What position should the school take on the development of achievement motivation? If the school trains children so as to maximize their sense of competence and autonomy, they may choose not to do things that society needs to have done, and that later on they may themselves wish they had chosen to do. Brim also asked how to move from the paper's concern with good middleclass schools to the problems of teaching working-class children. Can the "modern" approach be adapted for working-class settings? The question is important, since the school provides the major social opportunity for _ breaking into the parent-child situation to redirect self, . , sustaining processes-in the nature of vicious circlesthat are inimical to the development of competence.

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REPAIR OF COMPETENCE IN THE SOCIALLY DEPRIVED Such circular processes, as they develop in social settings that provide minimal opportunities and scant rewards, little respect and less power, seem to lie at the heart of the problems of deprived youth in urban slums, currently the focus of so much attention. The deficient competence bred in these settings would seem to involve passivity and fatalism, or escape into the search for "kicks," or diversion of competence strivings in antisocial directions, with all these reactions feeding back to make the attainment of needed skills, the seizing of such opportunities as may be had, even less likely. Problems arising in programs of social intervention that attempt to convert these vicious relationships into benign ones were placed before the conference in a working paper by Nathan S. Caplan, "Action Research with Youth in Slum Settings." Caplan wrote in the context of evaluation research on a major job-retraining program __ that had not been notably successful in placing its products in jobs where they stayed. According to his paper, this outcome is characteristic of current experience that 21

has been critically evaluated. He addressed himself to why such programs fail. Caplan gave focal attention to the prevalence of "nearmisses" in the outcomes of the training programs: youths who seem to have made substantial gains in the course of intensive training and counseling, but who manage in one way or another to avoid successful placement in the jobs found for them. His most dramatic examples involved what he called the "blot-out" phenomenon, in which the trainee, at the brink of success, commits some irrationally outrageous and disastrous act that destroys the possibility of his rehabilitation. In Caplan's view such "near-misses" and "blot-outs" do not reflect a failure to accept achievement values: at the verbal level slum youth differ little from their counterparts in the middle class in their admiration of success, but the former seem to be saying by their behavior, "These objectives and the values that they represent are great-but not for me." Caplan's paper introduced a further concept-that of "floating"-that provoked discussion. Observations in connection with street club work identified two distinct recurrent patterns of daily activity. On the one hand were boys, who did not get into trouble, whose sequence of activities seemed highly organized along culturally approved lines. Interviews suggested that for many of these boys achievement was primarily a matter of cultural conformity. The "floaters," on the other hand, spent much of their time trying to find something to do by exploring their environment. They spoke of "hanging around," "messing around," or "roaming." When asked for a more definite description of their behavior, they were at a loss to give a more precise account except in terms of looking or waiting for something to do or happen. In Robert White's conceptions, "floating" would seem to be a diffuse residue of competence motivation under circumstances that severely limit the experience of effectiveness. Both these themes were picked up in a profitable interchange. In regard to "floating" Clausen pointed out that in a Lebanese village the adolescent boys "float" for a long time, whereas the girls are caught up in a structure of activities. In spite of the cultural devaluation of women, they tend to be and to feel highly competent; the men, less so. Perhaps the need for a stable structure is the critical ingredient. For Clausen, the "blot-outs" suggested the need for distinguishing kinds of competence and directions of commitment. Some of the youth in slums have found their sense of competence in channels that have committed them in deviant or antisocial directions. A "blotout" may be the only available escape from a situation in which to go all the way with "rehabilitation" would


be to lose the hard-won investment one has built up in forms of competence that are disvalued by the "squares." Elizabeth Davis wondered if the "floaters," being more autonomous than the "conformers," may not therein have more of a sense of competence, which they do not readily relinquish. She saw indications, in the program described by Caplan, of bias toward valuing the social worker's achievement, rather than achievement by the client himself. Success was to be measured on whose terms-the social worker's or the client's? All that the client wanted was a job, well-paying and not too demanding. The long training program was the agency's idea, not the client's. As in the film, "The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner," the protagonist who "blots out" may be preserving his autonomy and sense of competence by refusal to achieve his mentor's "success." The relevance of Robert White's emphasis on the importance of leaving the initiative to the person whose competence is to be developed became clear in this discussion. Juan Rossello provided a concrete illustration of the effective application of this principle in his description of a Puerto Rican program in community psychiatry for drug addicts, in which the initiative and timing with respect to movement through the program was left to the patient himself, with appropriate social supports and opportunities for committing action. COMPETENCE, POWER, AND THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE The anthropological perspective from which Elizabeth Colson prepared her working paper, "Competence and Incompetence in the Context of Independence," introduced some novel and important considerations to the conference. The "independence" in her title is not that of Rosen's "independence training," but the political independence suddenly attained by the new nation of Zambia, where she had studied the Tonga tribe over a period of years spanning this political change. Her paper showed how the drastic shift in the power structure with the end of European domination radically realigned the competences that mattered in Tonga society. Before independence, connections with Europeans and skills in their subservient manipulation paid; this kind of competence lost its value after independence. As political power passed from European to African leaders, village people felt a lifting of the barriers that had restricted their access to the leaders and experienced a euphoria of expanding hopes and plans for the future, a major upward revision of their self-image in the direction of self-confidence in a world that began to appear to some as one of unlimited possibilities: "Technical competence, however, was of minor importance in their view of present and future. Technical competence as a criteri-

on of achievement affected primarily those who already had it, the few who were educated to a level equal to that of the European. Most people were content with political competence and hoped that it would bring the desired reward in material advancement. For the moment this was enough." But, as Miss Colson remarked, "It is easy to make a revolution; it is hard to build a society." Discussion of her paper followed a variety of themes, including contributions by William F. Whyte concerning different types and meanings of competence he had encountered in Peru, and by Richard Snyder concerning the emerging focus in路political science on political socialization. Most closely related to the framework of conceptualization toward which the conference was reaching, however, was the attempt to link Miss Colson's paper to the themes that arose in the discussion of Caplan's. Miss Colson herself stressed the differences. The Africans that she had studied were not "culturally deprived." They play artfully with language. Children are always present in the behavior settings of the society, not excluded from them, and have full opportunity to become alert to the social nuances that the society offers. But her elaboration on the processes by which political independence was attained carried suggestive implications for thinking about strategies of social intervention and urban reconstruction in the context of Negro revolt. On the one hand was the point, made explicit b y . Rosen, that one reason for failure in the intervention programs may be their tacit but firm commitment to retrain the clients to fit the social structure-rather than to revise the social structure to facilitate the emergence of the clients' competence. The Tonga case showed dramatically how a shift in the power structure can release hidden potentials of competence motivation. A parallel was seen in the Africans' insistent demand for "freedom now" on their own terms, not on those of the paternalistic colonial power which would have preferred to give its proteges more extended "independence training." Independence had to be achieved, to be taken at the Africans' initiative against the resistance of the paternalistic power. As Miss Colson noted, the major African exception in which independence was bestowed rather than taken is that of the Congo. "Freedom now," bringing with it the feeling of competence, confidence, and hope, had to be taken before the desirable technical competences for using the freedom had been acquired. Her implication was, however, that for all the inefficiency and social breakage that is involved, this sequence is the only workable one. The conferees saw linkages here, both to Robert White's emphasis on the child's own initiative and sense of efficacy, and to the strategies ' of change advocated by Saul Alinsky and Charles Silber-

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through the perspective of one participant with the inevitable distortions thus entailed, may suggest some of the intellectual excitement and opening perspectives that resulted from juxtaposing such a seemingly disparate set of topics, all bearing in one way or another on the cultivation of effectiveness. From the standpoint of the committee's special interests, the conference did not attend as closely or explicitly to the impact of social structural variables as it might have. Yet in a variety of contexts, direct and indirect ways in which social structure impinges on socialization for competence were noted. To a psychologist previously attentive to child-rearing practices, among the most noteworthy were the implications of power, as these have just been encountered, and the ways noted by Inkeles in which a family's social position and its implications are indirectly but effectively communicated to the child as he sees how his parents are treated by others and how they react to the treatment. The conference did not attempt to reach consensus on a conception of competence, nor were the issues concerning its types, its generality or specificity, resolved. Participants surely left, however, with an impression of the issues that was more differentiated and articulated than that with which they came. My own minimum residue from the conference is a list of words that now revolve around one another, identifying the problem area: competence, confidence, hope, respect, power, commitment, and perhaps realism. Happily, these are good English words.

man,!' which rest on inducing real initiative and naked power-claims on the part of the socially deprived. The likely incompatibility of paternalism and the emergence competence in White's sense was a recurrent the~e. Miss Colson's account of the emergence of the AfrIcan leaders who grasped independence was also suggestive. Whatever their initial potential for competence, the way in which they had been singled out for¡advantages in mission schools and in training overseas stamped them with the recognition that they were "special," that they were intelligent and able people. They felt competent to walk through the door of independence when it was open. Their contacts with the international community through the United Nations, and with white liberals in Britain, moreover, gave them the basis for experiencing a sense of incipient power when they still had none within the power structure of colonial Northern Rhodesia. Perhaps this "halfway" step toward a sense of potential power was essential if they were to develop enough confidence to make the outrageous demands that were required if independence was to be won. As charismatic leaders, they were then in a position to communicate a sense of competence-perhaps unrealistic, but in crucial ways effective-to their countrymen.

•

CONCLUDING COMMENTS The foregoing selective account of what the Puerto ico conference read and talked about, as filtered 6 Charles Silberman, Crisis in Black and White, New York: Random House, 1964.

COMMITTEE BRIEFS AFRICAN STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Alan P. Merriam (chairman), L. Gray Cowan, Philip D. Curtin, William O. Jones, Horace Miner, Roy Sieber, Benjamin E. Thomas; staff, Rowland L. Mitchell, Jr. A conference on Methods and Objectives of Urban Research in Africa was held by the committee on Apri11-3 at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate multidisciplinary research on Mrican urban phenomena by scholars in this country. In contrast to the considerable amount of work done in tribal and rural settings and on nations, there has been little research on African cities, despite the importance of understanding them as centers of the new national development. Also, Africa presents unusual opportunities for the comparative study of urbanization. As a step toward pursurA ing these possibilities, the committee brought together 14 .scholars who had either done urban research in Mrica or worked elsewhere on problems of development that impinge particularly on cities. Since concern with such research has

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varied greatly among the social sciences, a special effort was made to include representation from many disciplines. Not the least significant result of the conference sessions was the development of acquaintance among scholars with mutual interests. The sessions were devoted to discussion of papers, circulated in advance, dealing with relevant research of the participants. Through the discussions, areas of concurrence of disciplinary interests were highlighted, experience with various methodologies was shared, and research horizons broadened. Papers prepared for the sessions were: "Comparative Analysis of Processes of Modernization," by Daniel Lerner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; "Motives and Methods: Reflections on a Study in Lagos," by Peter Marris, Institute of Community Studies, Bethnal Green, England; "Urban Father-Child Relationships: An Exploration of Yoruba Culture Change," by Robert A. LeVine, University of Chicago (co-authors, Nancy H. McGowen and Constance Rae Fries); "Urbanization, Type of Descent and Child-Rearing Practices," by Remi Clignet, Northwestern University; "Optimum-Size City Theory and Africa," by


Joseph J. Spengler, Duke University; "Urbanization and Economic Growth: The Case of Two Settler Communities in Africa," by William Barber, Wesleyan University; "Migration Status in Accra, Ghana," by Dennis McElrath, Northwestern University; "Bureaucracy and Urban Symbol Systems," by Lionel Tiger, University of British Columbia; "Groups in Ibadan," by George Jenkins, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; "The Political Structure of Urban Centered African Communities," by William Hanna, Michigan State University (co-author, Judith Hanna); "KampalaMengo," by Aidan Southall, Syracuse University; "Migrancy and Urbanization in a Central African Town," by William Schwab, Temple University; "Structural Discontinuities in African Towns: Some Aspects of Racial Pluralism," by Leo Kuper, University of California, Los Angeles. In addition to the authors of the papers, conference participants included members and staff of the committee and Norton Ginsburg of the University of Chicago, a member of the Council's former Committee on Urbanization. The conference was organized by Horace Miner, who is preparing the papers and results of the sessions for publication.

John K. Fairbank (chairman), George E. Taylor, Edward W. Wagner, C. Martin Wilbur, Mary C. Wright; staff, Bryce Wood. The committee has made one new appointment under its program to facilitate collaboration by American social scientists in the advancement of research at selected institutions in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan: Richard L. Walker, Director, Institute of International Studies, University of South Carolina, will undertake research at the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taipei, on the process of adjustment of Chinese officials to concepts and procedures in international relations among Western states.

AREAS FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS

LEARNING AND THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

Karl A. Fox (chairman), Brian J. L. Berry, Lester R. Frankel, John Friedmann, W. L. Garrison, Britton Harris, Donnell M. Pappenfort, Conrad Taeuber.

Lee J. Cronbach (chairman), Richard C. Atkinson, Eleanor J. Gibson, Evan R. Keislar, George A. Miller, Lloyd N. Morrisett; staff, Ben Willerman.

The committee at its first meeting on March 19-20 formulated plans for a two-year research project, to be conducted at the University of Chicago under Mr. Berry's direction, to re-examine the basis of definition of the present Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas used by the Bureau of the Census and other agencies, and to consider possible alternative ways of defining geographic areas for the compilation of official statistics. The project, for which financial support will be provided initially by the Bureau of the Census, will be undertaken with the aid of an advisory subcommittee, consisting of Messrs. Taeuber (chairman), Berry, Fox, Frankel, Garrison, Pappenfort, John R. Borchert of the University of Minnesota, and Walter Ryan of the Bureau of the Budget. Two other subcommittees were designated to explore other research areas with which the committee is concerned. One is to consider possibilities for planning research on spatial aspects of human behavior, and consists of Messrs. Friedmann (chairman), Berry, Garrison, Harris, and Robert W. Kates of Clark University. The other subcommittee is to investigate the prospects for improvement of urban data systems. Its members are Messrs. Garrison (chairman), Harris, Pappenfort, Edgar S. Dunn, Jr. of Resources for the Future, Morris Hansen of the Bureau of the Census, aQd Edward F. R. Hearle of the RAND Corporation.

Participants in the second summer research training conference on learning and the educational process, to be held by Stanford University with the assistance of the committe_ from June 21 through July 30, have been selected by the directors, Messrs. Cronbach and Atkinson, and the staff of the conference. Each of the 36 participants has been assigned an instructor as an adviser, and each instructor will conduct a seminar for discussion of his advisees' research problems and plans; transfers from group to group will be possible during the conference period. Series of seminars on such topics as the learning of language, student motivation, simulation of thought processes, and analysis of educational tasks will also be arranged. The assignments to advisers are as follows: Seminar led by Mr. Cronbach:

Arrangements for the publication of Contemporary China: A Research Guide, prepared for the joint committee by Peter A. Berton, University of Southern California, and Eugene Wu, Harvard University, have been completed. ItAI will be published by the Hoover Institution, probably early") in 1966. Mary C. Wright's Foreword to the volume was printed in Items, December 1963. EXCHANGES WITH ASIAN INSTITUTIONS

Alan R. Bass, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Wayne State University Peter P. Grande, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of Notre Dame Marcia Guttentag, Assistant Professor of Psychology, State University of New York at Stony Brook Heinz Heckhausen, Professor of Psychology, Ruhr路University, Bochum Bernard C. Hennessy, Director, National Center for Education in Politics, New York University Arthur H. Hill, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Texas George F. Madaus, Assistant Professor of Education, Massachusetts State College at Worcester Harry L. Munsinger, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois Daniel C. Neale, Associate Professor of Educational Psychology~) University of Minnesota .. Patricia Ann Wright, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, University College London

CONTEMPORARY CHINA (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) John M. H. Lindbeck (chairman), Alexander Eckstein, John K. Fairbank, Walter Galenson, Robert A. Scalapino, G. William Skinner, George E. Taylor, Mary C. Wright; staff, Bryce Wood.

24


Peter M. Bentler, National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow, Educational Testing Service John R. Bormuth, Assistant Professor of Education, University of California, Los Angeles David Klahr, Ph.D. candidate in industrial administration, Carnegie Institute of Technology Richard E. Snow, Assistant Professor, Audio Visual Center, Purdue University Jane W. Torrey, Associate Professor of Psychology, Connecticut College E. Belvin Williams, Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University James W. Wilson, Ph.D. candidate in education, Stanford University

Seminar led by Robert Glaser: Burton G. Andreas, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Rochester Walter Dick, Ph.D. candidate in educational psychology, Pennsylvania State University Barbara Gans, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, University of Michigan Ted Husek, Assistant Professor of Education, University of California, Los Angeles Philip J. Lawrence, Reader in Education, University of Canterbury, New Zealand Robert L. R. Overing, Ph.D. candidate in educational psychology, University of Utah (Assistant Professor of Education on leave from McGill University) John G. Wallace, Research Fellow in Psychology, Institute of Education, University of Bristol Kenneth H. Wodtke, Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education, Pennsylvania State University

SIMULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PROCESSES Bert F. Green, Jr. (chairman), Robert P. Abelson, James S. Coleman, Robert K. Lindsay, Philip J. Stone; staff, Ben Willerman.

Seminar led by Wallace E. Lambert: Reuben M. Baron, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Wayne State University Harvey B. Black, Assistant Professor of Education, Indiana University Courtney B. Cazden, Ed.D. candidate in elementary education, Harvard University E. C. Dalrymple-Alford, Assistant Professor of Psychology, American University of Beirut Gabriel M. Della-Piana, Associate Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Utah Joshua A. Fishman, Professor of Psychology and Sociology, Graduate School of Education, Yeshiva University Jun Haga, Lecturer in Educational Psychology, Kobe University Isaac Lewin, Teaching Associate in Psychology, Wayne State University (on leave from Bar-Han University, Israel) John Macnamara, Senior Lecturer in Educational Psychology, St. Patrick's Training College, Dublin

The committee has made two additional grants for intensive study of computer simulation programs: to David P. Flathman, Ph.D. candidate in educational psychology, University of Alberta, whose research is in the area of computer simulation of developmental aspects of concept formation in children and adults, for study at Carnegie Institute of Technology with Allen Newell, Institute Professor, Systems and Communication Sciences, and Herbert A. Simon, Professor of Administration and Psychology, of their General Problem Solver; to Sister Frances Jerome Woods, Professor of Sociology, Our Lady of the Lake College, whose research is concerned with processes of persistence and change in a marginal social group descended from common ancestors, for study of biological relationships with social factors, with J. N. Spuhler, Professor of Anthropology and of Human Genetics at the University of Michigan. Applications for grants under this program, which provide for spending up to 15 days at a computer installation for intensive training arranged with a particular investigator, will be accepted through October 1, 1965.

Seminar led by Waite?' R. Reitman: James J. Asher, Associate Professor of Psychology, San Jose State College Hiroshi Azuma, Associate Professor of Education, University of Tokyo

PERSONNEL RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-George H. Hildebrand (chairman), Charles E. Gilbert, Richard Hartshorne, Samuel P. Hays, Dell Hymes, Gerhard Lenski, and Robert B. MacLeod-at its meeting on March 5-6 voted 33 awards, 8 postdoctoral and 25 predoctoral, as follows: James Axtell, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Cambridge, postdoctoral fellowship for research on Locke, Newton, and "the two cultures" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Rainer C. Baum, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research in Europe on the process of regional integration: a case study of interorganizational relations in the European Economic Community. Samuel J. Berner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University 25

of California, Berkeley, for research in Italy on the urban patriciate in sixteenth-century Florence. Leonard Billet, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the political prerequisites of economic development. Gaylor M. Bonham, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on aspects of the validity of two simulations of phenomena in international relations. John P. Demos, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for cross-disciplinary training in the Department of Social Relations. Robert E. Drass, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Northwestern University, for research in Puerto Rico on changes in social stratification in a society undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization.


Paul R. Duggan, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Germany on the political sociology of the Prussian and Imperial German governments, 1890-1914. Charles S. Fisher, Ph.D. in mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, for training and research at Princeton University in the sociology of science. Allan N. Galpern, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in France on popular religion in Champagne, 1550-1600 (renewal). Thomas F. Glick, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Spain on irrigation and social organization in medieval Levantine Spain. Richard A. Gould, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, postdoctoral fellowship for field study in Australia of the subsistence behavior of the aborigines of the Western Australian Desert. Darrell P. Hammer, Assistant Professor of Government, Indiana University, postdoctoral fellowship for research on the political process in the Soviet Union: an application of the theory of games. Elvin J. Hatch, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on mechanisms of social control in a rural Anglo-American community. Berton H. Kaplan, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of North Carolina, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Cornell University in the research strategies of its Social Psychiatry Program and development of a parallel program of field studies. John G. Kennedy, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, American University in Cairo, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the State University of New York at Buffalo in theory and methods of research in social psychiatry. Paul J. Kleppner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pittsburgh, for research on changes in patterns of voting behavior in five states, 1892-96. Martin A. Levin, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research on the role of judges in the administration of criminal justice in two cities. Howard A. Nenner, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley (LL.B. Columbia University), for research in England on the influence of private law on constitutional development, 1660-89. David M. Nicholas, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Belgium and France on urban social and economic revolts in the Low Countries in the later thirteenth century. Joel T. Rosenthal, Assistant Professor of History, State University of New York at Stony Brook, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the University of London in social anthropology and sociology and research on their applications in medieval history. Enid Schildkrout, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Cambridge, for research in Ghana on immigrant communities. Bob Scholte, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the structural anthropology of Claude Levi-Strauss. Sam~el F. ~cott, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of WISCOnSIn, for research in France on the composition of the French Army, 1789-99.

Martin Gary Silverman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in the Fiji Islands on the development of local organization in the resettled Banaban-Gilbertese community (renewal of fellowship awarded in 1962-63). Philip Silverman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for research in Zambia on political change in Barotseland. Tony E. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in regional science, University of Pennsylvania, for research on general equilibrium models for comprehensive public planning. Reuben J. Snow, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Northwestern University, for research on the influence of city managers and school superintendents on municipal government and educational policy. John C. Stalnaker, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Germany on the emergence of the Protestant clergy in Hesse, 1520-55. Richard Tyler, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England on Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1595-1645, and its influence on New England. Anita Volland, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Spain on the relations of Flamenco to other aspects of culture. Judith P. Ward, Ph.D. candidate in economic history, University of Wisconsin, for research in France on the financial relations between France and the United States during World War I (renewal). D. Lawrence Wieder, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the University of Pennsylvania in linguistics, ethnolinguistics, and sociolinguistics.

e

e

FACULTY RESEARCH GRANTS The Committee on Faculty Research Grants-Guy E. Swanson (chairman), Bernard Bailyn, Victor Jones, Irving B. Kravis, Arno J. Mayer, Melford E. Spiro, and John Thibaut-held the second of its two meetings scheduled for 1964-65 on March 11-12. It voted to award 15 grants: Paul J. Bohannan, Professor of Anthropology, Northwestern University, for research on the ethnography of divorce among middle-class Americans. Jeremy Boissevain, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Montreal, for research in Italy on the 1964 Sicilian municipal elections. Samuel DuBois Cook, Professor of Political Science, Atlanta University, for research on Southern Republicanism, 1952-64. Norman Dain, Associate Professor of History, RutgersThe State University, Newark, for research on concepts of mental disorder in the United States, 1865-1945 (supplementary to Grant-in-Aid awarded in 1963-64). Peter A. Diamond, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research on microeconomic models of business cycles. A. Richard Diebold, Jr., Assistant Professor of Social Anthropology and Linguistics, Harvard University, for research on psycholinguistics. _ Cesar Grana, Associate Professor of Sociology, University. of California, Davis, for research in West Europe on the museum as a social institution. 26


Franklyn A. Johnson, President, and Professor of Government, California State College at Los Angeles, for research in the United States and England on politicalmilitary relations (supplementary to Grant for Research on National Security Policy awarded in 1960-61). Peter d'A. Jones, Assistant Professor of History, Smith College, {or research on the economics of conscience: Christian Socialism in Great Britain, 1880-1914. David S. Landes, Professor of History, Harvard University for research on the history of the Bleichrooer bank (supplementary to Faculty Research Fellowship awarded in 1959-60). Gavin I. Langmuir, Associate Professor of History, Stanford University, for research in France on the development of anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages. Lewis Lipsitz, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of North Carolina, for research on the political orientations of the poor. Thomas F. Pettigrew, Associate Professor of Social Psychology, Harvard University, for research toward a social psychological model of the racial desegregation process in the South. David C. Rapoport, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in England on selected historical cases of praetorianism: governments that achieved and lost power through military coups d'etat. Marcel K. Richter, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota, for research on foundations of the economic theory of choice.

路e

GRANTS FOR ASIAN STUDIES

The Joint Committee on Asian Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies-John A. Pope (chairman), Robert I. Crane, H. G. Creel, Paul S. Dull, L. A. Peter Gosling, and John L. Landgraf-at its meeting on February 13-14 awarded 21 grants for research: Douglas M. Bums, M.D., Psychiatric Resident, Presbyterian Medical Center, San Francisco, for research in Thailand on psychological analysis of Theravada Buddhist meditation. Leonard R. Casper, Professor of English, Boston College, for research in the United States toward an American edition of The Wounded Diamond: Studies in Modem Philippine Literature (1964). Pramod Chandra, Associate Professor of Art, University of Chicago, for research in India, Nepal, Teheran, Istanbul, and London on the origins of Mughal and Rajasthani painting. Chun-shu Chang, Assistant Professor of History, Wisconsin State University - River Falls, for completion of research in the United States on the frontier system of the former Han Dynasty. Mark.J. Dresden, Professor of Iranian Studies, University of Pennsylvania, for research in England on lexicography of the Khotanese language. John D. Eyre, Professor of Geography, University of North Carolina, for research in Japan on urban growth patterns in the Hanshin (Osaka-Kobe) metropolitan area. Wen Fong, Associate Professor of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University, for research in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan on Chinese painting. 27

Stephen N. Hay, Research Associate in East Asian Studies, Harvard University, for research in the United States and London on Gandhi and Hindu-Muslim unity, 1924-29. Eugene F. Irschick, Acting Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in London on the development of political consciousness in the Telugu and Tamil areas of South India, 18951915. Robert R. Jay, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Hawaii, for research in London on the development of local government in Perak, Malaya. Robert N. Kearney, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Duke University, for research in Ceylon on communalism and the language problem in Ceylon. Harry J. Lamley, Assistant Professor of History, San Diego State College, for research in the United States on a history of Taiwan, 1624-1945. Carl H. Lande, Visiting Professor of Political Science, Ateneo de Manila, for research in the Philippines on Philippine politics. John Meskill, Assistant Professor of East Asian History and Literature, Barnard College, for research in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States on Ming Dynasty academies. Morris D. Morris, Professor of Economics, University of Washington, for research in London and India on some aspects of the economic history of South Asia, 1800-1947. Rulan Chao Pian, Lecturer on Chinese, Harvard University, for research in the United States and Europe on the use of percussion instruments as a dramatic device in the Peking opera. Chung-wen Shih, Fellow, American Association of University women, for research in Japan and Taiwan on the structure of the Yiian Tsa-chil (thirteenth-century Chinese drama). Bernard Silberman, Associate Professor of Oriental Studies, University of Arizona, for research in Japan on the criteria for recruitment and advancement in Japanese bureaucratic development: the prefectural governor, 1868-1940. Roy E. Teele, Professor of English, Southwestern University, for research in Japan on the Japanese noh play. Y. C. Wang, Assistant Professor of History, University of North Carolina, for research in the United States on Chinese intellectuals from Yen Fu to Hu Shih. Ann Ruth Willner, Research Associate, Center of International Studies, Princeton University, for research in Indonesia on the role of women in public life. GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES The Subcommittee on Grants for Slavic and East European Studies (of the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies) -Henry L. Roberts (chairman), David T. Cattell, George Gibian, and John M. Montias-met on February 13. It has made the following 21 grants for research: Vartan Gregorian, Assistant Professor of History, San Francisco State College, for research on Soviet Armenia: its culture, institutions, and ideology, 1920-60.


Alexander J. Groth, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of California, Davis, for research on party politics in Poland, 1918-39. Keith Hitchins, Assistant Professor of History, Wake Forest College, for research on the Rumanian National Movement in Transylvania, 1867-1900. Grey Hodnett, Instructor in Government, Columbia University, for research on the November 1962 reorganization of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Franklyn D. Holzman, Professor of Economics, Tufts University, for research on Soviet foreign trade (renewal). W. A. Douglas Jackson, Professor of Geography, University of Washington, for a study of the geographic patterns of Soviet economic development. Naum Jasny, Washington, D.C., for research on Russian nonconformists in the 1920's. Ivo J. Lederer, Associate Professor of History, Yale University, for research on sources of unity and disunity in the Slavic world: Russia and the Balkan Slavs. David MacKenzie, Assistant Professor of History and Government, Wells College, for research on the Lion of Tashkent: a political biography of General M. G. Cherniaev. Thomas F. Magner, Professor of Slavic Languages, Pennsylvania State University, for research on city dialects in the Kajkavian dialect area of Yugoslavia. Thomas A. Marschak, Associate Professor of Business Administration, University of California, Berkeley, for a study of economic decentralization in Yugoslavia. Raymond T. McNally, Associate Professor of History,

Boston College, for research on the evolution of the ideas of Peter Chaadaev. Walter M. Pintner, Assistant Professor of History, CorneD University, for research on the development of the Rt, sian Civil Service in the eighteenth and nineteen centuries. Richard E. Pipes, Professor of History, Harvard University, for research on the life and thought of Peter Struve. Zora P. Pryor, Consultant, Research Analysis Corporation, McLean, Virginia, for research on the economic development of Czechoslovakia, 1919-39. Richard C. Raack, Assistant Professor of History, California State College at Hayward, for research on Poznan, Prussia, and the Polish-German problem, 1846-50. Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Associate Professor of History, La Salle College, for a history of the Carpatho-Ukraine. Robert M. Slusser, Associate Professor of History, Johns Hopkins University, for research on the Moscow Soviet of Workers' Deputies and the armed uprising of December 1905. George J. Staller, Assistant Professor of Economics, Cornell University, for research on stability patterns in foreign trade, Council of Mutual Economic Assistance and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1953-63. Andre von Gronicka, Professor of German Literature, University of Pennsylvania, for research on the Russian view of Goethe. Joseph F. Zacek, Assistant Professor of History, Occidental College, for a study of Frantisek PalackY.

NEW PUBLICATIONS The Conference on Mathematical Learning, edited by Lloyd N. Morrisett and John Vinsonhaler. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 30, No. I (Serial No. 99), May 1965. Sponsored by the former Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Chicago: Child Development Publications, University of Chicago Press. 150 pages. $3.00. Economic Growth and Structure: Selected Essays, by Simon Kuznets. Based in part on work initiated under the auspices of the Committee on Economic Growth. New York: W . W. Norton & Company, April 1965. 386 pages. $7.50. Education and Economic Development, edited by C. Arnold Anderson and Mary Jean Bowman. Outgrowth of a con-

ference, April 4-6, 1963, jointly sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth and the University of Chicago Comparative Education Center. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, June 1965. c. 425 pages. $10.75. Education and Political Development, edited by James S. Coleman. Studies in Political Development 4, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, June 1965. 632 pages. $10.00. Quantitative Planning of Economic Policy: A Conference of the Social Science Research Council Committee on Economic Stability, edited by Bert G. Hickman. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, April 1965. 292 pages. $7.95.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230

PARK

AVENUE.

NEW

YORK,

N.Y.

10017

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1965:

WILLIAM

o.

AYDELOTIE, BERNARD BAILYN. ABRAM BERGSON. JOHN R. BORCHERT. DORWIN CARTWRIGHT. JOSEPH B. CAsAGRANDE,

HAROLD C. CoNKLIN, LEE J. CRONBACH.

KARL A . Fox, WILUAM J . GOODE. JR., MORRIS H. HANSEN. CHAUNCY D. HARRIs, PENDLETON HERRING. GEORGE FRANco MODIGLIANI. LOUIS MORTON.

H . HILDEBRAND. DELL HYMES. THOMAS S . KUHN. STANLEY LEBERGOTT. GARDNER LINDZEY. QUINN McNEMAR.

FREDERICK MOSTELLER. J. ROLAND PENNOCK. DON K. PRICE. LEO F. SCHNORE. HERllERT A. SIMON, DAvm B. TRUMAN. RALPH H. TURNER.

JOw·

USEEM. ROBERT E. WARD

Officers and Staff:

PENDLETON HERRING,

President;

Vice-President; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY. BRYCE WOOD, Executive Associates; Staff Associates; CATHERINE V. RONNAN. Financial Secretary

PAUL WEBBINK.

C. ISBELL. ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR •• BEN WILLERMAN,

28

ELEANL.

Items Vol. 19 No. 2 (1965)  
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