Items Vol. 17 No. 3 (1963)

Page 1



NOTES ON THE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LANGUAGE by John Useem'" ALTHOUGH several "first generation" American sociologists (e.g., Cooley, Mead, Thomas, Park) explored the role of language in social life, and although a sizable number of more recent investigators have taken into account the social patterns of language in the context of varied groups and interpersonal relations, sociolinguistics has yet to develop as a significant field of sociological . .research. The recent emergence of psycholinguistics and ~ethnolinguistics, and the impressive growth of linguistics as a scientific discipline together suggest possibilities for developing the sociological study of language and offer a basis for the useful exchange of ideas, among scientists concerned with behavior, about the further study of language as a social phenomenon. A limited review of the American sociological literature of the last three decades reveals numerous theoretical essays on the function of language in the formation of the social self and the general process of human socialization. The formal theories rely primarily on anthropo• The author is Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at Michigan State University. He prepared these "Notes" for the Council's Com· mittee on Sociolinguistics, which was appointed last June to foster collaboration of linguists and sociologists in a significant field of research in which the latter thus far have done relatively little systematic work. Members of the committee are Charles A. Ferguson, Director, Center for Applied Linguistics (chairman); Joseph H . Greenberg, Professor of Anthropology, Stanford University; Thomas A. Sebeok, Professor of Linguistics, Indiana University-all sometime members of the Council's former Committee on Linguistics and Psychology; Everett C. Hughes, Professor of Sociology, Brandeis University; and Mr. Useem; staff, Elbridge Sibley. The new committee has drafted plans for a research seminar, which may be held in the summer of 1964. The "Notes" are .-published in the hope that sociologists and other social scientists inter"ested in the committee's endeavor will communicate with committee members or with the Council staff.

logical and psychological data, sometimes without the support of critical appraisal of the original research, and often by inference from an investigation which was designed for an entirely different purpose. A substantial number of disparate observations on the character of language used within particular segments of American society are reported. A cross section of the sources includes studies of ethnic minorities and their acculturation, interaction of Negroes and whites with special reference to the symbolic forms of communication that stem from dominance and subordination, the distinctive modes of expression within occupational groups or shared by participants in work-related organizations, the vernacular of deviant groups, the styles of speech in adolescent cultures, contrasts between rural and urban language patterns, and differentiations by social classes. Some investigators describe the language of a group in order to identify its norms, predominant modes of behavior, and world views; others consider the social functions of language in setting the social boundaries between the ingroup and outgroups. Many newer studies are focused on how the newcomer learns the rules and his social role in a group. Concern with language variables pervades sociological research on communications. A complex of relationships (which ordinarily encompasses the media of mass culture, informal social networks, leaders in the formation of opinion, and the lineaments of person-to-person influence inside a community) is surveyed to trace the flow of selected information, attitudes, and imagery through a sample population. Field studies examine the ways in which verbal and visual language actually fit into local sets of values, customs, and traditions, the reasons for the


we could build on them. 1 Construction of a full-scale sociological model to delineate the scope and content of future research would be premature, but sociologists would gain a measure of sophistication from a critical~ appraisal of the generalizations in the sociologicallitera~ ture about structure and functions of language. We need help in regard to the selection of critical questions, initial hypotheses, and development of a sociologically meaningful set of terms and categories of data. In turn, sociologists might contribute methods now available for use in sample surveys and testing for the significance of differences between sample populations, and concepts for analyzing social structures and interpersonal behavior in conjunction with linguistic data.

differential responses of individuals to the projected symbols, and their consequences-in the market place, the diffusion and adoption of technology, voting, and other situations. Partially overlapping such field studies are the current social psychological studies in depth of facets of personality, language, and social structure. Research in one specialized field centers on small groups. Elaborate technical schemes have been imaginatively devised to record in laboratory situations the kinds, incidence, and degree of verbal interaction and to correlate these with roles, leadership, and decision making in the observed group. Other studies defy a simple classification, and can only be illustrated here by mention of a few subjects which are attracting considerable sociological interest: alienation and the problems of identity, Erving Goffman's delineation of "out front" and "backstage" behavior, perceptions of self vs. other, and role sets. The sociological literature as a whole reveals but rudimentary concepts for the analysis of language as a social system, for comparative studies, and for study of the role of language in a total society. There seems to be fairly widespread recognition that language is important, but no one has been quite sure what to do about language as a general social pattern. Sociology contains a rich store of classifications, terminology, propositions, and concepts applicable to most dimensions of its universe of study, but it has only scanty and rudimentary ones for the study of sociolinguistics. Two additional assays tend to reinforce these appraisals. First, in Sociological A bstractsJ the most sophisticated theoretical statements on the nature and function of language in American society are listed, not in the usually meager section entitled "Sociology of Language and Literature," but rather (and consonant with what has been outlined above) in the more conventional areas of sociological inquiry such as "Interaction within Group Structure," "Interaction between Groups," "Social Stratification," "Bureaucratic Structures," "Social Change," etc. Second, examination of a cross section of introductory textbooks, to discern what an undergraduate student might learn about the sociological approach to language, strengthens the impressions already gained. Most of the books in current use stress, in the words of one, "the compelling nature of language" for personality organization and culture; few present a conceptual scheme to help students probe beneath the surfaces of everyday life in American society or to extend their understanding of language in different cultures. What might constitute the reciprocal benefits of collaboration between sociologists and linguists? "Old hands" in the study of language could aid sociologists by evaluating some of our relevant studies to suggest how

CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH Cross-cultural sociological research with respect to the non-Western world can be said to be of three kinds: the study of patterns of social structure and behavior generic to the intersections of societies; the comparative study of delimited patterns in a number of different societies; and the study by a foreigner of interrelated patterns within another society. A modest start on each has been made by a very few American sociologists; the increase of professional interest and new programs that support research overseas together assure expansion of all three kinds of sociological work. The growing interdependence of American and nonWestern societies, with its concomitant movement of persons across cultural boundaries, creates a need for fundamental knowledge about the nature of the interaction in nascent binational and multinational communities and other forms of group association. 2 On the role of language in cross-cultural relations, more folklore and mythology prevail than solid information and conceptual frameworks. The sociology of education might be advanced by a study of the present fashions in foreign language instruction, specifically, the assumptions about human learning, beliefs about the manner in which lan-


1 For instance, Leonard Schatzman and Anselm Strauss, "Social Class and Modes of Communication," American Journal of Sociology, January 1955, pp. 329-338; Melvin Seeman, "The Intellectual and the Language of Minorities," American Journal of Sociology, July 1958, pp. 25-35; Julian Samora et al., "Medical Vocabulary Knowledge among Hospital Patients," Journal of Health and Human Behavior, Summer 1961, pp. 83-92; Albert K. Cohen and Harold M. Hodges, "Characteristics of the Lower-Blue-Collar Class," Social Problems, Spring 1963, pp. 303-334; Tamotsu Shibutani, Society and Personality (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-HaIl, 1961); Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Personal Influence (Glencoe: Free Press, 1955); Howard S. Becker, Outsiders (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1963); James H. S. Bossard, "Family Modes of Expression," American Sociological Review, April 1945, pp. 226-236. . . 2 For a more detailed statement, see John Useem, John D. Donoghue'and Ruth Hill Useem, "Men in the Middle of the Third Culture," Human Organization, Fall, 1963, pp. 169-179.


attempt was made to verify cross-culturally the propositions derived from American life. Some pilot inquiries have been made, and some are now under way.4 Nonetheless, almost every aspect of language patterns that sociologists have investigated in American society awaits comparative study in the high civilizations of the nonWestern world. In the aftermath of colonialism and the early stage of modernization, the societies of Asia and Africa have made language a symbol of their unification and of their inner divisions. Under colonial regimes different native societies were formed into single nations whose populations became divided into foreign-oriented and tradition-bound strata; the former typically preferred to speak European languages, while the latter kept their traditional modes of speech. The legacy of this colonial heritage intrudes into present-day issues over languages. Sociologists accustomed to a society that coincides with a nation-state would find in many non-Western societies unique opportunities to explore the issues originally posed by Park on the role of language in a society. Much has been written on the impact of language on the outlook and perception of life situations by the members of a society. The ongoing introduction of modem science and technology into age-old societies gives the sociologist a natural laboratory for the study of massive changes in what Thomas called "the definition of the situation."

guage knowledge serves to increase intercultural understanding, the emphasis on the oral versus the written tradition with resulting differences in the content of ~ what is communicated, and social factors which impede , . or facilitate the use of acquired foreign languages. Similarly, current practices in non-Western societies with regard to the learning and use of English (e.g., the outright rejection of English by some factions because it has become the mark of the colonial legacy, and insistence by others on the preservation of English in order to maintain effective communication in an interdependent world) invite study. The language patterns generated by continuing association between Americans and other nationals, as between technical assistants and their counterparts, in an American-managed firm in an alien country, and in the mixed groupings formed around a compound, have scarcely been touched by sociologists. In general, far more is known about the language experience of foreign students in the" United States (some of the studies initiated by the Council's former Committee on Cross-Cultural Education are relevant) than of Americans in foreign countries. For sociology, the evolving commonalities and conflicts involved in such experiences open a new field for research. s Because American sociologists concentrated on American society during the years of the discipline'S rapid development from the 1930's through the 1950's, no metheodology was designed for comparative studies and little

~ Thus, Hideya Kumata completed a semantic-oriented study of Japan, Korea, and America. See his "Cross-cultural Study of Meaning" in Charles E. Osgood et al_, The Measurement of Meaning (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957); also, Bartlett H. Stoodley, "Normative Attitudes of Filipino Youth Compared with German and American Youth," American Sociological Review", October 1957, pp. 553-561. American sociologists have yet to attempt a comparative study equal to Hajime Nakamura's brilliant The Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples (1960), sponsored by UNESCO.

A partial inventory of recent studies and an outline of some needed studies appear in Ithiel de Sola Pool, Communication and Values in Relation to War and Peace (New York: Institute for International Order [1961]). Representative of a number of conferences on the study of groups of Americans in cross-cultural situations is Peace Corps and Behavioral Sciences: Papers of a Meeting Held at the Department of State, March 4-5, 1963, sponsored by the Peace Corps and the National Institute of Mental Health. 8

RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: PROGRAM OF A NEW COMMITTEE (chairman); Lincoln P. Bloomfield, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; William Diebold, Jr., Council on Foreign Relations; Leland M. Goodrich, Columbia University; Ernst B. Haas, University of California, Berkeley; H. Field Haviland, Jr., Brookings Institution; Stanley Hoffmann, Harvard University; Walter R. Sharp, Yale University; Richard C. Snyder, Northwestern University; staff, Bryce Wood. The program made possible by the Carnegie Corporation had its origin in the Council's interest in furthering collaborative research with social scientists in European countries and in a particular opportunity presented

THE Council has received from the Carnegie Corporation of New York a grant of $300,000 for support for three years of a program of research and conferences in the field of international organization. Under this new program grants are offered to social scientists possessing the Ph.D. or its equivalent for field studies of multilateral processes in international affairs, with emphasis on change in activities of agencies, in relationships between agencies and governments, and in organizational _patterns. The program is administered by a Council committee, consisting of Inis L. Claude, Jr., University of Michigan 31

by the interest of the International Social Science Council in studies of international organizations. A memorandum prepared for that Council by Ernst B. Haas became the basis for a conference sponsored by the SSRC in January 1963, at which development of the present program was proposed. The memorandum by Mr. Haas noted the expansion in numbers and scope of international organizations since 1945, suggested possibilities for the application of new social science concepts and techniques in the study of such organizations, and emphasized the desirability of examining political processes within the organizations and also of studying the effects of participation in them on member states. The committee administering the new program accordingly wishes to stimulate innovative research on political processes in international organizations and on the effects of participation in their changing activities and of receipt of their aid. The committee hopes to arrange for comparable studies so as to facilitate analysis of the effects of various types of international organizations on what has come to be called the international system. It also wishes to encourage research that will contribute to the development of theory. Comparisons of international organizations, worldwide and regional, may be made in various ways, for example, by focusing on the effectiveness of specific organizations in carrying out the tasks entrusted to them by their founders in their charters; or on the political growth of specific organizations, as revealed by analysis of changes in their original tasks and the evolution of expectations among the member states. In comparative studies interest would not center on the organizations as institutions, but on their impact on the international environment that produced them-the effect of organizational decisions, changing patterns of behavior on the part of member governments, and relations between

national political systems and international measures. The committee will welcome proposals for case studies (of individual agencies) dealing with concepts of importance for the development of theory that have been neglected in previous research. Illustrative subjects study are the following: expansion of an organization's concern from a relatively noncontroversial field to one that, with social or technological changes, has become infused with politics; similarities and differences in economic planning in countries having different types of economies; efforts toward the establishment of common markets in order to speed economic development; regional organizations for collective security or fostering of consensus; roles of international officials in influencing and transforming the nature of various types of national societies, with special relevance to political development. These illustrations are offered only as examples of studies basic to comparative analysis, and the committee will be pleased to receive similar proposals for research arising from the interests of individual scholars. Preference will be given to studies involving fielc;l, as well as documentary, research on changing structures and processes within and among international organizations, and changes in behavior of national governments as they deal with international agencies. Prospective applicants are invited to write to the Council, describing in detail the substance and method of their proposed research. Previous research in the of international organization is not required of applicants. In addition, the committee administering the program expects to invite qualified persons in the United States or abroad to undertake research in order to broaden the range of comparative studies. Stipends may provide maintenance in lieu of salary for periods up to a year, and for travel and other research expenses. Research may be undertaken in 1964-65 or 1965-66.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RESOURCES AND ADVANCED EDUCATION APPOINTED BY THE CONFERENCE BOARD OF ASSOCIATED RESEARCH COUNCILS Allan Cartter, Vice-President, American Council on Education; Henry Chauncey, President, Educational Testing Service; Kenneth Pitzer, President, Rice Institute; Gordon N. Ray, President, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation; John W. Riley, Jr., Second VicePresident and Director of Social Research, Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States; Richard Schlatter, Provost, Rutgers - The State University; bridge Sibley, Executive Associate, Social Science Re-

THE new Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education appointed in July 1963 by the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils held its first meeting in Washington on August 16. Members of the commission are Dael Wolfle, Executive Officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science (chairman); M. H. Trytten, Director, Office of Scientific Personnel, National Research Council (vice-chairman); Robert D. Calkins, President, Brookings Institution;



search Council; Gordon B. Turner, Vice-President, American Council of Learned Societies; Frederick T. Wall, Dean, The Graduate College, University of Illi• nois. Mr. Trytten serves also as chairman of the com.mission's executive committee, which includes Messrs. Cartter, Sibley, Turner, and Wolfle. The new commission's mandate is well epitomized in the 1954 report of the Conference Board's former Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Training. 1 In the preface to that report the chairman, Charles Odegaard, observed that "the Commission remains impressed ... with the extent to which decisions affecting the use and development of our human resources by public and private agencies are perforce made in the light of partial knowledge," and expressed its hope that within a few years another study of broader scope and based on more adequate data would be undertaken. In the decade that has passed since Wolfle's earlier study was completed, numerous governmental agencies and many organizations representing special professional interests have concerned themselves with problems of supply and demand for scientific, professional, and scholarly personnel, and have produced large amounts of pertinent data. But this has only made more urgent the need for a comprehensive re-assessment of the situation by a competent but disinterested group broadly representative of the scientific and humanistic fields of higher _

learning. So that the commission and its research staff will be free from obligation to any particular competitor for scarce talent, funds for basic support of a threeyear study are being sought from private foundations . Meanwhile, a search is under way for a social scientist to serve as director of the commission's projected study. Problems to be investigated include, among others, the changing pattern of needs in our society for persons of high talent and specialized education; the flow of talent through the educational system, and losses at various stages; factors other than formal schooling that aid or impede the development of latent talent; the effects of fellowships, scholarships, and other incentives upon the numbers educated and their diversion into particular fields of study and work; the foreclosing of educational opportunities at higher levels by decisions made at lower levels, as in the case of youths whose high school training has not prepared them for further studies; and the effects of efforts to retrieve for advanced education persons whose earlier educational choices have left them unable to make full use of their talents. The contemplated report of the new commission will in a sense be a sequel to that of its predecessor, but it is planned to give more attention than in the earlier study to social and economic factors affecting the processes by which latent talent is developed and the changing demands of society for persons of high specialized competence.

1 This report, entitled America's Resources of SPecialized Talent, was prepared by Dael WollIe and published by Harper Be Brothers.

COMMITTEE BRIEFS in human infants and in fish, birds, and other animals were prepared for the conference and discussed by their authors: Byron A. Campbell, Princeton University; Irenaus EiblEibesfeldt, Max-Planck-Institut fiir Verhaltensphysiologie, Germany; Robert L. Fantz, Western Reserve University; Bernard S. Greenberg, Roosevelt University; William Kessen, Yale University; Erich Klinghammer, University of Chicago; Lewis P. Lipsitt, Brown University; WilliamA. Mason, Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology; Hanus Papousek, Institute for Care of Mother and Child, Prague; Walter C. Stanley, National Institute of Mental Health; John M. Warren, Pennsylvania State University; and Robert R. Zimmermann, Cornell University.

ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC CENSUS DATA John Perry Miller (chairman), Francis M. Boddy, Robert W. Burgess, Howard C. Grieves, Frank A. Hanna, George J. Stigler, Ralph J. Watkins, J. Fred Weston. Concentration in the Manufacturing Industries of the United States: A Midcentury Report, by Ralph L. Nelson, the second monograph resulting from the studies initiated by the committee in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census, was published by Yale University Press in August. COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENTAL BEHAVIOR Harold W. Stevenson (chairman), Harry F. Harlow, Eckhard H. Hess, Harriet L. Rheingold, Robert R. Sears.


A conference on Learned and Nonleamed Behavior in Immature Organisms was held by the committee at Madison, raWisconsin on June 10-14, with support made available to .the Council by the National Science Foundation. Papers presenting the results of research on early social behavior

Lucian W. Pye (chairman), Gabriel A. Almond, Leonard Binder, R. Taylor Cole, James S. Coleman, Herbert Hyman, Joseph LaPalombara, Sidney Verba, Robert E. Ward, Myron Weiner; staff, Bryce Wood. 33

A conference on the uses of survey methods in the study of political modernization was organized for the committee by Messrs. Hyman and Verba, and held in New York on May 10-11. It brought together specialists in the techniques of survey research and scholars having experience in conducting studies of attitudes and opinions in transitional societies, to discuss with the committee the problems and prospects of survey research in highly unstable societies. The following papers were prepared for the conference: "Some Nonpolitical Avenues for Approaching a Study of Political Modernization," by Robert O. Carlson, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey; "Periodic Surveys in Subsaharan Africa," by Leonard W. Doob, Yale University; "Surveying Peasant Attitudes in Turkey," by Frederick W. Frey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; "Comparative Survey Research," by Eugene Jacobson, Michigan State University; and "Survey Research on Political Modernization," by Daniel Lerner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The committee was impressed with the feasibility of such research, the number of studies already made or under way, and the need for more effective communication among those proposing to make such studies, if the potentialities of comparative research on attitudes are to be realized. Messrs. Hyman and Verba are serving as a subcommittee on further investigation of the subject. The committee's second workshop, held at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences from July 15 to August 30, concentrated on bringing together various aspects of the committee's work during the past four years. Messrs. Almond and Verba were engaged in a further refinement of the "capabilities" analysis of political change. Messrs. Binder, Coleman, LaPalombara, Weiner, and Pye prepared an initial report of the committee's work on the governmental processes, and social and economic as well as cultural and psychological factors affecting political change and development. The committee's two invited guests at the workshop, Jeremy Azrael of the University of Chicago and Robert E. Scott of the University of Illinois, worked on aspects of the totalitarian and authoritarian alternatives in political development. The first volume in the monograph series sponsored by the committee, based on its seminars on research on political development and democratization in non-Western areas, was published by Princeton University Press in April: Communications and Political Development, edited by Mr. Pye. The second, Bureaucracy and Political Development, edited by Mr. LaPalombara, was published in August; the third, Turkey and Japan: A Comparative Study of Modernization, edited by Mr. Ward and Dankwart A. Rustow, is in press and expected to appear early in 1964. The fourth volume, Education and Political Development, edited by Mr. Coleman, has been accepted by the Press. The result of a study initiated under the committee's earlier program of support of theoretical studies, The Political Systems of Empires: The Rise and Fall of the Historical Bureaucratic Societies, by S. N. Eisenstadt, was published by the Free Press of Glencoe in June 1963.

CONTEMPORARY CHINA: SUBCOMMITTEE ON RESEARCH ON CHINESE SOCIETY G. William Skinner (chairman), John C. Pelzel, Irene B. Taeuber; staff, Bryce Wood. __ The sixth seminar in the series sponsored by the subcommittee was held at Princeton, New Jersey on April 26-27, on principles and problems of macro-organization in Chinese society. The following papers were prepared for the seminar and circulated in advance: "Reflections on Studies of the Chinese Bureaucracy by Robert M. Marsh and Ping-ti Ho," by S. N. Eisenstadt, Hebrew University, Jerusalem; "Types of Organizational Contexts in Early Ming Society," by F. W. Mote, Princeton University; and "Political Science and the Macro-Organizational Analysis of Contemporary China," by Glenn D. Paige, Princeton University. Other participants, in addition to members of the subcommittee and staff, were Morton H. Fried, Columbia University; Ping-ti Ho, University of British Columbia; Marion J. Levy, Jr., Princeton University; Robert M. Marsh, Stephen M. Olsen, and Arthur P. Wolf, Cornell University; Ezra F. Vogel, Harvard University; and C. K. Yang, University of Pittsburgh.

ECONOMIC GROWTH Simon Kuznets (chairman), Richard Hartshorne, Bert F. Hoselitz, Wilbert E. Moore, Neil J. Smelser, Joseph J. Spengler. _ A two- or three-year study of the economic growth of a number of major countries since World War II in relation to their long-term historical record has been initiated under the auspices of the committee. Funds for the project have been obtained by the Council from the Ford Foundation. The desirability of such an appraisal was suggested by striking differences in the rates of postwar growth among economically developed countries. The study will be interpretive and analytical, and will utilize the long-term historical data that have been provided partly as a result of the committee's studies in foreign countries. The countries to be studied include Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States; one or two other countries are still to be selected. Moses Abramovitz of Stanford University, who at the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris during the past year was able to investigate the availability of competent European collaborators, and Mr. Kuznets will serve as co-directors of the project. The collaborating scholars in each country will follow a common design as far as possible or at least work from a common set of questions. To assure maximum comparability of their results, conferences of the participants will be held at suitable stages of their research. Mr. Abramovitz will direct the study of the United States and, upon completion of the separate studies will collaborate with Mr. Kuznets in preparation of an.evaluative summary.





Bert G. Hickman (chairman), Moses Abramovitz, Martin Bronfenbrenner, James S. Duesenberry, Karl A. Fox, R. A. Gordon, Lawrence R. Klein, David W. Lusher, Franco .odigliani, Geoffrey H. Moore.

William Kessen (chairman), Roger Brown, Jerome Kagan, Lloyd N. Morrisett, Paul H. Mussen, A. Kimball Romney, Harold W. Stevenson. The committee's sixth conference, on transcultural studies of cognitive systems, was held in Merida, Mexico on April 17-20. Mr. Romney organized and chaired the conference, for which the following papers were prepared: "Studies in Ethnoscience," by William C. Sturtevant, Smithsonian Institution; "Notes on Queries in Ethnography," by Charles o. Frake, Stanford University; "Cultural Differences in Mathematical Concept Learning," by Shirley Hill, Stanford University; "Cognitive Systems and Their Behavioral Validation," by Volney Steffire, Harvard University; "Semantic Differential Technique in the Comparative Study of Cultures," by Charles E. Osgood, University of Illinois; "Cognitive Aspects of English Kin Terms," by Mr. Romney and Roy D'Andrade, Stanford University; "Consideration of Meta-Method in Cross-Cultural Studies," by Fred L. Strodtbeck, University of Chicago; "Notes toward a History of Linguistic Anthropology," by Dell H. Hymes, University of California, Berkeley; "Some Semantic Implications of Tzeltal Numeral Classifiers," by Brent Berlin, Stanford University, and Mr. Romney; and "The Sememic Approach to Structural Semantics," by Sydney M. Lamb, University of California, Berkeley. The proceedings of the conference are expected to be published by the American Anthropological Association in the Memoir series, early in 1964. In cooperation with the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota, the committee will hold an Institute on Cognitive Development, for graduate students and recent recipients of the Ph.D. in psychology and related fields, at the University from June 15 to July 24, 1964, under the direction of Mr. Stevenson. A program of six courses will be offered-Acquisition of a First Language, by Mr. Brown; Personality and Cultural Influences on the Development of Intellectual Processes, by Mr. Kagan; The Developmental Theories of Jean Piaget, by Mr. Kessen; Learning and Development, by Mr. Stevenson; Research Problems in Cognitive Development, by all members of the Institute faculty; and Colloquium on Current Research in Cognitive Development. Inquiries concerning attendance at the Institute should be addressed to Professor H. W. Stevenson, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 55455.

The committee's plans (presented in Mr. Klein's report in the December 1962 issue of Items) for completion of its work on construction of a large-scale quarterly econometric model of the United States have been carried out. A comprehensive report on the results of the project during 1961-63 is in preparation by the members of the research team. Many chapters have already been submitted, and are being edited for publication. The volume will summarize the status of the model at the conclusion of the work done under the auspices of the committee, with financial support provided to the Council by the National Science Foundation. A new grant has been made by the Foundation to the Brookings Institution to support further work on the model for a period of three years from September I, 1963, when the committee's direct concern with the model terminated. The committee has accomplished its purpose of stimulating the development of this area of research, and is highly gratified that this will continue under new auspices and under the general supervision of Mr. Klein and Gary Fromm. A conference on Quantitative Planning of Economic Policy was held by the committee at Brookings Institution on August 19-24, with funds made available to the Council by the Ford Foundation. The purpose of the conference, organized by Messrs. Fox, Hickman, Charles C. Holt, and . r i k Thorbecke, was to inform American economists and policy makers about experience in other countries with the application of quantitative techniques to the planning and implementation of macroeconomic policy. Technical papers were prepared on the methodology of macroeconomic policy formulation, by Henri Theil, Netherlands Econometric Institute; on the selection and quantitative specification of policy objectives, by Etienne Kirschen and Lucien Morissens, Free University of Brussels; the estimation of structural relations and data requirements in policy models, by Messrs. Fox, Thorbecke, and J. K. Sengupta, Iowa State University; the types, properties, and solution of policy models, by Mr. Holt, and Roy Radner, University of California, Berkeley. Two papers on the experience with quantitative planning techniques in each of France, Japan, and the Netherlands were presented also, one by a member of each country's planning bureau and one by an outside observer. These papers discussed the record of policy planning in each country and appraised the contribution of quantitative techniques to the actual formulation and implementation of economic policy. The authors were: Bernard Cazes, Commissariat du Plan, and P. Bauchet, Ecole Nationale d'Administration, France; Shun taro Shishido, Economic Planning Agency, and Tsunehiko Watanabe, Gakushuin University, Japan; and C. A. van den Beld, Central Planning Bureau, W. Hessel, Socialist Trade Union, the Netherlands. y publication of the conference papers and a summary of the proceedings in a single volume is planned.

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Robert N. Burr (chairman), Charles W. Anderson, Fred P. Ellison, Joseph Grunwald, Allan R. Holmberg, Joseph A. Kahl, Stanley J. Stein, Charles Wagley; staff, Bryce Wood. One outcome of the committee's Conference on Continuity and Change in Latin America was a proposal that the committee sponsor a summer seminar to examine the state of Latin American studies in the United States and to delineate research opportunities in the social sciences, law, and other disciplines. This seminar was held at the Center for 35

Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, July 8 - August 23, with funds provided by the Ford Foundation. Full-time participants in the seminar were Messrs. Burr, Grunwald, Wagley, and Wood; Ralph W. Tyler, Director of the Center (and chairman of the seminar); Raymond Carr, Oxford University; H. Field Haviland, Jr., Brookings Institution; Robert Heussler, Ford Foundation; Frederick A. Olafson, Johns Hopkins University; Robert E. Scott, University of Illinois; and Carl B. Spaeth and Richard J. Walter (secretary of the seminar), Stanford University. In five of the seven weeks of the seminar, discussion was centered on papers prepared by North and Latin American representatives of the disciplines of political science, economics, anthropology, sociology, and history and literature; visiting specialists in the particular discipline being considered were present each week. Comparable discussion of problems of land tenure and legal institutions was also held; and the final week was devoted to an effort to summarize the results of the seminar. A general report of the deliberations of the seminar is being prepared by Mr. Wagley for publication by the Columbia University Press. The committee expects to hold one or two conferences for discussion of this report by other specialists on Latin America. MATHEMATICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Patrick Suppes (chairman), David Blackwell, James S. Coleman, Clyde H. Coombs, Robert Dorfman, R. Duncan Luce, Howard Raiffa. Two senior conferences, one on psychophysics and one on learning theory, were sponsored by the committee during the summer of 1963 at Stanford University. Mr. Luce organized the conference on psychophysics, in which the following persons participated: Richard C. Atkinson, Associate Professor of Psychology, Stanford University; Ward Edwards, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Michigan; Hannes Eisler, Psychological Laboratory, University of Stockholm; Eugene Galanter, Professor of Psychology, University of Washington; Donald A. Norman, Center for Cognitive Studies, Harvard University; Moncrief{ H. Smith, Jr.,

Professor of Psychology, University of Washington; Wilson P. Tanner, Jr., Research Psychologist, Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan; assistant to the director: Ralph Roskies, Princeton University. The senior conference on learning theory was organized William K. Estes, Professor of Psychology, Stanford University, and Mr. Suppes. The other participants were: Robert R. Bush, Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania; Clyde H. Coombs, Professor of Psychology, University of Michigan; James G. Greeno, Instructor in Psychology, Indiana University; A. R. Jonckheere, Department of Psychology, University College London; Joseph L. Zinnes, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Indiana University; student assistants: Elijah Lovejoy and Richard M. Rose, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania; and Peter Polson, Department of Psychology, Indiana University.


NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY RESEARCH William T. R. Fox (chairman), Morris Janowitz, Klaus Knorr, G. A. Lincoln, John W. Masland, Robert E. Osgood, Arthur Smithies, Robert C. Wood; staff, Bryce Wood. The committee held a conference on the military in American society at Princeton, New Jersey on June 20-21. The 28 participants included members of the committee, other sociologists and political scientists, military officers from the service academies, representatives of the Department of Defense, and staff of governmental research agencies. The following papers were prepared and distributed in advance: "Sequels to a Military Career: The Retired Milit~ Professional," by Albert D. Biderman, Bureau of Soci~~ Science Research, Inc.; "Recruitment and the Military Profession," by Kurt Lang, University of California, Berkeley; and "Career Opportunities and Commitments among Military Officers," by Mayer N. Zald, University of Chicago, and William Simon, National Opinion Research Center. One session was devoted to a discussion of opportunities for research on roles of the military in American society, led by Mr. Janowitz and Oliver Garceau. A report on the conference is in preparation, for early review by the committee.


son, secretary; and Karl A. Fox, treasurer. The following members of the board were elected as its Executive Committee: S. S. Wilks (chairman), Thomas C. Cochran, George H. Hildebrand, David B. Truman, and Donald Young. Wilbert E. Moore of Princeton University was named chairman of the Committee on Problems and Policy; and Gabriel A. Almond of Stanford University, Harold C. Conklin of Yale University, Leonard Krieger of the University of Chicago, and Gardner Lindzey of the University of Minnesota were elected members of the committee. Its other membe~ are R. A. Gordon, and ex officio: Pendleton Herring, Her-. bert A. Simon, and Chauncy D. Harris.

At the annual meeting of the board of directors of the Council in September, Abram Bergson and Herbert A. Simon were re-elected directors-at-Iarge for the two-year term 1964-65. Thomas S. Kuhn of the University of California, Berkeley, and Don K. Price of Harvard University were also elected directors-at-Iarge for that term. The other directors-at-Iarge are Chauncy D. Harris, John W. Tukey, S. S. Wilks, and Donald Young. Herbert A. Simon was elected chairman of the board of directors; Chauncy D. Harris, vice-chairman; Guy E. Swan36

COUNCIL STAFF Ben Willerman, Professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota, will join the staff of the Council on October 1, .&1963, taking leave from the University, where he has been ~ member of the faculty since 1949. A recipient of the Ph.D. in psychology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mr. Willerman was previously a Research Assistant at the Child Welfare Research Station, University of Iowa; Testing, Research, and Clinical Psychologist, U. S. Army; and Study Director, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. In 1954-55 he was a Fulbright Lecturer at the Universities of Amsterdam and of Groningen. Mr. Willerman will have staff assignments similar to those of Francis H. Palmer who left the Council in July to become Vice-President and Secretary of Education and World Affairs. COUNCIL COMMITTEES ON FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS

Faculty Research Fellowships. John Useem of Michigan State University has been reappointed chairman of the committee for 1963-64. Lawrence E. Fouraker of Harvard University, John D. Lewis of Oberlin College, and Charles Sellers of the University of California, Berkeley, have been reappointed members. Dorwin Cartwright of the University of Michigan and Arno J. Mayer of Princeton University have been newly appointed to the commmittee. Grants-in-Aid. Guy E. Swanson of the University of Michigan has been appointed chairman for 1963-64. Also reap.ointed to the committee are Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. of Johns Hopkins University, Holland Hunter of Haverford College, and William H. Riker of the University of Rochester. Carl E. Schorske of the University of California, Berkeley, and Melford E. Spiro of the University of Washington have been newly appointed to the committee. International Conference Travel Grants. George Garvy of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has been appointed chairman; and Rowland A. Egger of the University of Virginia, Matilda White Riley of Rutgers - The State University, Roger W. Russell of Indiana University, and Harry Venneman of the Bureau of the Budget have been reappointed members of the committee for 1963-64. Newly appointed members are Joseph B. Casagrande of the University of Illinois and Louis Morton of Dartmouth College. Political Behavior. David B. Truman of Columbia University has been reappointed chairman of this committee, which administers the program of grants for research on American governmental and legal processes. Also reappointed to the committee are William M. Beaney of Princeton University, Angus Campbell of the University of Michigan, Oliver Garceau of East Boothbay, Maine, V. O. Key, Jr. of Harvard University, Avery Leiserson of Vanderbilt University, and Edward H. Levi of the University of Chicago. Robert A. Dahl of Yale University has been added to (~e membership. ' 9 Political Theory and Legal Philosophy Fellowships. J. Roland Pennock, Swarthmore College (chairman); David


Easton, University of Chicago; Jerome Hall, Indiana University; John H. Hallowell, Duke University; Robert G. McCloskey, Harvard University; and Sheldon S. Wolin, University of California, Berkeley, have been reappointed for 1963-64. Social Science Personnel. George H. Hildebrand of Cornell University has been reappointed chairman of the committee, which has charge of the Council's research training fellowship program. Harry Alpert of the University of Oregon, Charles E. Gilbert of Swarthmore College, Irving L. Janis of Yale University, and Paul Webbink of the Council also have been reappointed. Newly appointed to the committee is Dell H. Hymes of the University of California, Berkeley. JOINT COMMITTEES OF THE ACLS AND SSRC OFFERING GRANTS FOR RESEARCH

African Studies. Alan P. Merriam, Indiana University (chairman); L. Gray Cowan, Columbia University; William O. Jones, Stanford University; Horace M. Miner, University of Michigan; Karl J. Pelzer, Yale University; and Roy Sieber, Indiana University, have been reappointed members of the committee for 1963-64. Philip D. Curtin of the University of Wisconsin has been newly appointed. Asian Studies. John A. Pope, Freer Gallery of Art (chairman), and Paul S. Dull, University of Oregon, have been reappointed to the committee. New members are Robert I. Crane, Duke University; H. G. Creel, University of Chicago; L. A. Peter Gosling, University of Michigan; and John L. Landgraf, New York University. Contemporary China. A. Doak Barnett of Columbia University has been appointed chairman of the committee for 1963-64. Alexander Eckstein, University of Michigan; John K. Fairbank, Harvard University; Walter Galenson, University of California, Berkeley; John M. H. Lindbeck, Harvard University; G. William Skinner, Cornell University; and George E. Taylor, University of Washington, have been reappointed. New members are Robert A. Scalapino, University of California, Berkeley, and Mary C. Wright, Yale University. Latin American Studies. Robert N. Burr, University of California, Los Angeles, has been reappointed chairman of the committee for 1963-64. Also reappointed are Fred P. Ellison, University of Texas; Joseph Grunwald, Brookings Institution; Joseph A. Kahl, Washington University; Stanley J. Stein, Princeton University; and Charles Wagley, Columbia University. Newly appointed members are Charles W. Anderson, University of Wisconsin, and Allan R. Holmberg, Cornell University. Near and Middle East. Morroe Berger of Princeton University has been named chairman for 1963-64. Albert J. Meyer of Harvard University and Herbert H. Paper of the University of Michigan have also been reappointed. New members are Leonard Binder and Marshall G. S. Hodgson, both of the University of Chicago, Charles P. Issawi of Columbia University, and Malcolm H . Kerr of the University of California, Los Angeles.

Slavic Studies: Subcommittee on Slavic and East European Grants. Donald W. Treadgold, University of Washington (chairman); John C. Campbell, Council on Foreign Relations; and Norman Kaplan, University of Rochester, have been reappointed members of the subcommittee for 1963-64. Newly appointed are Victor Erlich of Yale University and Robert C. Tucker of Princeton University.

Asia and Near East Studies Program Lee Stuart Bigelow, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Philippines and the~ United States on Manila politics (renewal). .. Benjamin 1. Cohen, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on Indian exports since the first Five-Year Plan (renewal). Robert K. Dentan, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for preparation of a dissertation on hunger and its satisfaction among the Senoi Semai of Perak and Pahang, Malaya (renewal). George S. Elison, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research in Japan on the political and intellectual image of Christianity in Japan during the seventeenth century (renewal). Francine R. Frankel, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for preparation of a dissertation on J;>olitical and ideological factors influencing central IndIan government policy on agriculture (renewal). Calvin L. French, Ph.D. candidate in fine arts, Columbia University, for preparation of a dissertation on Shiba Kokan, artist, scientist, and popularizer of Western knowledge in Japan (renewal). Peter K. Frost, Ph.D. candidate in economic history, Harvard University, for completion of research in Japan on the Tokugawa currency system (renewal). Jennings M. Gentzler, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in Chinese literature, Columbia University, for Japanese language training and research in Japan on the Sao of Liu Tsungyuan. David Hamilton, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research in Taiwan an~ Japan on the political history of Hunan Province in late nineteenth century (renewal). Robert Harrison, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for completion of an ethnobotanical study in North Borneo of the Dusun (renewal). William A. Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on growth and planning of India's iron and steel industry (renewal). John A. Laska, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in education, Columbia University, for preparation of a dissertation on educational planning in India (renewal). Byron K. Marshall, graduate student in history, Stanford University, for study in the social sciences and Far Eastern history. Ray A. Moore, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on social mobility in the Samurai class of Tokugawa Japan (renewal). James B. Palais, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for continuation of research in Korea on its political history, 1875-85 (renewal). Richard M. Pfeffer, LL.B., Woodmere, New York, for research in Hong Kong on the law of the Chinese People's Republic (renewal). Barbara Ann Ruch, Ph.D. candidate in Japanese literature, Columbia University, for comJ;>letion of research and preparation of a dissertation m Japan and United States on the Muromachi Period and the Otogw Zoshi (renewal).

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TRAVEL GRANTS Under the program administered by the Committee on International Conference Travel Grants, 4 additional awards have been made by its staff subcommittee, to assist social scientists resident in the United States to attend international congresses and other meetings outside this country: Clyde H. Coombs, Professor of Psychology, University of Michigan; conferences at centers of mathematical psychological research in European countries and Israel, spring 1964. James W. Fesler, Professor of Government, Yale University; International Political Science Association, Round Table on Federalism and Decentralization, Oxford University, September 19-24, 1963. Jerry Hirsch, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois; Eleventh International Congress on Genetics, The Hague, September 2-10, 1963. Joseph A. Pechman, Director of Economic Studies, Brookings Institution; Institut International de Finances Publiques, Annual Meeting, Luxemburg, September 12-14, 1963.


FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM In the first year of administration of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program by the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, fellowships have been awarded for study of four major world areas. In addition to the appointments listed in Items, June 1963, pages 23-28, the following appointments have been accepted for 1963-64:

A frican Studies Program Ralph A. Austen, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research in Tanganyika and Europe and preparation of a dissertation on the development of indIrect rule in the Lake Victoria region of Tanganyika, 1890-1939 (renewal). Sheldon Gellar, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of research in Senegal and the United States and preparation of a dissertation on the politics of development in Senegal (renewal). Lawrence P. Ralston, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for multidisciplinary course work relating to Africa and research in the United States and the Union of South Africa on the historical development in that country of problems of nationality and race. Robert F. Thompson, Ph.D. candidate in history of art, Yale University, for research and preparation of a dissertation in West Africa and the United States on the nature and origin of Yoruba art (renewal).



Mary F. Somers, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on Indonesia's Nationalist Development (renewal). Glen W. Swanson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for study in England of Ottoman Turkish, Islamic institutions, history, geography, politics and law. Frank D. van Aalst, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Pennsylvania, for research in England and India on European attitudes toward Asia in the late eighteenth century, and Hindi language training. John O. Voll, Ph.D. candidate in history and Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England and the United States on the Khatmiyya (Mirghaniyya) tariqa in the Sudan during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (renewal). Vivian M. Walker, Ph.D. candidate in Indian literature, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research in India on Sanskrit literary elements in modern Hindi literature (renewal). Walter J. Ward, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in India on the Jaina community in Gujarat State (renewal). Donald E. Weatherbee, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Johns Hopkins University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Netherlands and the United States on the precolonial political system of Indonesia (renewal). Constance M. Wilson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for completion of research in Thailand on the reign of Rama IV (renewal). Robert G. Wilson, Ph.D. candidate in economics and Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Egypt, Europe, and the United States on Egyptian banking (renewal). Martin G. Wolfson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Taiwan on the thought and influence of T'ao Hsi-sheng, economic and social historian of the 1930's.

Ernest P. Young, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in the United States on the history of the Yuan Shih-k'ai Period in China (renewal).

Soviet and East European Studies Program Stephen H. E. Clarkson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Paris, for research and preparation of a dissertation in France on Soviet doctrine relating to the national revolution in India (renewal). Joseph T. Fuhrmann, graduate student in history, Indiana University, for Russian language training and completion of requirements for M.A. and Certificate of the Russian and East European Institute. Thomas G. Pesek, graduate student in history, Indiana University, for Czech and German language training, completion of degree requirements, and research in Czechoslovakia and the United States on Karel Havlicek and the origins of Czech political life (renewal). Don Cravens Price, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States on Russian influence in Chinese thought, 1900-1918 (renewal). Jacek I. Romanowski, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Washington, for preparation of a dissertation on the suburban zone in Poland (renewal). Mary Elizabeth Schaeffer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the political philosophy of P. A. Stolypin (renewal). Arthur R. Sprague, graduate student in fine arts, Columbia University, for research and preparation of a dissertation on the life and work of M. A. Vrubel (renewal). Rolf H.-W. Theen, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for research and preparation of a dissertation in the Soviet Union and the United States on the political ideas of Petr Nikitich Tkachev (renewal). Benjamin P. Uroff, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research for an English translation of Kotoshikhin's On Russia in the Reign of Alexis Mikhailovich, with commentaries, and an introductory essay.

PUBLICA rlONS sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, April 1963. 395 pages. $6.50. Concentration in the Manufacturing Industries of the United States: A Midcentury Report, by Ralph L. Nelson. Economic Census Studies 2, sponsored by the Committee on Analysis of Economic Census Data. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. 302 pages. $7.50. Economic Trends in the Soviet Union, edited by Abram Bergson and Simon Kuznets. Outgrowth of a conference, May 6-8, 1961, sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, February 1963.406 pages. $9.75. Generalization in the Writing of History, edited by Louis Gottschalk. Report of the former Committee on Historical Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, January 1963. 268 pages. $5.00. The Political Systems of Empires, by S. N. Eisenstadt . Prepared with the aid of the Committee on Compara-

Attitudes and Social Relations of Foreign Students in the United States, by Claire Selltiz, June R. Christ, Joan Havel, and Stuart W. Cook. Sponsored by the former Committee on Cross-Cultural Education. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, May 1963. 448 pages. $9.00. Basic Cognitive Processes in Children, edited by John C. Wright and Jerome Kagan. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Serial No. 86), 1963. Sponsored by the Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Lafayette, Indiana: Child Development Publications. 196 pages. $3.50. Bureaucracy and Political Development, edited by Joseph LaPalombara. Studies in Political Development 2, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, August 1963. 501 pages. ~ $8.50. . . , Communications and Political Development, edited by Lucian W. Pye. Studies in Political Development 1, 39

in SMSA's by Residence Inside or Outside Central City, by Irene B. Taeuber. Bureau of the Census, Selected Area Reports, Final Report PC(3)-ID. Prepared for use in a monograplfUnder the program of the Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with. . the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GOl" ernment Printing Office, 1963. 767 pages. $4.50. Universals of Language: Report of a Conference Held at Dobbs Ferry, New York, April 13-15, 1961, edited by Joseph H. Greenberg. Sponsored by the fonner Committee on Linguistics and Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1963. 279 pages. $6.00.

tive Politics. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, June 1963. 543 pages. $15.00.

Trends in the Income of Families and Persons in the United States: 1947 to 1960, by Hennan P. Miller. Bureau of the Census Technical Paper No.8. Based on work done under the program of the Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963. 353 pages. $1.75. U.S. Census of Population: 1960, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: Social and Economic Data for Persons

COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OFFERED IN 1963-64: DATES FOR FILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS Applications for fellowships and grants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because full consideration cannot be assured for late applications, and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which program a given proposal should be submitted, prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries and requests for application fonns should indicate the candidate's age, place of permanent residence, present position or activity, degrees held and degree currently sought if any, the general nature of the proposed training or research, and the duration and amount of support desired. A brochure describing the several programs is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017.

·Grants for Asian Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, December 1, 1963; awards, within 12 weeks thereafter ·Contemporary China, applications, December 15, 1963; awards, February 1, 1964 ·Grants for Latin American Studies, applications, December IS, 1963; awards, February I, 1964 ·Grants for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, applications, December 15, 1963; awards, February I, 1964 ·Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, December IS, 1963; awards, within 10 weeks thereafter International Conference Travel Grants for the following international congresses: International Association. Agricultural Economists, International Congress o~ Americanists, International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, International Political Science Association, World Congress of Rural Sociology, applications, April I, 1964; awards, May I, 1964. Requests from individuals desiring travel grants to enable them to {Jarticipate in other international meetings may be submitted at any time up to June IS, 1964. Applications will normally be conSIdered within 10 weeks after the date of filing, but should a number of requests be anticipated for the same meeting, it may be necessary to defer final action until about 3 months before the meeting. ·Travel grants for international conferences on Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017.

Research Training Fellowships, and Fellowships for Completion of Doctoral Dissertations, applications, December 1, 1963; awards, March IS, 1964 Fellowships in Political Theory and Legal Philosophy, applications, December 1,1963; awards, March IS, 1964 Faculty Research Fellowships, and Grants-in-Aid of Research, first competition: applications, November I, 1963; awards, January 2, 1964; second competition: applications, February I, 1964; awards, April 1, 1964 Grants for Research on American Governmental and Legal Processes, applications, December 1,1963; awards, February 15, 1964 Grants for Research on International Organization, applications, February 1, 1964; awards, April IS, 1964 .Grants for African Studies, applications, December IS, 1963; awards, February I, 1964

• Offered to research scholars in the social sciences and humanities, under a joint program of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council.



Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1963: ABRAM BERGSON, PAUL J. BOHANNAN, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, JOSEPH B. CASAGRANDE, JOHN A. CLAUSEN, THOMAS C.








Officers and Staff:

President; PAUL WEBBINK, Vice-President; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY, Executive Associate; BRYCE WOOD, Staff Associates; CATHERINE V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary