SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL
VOLUME 13 NUMBER 2 JUNE 1959 230 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK 17, N. Y.
NOTES ON THE STUDY OF ECONOMIC GROWTH by Simon Kuznets
THE economic growth of nations has become a topic of leading concern to economists and other social scientists during the last 15 to 25 years. As usual in social science, the reasons for this relatively sudden shift into the focus of attention lie in the emergence of widely perceived problems, in this instance, the danger of secular stagnation of the "mature" capitalist economies, the challenge of forced industrialization under authoritrian auspices behind the iron curtain, the risks of ailure in the struggles for development on the part of the "underdeveloped" areas of the world. And as usual, such rapid intensification of interest in a suddenly emerging complex of problems leaves economists, as well as other social scientists, relatively unprepared: in economics the problems of the growth of nations have been lying dormant practically since the middle of the nineteenth century. These notes deal with the activities of the Social Science Research Council's Committee on Economic Growth, present some reflections on the state of work in this field, and conclude with some questions that these reflections suggest. STUDIES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES The work of the Committee on Economic Growth should be familiar to readers of Items and the successive â&#x20AC;˘ The author. Professor of Political Economy at Johns Hopkins University (currently on leave as Frank W. Taussig Research Professor of Economics at Harvard University). has served as chairman of the Council's Committee on Economic Growth since its appointment in 1949. Its other members are Richard Hartshorne, University of Wisconsin; Melville J. Herskovits. Northwestern University; Edgar M. Hoover, Har'ard University; Bert F. Hoselitz. University of Chicago; Wilbert E. iloore, Princeton University; and Joseph J. Spengler, Duke University. Mr. Kuznets presented this report informally at the spring meeting of the board of directors of the Council. March 21, 1959.
A nnual Reports of the Council, and I can therefore be brief. One major division consists of a program of studies in a number of foreign countries, designed to produce comparable series of long-term records of economic growth, largely estimates of national income, wealth, and their components.1 Since economic growth is a process whose quantitative aspects, in the aggregate and structurally, are central to its study, the committee deemed it important to try to organize at least the major quantitative eyidence in a systematic form, over as long a period and for as many countries as the supply of data and of competent scholarly personnel warranted. We thus arranged for initiation of studieli for the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and in a somewhat different form for Japan and Australia. In addition, such studies were already (in 1953) available for the United States and Canada. Efforts are now being made by the committee to extend this program to at least the major Latin American countries. as well as to some others in Southern Europe. A word is in order about the organization of these projects in the countries, mostly European. with which we have had some experience. In general, such studies are feasible where: (a) the basic data and estimates extend over sufficiently long periods. and there is a record of past work in the field; (b) there are younger scholars familiar with the techniques of national income accounts and the analytical uses to which the national income totals and components are usually put. Given such a situation, it is possible to interest senior scholars in one of 1 For a more detailed description of this program of the committee, see my earlier report, "Comparative Study of Long-Term Records of Economic Growth." Items, December 1955. pp. 42-46.
the country's research organizations in the possibility of organizing the long-term records on a consistent and comparable basis and of subjecting them to analysis that can throw light on the main quantitative aspects of the country's economic growth. Once such interest is enlisted, the choice of the younger scholars to engage in the task and the choice of emphasis in their work must be left to the research organization that pro'Vides the auspices---since no scholar from the outside can impose his views as to these decisions. Naturally, the general approach to such studies, formulated by the committee, does have some influence on what is done in the various countries; yet the inquiry in each emphasizes somewhat different aspects and selects somewhat different components, depending partly on the availability of data, partly on the aspects of economic growth that are of major interest to scholars in the country. Thus there is a common core in all the studies: they all cover at least total and per capita national income and are concerned with the industrial structure and its changes. But there may be great variety in the other aspects examined, in the degree of detail, and even in length of period covered -although there is usually the requirement of a minimum length of about half a century. Several consequences follow from the organization of the studies just described: (1) They are quite productive in the sense that they not only yield records that are far better adapted than anything heretofore available to international comparisons, but also help to develop within a country a corps of quantitatively trained economists. (2) While our committee assists the projects financially, a substantial part of the resources comes from within the country. (3) Most of the studies take much more time than one originally expects, since the handling of diverse long-term data is a time-consuming task that is likely to be underestimated in any advance planning. (4) The studies require a fair amount of attention on the part of a senior scholar, who must keep in touch with the various participants and strengthen their sense of participation in a common task. (5) There is a serious question whether extension of such studies to the less developed countries is likely to be successful-largely because of the lack of adequate scholarly personnel within the countries and of internal conditions that would favor such a long-term approach. CONFERENCE PROGRAM
cialists within a single discipline. The eight conferences held since 1951 have dealt with such topics as quantitative description of technological change and economic growth; the comparison of economic growth in Brazil, _ India, and Japan; strategic factors in periods of rapid economic growth; the role of cities in economic growth; the choice of investment in planning for economic growth; types of entrepreneurship and economic growth; the state and economic growth; and industrialization and the commitment of the labor force. Among the topics now agreed upon for future conferences are: natural resources and economic growth; the role of agriculture in economic development; factors determining the level and direction of inventive activity; and development of the Soviet Union as a case of economic growth. Other topics are under discussion. The rationale and structure of these conferences merit brief comment. Some of them were organized (or are to be organized) by the committee alone; others, in cooperation with other research agencies. 'T he purpose of the conferences is usually to precipitate the results of ongoing research and to focus them on a single problem, systematically articulated into selected aspects-each normally the subject of a single paper prepared for the conference. It follows that the success of the conference depends upon: (1) the existence of a fair amount of current research on its topic in this country; (2) the skill a with which the central topic is thought through and WI broken down into the component aspects that can be dealt with in papers of appropriate length; (3) the interest that the proposal for a conference evokes on the part of scholars actively engaged in the field, and on the part of others who may be willing and competent to serve as intelligent discussants and critics. Usually, we have followed the practice of allowing plenty of time for both the development of the program, and for the preparation of papers; designated a special subcommittee or other group to plan each conference, in occasional consultation with the full committee or its chairman; insisted on mimeographing and distributing the papers well in advance of the conference; limited attendance to active participants, usually not exceeding 30 in number; considered the desirability of publishing the results of each conference, and when desirable arranged for their publication in appropriate form and by an appropriate agency. It has usually taken two years from the time a general topic was accepted, to the date of holding the conference; and that is a minimum period.
The second major division of the committee's work, and the older in respect to time, consists in the planning and sponsoring of conferences, usually on topics (in the field of economic growth) that require an interdisciplinary approach or at least an approach by various spe-
SPECIAL STUDIES The committee has tried to pursue a number of other activities, but with limited success. Most of these have 14
been ad hoc studies. One project, which took the form been engaged on worthier tasks. Furthermore, ~ven in of a summer seminar on theories of economic growth, those less developed countries in which there are some did prove successful. Others, in which we typically iden- long-term data, and few of them are completely bare of tified a problem that called for exploration by a scholar basic information, the supply of properly oriented local over a period of some six to twelve months, almost never scholars is deficient. It would be all too easy to illuseventuated because we could not find qualified persons trate this shortage, and the absorption of any partially to undertake the full task. For example, the committee well-trained economist in those countries in essentially would have liked a young scholar to attempt to classify political and managerial functions, as distinct from types of underdevelopment-by applying various cri- scholarly pursuits. (2) While the difficulty just noted makes it impossible teria that are available through the multiplying literature produced by international agencies-but its search to obtain a sufficiently representative and adequate set for personnel was unavailing. We were successful, how- of records of economic growth, the second major obstacle ever, thanks largely to Wilbert Moore, in interesting prevents the economist from fully understanding such Arnold Feldman, Associate Professor of Sociology at the records, or the results of economic growth as observed. University of Delaware, in a promising review of certain To illustrate: population movements, on the one hand, and the progress of science and technology, on the other, social aspects of economic growth. clearly are major factors in the understanding of economic growth. But ever since the middle of the nineDIFFICULTIES IN STUDYING NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH teenth century demography and population theory have been excluded from the corpus of orthodox economics, Let me turn from this brief account of the committee's and only in the two most recent decades have econactivities to broader consideration of the study of eco- omists been turning in haste to relearn something about nomic growth of nations. The field is enormously wide demographic processes; just as demographers are begineven if we limit it to modern economic growth, i.e., to ning to recognize the dire consequences of their neglect growth that has occurred since the end of the eighteenth of economics. The situation with respect to history of century; the literature is growing rapidly; and my knowl- science and technology and the understanding of what edge and competence are far too limited to permit me to moves it is even sadder, and our ignorance of these key comment, in a defensible way, on the general state of processes in economic growth is truly appalling. Nor research in the field. What follows are impressions, which need I add a similar comment about the clearly increased reflect largely the basic difficulties, the ever present ob- importance of political and sociopsychological factors in stacles to effective study of even modern economic the understanding of the economic growth of nations; growth-on the assumption that such study should at- or the helplessness of a mere economist when he obtempt insofar as possible to provide the quantitative serves, when he can observe, results of economic growth measures, the empirical coefficients, of the processes obviously ascribable to political factors and forces whose nature he cannot understand adequately. The outcome involved. The major difficulties can be stated under three heads: is either withdrawal into the refuge of mathematical the biased or uneven distributions of data and of intellec- models operating with a few variables, or amateurish tual resources; the variety of factors, noneconomic in cogitations on a vast theme. One has the advantage of character, that have to be considered in any study of formal elegance, and the other, that of at least calling economic growth; the rapid pace of change in the very attention to the wider array of factors that have to be process that we are studying. Let me deal briefly with taken into account; but neither outcome is satisfactory. (3) The third major difficulty is that the process that each of the three. (1) The uneven distributions of data and scholars are we are studying is incomplete and changes at a rapid due to the fact that production of data and the supply of rate: this process is the spread of the industrial system intellectual personnel are functions of the stage of a across the face of the earth, and it is only midway. We country's development. It follows that almost all our are, therefore, studying an incomplete process for which long-term data are for the developed countries, and that past parallels may be quite inadequate; and we tend to such data are sadly lacking for the very countries that we be continually surprised by new problems, while still would like most to study. In addition, there is of course struggling to understand the old. Or to put it differently, the peculiar problem with the supply of data in the iron- we try to transfer our inadequate comprehension of the curtain countries, a problem that has led to the use of old to the new, without sufficient consideration of the valuable human resources in other countries on sheer different conditions and the changing pace that have detective work-resources that otherwise could have occurred meanwhile. 15
This comment raises an even larger question: whether our perspective is too short-whether we are not concentrating too much on the present to be able to understand the changes that are in fact under way. I have often had the impression that my fellow economists and myself, with our elaborate statistical and quantitative methods and insistence on fully testable levels of analysis adapted largely to short-term problems, are necessarily far behind in understanding processes of growth because they require a so much more comprehensive view and so much longer perspective. Indeed, one might argue that a better understanding of the spread of the industrial system across the face of the earth requires, for comparison, some knowledge of the processes by which the preceding epochal innovations have been diffused. There is thus a conflict essentially between the more exact and elaborate methods that are required for understanding of short-term changes and associated problems and the sweep needed for a more balanced comprehension of the long-term processes-particularly when the pace of change in the latter is high. And it is a distinctive feature of modern economic growth that the rate of change, once it sets in, both in the aggregate and in the structure, is quite high. The list of difficulties could easily be multiplied. I have not mentioned another, namely, the alliance between analysis of short-term or long-term problems and group interests and policy positions, which helps solidify partial conclusions into generalities claimed as eternal verities; which produces stubborn clinging to obsolete theories because of their political connotation; and which spawns such semantic absurdities as the name "peoples' democracies" for dictatorially managed regimes and the name "socialism" for what is essentially state capitalism in a state dominated by a minority group. But there is no need to extend the list of difficulties: they tend to be similar in every social science discipline and for every major topic in it. What changes is the weight of the various obstacles, not their identity. What then is to be done? Perhaps one good answer is to continue plugging as best one can-building up the empirical records, extending them slowly to the countries for which they are now lacking, stimulating research in related areas, and so on-on the assumption that slow methodical work, rather than ambitious, intellectually pretentious schemes, is the only sure way to extend the empirical framework of analysis and to secure tested hypotheses that would not have to be discarded or radically modified as soon as they were produced. And the assumption is that despite present lacunae in data and in real integration with other disciplines, such work, following the patterns established in empirical economics, would yield insights into the past that would 16
have value for understanding the present and the future, as well. I must confess that to me it is a tempting answerfor it permits one to continue in intellectual comfort I digging away at the quantitative record, making the limited comparisons, and devising the weak generalizations. But, on the other hand, because this is so comfortable, because it permits us to bear easily the burden of present ignorance, it is also suspect. SUGGESTED QUESTIONS I come now to the questions which, as indicated earlier, were going to be suggested. Can something be done to reduce the effects of the bias in the supply of data? To increase our understanding of economic growth by drawing more heavily upon the disciplines outside of economics proper? To secure wider historical perspective that would help to place the whole field of modern economic growth within its proper framework and help us to perceive what we can learn from the pre-modern past? I am raising these questions not because I have answers to them-answers would require more thought and knowledge than I could devote to them. Of course, I exclude at once the obvious answer: an increase in the number of research scholars engaged in the field. I assume that whatever can be done to increase the flow of students into the field of social science, which is in com-I petition with others, is being done. The real question is whether in the current organizational and planning arrangements some ways of accelerating research on economic growth, in the desirable directions and against the known obstacles, could not be devised. Without undertaking to venture specific answers, it would seem to me that two directions of thinking should be explored. One would call for more ambitious planning of studies of foreign countries that would accelerate bringing increasingly varied experience into the realm of comparative study. This planning would involve not only the kind of foreign studies that our committee has initiated, limited to over-all quantitative records, but studies of more comprehensive and in some way more attainable character. For example, since for most countries outside of Western Europe and its offshoots overseas, there are few adequate economic histories of the last century or century and a half, would it be possible to arrange for the writing of such histories in a number of countries by local scholars following some minimum identical plan? The other suggestion would call for more contact and better knowledge than we now possess of what research is being done in other countries-through a new kind of systematic international organization and conference plan. Is there any possibility of some reason-
able agreement on the distinct epochs or phases in world history, and on study of the spread of each, as so many cases? And is there some way in which such attempts to draw a much wider systematic lesson from human history could be managed with sufficient awareness of the pitfalls of Toynbeean arbitrariness regarding units, terms, data, and personal religion? These may appear to be impossibly ambitious suggestions, and I am inclined to think they may be. But I am purposely drawing the bow wide, because it seems to me that, so far, much of the work of economists in the field of economic growth suffers from excessive timidity in attempting empirical coverage, with an almost insufferable boldness in drawing unlimited generalizations
from a mere handful of facts. This may be an exaggeration, and quite often the collectors of limited empirical evidence and the bold and insolent generalizers are different people. Be that as it may, I believe that we need a more ambitious empirical sweep, even if our data are not going to be statistical; and we need greater awareness of much diverse social experience to make us less provincial, and hence less dogmatic analysts. This requires more boldness in conceiving the empirical canvas of the studies, more temerity as to size and continuity, all in order to induce more humility and realism into the final product. But how all this is to be done requires some sustained exploration and thinking, which are perhaps beyond the powers of any single scholar.
COMMITTEE BRIEFS COMPARATIVE POLITICS
LINGUISTICS AND PSYCHOLOGY
Gabriel A. Almond (chairman), Taylor Cole, James S. Coleman, Herbert H. Hyman, Joseph G. LaPalombara, Sigmund Neumann, Lucian W. Pye, Robert E. Ward; staff, Bryce Wood.
James J. Jenkins (chairman), John B. Carroll, Joseph H. Greenberg, Alvin M. Liberman, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Charles E. Osgood, Thomas A. Sebeok, Rulon S. Wells; staff, Joseph B. Casagrande.
As a further step in the development of the committee's
A multilithed report on the Conference on Associative Processes in Verbal Behavior, held at the University of Minnesota in April 1955 under the chairmanship of James J. Jenkins, has been prepared, and a limited number of copies are available on request addressed to him at the Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota. The report contains the following papers, with discussions of them and a summary statement: "Bi-directional Effects in Word Association," Wallace A. Russell; "Word Association Phenomena at the Individual Level," James J. Jenkins and Marjorie Schaefer; "General Review of a Program of Research on Associative Clustering," Weston A. Bousfield and B. H. Cohen; "The Analysis of Incidental Learning," Leo J. Postman; "Some Problems and Studies in Verbal Behavior," Charles N. Cofer; "Statistical Properties of the Word-Association Experiment," Davis Howes; "Linguistic Structure as a Factor and as a Measure in Word Association," Sol Saporta. Volumes based on two other work conferences sponsored by the committee are in press. Trends in Content Analysis, edited by Ithiel de Sola Pool, is a report on the Conference on Techniques of Content Analysis held at Allerton House, University of Illinois, in February 1955 under the chairmanship of Charles E. Osgood. It will be published by the University of Illinois Press, probably in the fall of 1959. A second volume of essays, Aspects of Style in Language, based on the Conference on Style held at Indiana University in April 1958, will be published by The Technology Press in cooperation with John Wiley 8: Sons. This volume is edited by Thomas A. Sebeok, who also served as organizer of the conference.
theoretical studies, a conference will be held at Gould House, Dobbs Ferry, New York, on June 8-11. Papers dealing with aspects of political modernization will be discussed by some 30 participants. Special attention will be given to politics in the less developed countries. An introductory paper, entitled "Political Development in New States," has been prepared by Edward Shils of the University of Chicago; general background papers include sections of a study of "The Politics of the Underdeveloped Areas," in preparation by Messrs. Almond, Coleman, and Pye of the committee, George I. Blanksten of Northwestern University, Dankwart A. Rustow of Princeton University, and Myron Weiner of the University of Chicago. Other papers to be discussed are "Political Modernization in Historical Perspective" by C. E. Black, Princeton University; "Social Processes under Industrialization" by Alex Inkeles, Harvard University; "Urban-Rural Differences and the Process of Political Modernization in Japan: A Case Study" by Robert E. Ward; "From Kinship to Citizenship" by Francis X. Sutton, Ford Foundation; "The Intellectual and Political Development" by Edward Shils; "Nationalism and Political Development" by Rupert Emerson, Harvard University; "Ideology and Political Development" by Adam B. Ulam, Harvard University; and "Social Mobilization" by Karl W. Deutsch, Yale University. In addition, discussions of selected topics-"Parties, Interest Groups, and Media of Communication," "Bureaucracy and Economic Development," and "The Military"-will be led by Sigmund Neumann, Joseph J. Spengler of Duke University, and-William T. R. Fox of Columbia University, respectively.
discuss current research on personality measurement, its relation to the stated goals of education, and the problem of specifying those personality variables on which change during college might be expected. On March 26-28 a major conference on research on college influences on personality was held in Andover, Massachusetts. It was attended by 51 investigators who were either actively conducting relevant studies or interested in planning them. Sessions were devoted to reports on individual studies and research plans, and also to discussion of problems common to their research: describing the peer culture of the individual student, measuring changes in personality, measuring individual differences and background variables, and general problems in the initiation and design of college research. A report on this conference will appear in a future issue of Items.
MATHEMATICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH William G. Madow (chairman), Carl F. Christ, Sanford M. Dornbusch, John G. Kemeny, James G. March, Philip J. McCarthy, George A. Miller, Anatol Rapoport; staff, Elbridge Sibley. Two exploratory projects will be undertaken this summer under the committee's auspices, in the hope that the results will indicate the possible fruitfulness of organizing seminars for further work in the respective fields in the summer of 1960. James G. March at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Institute of Technology, will seek to identify areas of political science in which the development of mathematical models might profitably be undertaken. He will give attention both to some propositions in classical political theory and to various areas of empirical research on political behavior. Bernard P. Cohen of the University of California, and Joseph Berger and J. Laurie Snell of Dartmouth College will meet for several weeks in Hanover to consider the applicability of mathematics to research on the behavior of small groups. The first two members of this group are sociologists who have carried on experiments with small groups; Mr. Snell is a mathematician who has been actively interested in developing mathematical models and curricula for social scientists.
SIMULATION OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES John W. Carr, III, Carl 1. Hovland, George A. Miller, Herbert A. Simon; staff, Donald G. Marquis. As a part of its program to facilitate the development of social scientists' interest and competence in research using electronic computers to simulate human thinking, the committee has made funds available for the initiation of new activities in this area at the University of Michigan. A seminar and special conferences will be arranged by Edward L. Walker under the sponsorship of the Communications Sciences Interdisciplinary Degree Program, of which Gordon Peterson is chairman. The committee invites other proposals for the development of programs of activities in this field by social scientists, for example, from individuals who might like to spend a half year or year studying computer simulation techniques at one of the present active centers with the intention of returning to their own universities to develop such work.
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN YOUTH Ralph W. Tyler (chairman), Dana L. Farnsworth, Chester W. Harris, T. R. McConnell, Theodore M. Newcomb, C. Robert Pace, Nevitt Sanford, Robin M. Williams, Jr.; staff, Donald G. Marquis, Lloyd Morrisett, Jr. Two conferences planned under the committee's auspices last autumn have been held. On January 26-28, eight specialists in personality measurement met at the office of the Council, under the chairmanship of C. Robert Pace, to
PERSONNEL FACULTY RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS
Frank Restle, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Michigan State University, for three years, for theoretical and experimental development of several synthetic assumptions in psychological theory relating to perception, preference, learning, and social interaction. Eugen J. Weber, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles, for three years, for research on the extreme Right in French political and intellectual life, 1919-39.
The Committee on Faculty Research Fellowships-Lyle H. Lanier (chairman), H. Field Haviland, Jr., William H. Nicholls, John W. Riley, Jr., Edward H. Spicer, and Kenneth M. Stampp-at its meeting on March 19 recommended 4 new appointments, 3 to begin in 1959 and the fourth to begin in 1960: Joseph S. Berliner, Associate Professor of Economics, Syracuse University, for three years, for research on the scope and methods of anthropology, sociology, and social psychology, with particular reference to their points of contact with economics. Howard R. Lamar, Assistant Professor of History, Yale University, for two years, 1960-62, for research on the Americanization of the Far Southwest, 1850-1912.
RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-Earl Latham (chairman), Gardner Ackley, Robert E. L. Faris, Ward H. Goodenough, Wayne H. Holtzman, Paul Webbink -at its meeting on March 23-24 voted a total of 78 awards, 18
13 postdoctoral and 35 predoctoral research training fellowships and 30 fellowships for completion of doctoral dissertations. Two postdoctoral and 2 predoctoral research training fellowships and 8 of those for completion of dissertations were awarded to holders of Council fellowships in 1958-59. The complete list follows:
Alec P. Alexander, Ph.D. in economics, University of California, Berkeley, Assistant Professor of Economics, Northwestern University, for research on linear programming and input-output analysis applied to the planning of economic development. Alan A. Altshuler, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research on urban planning and administrative discretion. Daniel E. Bailey,· Ph.D. candidate in psychology, University of California, Berkeley, postdoctoral fellowship for studies in mathematical statistics relevant to psychological models of cognition and social perception. James D. Barber,· Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research on determinants of legislative turnover in Connecticut. Clifford R. Barnett, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, American University, for completion of a dissertation on the transmission of cultural tradition in a Quechua Indian community. Otomar J. Bartos, Ph.D. in sociology, Yale University, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Hawaii, for training in mathematics and logic. Hubert M. Blalock, Jr., Ph.D. in sociology, University of North Carolina, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Michigan, for interdisciplinary study in psychology and anthropology, and for research on race relations. Geoffrey T. Blodgett, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of a dissertation on urban politics in Boston and the Democratic Party's response to agrarian radicalism. Glenn E. Brooks, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Johns Hopkins University, and Research Associate, Committee on Government and Higher Education, for research on state governors and national policy, 1900-1958. Elizabeth A. R. Brown, Ph.D. candidate in history, Radcliffe College, for completion of a dissertation on the movement for charters in France, 1314-15. Richard D. Burns, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Illinois, for research on Cordell Hull's role in influencing American foreign policy, 1933-44. Benjamin N. Colby, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, Harvard University, for completion of a dissertation on literacy and bilingualism in a changing Tzotzil culture. Eleanor L. Commo, Ph.D. candidate in history, Radcliffe College, for research in Germany on a fourteenth century heretical movement. Morris Davis, Ph.D. in politics, Princeton University, Instructor in Political Science, University of Wisconsin, for research in Great Britain, Iceland, and Norway on the influence of interest groups on international law. Otto A. Davis, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University
of Virginia, postdoctoral fellowship for training in quantitative methods of experimentation. John P. Dawson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in the national and departmental archives of France on magistrates of the intermediate royal courts, 1788-1801. Allen G. Debus, Ph.D. candidate in the history of science, Harvard UJ;liversity, for research in England on English Paracelsism, 1570-1700. Judy Feldman, Ph.D. candidate in history and Far Eastern languages, Radcliffe College, for research on the Ch'ing legal system of the late nineteenth century, and for study at Harvard Law School. Paula Hirsch Foster, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Northwestern University, for completion of a dissertation on the status and role of women in Acholi. Charles E. Gilbert, Ph.D. in political science, Northwestern University, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Swarthmore College, for training in economic theory, mathematics, and statistics. Marvin Goldwert,· Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Texas, for research in Mexico on Mexican history, 1612-24. T. Richard Graham, Ph.D. candidate in Latin American history, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on British influence in that country, 1850-1900. Michael J. Harner, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Arizona State University, for completion of a dissertation on Jivaro culture change under differing conditions of alien contact. Richard J. Helmstadter, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in England on the changing social ethic of Protestant dissent in early nineteenth-century England. Leonard M. Horowitz, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Johns Hopkins University, for completion of a dissertation on redundancy in language and its effect on modes of learning. Earl B. Hunt,· Ph.D. candidate in psychology, Yale University, for research on concept formation. William H. Hunt, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Vanderbilt University, for research in France on effects of legislative roles on party cohesion and identification. Travis W. Hutton,· Ph.D. candidate in economics, Ohio State University, and Instructor in Economics, College of Wooster, postdoctoral fellowship for training in the methodology of statistical inference. Elton F. Jackson, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research on the relationship between degree of status crystallization and incidence of psychosomatic disorders. Herbert Jacob, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of a dissertation on public administration in Germany during the last 80 years. Estelle James, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for completion of a dissertation on criteria for investment planning. Kenneth F. Janda, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for research on the relations between Indiana legislators and their constituents and for training in methods of research on political behavior.
• Declined award.
• Declined award.
Anthony Kallet, Ph.D. candidate in psychology, University of Michigan, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for research on intellectual processes in extremely intelligent individuals (renewal). James C. La Force, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Los Angeles, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on the causes of the economic resurgence in Spain, 1750-1800. Herbert J. Landar, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Yale University, and Instructor in Linguistics and Humanities, Reed College, for research on the Navaho reservation on cultural and linguistic barriers to communication about medical problems, and completion of his doctoral dissertation. Robert G. Landen, - Ph.D. candidate in history and oriental studies, Princeton University, for completion of a dissertation on modernization and imperialism in the region of the South Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in the late nineteenth century. Clarence G. Lasby, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on German scientists and technicians who were brought to America in 1945-48. Mark W. Leiserson, Ph.D. in economics, Harvard University, Assistant Professor of Economics, Yale University, for study of the application of modern quantitative methods to problems of wage determination and wage structure. Daniel Levine, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research on social assumptions of American progressivism, 1890-1912. Leon N. Lindberg, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Western Europe on interest groups and European economic integration. Robert K. Lindsay, - Ph.D. candidate in industrial administration, Carnegie Institute of Technology, for research on a theory of human cognition. Gillian M. Lindt, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, and Instructor in Sociology, Douglass College, for research on methods of utilizing Moravian Church archives in sociological research. Millard F. Long, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Chicago, for completion of a dissertation on the British nationalized coal industry. Harald B. Malmgren, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Oxford University, for research in Great Britain, the Netherlands, France, and Germany or Sweden on comparative productivity and production methods in selected industries and their effect on international trade. Samuel T. McSeveney, Ph.D. candidate in history, State University of Iowa, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on the background of the McKinleyBryan presidential campaign. Richard L. Merritt, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Yale University, for research in Germany on Berlin as a test case of German integrative and disintegrative trends, 1946-58.
Louise E. Men, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, postdoctoral fellowship for training in the physical sciences and in the philosophy of science. Frank C. Miller, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, Harvard University, and Instructor in Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton College, for completion of a dissertation on changing medical concepts and practices in Chiapas, Mexico. William L. Nicholls, 11,- Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, for completion of a dissertation on peer group relationships and socialization in a medical school. Mancur L. Olson, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for research on the "managerial revolution" in farm movements: an economic interpretation of the history of the American Farm Bureau (renewal). Roger C. Owen,- Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on the culture and environmental adaptation of the Paipai of Baja California. Herbert P. Phillips,- Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for completion of a dissertation on the modal personality of Thai peasants. Nelson W. Polsby, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of a dissertation on community power and political theory. David B. Reynolds, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Michigan, for research on orientations of nuclear physicists toward their jobs. Fritz K. Ringer, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on the German universities and the crisis of learning, 1918-32. Charles E. Rosenberg, - Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research on the social history of cholera in the United States. Jose M. Sanchez, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of New Mexico, for research in the United States and Spain on church-state problems in the Second Spanish Republic, 1931-36. Harry N. Scheiber, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for research on internal improvements and economic change in Ohio, 1820-60. Joseph E. Schwartzberg, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Wisconsin, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on occupational patterns of the population of India in areas at different levels of economic development. Thayer Scudder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Harvard University, postdoctoral fellowship for training in anthropology ana geography at the London School of Economics. Bradbury Seasholes, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of North Carolina, for research on political â&#x20AC;˘ participation of Negroes in a Southern city. ..
â&#x20AC;˘ Declined award.
â&#x20AC;˘ Declined award.
Joel H. Silbey, Ph.D. candidate in history, State University of Iowa, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on congressional relationships of the Old Northwest and the South, 1840-50. Keith C. Simpson, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Princeton University, for research on the utilization of scientists and engineers in a government research laboratory. Thomas E. Skidmore, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on the office of German Imperial Chancellor, 1890-1900. Gerald E. Stearn, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, for completion of a dissertation on Samuel Gompers and the politics of labor. Saul H. Sternberg,· Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, Harvard University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1958-59, postdoctoral fellowship for training at the University of Cambridge in mathematical and applied statistics. George W. Stocking, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in American civilization, UniversIty of Pennsylvania, for completion of a dissertation on American social scientists and race theory, 1890-1915. Edward G. Stockwell,· Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Brown University, for completion of a dissertation on analysis of the differential effects of socioeconomic status on levels of mortality and morbidity. Norman W. Storer, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Cornell University, for research on the sociology of a scientific research group and the values of its members. Sheldon Stryker, Ph.D. in sociology, University of Minnesota, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Indiana University, for training in mathematics and statistics, and their application in research in social psychology. Fred Thalheimer, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on the religious values and behavior of academicians. John M. Thompson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of a dissertation on the Russian problem at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Robert O. Tilman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Duke University, for research in Malaya and Singapore on the government of the Federation of Malaya. Rudolp~ J. V~coli, Ph.D. caI?-dida~e in history, University of WISCOnSIn, Instructor In HIstory, OhIO State University, for completion of a dissertation on the adjustment of Italian immigrants in Chicago, 1880-1920. David M. Welborn, Ph.D. candidate in government, University of Texas, for completion of a dissertation on the Interstate Commerce Commission's administration of certification of motor common carriers of property. Ed~ar B. Wi~kber~, Ph.D. candidate in history, UniverSIty of CalIfornIa, Berkeley, for completion of a dissertation on Chinese society in the Philippines, 1850-98. Raymond E. W~lfin&er, Ph.D. candi?ate in political science, Yale UnIversIty, for completIOn of a dissertation based on participant observation in a mayor's office. James L. Woods, Ph.D. candidate in government Cornell Univers~ty, for trainin~ and resear.ch on mditary influence In the formulatIOn of Amencan foreign policy.
POLITICAL THEORY AND LEGAL PHILOSOPHY FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Political Theory and Legal Philosophy Fellowships-J. Roland Pennock (chairman), Guy H. Dodge, David Easton, Jerome Hall, Thomas P. Jenkin, and Robert G. McCloskey-at its meeting on March 14 awarded 8 fellowships: Leonar~
G. B.oonin, Ph.D. candidate in philosophy, ColumbIa UnIversity, and Lecturer in Philosophy and Law, Hunter College, for research on the concept of causation in legal reasoning. Douglas A. Chalmers, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for research in Germany on the role of ideological elements in the integration of the Social Democratic Party. Maurice M. Goldsmith, Ph.D. candidate in public law and government, Columbia University, for research in Great Britain on law and politics in the seventeenth century. Andrew Martin, Ph.D. candidate in public law and government, Columbia University, and Instructor in Government, Columbia College, for research in Great Britain on the Labor Party and British socialism since the advent of the welfare state. Stuart S. Na~el, I:L.B.,. ~orth~estern University, and Ph.D. candIdate In pohtlcal SCIence, Northwestern University, for research on sociological jurisprudence. Martin M. Sh~pir~,· Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard UnIVerSIty, for research on the constitutional concept of morality. Michael L.. Wa!zer, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard UI?-I~erSIty, for research on the ideas, organization, and activIty of the English Puritans: a study in the sociology of revolution. Walter Yondorf, Ph.D. candidate in political science, and Instructor ill: Political Science, University of Chicago, f?r research.In yves tern Europe on supranational functIOnal organIZatIOns. • Declined award.
GRANTS-IN-AID The Committee on Grants-in-Aid-R. A. Gordon (chairman), John G. Darley, John Hope Franklin, John D. Lewis, Joseph J. Mathews, and Vincent H. Whitney-held the second of its two meetings scheduled for 1958-59 on March 16-17. It voted to award 21 grants-in-aid to meet research expenses, under the continuing program offered by the Council since 1927, and 21 faculty research grants under the program initiated in 1957. With the awards made in December, as announced in the preceding issue of Items, the grants under the two programs total 30 and 42, respectively. The lists of recipients of awards made in March follow:
Grants-in-Aid of Research Samuel H. Barnes, Instructor in Political Science, University of Michigan, for research in Belgium and the Netherlands on the international Christian trade union movement. Walter J. Brunhumer, Assistant Professor of History Western Michigan University, for research on the de: velopment of the concept of evolution in German phi-
• Declined award.
losophy and science from the time of Leibnitz to that of Goethe. John F. Cady, Professor of History, Ohio University, for research on the modern history of Southeast Asia. Cecil E. Cody, Assistant Professor of Far Eastern and Russian History, University of Toledo, for research in Japan on the Japanese in Davao since 1903. Wayne S. Cole, Associate Professor of History, Iowa State College, for research on Franklin D. Roosevelt and the isolationists. Edwin Emery, Professor of Journalism, University of Minnesota, for research in the United States and Western Europe on the history and current operations of American press associations. Winston M. Fick, Lecturer in Government, Claremont Men's College, for research on legal aspects of economic regulation by the Civil Aeronautics Board. Richard Herr, Assistant Professor of History, Yale University, for research in Spain on its domestic history, 1800-1814. John T. Hitchcock, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in England on East Indian village government. Leo A. Loubere, Assistant Professor of History, University of Buffalo, for research in France on French Radicalism from the eighteenth century to the present. M. Jay Luvaas, Assistant Professor of History, Allegheny College, for research in England on the evolution of British military thought from the Napoleonic Wars to the present. Arthur Mann, Associate Professor of History, Smith College, for research on the career of Fiorello H. La Guardia during 1933-47. Jesse R. Pitts, Research Associate [sociologist], Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health, for research in France on the bourgeois family and the family firm as affected by economic growth since 1953. Leopold]. Pospisil, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Yale University, for research in the Netherlands and in Netherlands New Guinea on legally induced culture change among the Kapauku Papuans. Lawrence D. Reddick, Professor of History, Alabama State College, for research on the 'M ontgomery bus boycott. Robert E. Scott, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois, for research in Peru on the roles of political groups. James H. Shideler, Associate Professor of History, University of California, Davis, for research on the history of American agriculture during World War I. Walter B. Smith, Professor of American Economic Institutions, Claremont Men's College, for research on wages and wage rates in New York State, 1817-80. Irwin Unger, Visiting Lecturer in History, University of Puerto Rico, for research in the United States on business, labor, the farmer, and the specie resumption issue, 1865-79. W. Edgar Vinacke, Professor of Psychology, University of Hawaii, for research on power patterns in groups of three persons. Robin W. Winks, Assistant Professor of History, Yale University, for research in the United States and in Canada on three culturally different Negro groups.
Faculty Research Grants Robert G. Armstrong, Professor of Anthropology, Atlanta University, for research in England, France, and Nigeria on law and legal thinking in Nigeria. Ansley]. Coale, * Professor of Economics, Princeton University, for research on techniques of demographic analysis and estimation of annual births in the United States, 1850-1934. Helen Codere,* Professor of Anthropology, Vassar College, for anthropological field research in Ruanda Urundi on culture change. Jacob Cohen, Associate Professor of Economics, Bowling Green State University, for analysis of Federal Reserve System data on the flow of funds in the United States. Michael Conant, Assistant Professor of Business Administration, University of California, Berkeley, for research in England on the economics of antimonopoly law. Lewis J. Edinger, Associate Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University, for research in Germany on the career of Kurt Schumacher. Milton M. Gordon, * Russell Sage Foundation, for research on the Girard College case and its implications for law, social science, and race relations. Morton Grodzins, Professor of Political Science, U niversity of Chicago, for research on American federalism. James C. Ingram, Associate Professor of Economics, University of North Carolina, for research in the United States and Hawaii on the Hawaiian balance of payments and its mechanism of adjustment. Alex Inkeles, Professor of Sociology, Harvard University, for research in Western Europe on a sociological appraisal of selected critiques of modern man and society. Mordechai E. Kreinin, Assistant Professor of Economics, Michigan State University, for research on the diversion and creation of trade by the European common market and free trade area. Albert Lauterbach, Professor of Economics, Sarah Lawrence College, for research in Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay, on managerial and business attitudes. Dorothy D. Lee, * teacher of anthropology, Merrill-Palmer School, for research in Greece on the Greek self-image and its relation to the pattern of technological change. Francis Paul Prucha, S.]., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Ph.D. in history, Harvard University, for research on a history of the federal laws governing the "Indian Country" before the Civil War. Harold L. Raush, Psychologist, Child Research Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, for a comparative study in Scandinavia of personal and situational influences on the interactive behavior of Scandinavian and American children. W. Stitt Robinson, Associate Professor of History, University of Kansas, for research on the Indian policies of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, prior to 1756. William Samolin, Eatontown, New Jersey, Ph.D. in Asiatic history, Columbia University, for research on the political history of East Turkistan from the Former Han dynasty to the advent of the Qara-Qytay. James R. Scobie, Instructor in History, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Argentina on the effect of wheat and corn on Argentine economic and political development in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. â&#x20AC;˘ Declined award.
Albert L. Wahrhaftig,· graduate student in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in Chiapas, Mexico, under the supervision of Norman A. McQuown, Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Chicago.
Richard W. Solberg, Professor of History, Augustana College, South Dakota, for research in Germany on the churches' struggle in East Germany, 1945-58. George B. Tindall, Associate Professor of History, University of North Carolina, for research on the recent history of the South, 1913-46 Dorothy Ann Williams, Evanston, Illinois, Ph.D. in English history, Washington University, for research in England on Puritanism in London, 1610-40.
GRANTS FOR ASIAN STUDIES The new Joint Committee on Asian Studies, of the American Council of Learned Societies and Social Science Research Council-Lauriston Sharp (chairman), W. Norman Brown, L. Carrington Goodrich, John A. Pope, George E. Taylor, and Robert E. Ward-made its first grants for research on April 25, 1959, to the following 25 scholars: Robert Austerlitz, Assistant Professor of Uralic and Altaic Studies, Columbia University, for preparation of field notes on Gilyak language and culture, gathered in Japan in 1954 and 1956-58. M. Searle Bates, Professor of Missions, Union Theological Seminary, for completion of an analytic study of mis· sions and churches in China, 1900-1950. John F. Brohm, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Harpur College, for research on the assimilation of ethnic minorities in Thailand. Wing-tsit Chan, Professor of Chinese Culture and Philosophy, Dartmouth College, for completion of a source book on Chinese philosophy. John De Francis, Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Quinnipiac College, for study of current developments in Chinese mathematics and its history. Paul S. Dull, Professor of History and Political Science, University of Oregon, for completion of studies of government and politics in Japan since 1952 and of the political history of the Taisho Era, 1912-26. John M. Echols, Professor of Linguistics, Cornell University, for research on Indonesian language and the literature of Southeast Asia. Alexander Eckstein, Professor of International Economics, University of Rochester, for research on comparative rates and patterns of economic growth in India since independence and in China since the advent of the Communist regime. David C. Graham, Research Associate, Smithsonian Institution, for completion of studies of religion in Southwest China and of songs, stories, and folktales of the Ch'uan Miao. John A. Harrison, Professor of History, University of Florida, for study of the early conquest of Japan and the emergence of Japanese civilization. Donn V. Hart, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Syracuse University, for preparation of annotated Southeast Asian bibliographies. Stella Kramrisch, Curator of Indian Art, Philadelphia Museum of Art, for reconstruction of the myths of the Rig-Veda with special reference to their persistence and transformation in later Indian thought and art. Donald F. Lach, Professor of Modern History, University of Chicago, for research on the impact of the Far East on Europe during the sixteenth century. Leigh Lisker, Assistant Professor of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, for research on phonological and
GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON AMERICAN GOVERNMENTAL PROCESSES The Committee on Political Behavior-David B. Truman (chairman) , Robert A. Dahl, Oliver Garceau, V. O. Key, Jr., Avery Leiserson, Dayton D. McKean-since its November meeting, when it made the 6 grants announced in the March Items, has made the following 3 additional awards: Heinz Eulau, Professor of Political Science, Stanford University, for research on power, tension, and conflict in the state legislative system. Lester W. Milbrath, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Northwestern University, for research on lobbyists in Washington, D. C. (renewal). Frank J. Sorauf, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Pennsylvania State University, for research on recruitment to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. SUMMER GRANTS FOR FIELD TRAINING IN SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY Six grants for supervised field training in social anthropology during the summer of 1959, under the program announced in the December issue of Items, were made on March 22 by a subcommittee of the Committee on Social Science Personnel-E. Adamson Hoebel (chairman), Ward H. Goodenough, and Evon Z. Vogt. The recipients and their supervisors are: Barbara Adams, graduate student in anthropology, Columbia University, for research among the Cascades Indians of the Columbia River, under the supervision of David H. French, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Reed College. Gloria S. Bineth, graduate student in anthropology, Cornell University, for research among the Zuni and Navaho Indians, under the supervision of John M. Roberts, Professor of Anthropology, Cornell University. David B. Eyde, graduate student in anthropology, Yale University, for research in the eastern Valley of Mexico, under the supervision of James A. Bennyhoff, Instructor in Anthropology, Yale University. Robert Munroe, graduate student in anthropology, Harvard University, for research among the Tewa-speaking Pueblo Indians in New Mexico, under the supervision of Bertha P. Dutton, Curator of Ethnology, Museum of New Mexico. Hugo G. Nutini, graduate student in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in a Nahuatl-speaking community in Mexico, under the supervision of Pedro Carrasco, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at that university.
• Declined award.
Thomas A. Rusch, Assistant Professor of Political Science Los Angeles State College, for research on socialism i~ India. Walter M. Spink, Assistant Professor of Fine Arts, Bran. deis University, for study of the style and chronolog] . . of early Indian sculpture. ' Peter S. H. Tang, Lecturer in Government and International Relations, Georgetown University, for research on the Moscow-Peking axis and the Far East. William L. Thomas, lr., Assistant Professor of Geography, University of California, Riverside, for study of the historical cultural geography of the island of Luzon. Lea E. Williams, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Brown University, for research on the influence of the overseas Chinese on the politics and diplomacy of China in the last decades of the Ch'ing dynasty. Thomas R. Williams, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Sacramento State College, for study of the process of socialization among the Dusun, British North Borneo.
morphological differences among the major dialects of modern Telugu. James T. C. Liu, Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh, for research on Japanese policies toward China, 1927-41, as an origin of World War II. Rudolf Loewenthal, Lecturer, Institute of Languages and Linguistics, Georgetown University, for duplication of rare materials on Central Asia and the Middle East in European libraries. Morris E. Opler, Professor of Anthropology and Far Eastern Studies, Cornell University, for analysis of the processes of change in contemporary village life in India. James B. Parsons, Assistant Professor of Far Eastern History and Culture, University of California, Riverside, for research on Chinese bureaucracy during the Ming dynasty. Udo Posch, Assistant Professor of Far Eastern and Slavic Languages and Literature, University of Washington, for analysis of the dialect and the folkloristic literature of the Sinkiang-Kazakhs.
PUBLICA rlONS Social Status and Public Health, Pamphlet 13, by Ozzie G. Simmons. May 1958. 39 pages. 50 cents. Problems in Intercultural Health Programs, Pamphlet 12, by George M. Foster. April 1958. 54 pages. 50 cents. Special price for the three pamphlets together, $1.00.
COUNCIL BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS
The State and Economic Growth: Papers of a Conference Held on October 11-13, 1956, under the Auspices of the Committee on Economic Growth, edited by Hugh G. J. Aitken. May 1959. 399 pages. $3.75. Migration and Mental Disease: A Study of First Admissions to Hospitals for Mental Disease, New York,19391941, by Benjamin Malzberg and Everett S. Lee, with an introduction by Dorothy S. Thomas. Sponsored by the Committee on Migration Differentials. March 1956. 152 pages. $1.50. Labor Mobility in Six Cities, prepared by Gladys L. Palmer, with the assistance of Carol P. Brainerd, for the former Committee on Labor Market Research. June 1954. 191 pages. Paper, $2.25; cloth, $2.75.
These pamphlets and other publications of the Counci are distributed from its office, 230 Park Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. CENSUS MONOGRAPHS These volumes, in the series sponsored by the former Committee on Census Monographs and the Bureau of the Census, are published by John Wiley & Sons, New York:
The American Labor Force, by Gertrude Bancroft. October 1958. 270 pages. Cloth, $7.50. The Fertility of American Women, by Wilson H. Grabill, Clyde V. Kiser, and P. K. Whelp ton. August 1958. 464 pages. Cloth, $9.50. The Changing Population of the United States, by Conrad Taeuber and Irene B. Taeuber. January 1958. 368 pages. Cloth, $7.75.
COUNCIL PAMPHLETS: MEMORANDA TO THE COMMITIEE ON PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
Effects of Social and Cultural Systems in Reactions to Stress, Pamphlet 14, by William Caudill. June 1958. 39 pages. 50 cents.
SOCIAL SCIENCE 230
Incorporated in the State Of Illinois, December
tor the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences
1959: GARDNER. ACKLEY, GABRIEL A. ALMOND, HAIlOLD F. DORN, FRED EGGAN, ROBEltT E. L. FARIS, R. A. GORDON, LoUIS GoTI'SCHALK,
CHAUNCY D. HARJUS, PENDLETON HERRING, E. ADAMSON HOEBEL, WAYNE H. HOLTZMAN, NATHAN KEYFITZ, LYLE H. LANIER, EARL LATHAM, AVERY LEiSERSON, EDWARD H. LEVI, PHILIP
Mcc..uTHY, DOUGLAS MCGREGOR, WILLIAM
H. NICHOLLS, DAVID M. POTTER, H. L. SHAPIRO, CARROLL L.
SHARTLE, RICHARD H. SHRYOCK, HERBERT A. SIMON, CONRAD TAEVBER, GORDON R. WILLEY, MALCOLM M. WILLEY, ROBIN M. WILLIAMS,
C. VANN WOODWARD, DONALD YOUNG
OlJicers and Staff:
Executive Associate; DONALD Financial Secretary
QUIS; BRYCE WOOD; ELEANOR C. !sBUL; JOSEPH B. CAsAGRANDE; LLoYD MORRISETT, JR.; CATHERINE V_ RONNAN,