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REORIENTATIONS IN RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS by George K. BrinegarJ Kenneth L. Bachman J and Herman M. Southworth ...


AGRICULTURE in the United States is in a period of critical change. The forces of change include rapid technological advance, rapid growth and structural change in the industrial and commercial environment within which agriculture functions, and an accompanying intensification and realignment of political pressures impinging on agricultural policy. The response of agriculture is confused: There is a welcoming and rapid adoption of some types of changes, resistance to others that may be inevitable concomitants of the changes that are adopted; an intensification of the contradictions between responses to which farmers are motivated individually and the collective consequences of such responses for the welfare of the group; resulting strong political conflicts between those who seek at all costs to protect the group and those who believe that attempts in this direction only prolong the agony of adjustment, at great public expense, and with attendant

undermining of the very values (moral as well as economic) that the farmers' advocates seek to protect. The economic and social consequences of these changes in agriculture are far-reaching and arouse widespread concern. These consequences include serious chronic distress within major sectors of agriculture itself, in spite of public remedial programs that have grown to unmanageable proportions and an accelerated movement of population out of agriculture that nevertheless appears to fall short of the rate needed for economic adjustment. Among families that remain in agriculture, the income gap widens between those able to adopt progressive technology and those lacking the necessary financial resources or personal capabilities. Successive sectors of agriculture are being increasingly controlled by outside commercial interests. Areas of traditional economic leadership in agriculture are challenged by new areas of agricul tural economic growth.

• The authors served during 1958 as a subcommittee of the Council's Committee on Agricultural Economics, appointed to appraise the contention of some of its members that research in its field has been characterized by excessive fragmentation and by insufficient attention to the more basic problems of the position of agriculture in the American economy. The subcommittee members-Mr. Brinegar (chairman), Professor of Agricultural Economics at the University of Connecticut, Mr. Bachman, Assistant Director of the Farm Economics Research Division of the Agricultural Research Service, and Mr. Southworth, Professor of Agricultural Economics at Pennsylvania State University-accepted their assignment as individual scholars and functioned in that spirit, and not as representatives of the departments with which they are affiliated. The members of the Committee on Agricultural Economics in 1957-58, in addition to Messrs. Brinegar and Southworth, were: R. G. Bressler, University of California (chairman); Varden Fuller, University of California (secretary); Willard W. Cochrane, University of Minnesota; Earl O. Heady, Iowa State College; H. B. James, North Carolina State College; D. Gale Johnson, University of Chicago; Glenn

L. Johnson. Michigan State University; Kenneth H. Parsons, University of Wisconsin. The subcommittee's report has been submitted to the executive committee of the American Farm Economic Association and to the Council's Committee on Problems and Policy. with the result that new committees on research in agricultural economics with overlapping membership have been appointed by the Association and the Council. in the expectation that the committees will concern themselves with planning research in neglected areas. Mr. Southworth is chairman of the Council's new committee. appointed in January 1959. and Messrs. Bachman and Brinegar are members. The other members are Robert L. Clodius. University of Wisconsin; Sidney S. Hoos. University of Cali¡ fornia; Marc Nerlove, University of Minnesota; and William H. Nicholls. Vanderbilt University. They have been appointed by R. G. Bressler, president of the American Farm Economic Association. as members of its new committee. together with the two most recent past presidents of the Association. Harry C. Trelogan, Director of Marketing Research in the Agricultural Marketing Service. and H, B. James.


Each of these problem areas was a vital one in its time. Each remains a useful focus for many purposes. It is not intended here to imply that the present work of the profession is fruitless, for the traditional problems continue to be important. But it is argued that we are failing to measure up to the present challenge, and will continue to do so unless and until we can direct our thinking to new and broader formulations of problems as they now press upon us. Yesterday's formulations do not appear to provide keys, either individually or collectively, for unlocking the dominant problems of today.

The concern with these consequences reaches all strata of the agricultural population and all groups concerned with agricultural welfare. It is expressed in the desperate clinging to remedial policies and programs that have long since been shown to be bankrupt; in the grasping at new remedies that conflict with important policies of national interest, as in forcing exports, and even in such radical proposals as substantial curtailment of public support for agricultural research and extension, in an effort to slow down the rapid technological progress that some blame for agriculture'S distress. There are, of course, no simple, easily applied, costless, yet effective remedies for agriculture's ills. But they are not beyond constructive approach. That comments are so often only doctrinaire and that arguments seem so repetitious suggest failure on the part of agricultural economists to apply imagination, to depart from customary thought patterns, to break. down the mental barriers that restrict their formulations of problems. In part this may be a result of the structure of institutions through which our work is chiefly conducted and supported. The safe practice of justifying appropriations in terms of familiar problems familiarly presented does not stimulate new and more fundamental approaches--nor does the drawing of sharp agency fences around "areas of responsibility" that enclose only parts of problems, nor the catering to specific requests of particular groups for work on problems narrowly formulated in advance. The institutionalization along state lines similarly tends to force formulations of problems into geographic boundaries that fail to encompass the main economic problems of today's agriculture. The Regional Research Program was intended as a vehicle for broader attack, but there seems to be general agreement that we have failed to realize its potentials for research. The more basic compartmentalizations of thought, however, are disciplinary ones, originating out of the formulations of the past: farm management; the financing of farming enterprise; the use of agriculture'S distinguishing resource, the land; the analysis and forecasting of market forces in terms of their expression as prices; marketing, first as an operation whose costs impinge on farmers' returns, more recently as a positive instrument for the enlargement of markets; cooperation as a vehicle for group solution of the foregoing problems. (To these should be added the concerns of the sibling discipline of rural sociology with problems of the rural community and its services to the farming population.) In each of these problem areas a subdiscipline grew up, with specialized concepts and methodology. The crystallization of these subdisciplines bounds the structure of problem areas formulated in agricultural economics today.


THE DIAGNOSIS It is our thesis that many critical economic problems currently confronting agriculture are not divisible into traditional thought compartments; that a too complacent or too rigid adherence to those compartments handicaps both imagination and breadth of attack; and that there is therefore need for bursting these bonds in order to achieve more creative approaches. Changing times call for changing strategies--for reformulation of problems into new categories, and for a corresponding regrouping of our intellectual forces. Restricting our efforts to our traditional thought compartments can be expected to generate only fragmentary research results. What are the sorts of problems on which we are in- • effective? A series of brief summary statements of such • areas follows. The list is illustrative only; it makes no claim to comprehensiveness, nor even to matured formulation of the areas that are discussed, but it offers some substantiation of our thesis. Technological change. One problem area comprises technological progress and its impact: not technology as a problem of farm management and extension, but as a force of ramifying impact, both macro and micro, a force now left to operate blindly. There are few attempts to anticipate its economic consequences in general or in particular, much less to prepare the way for coping with them. That traditionally progressive farm groups question the allocation of resources to technological research is but the corollary of this lack of forethought. Such questioning is wholly legitimate in economics. But it requires generalization to the broader problem of optimum allocation of resources in an industry capable of the rapid technological advance of agriculture and having its demand characteristics and other conditions; and to the counterpart questions of optimum organization of production and equitable distribution of returns to both the functional and the human resources in such an industry. The impact of technological change on the beliefs and valuations of farmers and others and the implications for economic organization likewise require





investigation. We need, in short, an economics of technological development in agriculture. Agriculture in an economy of abundance. These considerations lead promptly to another broad subject: the market position of farm products in an economy of abundance based on rapid technological progress. This is not merely "marketing" in the traditional sense. Rather, it requires combining fundamental study of consumer behavior with structural analysis of the type underlying modern price studies, and both of these with analysis of production response on the supply side. Involved are questions of the changing effectiveness of price as a motivating force and hence as an efficient regulating or control mechanism in our high-income economy, the necessity of promotion for maintaining consumption, and the implications of these for resource use, for the organization of markets, and for income distribution to and within agriculture. Changing structural relationships in agricultural production and distribution. A closely related problem is the impact on agriculture of the changing structure of related industries in our growing economy. The current concern over "contract farming" and "integration" is a facet of this, as is the decline of open markets as focal points for "price discovery." This area likewise is not to be encompassed within the traditional field of "marketing." It reflects the breakdown of those economic mechanisms between production and marketing that permitted separate compartmentalization of them in the first place. It ramifies into agricultural finance and injects new forces into the analysis of interregional competition. Agricultural-industrial interrelationships. A further vital problem area of the current scene revolves about increasingly intricate interrelationships of agricultural and industrial and other nonagricultural activities. Involved here are such matters as the transfer of agricultural resources to industrial uses and the increasing dependence of commercial agriculture upon industry, both for inputs and for processing and marketing its products. Competition between agriculture and industry in the labor market, nonagricultural use, ownership, and control of rural land and water resources, and competition of new industrial products in traditionally agricultural markets are varied facets of the picture. Others are industrialization as a means of economic development in rural areas, and the impact of suburbanization and growth of nonfarm rural population on rural communities and the services they must provide. It is characteristic of such problems that they cannot be adequately examined within the framework of the economics of agriculture or of any other single sector. Agricultural research must be integrated with other kinds of

economic and social studies. Yet many problems of this sort have greater implications for the future of agriculture than do some of those internal to agriculture. A merican agriculture in the world economy. A peculiarly critical problem today relates to the whole role of American agriculture in the world economy. This role clearly cannot be examined adequately within the framework of agriculture alone. Insofar as policy is concerned, the whole pattern of our foreign economic objectives is involved. Unilateral giving away of surpluses is not a "world approach." And even in regard to agriculture itself, the production and market situation is characterized by the desperate drive for economic development in most countries of the world. Static analysis of comparative advantage fails to cope with the dynamic and evolving world situation. Economic development is not accomplished by grafting American know-how onto another economy, branch by branch. The character of the other economy must be understood, its limitations allowed for, and its potentialities encouraged into growth after their own pattern. This implies a conceptual approach highly flexible in its application. Income goals for agriculture. Chronic complaints have been heard about the failure to carry through basic research in anticipation of the needs of policy development. Here the underlying difficulty may be more institutional than disciplinary, although it is by no means wholly so. Agencies responsible for policy have been hesitant either to take leadership themselves or to support research by analysts over whom they have no control. Meanwhile agencies without such responsibilities are hesitant to jeopardize appropriations by entering this controversial field. Particularly relevant to policy, but basic also to the critique of much research in other areas, is the question of income goals for agriculture. Here, again, controversy has perhaps an inhibiting influence on research. But a great contribution to our thinking could be made through objective analysis of the implications of alternative goals for farm income and its distribution, how these are affected by the economic changes that are occurring, and how income allocation within agriculture, and between agriculture and the rest of the economy, affects the level of income available for distribution. Systems of thought, research methods, and findings. Finally, the complaint is raised that research in agricultural economics typically is fragmented-that we too seldom systematically compile and synthesize our knowledge in terms of logic and theory, of research methods, or of empirical findings. This criticism in part reflects the failure of our traditional thought compartments to encompass problems of the kinds described, with the result that concepts with which to organize our

thinking more effectively are lacking. But even within our existing subareas of specialization, systematization of knowledge is often inadequate. One cause suggested for this is the intellectual climate within the institutions that support us-the emphasis upon applications, the failure to leave workers free for the less "urgent" professional tasks, the tendency for professional recognition and rewards to go to those who move most rapidly from project to project. Yet we ourselves help create this environment, and it is largely within our power to change it. We must recognize that part of our failure to address ourselves competently to critical current problems, broadly conceived, arises from a lack of ready command over the knowledge that we do have but cannot bring to bear in its fragmented state. This shortcoming thus springs from still another "neglect" that as a profession we should endeavor to remedy.

(4) Identifying the gaps in our knowledge-in theory, in methodology, in empirical studies-that must be filled to enable us to attack the problems; (5) Undertaking the research needed to fill these gaps. To accomplish these things will require some innovations in our modus operandi. It will require, in the first place, directing professional attention to the problems and to the need for more effective attack upon them. Second, it will require giving encouragement and support to those stimulated to undertake the needed research. This includes not merely making funds available in support of appropriate "projects." It means fostering a continuing professional environment in which workers will be challenged to undertake the essential tasks and will feel assured that these offer attractive career opportunities comparable with those in the familiar grooves. Third, it will be necessary to broaden the range of professional competence brought to bear on our problems, both institutionally and in terms of discipline. Greater interest must be encouraged among workers in private as well as public institutions, and active participation must be drawn in at many points from general economics, from the other social sciences, and from philosophy. Finally, marshalling effectively the intellectual forces unleashed in the foregoing process will require developing new generalists, able to draw ideas from more than a single subdiscipline in formulating and attacking the problems we face.

SUGGESTED STEPS Reorienting our professional thinking so as better to come to grips with the critical emergent problems of today's agriculture will require more emphasis on: (1) Identifying and directing attention to these problems; (2) Formulating them imaginatively, as whole problems, not as separate pieces, assumed to be independently soluble by traditional approaches; (3) Organizing our existing knowledge so that it may be utilized effectively;

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON ECONOMIC PROBLEMS: A THIRD PROGRAM OF THE COUNCIL'S COMMITTEE A NEW program of grants to individuals for research in the field of national security policy will be offered by the Council in 1959-60 and 1960-61 with funds provided by the Carnegie Corporation of N ew York. This is the third program of grants to be administered by the Committee on National Security Policy Research and its predecessor, the Committee on Civil-Military Relations Research. 1 The first was a three-year program of support for historical studies of American military policy before World War II and was concluded in 1957; the second, which

emphasized research on contemporary problems of national defense since 1939, has been offered during the past two years. 2 The new program has a twofold purpose. It is intended especially to stimulate and provide support for research on economic aspects of national security policy. Its general purpose is to continue to encourage and support research by social scientists in substantially the same broad areas of defense and diplomacy, and defense and representative institutions, for which grants have been awarded under the second program of the committee. The need for attracting the interest and attention of economists to the concerns of the committee was made clear at a conference of economists convened by the com-

1 The members of the Committee on National Security Policy Re路 search are: William T. R. Fox, Columbia University (chairman); Charles Hitch, RAND Corporation; Charles P. Kindleberger, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Henry A. Kissinger, Harvard University; Klaus Knorr, Princeton University; G. A. Lincoln, U. S. Military Academy; John W. Masland, Dartmouth College; Arthur Smithies, Harvard University; staff, Bryce Wood.

2 For descriptions of these programs see Items, June 1954, pp. 13-15, and June 1956, pp. 17-18.


With regard to the general purpose of the program, the committee will welcome proposals for research in such areas as the following: relations between strategic doctrines and foreign policies; the development of procedures, agencies, and relations at high levels in the formulation of national security policy; implications of the recently enhanced significance of the military establishment for traditional American social attitudes, political theories, or processes of foreign-policy making; institutional and other effects of scientific developments affecting military affairs. Applications are invited from economists, historians, political scientists, sociologists, and others possessing the Ph.D. degree or its equivalent. The committee will give special consideration to applicants from liberal arts colleges and other institutions that do not possess adequate financial resources for support of faculty research in this area, as well as to younger scholars prepared to undertake research in this relatively new field. Funds awarded under this program may be used for maintenance and for such research expenses as travel, microfilming, and secretarial assistance. Grants may vary in amount from a few hundred dollars for support of research during a summer, to larger amounts for periods ranging from six months to a year or longer, but grants larger than $6,000 can be made only in exceptional cases. Applications for grants in the first year of this program must be submitted on forms supplied by the Council and must be received at the office of the Council not later than November 15, 1959; awards will be announced early in January 1960. Application forms will be available after September 1, 1959, but inquiries and requests for forms may be made before that date.

mittee in January 1958. The conference found that relatively little research has been done on several important economic aspects of national security policy, and that the range of research opportunities in this area has not been widely appreciated. The committee has in preparation a memorandum on this subject; copies of this memorandum will be furnished to persons desiring to apply for grants under the new program, and to others interested in the work of the committee. The committee will welcome proposals of the individual's own choice for research on economic aspects of national security. Without intending to present an exhaustive list, it suggests the following topics as illustrative of the scope of this phase of its program: 1. Problems of economic stabilization with rapidly changing defense expenditures 2. Problems of taxation to support high-level defense budgets 3. Implications of contracting practices of government in buying defense goods and services 4. Managerial and economic implications of military research and development 5. Problems of mobilization and economic planning and controls for limited war 6. Theoretical and institutional studies of the organization of the military services and defense agencies 7. Theoretical and empirical studies of economic factors relevant to choices of weapons systems, strategies, or logistic techniques 8. The budget as an instrument of defense planning 9. Economic problems of planning for civil defenseincluding shelter programs, evacuation, dispersal of population and industry, and survival and recuperation following attack.



John Perry Miller (chairman), Francis M. Boddy, Robert W. Burgess, Howard C. Grieves, Frank A. Hanna, George J. Stigler, Ralph J. Watkins, J. Fred Weston. A fifth study in the program sponsored by the committee in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census has been undertaken by Richard H. Holton, Associate Professor of Business Administration at the University of California, Berkeley. In association with colleagues at the University'S School of Business Administration and its Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Mr. Holton is analyzing data provided by the 1954 and earlier censuses of distribution, placing major emphasis on changes in distribution channels, particularly in retail trade.

Dale Yoder (chairman), Gary S. Becker, Orville G. Brim, Jr., John B. Lansing, Guy H. Orcutt, Gladys L. Palmer, James Tobin. The committee has initiated plans for a working conference group of economists and sociologists, who will hold a series of sessions during the next year and a half for the purpose of formulating one or more models or patterns of the economic behavior of households and fostering closer relationships between research centers concerned with the family as a unit of economic behavior. The development of these plans is being carried out by a subcommittee consisting of Messrs. Orcutt (chairman) and Lansing of the committee; Reuben Hill, Professor of Sociology at the University of 5

Minnesota; and Norman B. Ryder, Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin.

Participation of foreign scholars in the exchange program. The committee wishes to increase both the number of lecturing opportunities for foreign scholars and the number of universities and colleges benefiting from their visits. Educational institutions wishing to invite a scholar for a semester or for the academic year will be sent a brochure outlining procedures. As a service to the large number of foreign scholars desiring remunerative teaching appointments in the United States, a list of such persons is sent each spring to university and college presidents throughout the country, with information on how to issue invitations. The committee also publishes a list of scholars currently in this country under the exchange program, in order to encourage invitations for brief visits or occasional lectures from institutions other than the grantee's host institution. Exchanges with Latin America. An increasingly important aspect of the committee's activities is related to the developing exchange program with Latin America. During the current fiscal year, 4.6 million dollars of the government's total budget of 22.8 million for educational exchange is being devoted to grants in this area. While the major part of this sum is allocated to student exchanges and seminars, the budget makes available a substantial number of lectureships to American scholars under both the Fulbright and SmithMundt Acts and permits an increase in the dollar supplementation of Fulbright lecturing grants. It also provides for a limited number of research grants to United States citizens. For Latin American scholars the budget provides dollar maintenance grants to supplement virtually all travel grants available to persons at the postdoctoral level in the following countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. The committee hopes that the possibility of dollar supplementation from Smith-Mundt funds will encourage American universities and colleges to offer scholars teaching appointments, especially in Latin American area study programs. Those interested in doing so should inform the committee. Orientation projects. In recent years the committee has experimented on a small, but gradually increasing, scale with the orientation of scholars coming to the United States as lecturers or research scholars. In September 1958, 38 visiting lecturers from Europe, Asia, Australia, and South America joined 21 representatives of colleges and universities in this country at a three-day orientation conference, sponsored jointly by the Department of State, the committee, and the John Hay Whitney Foundation and held at Sarah Lawrence College. Also in September, with the assistance of a grant from the Asia Foundation, a group of 44 Japanese scholars were provided with a similar introduction to the United States at the University of Washington. Two mid-year seminars for Japanese scholars, supported by the Asia Foundation grant, were held in January and February 1959, in collaboration with the Department of State and the Cultural and Educational Exchange Program at the University of Pittsburgh. These seminars were intended to explore further means of overcoming language and cultural barriers con-

HISTORICAL STATISTICS (Advisory to the Bureau of the Census) G. Heberton Evans, Jr. (chairman), Otis Dudley Duncan, Solomon Fabricant, Maurice I. Gershenson, Richard M. Scammon, Willard L. Thorp, Harold F. Williamson; Secretary, Herman P. Miller. The revised edition of Historical Statistics of the United States is now scheduled for publication in October 1959. In accordance with arrangements made for publication of bibliographic essays prepared by some of the committee's consultants, "Notes on Immigration Statistics of the United States," by E. P. Hutchinson, appeared in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 1958. INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE OF PERSONS (Appointed by the Conference Board of Ass6)ciated Research Councils) M. H. Trytten (chairman), Francis J. Brown, Lewis Hanke, H. Field Haviland, Jr., Einar Hille, Nicholas Hobbs, Alexander Hollaender, Daniel Katz, John F. Latimer, Anne Pannell, Stanley Pargellis, I. James Quillen; staff, Francis A. Young, Executive Secretary. U.S. Fulbright competitions. For American applicants for Fulbright awards, the committee conducts two major competitions each year: between March 1 and April 25, applications are accepted for South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Peru); for South and Southeast Asia (Burma, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand); and for Australia and New Zealand. Between June 1 and October I, applications are accepted for Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Iran, Ireland (outside the Fulbright Act; under a special agreement), Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom and Colonial Territories. Spain became a participant in the program by an agreement signed in the autumn of 1958, and the first Fulbright grants will probably become available there in 1960-61. The Smith-Mundt program, under which approximately 75 Americans are annually awarded lecturing appointments in countries not included in the Fulbright program, does not operate on the basis of a general competition. Requests for lecturers from participating countries are received very irregularly, and occasionally involve direct invitations. To aid in filling Smith-Mundt lectureships and also certain Fulbright grants not filled through the open competition, the committee is developing a Register of Scholars. The Register is a biographical reference file of scholars interested in the possibility of overseas assignments. It contains information on their fields of competence, preference as to countries, probable periods of availability, foreign language competence, and related qualifications. Persons with college or university teaching experience are invited to register with the committee and should request a special form. 6


grants to assist publication of research manuscripts: to Gregory Grossman, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, for publication by the University of California Press of papers prepared for a conference on economic calculation and organization in eastern European economies, sponsored by the University'S Center for Slavic Studies in June 1958 (with the aid of a grant from the subcommittee); to George A. Lensen, Associate Professor of History, Florida State University, for publication by the Princeton University Press of a manuscript entitled 路 "The Russian Push toward Japan: Russo-Japanese Relations from 1697 to 1875"; to H. H. Fisher, San Francisco State College, for publication by the Indiana University Press of a manuscript entitled "American Research on Russia" (papers presented at a conference at Harvard University, January 30-31, 1958, sponsored by the joint committee's Subcommittee on Review of Russian Studies). A grant was also made to the Center of Slavic Studies, University of California, Berkeley, to assist in holding a conference there in June 1960 on the transformation of the Balkans since the Turkish era.

fronting Asian scholars who receive appointments in American universities. While there is considerable discussion about what constitutes an effective orientation program, the committee believes that this aspect of its work merits careful study and extension to other groups of grantees, both incoming and outgoing. Inquiries about the committee's activities should be addressed to: Conference Board of Associated Research Councils, Committee on International Exchange of Persons, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington 25, D. C. E. A. H. SLAVIC STUDIES (foint with American Council of Learned Societies) William B. Edgerton (chairman), Robert F. Byrnes (secretary), Abram Bergson, C. E. Black, Merle Fainsod, Chauncy D. Harris, Charles Jelavich, Henry L. Roberts, Marshall D. Shulman, Ernest J. Simmons, S. Harrison Thomson, Sergius Yakobson. In addition to the grants for Slavic and East European Studies reported on pages 9-10 infra, the Subcommittee on Grants at its meeting on December 13 made the following

PERSONNEL of its two meetings scheduled for 1958-59 on December 1112, 1958. It voted to award 9 grants-in-aid to meet research expenses, under the continuing program first offered by the Council in 1927, and 21 faculty research grants under the program initiated in 1957. The two lists of recipients follow:

DIRECTORS OF THE COUNCIL The following persons have been designated by the seven national social science organizations associated with the Council to serve as directors of the Council for the threeyear term 1959-61: E. Adamson Hoebel, University of Minnesota, by the American Anthropological Association Gardner Ackley, University of Michigan, by the American Economic Association C. Vann Woodward, Johns Hopkins University, by the American Historical Association Avery Leiserson, Vanderbilt University, by the American Political Science Association

Grants-in-Aid of Research I. Bernard Cohen, Associate Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University, for research in Europe on the origin, development, and influence of Newton's Principia Mathematica and other work in the exact sciences. Robert L. Hamblin, Program Director, Social Science Institute, Washington University, for research on the simulation by electronic computers of coalition and decision-making processes in small groups. Charles W. Hobart, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Redlands, for research on the effects of changes in courtship-marriage status on attitudes and marital role expectations. Harold K. Jacobson, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Umversity of Michi~an, for research in Switzerland on Soviet Union pohcy with regard to economic and social activities of the United Nations. Francis G. James, Professor of History, Tulane University, for research in the United States on Ireland and the Old Empire, 1688-1782. Oscar Lewis, Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois, for research in the United States and the preparation of materials for studies of family life in rural and urban Mexico. John V. Murra. Associate Professor of Anthropology. Vassar College. for research in Peru on the economic organization of the Inca state.

Lyle H. Lanier, University of Illinois, by the American Psychological Association Robin M. Williams, Jr., Cornell University, by the American Sociological Society Nathan Keyfitz, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, by the American Statistical Association. The credentials of the new members are scheduled for acceptance by the board of directors of the Council at its spring meeting in New York on March 21-22, 1959.

GRANTS-IN-AID The Committee on Grants-in-Aid-R. A. Gordon (chairman), John G. Darley, John Hope Franklin, John D. Lewis, Joseph J. Mathews, and Vincent H. Whitney-held the first


of a Puerto Rican town, with particular regard to economic changes. Elbert B. Smith, Associate Professor of History, Iowa State College, for research on the career of Francis Preston Blair, 1791-1876 (renewal). Herbert J. Spiro, Assistant Professor of Government, Harvard University, for research in England and Rhodesia on the constitutional politics of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. John B. Wolf, Professor of History, University of Minnesota, for research in France on the life of Louis XIV. C. K. Yang, Professor of Sociology, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United States on Chinese bureaucracy in the nineteenth century as an empirical type. Perez Zagorin, Assistant Professor of History, McGill Uniyersity, for research in England on a social history of the English Revolution, 1640-60.

Leo F. Solt, Assistant Professor of History, Indiana University, for research on millenarianism and the sects during the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-57. Bernard D. Weinryb, Professor of History and Economics, Dropsie College, for research in Europe on the economic and social history of Jews in Eastern Europe (renewal).

Faculty Research Grants Ray A. Billington, Professor of History, Northwestern University, for a re-evaluation of the "frontier hypothesis" as a means of interpreting United States history. Rushton Coulborn, Professor of History, Atlanta University, for research in the United States on the prehistory of Middle America and Peru in the context of the development of civilized societies. Klaus W. Epstein, Assistant Professor of History, Harvard University, for research in Germany on the history of German conservatism from the French Revolution to World War I. Donald L. Foley, Associate Professor of City Planning and of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Great Britain on social policies associated with contemporary British town planning. John S. Galbraith, Professor of History, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in England and South Africa on the missionary influence in South Africa, 1834-54. Paul W. Gates, Professor of American History, Cornell University, for research on federal land policies in California. Dewey W. Grantham, Jr., Associate Professor of History, Vanderbilt University, for research on the progressive movement in the South, 1900-1920. Wladyslaw W. Kulski, Professor of Political Science, Syracuse University, for research on a new approach to international politics, based on differences between the nineteenth century and the present. David S. Landes, Professor of History and Economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Western Europe on a comparative history of the Industrial Revolution. William L. Letwin, Associate Professor of Industrial History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Ireland and Great Britain on Adam Smith and the origins of scientific economics. Marion J. Levy, Jr., Associate Professor of Sociology, Princeton University, for research in Japan on social structures relevant to modernization. Duncan MacRae, Jr., Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago, for the development and use of computer programs for data processing and model construction in political sociology. James W. Morley, Assistant Professor of Government, Columbia University, for research in Japan on the formulation of japan's policy toward Communist China and the Soviet Union since 1952. Karl P. Polanyi, Visiting Professor of Economics (retired), Columbia University, for comparative and developmental studies of economic institutions in early societies. Arthur Schweitzer, Professor of Economics, Indiana University, for research in the United States on the Nazi economic system during the second phase of its regime. Morris Siegel, Ph.D. in Anthropology, Columbia University, for a restudy in the United States and Puerto Rico

SENIOR AWARDS FOR RESEARCH ON GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS The Committee on Grants for Research on Governmental Affairs-Robert E. Cushman (chairman), Alexander Heard, Dean E. McHenry, Elmer B. Staats, Benjamin F. Wrightat its meeting on December 8, 1958, made 4 awards for the academic year 1959-60. The program initiated the preceding year provides freedom for self-directed research and writing on aspects of governmental affairs. Awards have been accepted by the following: James McGregor Burns, Professor of Political Science, Williams College, for research on "leadership politics" (to begin in February 1960). David Fellman, Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, for research on rights of conscience under the United States Constitution. J. A. C. Grant, Professor of Political Science and Dean of the Division of Social Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, for research on constitutional rights of accused persons under the federal system, and of the return of the "gild" to America. Roscoe C. Martin, Professor of Political Science, Syracuse University, for research on the changing role of cities in the American federal system. GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON AMERICAN GOVERNMENTAL PROCESSES The Committee on Political Behavior-David B. Truman (chairman), Robert A. Dahl, Oliver Garceau, V. O. Key, Jr., Avery Leiserson, Dayton D. McKean-at its meeting on November 21-22, 1958 awarded 6 grants for research on American governmental processes: Edward C. Banfield, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago, for research on influence and leadership in the Chicago metropolitan area. Homer C. Cooper, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Montana State University, for research on perceived subgroup dominance and political party affiliation. -Bernard C. Hennessy, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Arizona, for research on person• Declined award.



ality traits of participants and nonparticipants in political activities. Maurice Klain, Associate Professor of Political Science, Western Reserve University, for research on leadership and decision making in the Cleveland area. Herbert McClosky, Professor of Political Science, University of Minnesota, for research on factors in party choice and political belief (renewal). Joseph C. Palamountain, Jr., Associate Professor of Government, Wesleyan University, for research on the Federal Trade Commission.

Herbert E. Bowman, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages, University of Oregon, for research in Europe and the Soviet Union on Russian humanist and lay religious thought concerning the Communist Revolution and the Communist state. M. Gardner Clark, Professor of Economics, Cornell University, for research in Europe on comparative labor productivity in iron and steel industries in the Soviet Union and other countries. Robert V. Daniels, Assistant Professor of History, University of Vermont, for research on the counterrevolution in Soviet thought: social and intellectual policies in the Soviet Union, 1929-37. Robert A. Feldmesser, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Brandeis University, for research on factors affecting social mobility and social class structure in the Soviet Union, 1917-58. Zygmunt J. Gasiorowski, Associate, Russian Research Center, Harvard University, for research on Poland's foreign policy in the interwar period. Eric P. Hamp, Associate Professor of Linguistics, University of Chicago, for research in Europe on Albanian and Yugoslav dialects (alternate). Sidney S. Harcave, Professor of History, Harpur College, for research on the life and role of Nicholas II (alternate). Naum Jasny, Soviet Economic Study Group, Washington, D.C., for research on the industrialization drive in the Soviet Union since 1928 (renewal). David Joravsky, Assistant Professor of History, Brown University, for research on the history of "Michurinist" biology. Jiri T. Kolaja, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Kentucky, for research in Yugoslavia on participation of workers in management of a Yugoslav factory (alternate). Victor S. Mamatey, Associate Professor of History, Florida State University, for research in Europe on diplomacy, propaganda, and party politics in Russia and East Central Europe, 1914-20 (alternate). Egon Neuberger, Assistant Professor of Economics, Amherst College, for research on the role of the rate of interest in planned economies. Michael B. Petrovich, Associate Professor of History, University of Wisconsin, for research in Yugoslavia and Bulgaria on historical research and writing by the South Slavs. Vsevolod Setschkareff, Associate Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures, Harvard University, for research in Yugoslavia on Dalmatian literature in the fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries (alternate). Stavro Skendi, Assistant Professor of Albanian and Balkan Slavic, Columbia University, for research on the Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912 (alternate). Gene Sosin, Rye, New York, Ph.D. in Slavic Languages, Columbia University, for research in the Soviet Union on children's theater and drama. Nicolas Spulber, Associate Professor of Economics, Indiana University, for research in Europe on price patterns and income in Yugoslavia and neighboring countries. Peter Sugar, Instructor in History, Princeton University, for research on the industrialization of BosniaHerzegovina under Austro-Hungarian rule.

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The Committee on the Near and Middle East-T. Cuyler Young (chairman), Louis Dupree, Hamilton A. R. Gibb, Charles Issawi, Majid Khadduri, Wilfred C. Smith, G. E. von Grunebaum-at its meeting on December 19, 1958 awarded 9 grants for social science research in its field to the following: Millicent R. Ayoub, Ph.D. in Social Anthropology, Radcliffe College, for research on continuity and change in women's culture in an Iranian village. Victor F. Ayoub, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Antioch College, for research on political structure and modes of social control in two Middle Eastern villages. Richard W. Cottam, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh, for research in the United States on Iranian nationalism. John A. DeNovo, Associate Professor of History, Pennsylvania State University, for research in the United States on American interests and policies in the Middle East, 1900-1939. Nikki R. Keddie, Instructor in History, Scripps College, for research in England and Iran on the transformation of Iranian intellectual life, 1890-1914. Karl J. Newman, Visiting Professor of Government, Columbia University, for research on autocracy and democracy in Pakistan. Elie A. Salem, Assistant Professor of Middle East Studies, Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, for research on the structure and operation of Arab political institutions. Dwight J. Simpson, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Williams College, for research on contemporary Middle Eastern affairs. Donald N. Wilber, Ph.D., Princeton University, for a biography of Reza Shah, ruler of Iran, 1925-41. GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES The Subcommittee on Grants-Abram Bergson (chairman), Frederick C. Barghoorn, Deming Brown, Chauncy D. Harris,_Donald W. Treadgold-of the joint Committee on Slavic Studies, which is co-sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council, met on December 13, 1958. The subcommittee awarded 14 grants for research and named 8 alternates: Samuel H. Baron, Associate Professor of History, Grinnell College, for research in Europe on the life and thought of G. V. Plekhanov.


Edward Taborsky, Associate Professor of Government, University of Texas, for research on the first decade of the Communist regime in Czechoslovakia (alternate). Arthur Voyce, Research Associate in Russian Art and Architecture, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, for research on the architecture of Pre-Petrine Russia (alternate). Thomas G. Winner, Associate Professor of -Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, for research on the prose of Anton Chekov. AUXILIARY RESEARCH AWARDS The Committee on Auxiliary Research Awards-Fred Eggan (chairman), Harry Alpert, Kenneth E. Boulding, Thomas C. Cochran, Frederick Mosteller, Ithiel de Sola Pool, and Richard S. Crutchfield-at its meeting on December 8, 1958 selected the following 25 social scientists to receive awards of $4,000 each, to be used in their discretion for the advancement of their own behavioral research: Robert P. Abelson, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Yale University David E. Apter, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago A. Noam Chomsky, Associate Professor of Modern Languages, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sanford M. Dornbusch, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Washington Otis Dudley Duncan, Research Associate in Human Ecology, University of Chicago Eugene Galanter, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania Clifford Geertz, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley Alvin W. Gouldner, Professor of Sociology, University of Illinois Dell H. Hymes, Assistant Professor of Social Relations, Harvard University Morton Keller, Assistant Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania William Kessen, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Yale University Lionel M. McKenzie, Professor of Economics, University of Rochester Duncan MacRae, Jr., Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago George Mandler, Lecturer in Psychology, Harvard University McKim Marriott, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago Seymour Melman, Associate Professor of Industrial Engineering, Columbia University Paul H. Mussen, Associate Professor of Psychology, Universi ty of California Douglass C. North, Associate Professor of Economics, University of Washington Lucian W. Pye, Associate Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology William H. Riker, Professor of Government, Lawrence College Peter H. Rossi, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Chicago 10

Edgar H. Schein, Assistant Professor of Industrial Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wilson Smith, Assistant Professor of History, Johns Hopkins University Robert M. Solow, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Patrick Suppes, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Stanford University INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TRAVEL GRANTS In the second year of the Council's program of international conference travel grants, awards have been made to facilitate attendance by social scientists resident in the United States at six international meetings abroad: Institut International de Finances Publiques Travel grants for attendance at the Congress of this Institut, to be held in Barcelona, September 23-28, 1959, were made by the Committee on International Conference Travel Grants-Mortimer Spiegelman (chairman), Robert C. Angell, Ralph L. Beals, Lee J. Cronbach, Hugh L. Elsbree, Frederic C. Lane, John Perry Miller-at its meeting on January 10. The recipients of grants are: C. Lowell Harriss, Professor of Economics, Columbia University Carl S. Shoup, Professor of Economics, Columbia University Inter-American Society of Psycholo~ Travel grants for attendance at the Congress of this Society, to be held in Rio de Janeiro on August 16-21, 1959, were awarded at the same meeting of the committee to the following: Harry W. Braun, Professor of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh G. M. Gilbert, Lecturer in Psychology, Queens College International Congress of the History of Science Grants for attendance at this Congress, to be held in Barcelona, September 23-28,1959, were awarded on January 10 by the following subcommittee: Frederic C. Lane (chairman), H. L. Shapiro, Richard H. Shryock. The 3 recipients of grants are: I. Bernard Cohen, Associate Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University Melvin Kranzberg, Professor of History, Case Institute of Technology Harry Woolf, Associate Professor of the History of Science, University of Washington International Institute of Administrative Sciences The Congress of this Institute will be held in Wiesbaden on August 29 - September 3, 1959. Seven travel grants were awarded on January 10 by a subcommittee consisting of Hugh L. Elsbree (chairman), Herbert Emmerich, and James W. Fesler, to the following: Lowell H. Hattery, Professor of Government and Public Administration, American University

Ferrel Heady, Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan Walter H. C. Laves, Professor of Government, Indiana University John W. Macy, Jr., Executive Vice路President, Wesleyan University Fritz Morestein Marx, Bureau of the Budget Harvey Sherman, Director, Organization and Procedures Department, Port of New York Authority Donald C. Stone, Dean, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh

Olaf F. Larson, Professor of Rural Sociology, Cornell University Leo Lowenthal, Professor of Sociology and Social Institutions, University of California, Berkeley C. Wright Mills, Professor of Sociology, Columbia University Ithiel de Sola Pool, Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Arnold M. Rose, Professor of Sociology, University of Minnesota Shirley A: Star, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Chicago Gordon F. Streib, Professor of Sociology, Cornell University Fred L. Strodtbeck, Associate Professor of Social Psychology, University of Chicago Ralph H. Turner, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles Kurt H. Wolff, Associate Professor of Sociology, Ohio State University

International Sociological Association International Union for the Scientific Study of Population

Travel grants for the Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, to be held in Vienna, August 28 - September 4, 1959, and also for the Fourth World Congress on Sociology under the auspices of the International Sociological Association, to be held in Milan and Stresa on September 8-19, were awarded on January 10 by a subcommittee consisting of Mortimer Spiegelman (chairman), Robert C. Angell, Orville G. Brim, Jr., John D. Durand, and Wellman J. Warner. The grants to the following 6 recipients are for attendance at both meetings: William Gibbons, S.J., Visiting Lecturer, Fordham University Forrest E. Linder, Director, National Health Survey Program, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Kurt B. Mayer, Professor of Sociology, Brown University Charles Westoff, Associate Professor of Sociology, New York University Pascal K. Whelpton, Director, Scripps Foundation for Research in Population Problems Vincent H. Whitney, Professor of Sociology, Brown University The grants to the following 21 recipients are for travel to 路the Fourth World Congress on Sociology: Reinhard Bendix, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley Peter M. Blau, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Chicago Theodore Caplow, Professor of Sociology, University of Minnesota Leo P. Chall, Lecturer in Sociology and Anthropology, Brooklyn College Sanford M. Dornbusch, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Washington Joseph H. Fichter, Professor of Sociology, Loyola University, New Orleans Neal Gross, Associate Professor of Sociology, Harvard University Alex Inkeles, Professor of Sociology, Harvard University Morris Janowitz, Professor of Sociology, University of Michigan Alfred J. Kahn, Professor of Social Work, New York School of Social Work, Columbia University Otto Klineberg, Professor of Psychology, Columbia University

The grants to the following 4 recipients are for travel to the Conference of the International Union: Howard G. Brunsman, Chief, Population Division, Bureau of the Census Ronald Freedman, Professor of Sociology, University of Michigan Frank Lorimer, Professor of Sociology, American University Dorothy S. Thomas, Research Professor of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania APPOINTMENTS TO COMMITTEES James A. Perkins of the Carnegie Corporation of New York has succeeded John W. Gardner as a member of the joint Committee on International Congresses in the United States, appointed by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council. Chester W. Harris of the University of Wisconsin has been appointed a member of the Committee on Personality Development in Youth. John W. Carr, III, of the University of North Carolina has been appointed a member of the Committee on Simulation of Cognitive Processes.

PUBLICATIONS CENSUS MONOGRAPHS These volumes, in the series sponsored by the former Committee on Census Monographs and the Bureau of the Census, are published by John Wiley Be Sons, New York: The American Labor Force, by Gertrude Bancroft. October 1958.270 pages. Cloth, $7.50. The Fertility of American Women, by Wilson H. Grabill, Clyde V. Kiser, and P. K. Whelpton. August 1958. 464 pages. Cloth, $9.50. The Changing Population of the United States, by Conrad Taeuber and Irene B. Taeuber. January 1958. 368 pages. Cloth, $7.75.


COUNCIL PAMPHLETS: MEMORANDA TO THE COMMITTEE ON PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Effects of Social and Cultural Systems in Reactions to Stress. Pamphlet 14, by William Caudill. June 1958. 39 pages. 50 cents. Social Status and Public Health. Pamphlet 13, by Ozzie G. Simmons. May 1958. 39 pages. 50 cents.

Problems in Intercultural Het1:lth Programs. Pamphlet 12, by George M. Foster. Apnl 1958. 54 pages. 50 cents.

Special price for the three pamphlets together, $1.00. These pamphlets and other publications of the Council are distributed from its office, 230 Park Avenue, New York 17, N. Y.

ANNOUNCEMENTS GRANTS FOR ASIAN STUDIES Grants to individual scholars for research in the humanities and social sciences relating to East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia will be offered under the auspices of a joint Committee of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council for three years beginning in 1959. This new program is made possible by a grant of $200,000 from the Ford Foundation to the American Council of Learned Societies. The members of the joint committee are: Lauriston Sharp, Cornell University (chairman); W. Norman Brown, University of Pennsylvania; L. Carrington Goodrich, Columbia University; John A. Pope, Freer Gallery of Art; George E. Taylor, University of Washington; and Robert E. Ward, University of Michigan. Applications will be welcome from mature scholars who have already made significant contributions to Asian studies, and from those with established competence in a social science or humanistic field who wish to equip themselves for research on Asian problems. Eligibility is limited to permanent residents of the United States and Canada who have the Ph.D. or its equivalent and whose capacity for effective research has been demonstrated by their previous work. Grants may range from relatively small sums for travel, analysis of data, research assistance, and maintenance for periods of from three to six months to amounts sufficient for a year's research, including, if necessary, travel of dependents and maintenance in lieu of salary. Application may be made for funds to supplement sabbatical salaries or awards from other sources. Subsidies for publication are not available under this program, nor can the costs of travel to Asia

for field research for periods of less than six months be provided, except in extraordinary circumstances. Applications by individuals for support of research to be undertaken in 1959-60 should be submitted on forms supplied by the ACLS not later than March 20, 1959. Inquiries and requests for application forms should indicate briefly the nature of the proposed research, the approximate amount of financial support required, the applicant'S present position or activity, and advanced degrees held. All communications should be addressed to: American Council of Learned Societies, Grants for Research on Asia, 345 East 46th Street, New York 17, N. Y. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TRAVEL GRANTS, 1960 Under the Social Science Research Council's program of travel grants to assist social scientists resident in the United States to attend international conferences abroad, limited numbers of grants will be offered for the following meetings to be held in 1960: International Congress of Americanists International Congress of Economic History International Congress of Historical Sciences, Stockholm International Geographical Union, Stockholm International Statistical Institute, Tokyo International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences International Union of Scientific Psychology The dates by which applications will be due for the respective meetings will be announced in September.










Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1959:



Officers and Staff:






Executive Associate; DONALD Financial Secretary




Items Vol. 13 No. 1 (1959)  
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