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By Sherita Smith


Title:Freshwater

Species #: 01

Common Name: Spotted Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus Oculatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Lepisosteiformes

Family: Lepisosteiformes

Geography / Habitat: Spotted gar prefer shallow open waters, usually 3 - 5 m deep, as well as stagnant backwater. They are often found near the surface basking near fallen logs, trees, or brush. This species is also shoreline-oriented, meaning it can be found near banks that include some sort of brush covering.

Life Strategy: The spotted gar is primarily nocturnal. Often, this species will remain stationary near fallen trees or brush throughout the day. They typically become more active at night and extend their home range in order to search for prey.

Food / Feed Strategy: They utilize their brush covered habitat for foraging at night. Spotted gar also eat other species of fish including sunfish, gizzard shad, crappies, bass, catfish, and shiners. One study showed that this species can feed efficiently across a spectrum of habitat complexity, and that some species were simply more vulnerable to gar attack regardless of cover.

Body Form or Style:Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Caranigiform Mouth Position:terminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepisosteus_oculatus/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:02

Common Name:Tasmaninan giant freshwater lobster Scientific Name: Astacopsis Gouldi Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Parastacidae

Class: Malacostraca

Order:Decapoda

Family:Parastacidae Geography / Habitat: The species can be found mostly in dark, slow moving rivers. This species is found in the rivers, streams, and reservoirs that drain into Bass Straight including the Arthur River System

Life Strategy: They have a dorso-ventrally flattened body with powerfully developed pinchers on their first set of walking legs. Their abdominal legs are longer, adapted for swimming. Females also attach their eggs to these legs

Food / Feed Strategy: The Tasmanian Giant Crayfish is omnivorous. It will harvest fungi and bacteria that grows on rotting wood that it supposedly sets aside. It eats leaves and insects that fall into the water, as well as animal flesh

Body Form or Style:Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform Mouth Position:Supraterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Astacopsis_gouldi/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:03

Common Name:Brook Stickleback Scientific Name:Culaea Inconstans Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order: Gasterosteidae

Family: Gasterosteidae

Geography / Habitat: Brook Stickleback typically inhabits the shallow edges of cool, clear lakes and ponds with moderate to dense vegetation cover.

Life Strategy: Brook stickleback eggs are demersal and adhesive (Winn 1960); the eggs are approximately one millimeter in diameter and are clear to light yellowish in color (Barker 1918). They are deposited in groups of approximately 100 inside nests built by males and the eggs hatch within 8 to 11 days depending on water temperature

Food / Feed Strategy: Brook Stickleback are predominately carnivorous feeders on aquatic invertebrates, mostly larvae and crustaceans. Fish eggs, from their own species as well as others, and algae may make up a smaller portion of their diet.

Body Form or Style:Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform Mouth Position:Subterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Culaea_inconstans/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:04

Common Name:Alewife Scientific Name:Alosa Pseudoharengu Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family:Clupeidae

Geography / Habitat: For anadromous populations, much is known about their freshwater spawning habits, but little is known about movements within the ocean. It is also present, although non-native, in all of the Great Lakes, and many lakes in northern New York.

Life Strategy: Young alewives have a very high mortality rate. Less than 1% survive to migrate into the sea. Annual mortality for adult alewives is on the order of 70% per year. Most die during or shortly after the spawning season.

Food / Feed Strategy: Little is known about the feeding habits of anadromous alewives. Adult land-locked fish eat mostly zooplankton, especially larger varieties such as copepods, cladocerans, mysids, and ostracods. When they grow larger than 11.9 cm, they feed mostly on the benthic amphipod Pontoporeia. Some spawning adults eat small fish or fish eggs when in shallow waters.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Caragiform Mouth Position:pharyngeal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alosa_pseudoharengus/pictures/collectio ns/contributors/Grzimek_fish/Clupeiformes/Alosa_psudoharengus/ Title: Freshwater

Species #:05

Common Name: Black Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameriurus Mealas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Black bullheads occupy most freshwater habitats, from small farm ponds to large lakes. They can inhabit many waters that are otherwise unsuitable for other fishes. They can tolerate poorly oxygenated, polluted, turbid, and high temperature waters. It can be found as far south as northern Mexico, and the distribution excludes all but the panhandle of Florida. Introduced populations occur in parts of California and Nevada.

Life Strategy: Black bullheads have an average lifespan of five years in the wild and a slightly higher lifespan in captivity. The oldest found are around ten years. They are easily kept in aquariums and adapt well. If the proper space and living conditions are met, many find the these fish thrive well in captivity.

Food / Feed Strategy: Young black bullheads usually thrive on ostracods, amphipods, copepods, and insects and their larva. Young feed primarly in schooling patterns during midday. Adults tend to be nocturnal, and feed on a wide variety of invertebrates. Midge larvae and other young insects are the primary diet for adult bullheads. Black bullheads have been known to eat small fish and fish eggs as well.

Body Form or Style: Compressifrom Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangifrom Mouth Position: Terminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_melas/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:06

Common Name: Longtail Knifefish Scientific Name: Sternopygus Macrurs Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gymnotiformes

Family: Sternopygidae

Geography / Habitat: Longtail Knifefish has a slender body with a tapering tail. The maximum length of the Longtail Knifefish is 100.0 cm in total length. It is known to inhabit the area from the Magdalena River to the Sao Francisco River and western Ecuador. It is also found in the Catatumbo River and the Amazon in Peru.

Life Strategy: The fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of one year. Mature males are territorial. The species is considered harmless to humans. Just before or during the rainy season, the male will attract a female passing though his territory as a spawning partner. He attracts a female using electric signals from his electric organ.

Food / Feed Strategy: Longtail Knifefish is a predator of small invertebrates. Its diet is mainly composed of aquatic insect larvae.

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: gape and suck Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sternopygus_macrurus/


Title: Freshwater

Species #:07

Common Name: Black Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: The Chinook Salmon is anadromous– born in freshwater, migrating to the ocean, and returning as mature adults to their natal streams to spawn. Freshwater streams, estuaries, and the open ocean are all important habitats. It has also been introduced to many places around the world including the Great Lakes and New Zealand.

Life Strategy: The average age of spawning adults is 4-6 years, however, they can spend up to 8 years in the ocean or return after less than one year. The average age is slightly younger in the south with 2/3/4 year-olds most common; 5/6/7 year-olds are most common in the north. Often, females are older than males at sexual maturity.

Food / Feed Strategy: While in freshwater, Chinook Salmon fry and smolts feed on plankton and then terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods and crustaceans. After migrating to the ocean, the maturing adults feed on large zooplakton, herring, pilchard, sandlance and other fishes, squid, and crustaceans. Once the adult salmon have re-entered freshwater, they do not feed. In the Great Lakes, Chinook Salmon were introduced to control the invasive alewife population.

Body Form or Style: Copmpressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunniform Mouth Position: Pharyngeal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha/


Title: Freshwater

Species #:08

Common Name: Green Kisser Scientific Name: Helostoma Temminkii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinpoterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Helostomatidae

Geography / Habitat: Green Kisser is a freshwater fish that prefers the sluggish or standing water of tropical lakes, canals, swamps, and ponds, and water temperatures between 22 and 30ËšC. During the rainy season these fish migrate through rivers to shallow lakes and floodplains to spawn. Also known as the kissing gourami, is naturally found in Southeast Asia in Thailand, Indonesia, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. Due to tropical fish breeding for the aquarium trade, it has also been reported in Florida but is not yet established.

Life Strategy: It is able to get oxygen out of the air with paired suprabranchial chambers that have a bony element inside covered with a highly vascularized layer of tissue called the labyrinth apparatus. It gulps air at the surface and holds it in these chambers.

Food / Feed Strategy: Kissing gourami are omnivorous. They feed on phytoplankton, zooplankton, and aquatic insects, supplemented by plant material. They are considered to be the most highly specialized freshwater filter-feeder of southeast Asia with very intricate gill rakers.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Helostoma_temminkii/#reproduction Title: Freshwater

Species #: 09

Common Name: Bluntnose Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales Notatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Bluntnose minnows prefer clear, rocky streams and creeks that are small to medium in size. They also occur in natural and man-made lakes. They occur from southern Quebec and Manitoba south to Louisiana, west to the Mississipi River drainage

Life Strategy: The maximimum recorded age for a bluntnose minnow is five years. It is unclear whether this was a captive or wild individual. During breeding season the males use at least two methods of communication. First, their physical appearance changes. Second, males make a variety of pulsed sounds when acting aggresively with other males. It is not known if these sounds are also used in courtship or spawning.

Food / Feed Strategy: Bluntnose minnows eat algae, aquatic insect larvae, diatoms, and small crustaceans called entomostracans. Occasionally they will eat fish eggs or small fish.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pimephales_notatus/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:10

Common Name: Freshwater Whipray Scientific Name: Himantura Chaophraya Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Dasyatidae

Geography / Habitat: This species is typically found over sandy bottoms in large rivers, at depths of 5 to 20 meters. Many females are found in estuaries and it is thought that they give birth in brackish waters, though the reason for this is not currently known. Giant freshwater stingrays are found in the large river systems of Thailand, including the Mekong, Chao Phraya, Nan, Bang Kapong, Prachin Buri, and Tapi River basins.

Life Strategy: Giant freshwater stingrays generally stay in the same river system in which they were hatched, but the average size of an individual's day to day range is currently unknown. This species fares poorly in captivity, due to the difficulties associated with providing proper food and space.

Food / Feed Strategy: Giant freshwater stingrays generally feed on river bottoms. Their mouth contains two jaws that act like crushing plates, and small teeth to continue chewing up food. Their diet consists mainly of benthic fishes and invertebrates.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Himantura_chaophraya/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:11

Common Name: Bleeding Heart Scientific Name: hyphessobrycon Erythrostigma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae

Geography / Habitat: Bleeding heart tetras are native to the neotropical region. The distribution is described as the Upper Amazon River basin. Bleeding heart tetras are found in the Rio Negro of Brazil as well as other regional rivers. These fish are commonly found in small creeks and river bends where vegetation is dense.

Life Strategy: Bleeding heart tetras, in the aquarium environment, do best in small schools of at least five individuals. Their peaceful demeanor makes an environment composed of larger groups possible without conflict.

Food / Feed Strategy: In captivity, bleeding heart tetras eat a variety of foods. It is likely that their wild diet is similar, being made up of small crustaceans, insects, zooplankton, and other organic matter.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hyphessobrycon_erythrostigma/ Title: Freshwater

Species #:12

Common Name: Riverine Grass Shrimp Scientific Name: Palaemonetes Paludosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: N/A

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Palaemonidae

Geography / Habitat: Eastern grass shrimp are primarily found in freshwater habitats. They have been found in brackish water, but there is no evidence that they persist there. They reside in some sort of aquatic cover and are most abundant in dense beds of submerged vegetation. It is also found in Louisiana, Texas, and Oklahoma, where it has most likely been introduced.

Life Strategy: Eastern grass shrimp are transparent. Individuals grow to be approximately 47 mm long. Adults usually do not exceed 50 mm long. Males and females are dimorphic. Males are distinguished from females by differences in the first and second pleopods. Eastern grass shrimp are confined to a one year life cycle. Post spawning mortality occurs from April to October.

Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of eastern grass shrimp is dominated by algae (diatoms and green algae), but they also consume vascular plants, detritus, aquatic insects, and other benthic coarse particulate organic matter. Diatoms that glass shrimp eat include species in the genera Fragilaria, Nivicula, Stephanodiscus, Gomphonema, Synedra, and Cymbella. Examples of green algae consumed include species in the genera Cosmarium, Closterium, and Scenedesmus.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style:


Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Palaemonetes_paludosus/ Title: Freshwater Species #:13 Common Name: Pirate Perch Scientific Name: Aphredoderus Sayanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Aphredoderus

Geography / Habitat: Pirate perch are found in clear warm water with low currents; these include bottomland lakes, overflow ponds and the quiet pools and backwaters of lowgradient streams. Within these areas pirate perch tend to congregate where there is dense vegetation, woody debris, root masses and undercut banks.

Life Strategy: Pirate perch are unusual in that their urogenital opening is positioned far anteriorally under the throat. This feature is not present in juveniles, as the anus migrates with maturity. Pirate perch are grayish with black speckles and have a narrow, vertical, dark bar at the base of the tail fin and under the eye.

Food / Feed Strategy: This carnivorous fish eats primarily immature aquatic insects, small crustaceans and sometimes small fish.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Aphredoderus_sayanus/

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 14

Common Name: European Pond turtle Scientific Name: Emys Orbicularis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilla

Order: Testudines

Family: Emydidae

Geography / Habitat: This species lives in freshwater areas, including ponds, lakes, slowmoving streams and other lentic regions. They select terrestrial locations with open, high, and sandy soil habitats for nesting. These turtles search for habitats in shallow, fertile areas with adequate food supplies and minimal predators.

Life Strategy: Compared to many other reptiles and amphibians, this species has a relatively long lifespan. Individuals living in northern populations tend to exhibit longer lifespans than those in more southern locations. The tails of young are nearly as long as the shell, but become shorter with age. Specimens about 5 inches in length are considered fully developed adults. Males of this species mature earlier and generally remain smaller than females, but they have similar growth rates.

Food / Feed Strategy: Most small aquatic animals are prey, and their diet may shift as they grow and can eat larger animals. Worms, insects, frogs, and fishes comprise their main sources of sustenance and they generally feed in water. These turtles attack and capture their prey, biting with a sideward turn of the head, then tearing the prey to pieces with sharp claws on the forelimbs. Generally, in the wild, their prey must be moving to be seized. In captivity, these turtles may resort to eating fruits and vegetables.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Emys_orbicularis/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:15

Common Name: Eel Sucker Scientific Name: Petromyzo Marinus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:

Order: Petromyzontiformes

Family: Petromyzon

Geography / Habitat: Sea lampreys are anadromous, and migration is triggered by changes in water temperature. In general, they prefer shallow coastal areas, though they are found at depths between 0.91 and 4.57 m. Young lampreys are hatched in gravel or rock beds in small, freshwater streams and rivers. After the larval stage, they migrate into saltwater ocean habitats. They return to freshwater to lay their eggs. lampreys migrate south along the Atlantic coast to warmer climates, some travelling as far south as Florida. Sea lampreys can also be found along the Atlantic coast of Europe as far north as Norway and ranging as far south as the Mediterranean.

Life Strategy:Sea lampreys are a very motile and live their adult life as parasitic organisms. Specific behavioral patterns of this species, however, are not well studied. Although individuals are not known to interact as larvae, adults are predominantly found in groups or colonies while attached to a host

Food / Feed Strategy: Newly hatched larval sea lampreys are freshwater filter-feeders that consume detritus, algae, and other organic material found at river bottoms. Once in a saline environment (or in the Great Lakes), sea lampreys develop parasitic abilities, attach themselves to a fish and ingest their blood and skin. Sea lampreys ultimately breaks down the fish while the fish is still alive.

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Subterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Petromyzon_marinus/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:16

Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus Mykiss Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater, brackish, or marine waters of temperate zones. The anadromous form, called steelhead, spawn and complete their early development in freshwater mountain streams, then migrate to spend their adult life in the ocean. In freshwater, they prefer cool water but have been known to tolerate water temperatures up to 24째C. However, they have been introduced throughout the United States. and in every continent except for Antarctica for game fishing purposes.

Life Strategy: Steelhead and rainbow trout are solitary fish, leaving the group of juveniles once they have hatched from eggs. As adults, they compete with all kinds of trout and salmon for food and habitat. The largest trout tend to get the best habitat. Adult steelhead have a remarkable homing instinct and consistently return to their natal stream to spawn.

Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout and steelhead are insectivorous and piscivorous. Resident rainbow trout tend to eat more fish than steelhead. Both species primarily feed on invertebrate larvae drifting in mid-water to conserve energy that would be expended if they were foraging for food in the substrate. Young rainbow trout and steelhead eat insect larvae, crustaceans, other aquatic invertebrates, and algae.

Body Form or Style: Compressifrom Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:17

Common Name: Anchor Worn Scientific Name: Lernaea Cyprinacea Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:

Class: Maxillopoda

Order:Cyclopoida

Family: Lernaeidae

Geography / Habitat: These parasites live in freshwater habitats. The salinity of the water affects how well the copepod reproduces. "Sweet water" is the only possible environment for the Lernaea cyprinacea reproduction to be possible. It has been found in parts of Europe, such as Scandinavia, France, Italy, and Germany, all the way to Japan. The parasite is spread throughout Central Asia as well as in the southern regions of West Siberia.

Life Strategy: These parasites attach to the gills of fish, using their frontal cement gland. The copepod usually lives on the surface of the body. After eating away the scale of the fish, it enters the internal tissues. This causes the fish to undergo significant changes in its structure and tissues. The fish reacts by trying to isolate the parasite and form a compact sheath.

Food / Feed Strategy: Many kinds of fish are the intermediate and definitive hosts. Mainly these hosts are from the family Cyprinidae. Fish such as Carissus auratus, Anguilla japonica, Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio gobio and Cypinus carpio all are parasitized by Lernaea cyprinacea. Many fish serve as intermediate as well as definitive hosts during heavy infestation. The parasite feeds on the internal tissues of the fish.

Body Form or Style: Filliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: gape and suck


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lernaea_cyprinacea/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:18

Common Name: Bloater Scientific Name: Coregonus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Samonidae

Geography / Habitat: Bloaters exist in both pelagic and benthic regions of deep, freshwater lakes. During the day Coregonus hoyi is found on or near the bottom, but it moves upwards in the water column at night. This species was probably extirpated from Lakes Ontario and Nipigon and is threatened in Lake Michigan and declining in Lakes Superior and Huron.

Life Strategy: Nighttime densities in the water column have been observed at up to 6.61 fish/m^3. These nocturnal migrations are variable with water temperature, light levels, and individual size. Migration patterns allow C. hoyi to maximize growth through increased consumption of Mysis relicta, which also migrates.

Food / Feed Strategy: Analysis of stomach contents revealed primarily Mysis relicta and Pontoporeia affinis, both near bottom dwelling plankton. Copepods dominated some stomachs, indicating pelagic feeding. Fish eggs and fingernail clams were also found in some stomachs. Vertical migration on an individual basis is hypothesised to be driven by migration of invertebrates in the water column.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Osraciifrom Mouth Position: Filter feeder


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coregonus_hoyi/

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 19

Common Name: African Pike Scientific Name: Hepsetus Odoe Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Hepsetidae

Geography / Habitat: It is found in most rivers in West Africa from the Senegal southwards to Botswana. They is usually found near the banks of rivers in heavy vegetation, but also can be found in swampy environments, lagoons and backwaters. In areas where one of its major predators is absent, Kafue pike will venture into more open waters Life Strategy: When the young hatch, they wiggle their way through the nest to the water. Upon submersion the larvae attach themselves to the bottom edge of the nest using a special cement gland on the top of their heads. They hang there, suspended tail down for four days. The onset of the spawning season varies depending upon the region, but the method is consistant across Hepsetus odoe populations. Spawning season usually begins after the flood season has begun; it is suspected that flood waters may actually stimulate the gonads of H. odoe.

Food / Feed Strategy: They are primarily diurnal ambush predators, hiding out in dense vegetation and lunging suddenly to seize prey (Winemiller, 1993). Their diet consists primarily of cichlids and mormyrids. Although smaller specimens have been found to eat mochokid catfishes in greater amounts than cichlids or mormyrids

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciifrom Mouth Position: Basilbranchial


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hepsetus_odoe/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:20

Common Name: Pugnose shiner Scientific Name: Notropis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order:Cyprinifromes

Family:Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Pugnose shiners are mostly restricted to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from eastern Ontario and western New York to southeastern North Dakota and central Illinois, where they are now extirpated. Pugnose shiners inhabit clear vegetated lakes as well as similar habitats in pools and runs of low gradient streams and rivers. They are extremely intolerant to turbidity.

Life Strategy: Pugnose shiners are known to feed, travel, and spawn in schools. Very little information is known about their behavior because of the rarity of this species. Very little information is known the longevity of this species or any other species within the genus Notropis. The oldest known pugnose shiner caught was 3 years old, which corresponds with the maximum age indicated for the Arkansas River shiner, N. girardi.

Food / Feed Strategy: Pugnose shiners are omnivorous. They consume various animal and plant products up to 2 mm in size. Examples of food items include: Chara vulgaris, Daphnia ambigua, Bosmina longirostris, and Hirudo medicinalis.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: gill rakers Citation http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Notropis_anogenus/


Title: Freshwater

Species #:21

Common Name: Bagre Sierra Scientific Name: Oxydoras Niger Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Doradidae

Geography / Habitat: The fish is found throughout South America, from the East coast to the base of the Andes: 3,000 feet above sea level. Here, they were only captured during the dry season and were not observed in the wet season. However, this finding contraticts the opinions of the local fishermen that were interviewed. They stated that O. niger was usually caught in the wet season as opposed to the dry season.

Life Strategy: Every year after spawning, around June when the water level begins to drop, they begin a massive migration uptream. This migration is performed by at least forty species and lasts about four months. This statistic contradicts direct observations of several separate groups of aquarium captives that I have observed between 1999 and 2000.

Food / Feed Strategy: These catfish eat crustaceans, snails, and other inverebrates, seeds, and fruits. In the aquarium, it has been observed eating boiled oatmeal, trout and koi pellets, rabbit pellets, frozen peas, flake foods, beef heart and liver, brine shrimp, tubificid worms, earthworms

Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position:Subterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oxydoras_niger/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:22

Common Name: Ganges River Dolphin Scientific Name: Platanista Gangetica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetacea

Family: Platanistidae Geography / Habitat: Ganges River dolphins occupy freshwater river systems in southern Asia. They inhabit the Ganges and Indus River systems and their many tributaries, streams, and connecting lakes. They are found in tributaries that run through the hills and lowlands in Nepal (roughly 250 meters above sea level) and sometimes in flood plains and areas of rivers with heavy currents.

Life Strategy: Ganges River dolphins are solitary animals but they occasionally congregate in groups of 3 to 10 individuals. Groups of up to 30 animals have been reported. Mothers and calves stay together until the infants are weaned. Despite their mostly solitary nature, these river dolphins are found in loose aggregations, especially at tributary junctions where prey congregate. Some consider Ganges River dolphins semigregarious. There are some indications of territoriality, as chasing behaviors in males have been observed. Generally, these animals are shy towards humans, even in captivity. Their elusive nature has made them difficult subjects to study.

Food / Feed Strategy: Ganges River dolphins are top predators in their river ecosystems. Side swimming and a flexible neck allow them to search river bottoms to stir up hiding prey. Their formidable speed and ability to swim in shallow water allows them to chase and herd schools of fish. They feed on a variety of aquatic animals. Their physical appearance demonstrates how well equipped they are to catch fish and crustaceans. They are strictly carnivorous, although some vegetation has been found in their stomachs, most likely as a result of messy foraging in the river bed or left over plant remains inside the fish the dolphins have consumed.

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Supraterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Platanista_gangetica/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:23

Common Name: Lake Sturgeon Scientific Name: Acipenser Fulvescens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Acipenseriformes

Family: Acipenseridae

Geography / Habitat: The lake sturgeon is a fish of temperate waters and is found only in the Northern Hemisphere in North America. Their habitat is usually on the bottom of a riverbed or lake. It is found along the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence River drainage and in large lakes in New York and Vermont, including Cayuga Lake and Lake Champlain.

Life Strategy: Lake sturgeon are slow moving fish, spending most of their time grubbing on the bottom for food. They migrate up rivers during spawning season.

Food / Feed Strategy: The name sturgeon in several European languages means "the stirrer", from the way the fish rummages among the mud for food. It finds its food largely by touch, using its sensitive barbels. As the lake sturgeon cruises over the bottom, the sensitivity of the fleshy whiskers trailing in the sand makes up, to some extent, for the fish's poor eye sight. As soon as the whiskers pass over food, the protrusible mouth drops down with an elevator-like motion and rapidly sucks in its meal.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: pharyngeal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acipenser_fulvescens/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:24

Common Name: River Carpsucker Scientific Name: Carpiodes Carpio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: cypriniformes

Family: catostomidae

Geography / Habitat: The introduction of Carpiodes carpio into other areas was likely caused by shipments of buffalo fishes in Lake Erie and the lower Maumee River, Ohio. These buffalo fishes were deliberately introduced and stocked for sport fishing and aquaculture in Ohio in western Lake Erie between 1920 and 1930. However, the effects of the introduction are not well known and studied .

Life Strategy: The river carpsucker forms large schools and moves together. Feeding behavior of this species is known as they forage near the bottom which consists of sand or silt.

Food / Feed Strategy: The river carpsucker is well known as a bottom feeder and detritivore. This species eats and filters nutrients from silt and detritus. It ingests all kinds of items on the river bottom like algae, protozoans, chironomids, microcrustaceans, various tiny planktonic plants and animals.

Body Form or Style: Compressifrom Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunnifrom Mouth Position: gape-and-suck


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carpiodes_carpio/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:25

Common Name: Greenside darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma Blennioides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: Greenside darters are benthic organisms and spend their lives associated with the substrate. They live in deep riffle habitats consisting of cobble and loose boulders covered by filamentous green algae, upon which they lay their eggs. Its range extends from New York and the Potomac River drainage west to Kansas and south to Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi and Alabama, mostly within the Mississippi River and its tributaries.

Life Strategy: Greenside darters lack a swimbladder and are therefore a benthic-dwelling organism. Fairly reclusive, they spend much of their time hovering directly above the substrate or hiding in overhanging rock caves. As the name suggests, darters have a unique ability to maneuver quickly within and around large substrate as they forage along the bottom (Shiels, 2003). This movement is accomplished by assuming a "snake-like position" in which the pelvic and caudal fins, as well as the caudal peduncle, are rested on a rock while the head is raised and the tail held at angle to the body.

Food / Feed Strategy: In general, greenside darters feed on immature benthic insects in the 1-6 mm range (Wynes and Wissing, 1982), although this diet varies with season and prey availability (Gray et al., 1997). Chironomid larvae (midges/flies) are the major prey taxon consumed, Ephemeroptera (mayflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies) larvae are also common prey items (Hlohowskyj and White, 1983). Ephemeroptera and Simuloidii (blackflys) are a larger portion of the diet during the winter (Hlohowskyj and White, 1983). Prey size and taxa consumed also shifts from juvenile to adult; juveniles consume smaller prey and more chironomids than adults. Females also tend to consume more than males, expecially during the spawning season

Body Form or Style: Taenifrom Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangifrom


Mouth Position:palatine Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Etheostoma_blennioides/ Title: Freshwater

Species #:26

Common Name: Painted Turtle Scientific Name: Chrysemys Picta Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilia

Order: Testudines

Family: Emydidae

Geography / Habitat: Painted turtles prefer living in freshwater that is quiet, shallow, and has a thick layer of mud. Painted turtles are one of the most common turtles in North America and are found from southern Canada to northern Mexico.

Life Strategy: Painted turtles bask in large groups on logs, fallen trees, and other objects. The sunning helps rid them of parasitic leeches. In many areas turtles hibernate during the winter months by burrowing into the mud and allowing their bodies to become very cold. Because of their small body size, they can move easily. Turtles dive quickly at the first hint of danger.

Food / Feed Strategy: Painted turtles feed mainly on plants, small animals, such as fish, crustaceans aquatic insects, and some carrion. Young painted turtles are mainly carnivorous, acquiring a taste for plants later in life. Because they have no teeth, the turtle jaw has tough, horny plates for gripping food. Painted turtles must eat in the water, their tongue does not move freely and they cannot manipulate food well on land.

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciifrom Mouth Position: Basibranchial


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chrysemys_picta/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:27

Common Name: Allegheny River Pike Scientific Name: Esox Masquinongy Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Esocifromes

Family: Esocidae

Geography / Habitat: Muskellunge are native only to North America. Muskellunge are abundant in many lakes and rivers over much of North America, however, their greatest concentrations are present in the waters of the Midwestern states. Their native range extends from 36 to 51N, barely reaching into Canada.

Life Strategy: Although muskellunge were thought to be loners because they are difficult to catch, research has shown that they sometimes swim in loose packs consisting of small numbers of individuals. Muskellunge depend strongly on sight to find food. Their eyes are highly moblile, enabling them to track fastswimming prey and to see in practically any direction. Muskellunge also have incredible might vision, but they do not fare well in low-clarity waters.

Food / Feed Strategy: Muskellunge are the top predator in any body of water where they occur, and they will eat larger prey than most other freshwater fish. Adult muskellunge will eat fish from one-fourth to onehalf of their own length and up to 20% of their own weight. Young muskellunge do not hesitate to attack other fish of nearly their own size, grabbing the prey by the head and swimming around with the tail sticking out of their mouth until they digest enough to swallow the rest of the unfortunate victim. Muskellunge fry (the young) start to feed on plankton shortly after hatching.

Body Form or Style:Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciifrom Mouth Position: Subterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Esox_masquinongy/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:28

Common Name: False Neon Tetra Scientific Name: Paracheirodon Kingdom: Aniamlia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characiform

Geography / Habitat: They have been found in northwest Brazil in the River Negro to Colombia and Venezuela in the upper Orinoco River basin. Temperatures in these waters range from 72 to 82 degrees F. Because these jungle waters are typically shaded by overgrown trees, when keeping green neon tetras in captivity it is best to duplicate this natural shading by making the sides and bottoms of the aquarium dark.

Life Strategy: There is little information on the behavior of P. simulans. They are typically found in schools of 6 fish or more. These are also thought to be the schools within which they mate. Small localized migrations may take place in response to changing water levels.

Food / Feed Strategy: Green Noen tetras is omnivorous. These fish tend to eat small live foods such as crustaceans, fish larvae, and insects.

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform


Mouth Position: Subtermintal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Paracheirodon_simulans/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:29

Common Name: Brown Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriform

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Brown bullhead are native to freshwater habitats in Canada and the United States from 25째 to 54째 north latitude. They are distributed in the Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages, ranging from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Mobile Bay, Alabama, and in the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi basins from Quebec west to southeast Saskatchewan and south to Louisiana. Brown bullhead have been introduced outside of this range, including countries of northern, western, and eastern Europe, the Middle East, New Zealand, Chile, and Puerto Rico (U.S.). They have also been introduced and well established in the western United States and British Columbia.

Life Strategy: Brown bullhead are a non-migratory species. They are social fish that spend time in schools. Food / Feed Strategy: Brown bullhead are benthic, opportunistic omnivores. In aquarium settings they eat most food given to them. Juveniles eat zooplankton, including chironomids, cladocerans, ostracods, and amphipods, insects, including mayfly larvae and caddisfly larvae, and plants. Adults feed on insects, small fish, fish eggs, mollusks, plants, leeches, worms, and crayfish.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform


Mouth Position:Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_nebulosus/

Title: Freshwater

Species #:30

Common Name: Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Silver carp live in freshwater in temperate (6 to 28 째C) to subtropical climates. They are commonly found in impoundments or backwaters of large slow flowing rivers or large lakes. Silver carp are benthopelagic, but they often swim near the surface of the water and are well known for breaching the surface.

Life Strategy: Silver carp fry generally travel in schools to reduce predation. They are typically more active during the day. Silver carp are also able to jump out of the water. It is believed that during feeding, debris and other irritants clog their gills, and they jump in an effort to remove blockages. They may also exhibit this behavior as a means to escape during a disturbance (usually caused by a boat).

Food / Feed Strategy: Silver carp are filter feeders, feeding primarily on phytoplankton. Using specialized gill rakers covered with a thick matrix of calcified substances, silver carp are able to filter out the very smallest organisms (ranging in size from 8 to 100 micrometers). However, only a small part of their diet consists of zooplankton and detritus. Silver carp may also eat small arthropods and algea.

Body Form or Style: Compressifrom Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangifrom Mouth Position: pharyngeal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypophthalmichthys_molitrix/

Title:freshwater

Species #:31

Common Name: Beluga Scientific Name: Huso huso Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Acipenseriformes

Family: Acipenseridae

Geography / Habitat: The beluga sturgeon, Huso huso, is endemic to the Ponto-Caspian Sea region that includes the Caspian Sea (the largest inland body of water in the world) as well as the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

Life Strategy: Acipenseriform species use environmental parameters such as water temperature, flow velocity, and turbidity as spawning cues (Beamesderfer & Farr 1997; Mayden & Kuhajda 1996, Scarnecchia et al. 1989, Sulak & Clugston 1998). Damming alters these cues, limiting natural recruitment. A high rate of tumor development and significant percentage of goandal resorption near the Volgograd dams reveal that sturgeon species, including Huso huso, are often in a state of chronic physical stress caused by habitat degredation.

Food / Feed Strategy: Adult beluga sturgeon are mainly piscivores, swimming at middle depths and preying mostly on pelagic fish species. This is unlike most other sturgeon species, which normally feed on bethic invertebrates while swimming along the bottom. In the Black Sea they feed on species such as flounder (Platichthys flesus) and other flatfish, gobies (Gobiidae), and Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)/

Body Form or Style:Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunniform


Mouth Position:Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Huso_huso/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:32

Common Name: Alabama Cavefish Scientific Name: Speoplatyrhinus Poulsoni Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percopsiformes

Family: Amblyopsidae

Geography / Habitat: Key cave, the single locale of S. poulsoni, is a large underground multi-level structure that has thousands of meters of mapped area. The pools of water in the cave in which the fish dwell are typically 5 to 10 feet deep. Seasonal flooding within the cave fluctuates this depth. Far within the cave are very deep pools of unknown depth.

Life Strategy: There is little to nothing known about behavior in Alabama cavefish. They are likely to be active at any time of the day or night since there is no difference between day and night in these environments.

Food / Feed Strategy: No invasive studies have been done due to the species extremely endangered status and the fragility of their cave habitat. It is thought that the diet consists of copepods, isopods, amphipods, and small cavefish. In any case S. poulsoni sits at the top of a food chain that begins with incident grey bat (Myotis grisescens) droppings, or guano.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform


Mouth Position:Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Speoplatyrhinus_poulsoni/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:33

Common Name: Rainbow Darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma Caeruleum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: Rainbow darters prefer the fast-moving currents of shallow riffles in creeks and small rivers. They also have a preference for gravel or rocky-bottom streams. Distinct populations of rainbow darters have also been discovered in the tributaries of the lower Mississippi river in southwest Mississippi and eastern Louisiana.

Life Strategy: The different coloration of males and females and changes in coloration during the reproductive season may serve as visual signals to other darters and likely play a role in sexual selection. Recent studies have suggested that rainbow darters show a decrease in activity levels when exposed to macerated skin from either other rainbow darters or a conspecific such as the yoke darter, Etheostoma juliae.

Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow darters feed on a variety of aquatic insect larvae, small snails, and crayfish. They will also feed on various fish eggs, typically either minnow or lamprey eggs.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Pharyngeal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Etheostoma_caeruleum/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:34

Common Name: Arapaima Scientific Name: Arapaima Gigas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Osteoglossiformes

Family: Arapaimidae

Geography / Habitat: Within the Amazon basin, A. gigas is found in several different types of habitat, such as the floodplain lakes of this region, the large tributaries of the Amazon river including the Rio Madera and the Rio Machado, and the varzea or forest. The pirarucu inhabits both white water and clear water.

Life Strategy: Due to the geographic range that A. gigas inhabits, the animal's life cycle is greatly affected by the seasonal flooding that occurs. Half of the year the pirarucu experiences an abundance of water, which is a benefit to these aquatic organisms; however, the other half of the year the pirarucu experiences drought conditions. The pirarucu has adapted to this great fluctuation in many aspects of it's life, including reproduction. A. gigas lays it's eggs during the months of February, March, and April when the water levels are low.

Food / Feed Strategy: The pirarucu usually finds food near the top of the water because it is an obligate air breather that needs to surface every 10-20 min. However, the pirarucu is also capable of diving.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Arapaima_gigas/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:35

Common Name: Sand Sturgeon Scientific Name: Scaphirhynchus Platorynchus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:Actinopertygii

Order: Acipenseriformes

Family: Acipenseridae

Geography / Habitat: Shovelnose sturgeons are a freshwater species historically found in most portions of the Mississippi and Missouri river basins. This area ranges from Montana south to Louisiana, and from Pennsylvania west to New Mexico.

Life Strategy: Eggs are deposited on rocky substrates, providing protection for young shovelnose sturgeons to develop in safety. As the young mature they begin to travel greater distances away from their natal habitat. Females grow significantly faster than males, enabling them to travel further earlier. These fish spend their lives swimming near the bottom over cobble or gravel substrates in fast, turbid water, feeding mostly on invertebrates.

Food / Feed Strategy: Altered stream flow can affect the sturgeon’s ability to find food and also influences the abundance of prey organisms. The barbels detect prey, and then the sucker type mouth easily picks up the food organisms. Most food is found over sand and gravel substrates.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform


Mouth Position:Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Scaphirhynchus_platorynchus/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:36

Common Name: Deepwater Sculpin Scientific Name: Myoxocephalus Thompsonii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Cottidae

Geography / Habitat: Although there are similar Nearctic and Palearctic species, as well as similar European freshwater species, deepwater sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii are limited to North America. Once abundant in the Great Lakes and most deep lakes of Canada .

Life Strategy: These fish live in cold, deep waters and very little is known about their behavior. Food / Feed Strategy: Data on food preference is based on stomach contents of captured fish. The most prominent food item in all specimens examined was the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi. Also often consumed were opossum shrimp,

Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Myoxocephalus_thompsonii/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:37

Common Name: Piranha Scientific Name: Pygocentrus Nattereri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae

Geography / Habitat: They can also be found in rivers of northeast Brazil and the Guianas. However, the species is not found typically in blackwater streams.

Life Strategy: This results in ventral-to-ventral interactions among the male and female. Eggs are placed in the sediment, in bowl shaped nests. These nests are around 4-5 cm in depth and 15 cm in diameter. The eggs are in clusters and are attached to the bottom vegetation. There may also be a relationship between the times of the spawning and the time of the wet season.

Food / Feed Strategy: Foraging methods vary in different life stages of P. nattereri. During the day, smaller fish (80-110 mm) search for food. At dawn, late afternoon, and early evening the larger fish (150-240 mm) search for food. Pygocentrus nattereri groups gather in vegetation in order to wait for prey. The group typically includes around 20-30 fishes. In the daytime P. nattereri can be seen lurking or ambushing prey.

Body Form or Style: Globiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pygocentrus_nattereri/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:38

Common Name: Bluntnose Darter Scientific Name: Etheostoma Chorosoma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: Bluntnose darters are typically found in sandy, slow running, shallow water. They also can be found occupying areas with scattered debris. Substrates that are somewhat firm also provide a good habitat for bluntnose darters.

Life Strategy: No specific behavioral information was found on bluntnose darters. However Johnny darters, Etheostoma nigrum, have no swimbladder so they are benthic dwelling. They can dart around from rock to rock with quick bursts of speed.

Food / Feed Strategy: Bluntnose darters are invertivores. Bluntnose darters feed on minute freshwater organisms such as chironomid, blackfly larvae, Cyclops species, and Daphnia species.

Body Form or Style:Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform


Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Etheostoma_chlorosoma/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:39

Common Name: American Burbot Scientific Name: Lota Lota Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadifomres

Family: Lotidae

Geography / Habitat: Burbot are demersal fish found in deep temperate lake bottoms and slow moving cold river bottoms between 4 and 18 degrees C (Riede 2004; Cohen et al. 1990). Primarily found at depths ranging from 1 to 700 m, these fish prefer fresh waters but are also found in some brackish water systems

Life Strategy: Burbot are opportunistic piscivores with a diverse diet. They hide amongst available refugia in their epibenthic habitat such as rocks and fallen logs, and use ambush tactics to capture prey . Food / Feed Strategy: Newly hatched burbot are completely planktivorous, and remain so even when they are no longer gape limited (Ghan and Sprules 1993). Diet of larval burbot is dominated by rotifer species for the first two weeks. Diet then shifts to slightly larger nauplii, changing further during week four to cycloid copepods, daphnia, and calanoid copepods.

Body Form or Style:Taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lota_lota/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:40

Common Name: Eastern Newt Scientific Name: Notophthalmus Kingdom: Aniamlia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Amphibia

Order: N/A

Family: Salamandridae

Geography / Habitat: The eastern newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, is one of only a few species in the Family Salamandridae native to North America. This newt ranges throughout most of eastern North America, from the Canadian Maritime Provinces west to the Great Lakes and south to Texas, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida.

Life Strategy: With the aid of its flattened tail, Notophthalmus viridescens moves quickly in water, yet is slow on land. Larvae are fairly sedentary, settling at the bottom of the water to hide. They appear to segregate by size in ponds, which probably serves as a defense against larger, cannibalistic adults, however few are lucky enough to survive the first winter.

Food / Feed Strategy: The aquatic larvae eat small invertebrates including water fleas, snails, and beetle larvae; the terrestrial efts eat small invertebrates, mainly those found in humus and leaf litter, including snails, spring tails, and soil mites; the adult newts eat mainly midge larva and other aquatic immature stages of insects.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Notophthalmus_viridescens/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:41

Common Name: Bandang Scientific Name: Chanos Chanos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gonorynchiformes

Family: Chanidae

Geography / Habitat: Milkfish are native to regions in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Their range spans from the east coast of Africa and Madagascar to the coasts of India and Southeast Asia around Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, northward to the southern tip of Japan, and eastward into the Pacific Islands.

Life Strategy: The behavior of milkfish is still one of the areas that has yet to be extensively studied. Large schools of milkfish have been seen in nearshore waters with well-developed reefs and in coastal lagoons, suggesting that they are social.

Food / Feed Strategy: Milkfish feed on a variety of foods depending on the type of environment. As larvae they feed on zooplankton. As they develop into juveniles they start to feed on benthic items. The most common food items for juveniles are cynobacteria, diatoms, detritus, green algae, and invertebrates such as small crustaceans and worms. Adults feed on similar items, and on planktonic and nektonic prey such as clupeid juveniles.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Thuuniform Mouth Position: Pharyngeal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chanos_chanos/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:42

Common Name: Yellowfin Madtom Scientific Name: Noturus Flavipinnis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygiiform

Order: Siluriform

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Before 1893, yellowfin madtom populations could also be found in North Fork Holston River in Virginia, Hines Creek in Tennessee, and Chickamauga Creek in Georgia.

Life Strategy: This species is nocturnal and feeds mostly at night, remaining hidden under cover of rocks, sunken leaves, and brush during the day.

Food / Feed Strategy: Feeding by Noturus flavipinnis takes place mainly at night. It may, however, sometimes feed during the day. Its diet consists mostly of aquatic insect larvae, but crayfish may also be eaten. This species may exhibit some preferences in diet, but it is also an opportunistic feeder.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform


Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Noturus_flavipinnis/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:43

Common Name: Electric Eel Scientific Name: Electrophorus Electricus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gymnotidae

Family: Gymnotidae

Geography / Habitat: This includes the Guyanas and Orinoco Rivers as well as the middle and lower Amazon basin. However, they must surface rather frequently because they are air breathers, gaining up to 80 percent of their oxygen through this method.

Life Strategy: Although electric eels have the potential to be fairly aggressive animals, they are not. They really only use their strong electric organ discharges for predation and defensive purposes. Weak electric organ discharges are used for electrolocation as well as identification of foreign objects. This is especially important because of their poor eyesight. They are nocturnal animals that live in muddy dark waters, so they must rely on electricity for sensing. Electric eels tend to stay relatively rigid in order to fully use their electrical capabilities. They have a positive charge near the head, while the tail end is negative.

Food / Feed Strategy: To find prey E. electricus uses its weak electric organ, also known as the Sachs organ. This transmits a weak pulsating signal, thought to be used for locating and directional purposes. Once prey is found the electric eel will use a much larger electrical current to stun the fish. This is done with the two larger electric organs, the Main and Hunters organs.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarngiform Mouth Position: Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Electrophorus_electricus/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:44

Common Name: Marble Cichlid Scientific Name: Astronotus Ocellatus Kingdom: Animlia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae

Geography / Habitat: Found in the tropical lowlands of South America, A. ocellatus prefers the floodplains and swamps of the Amazon River basin.

Life Strategy: In captivity, A. ocellatus is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fishes, largely because of its coloring and distinguishing personalities. They are said to be able to recognize their owners from other people, and can even be trained to perform simple tricks for food, like jumping out of the water.

Food / Feed Strategy: Although these predators are not at all choosy, they feed mostly on insect larvae and smaller fish. Their feeding habits require that Oscars have excellent eyesight. Because of this, they have been the subject of numerous studies concerning eyesight in fish.

Body Form or Style: Globiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Astronotus_ocellatus/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:45

Common Name: Southern brook Lamprey Scientific Name: Lchthyomyzon Gagei Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: N/A

Order: Petromyzontiformes

Family: Petromyzontidae

Geography / Habitat: The southern brook lamprey has a narrow geographic range in North America, living only in the Mississippi River basin, Tennessee River drainage and Gulf of Mexico drainages. The Mississippi River basin is 3705 km long and has a large range of depth, width, and speed depending on the location, but the southern brook lamprey typically stays in the smaller rivers and tributaries.

Life Strategy: Once in the adult form, the southern brook lamprey has only a few days to reproduce and create a nest for their offspring. The spawning is conducted in large groups of around 20-40 and the adults may work together to build nests.

Food / Feed Strategy: The southern brook lamprey is non-parasitic. The larval forms feed on algae and bacteria floating near their stationary location in gravel or sand. Adult southern brook lampreys do not feed, and rely on stored energy sources to survive a short time.

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style:Anguilliform


Mouth Position: Gape& Suck Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ichthyomyzon_gagei/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:46

Common Name: Danube Catfish Scientific Name: Silurus Glanis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Silurifomes

Family: Siluridae

Geography / Habitat: It has been introduced to several other areas including Germany, France, Spain, England, Greece, Turkey and the Netherlands. These catfish sometimes enter brackish water in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea.

Life Strategy: They may live in river bed holes under overhangs of banks, or under other obstructions on river or lake beds such as sunken trees. These fish are most active at night and can tolerate brackish water.

Food / Feed Strategy: When they reach larger sizes they begin to eat worms, snails, crustaceans, aquatic insects, and small fish. At adult sizes they will also prey on ducks, voles, crayfish, fish, eels, frogs, rats, coypu, and snakes. They use the incredible suction created by suddenly opening their large mouths to take in prey.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform


Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Silurus_glanis/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:47

Common Name: Blue- back Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus Nerka Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmoniformes

Geography / Habitat: Sockeye salmon are born in lakes, rivers, or streams, which are calmer than the Pacific Ocean. After fry, or young salmon, develop, they migrate to the Pacific Ocean where they spend most of their life. They can be located as far north as northern Alaska and as far south as northern California. During the mating season, Sockeye salmon travel inland as far as mid-west Idaho.

Life Strategy: Sockeye salmon are social, and they swim in runs when migrating to freshwater streams to spawn. They also establish social hierarchies, usually at times of reproduction. Typically the largest male is most dominant.

Food / Feed Strategy: While in the ocean, sockeye salmon primarily consume zooplankton. In freshwater environments, they are known to eat insects, and, when upstream, occasionally snails.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thuniform


Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_nerka/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:48

Common Name: Redear Scientific Name: Lepomis Microlophus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinpterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Redear sunfish prefer warm and calm or stagnant waters. As a result, preferred habitat is restricted to ponds, lakes, river backwaters, and reservoirs. The riverine habitats in which they are found, tend to be large and slow flowing with moderate amounts of aquatic vegetation. Redear sunfish are mainly found in water that is at least 2 m deep.

Life Strategy: Redear sunfish that share habitat with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are forced to compete for food as fry and juveniles. They eat insect larvae until their jaws are strong enough to crush the shells of their primary prey, aquatic snails. Once their jaws are strong enough, competition for food decreases due to an abundance of snails. Redear sunfish are crepuscular and tend to rest during the day.

Food / Feed Strategy: Redear sunfish are mainly bottom feeders. Fry stay in benthic waters and feed on algae and microcrustaceans. Juveniles eat insects, insect larvae, and small snails. Once their jaws fully develop, usually at about 1 year old, they begin to feed exclusively on snails. Adults feed on snails, aquatic insects, copepods, and organisms with hard shells, such as crustaceans. Evidence suggests that redear sunfish prefer snails with moderate shell thickness, as opposed to thin or thick shelled snails.

Body Form or Style:Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform


Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepomis_microlophus/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:49

Common Name: Barred marlin Scientific Name: Tetrapturus Audax Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Lstiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: Striped marlin are pelagic billfish native to the Indian and Pacific oceans. They are found in coastal waters offshore of Africa, Mexico, South America, and New Zealand. In North American waters, Striped marlin are most common south of Point Conception, California, but range as far north as Oregon.

Life Strategy: The behavior of striped marlin in the Pacific Ocean was analyzed using data from individuals tagged between 2005 and 2008. Indiviuals in the Southwest Pacific Ocean were found on average to swim 200 meters deeper than those in the Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Food / Feed Strategy: Planktonic larvae and small juveniles consume zooplankton. Dietary analysis of adult striped marlin during a yearly cycle in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico, found prey consisting of epipelagic organisms from the neritic and oceanic zones.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Tetrapturus_audax/

Title:Freshwater

Species #:50

Common Name: Central Stoneroller Scientific Name: Campostoma Anomalum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Central stoneroller preferred habitat is pools or riffles with gravel or rubble substrate in small to medium-sized streams. They prefer cool, clear water with moderate to fast currents. Central stonerollers are found from New York west through the Great Lakes to Wisconsin and Minnesota and south through the Mississippi valley to Mexico.

Life Strategy: Little is known about the behavior of central stonerollers, aside from reproduction. Some fish undergo migrations during spawning season to find suitable habitat, whereas some individuals spend an entire year in the same pool.

Food / Feed Strategy: Power and Matthews (1983) described central stonerollers as voracious feeders, with a diet largely consisting of filamentous algae. A group of central stonerollers introduced into a stream significantly reduced the algae present in one hour, from 22.0 to 6.3 mg ash free dry weight per square cm. Matthews et al.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform


Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Campostoma_anomalum/ Title: Saltwater

Species #:01

Common Name: Miniata grouper Scientific Name: Cephalopholis miniatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: It is found associated with coral reefs from 4m deep (more commonly from 15m) up to 160m, in both marine and brackish water, sometimes in groups of 10-15 individuals. Juveniles may find shelter in mangrove swamps. Life Strategy: spawning usually occurs territorially at dusk. During courtship, both sexes darken except for a white keyhole-shaped patch at the center of the body.

Food / Feed Strategy: C. miniata feeds mainly on fishes, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (sea goldies) and crustaceans.

Body Form or Style: compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: gape and suck Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopholis_argus#Reproduction

Title: saltwater

Species #:02

Common Name: snook Scientific Name: Centropomus undecimalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centropomidae

Geography / Habitat: Common snook are amphidromous fish, moving between fresh and salt water during their life, but not for the purpose of breeding. They can be found in freshwater, brackish, or marine environments at depths up to 22 m. They commonly associate with underwater structures such as pilings, reefs, or sea grass beds, but they most often prefer mangrove-fringed estuarine habitats. As adults, common snook are generally non-migratory, but often assemble in high salinity regions in order to spawn. Life Strategy: Although common snook can occupy both freshwater and marine environments, they must spawn in saltwater, as sperm can only become active in saline conditions. Common snook are often observed congregating at the mouths of rivers, inlets, and canals during times of spawning. Several males often follow a single female during these mass spawning congregations. Common snook spawn in the evening over a period of several days Food / Feed Strategy: Common snook are pelagic feeders. Daily feeding peaks occurrs 2 hours before sunrise and 2 to 3 hours after sunset. Their feeding behavior is affected by the tidal cycle, and feeding activity noticeably increases with an increase in water flow following a period of standing flood or ebb tides

Body Form or Style: compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:subcarangiform Mouth Position:supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Centropomus_undecimalis/

Title: saltwater

Species #:03

Common Name: saltwater crocodile Scientific Name: Crocodylus porosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilia

Order: Crocodylia

Family: Crocodylidae

Geography / Habitat: The Saltwater Crocodile shows a high tolerance for salinity, being found mostly in coastal waters or around rivers. It may also be found in freshwater rivers, billabongs and swamps. Life Strategy: The Saltwater Crocodile breeds during the wet season which falls between the months of November and March. Despite the fact that the Saltwater Crocodile is normally found in saltwater areas, breeding grounds are established in fresh water. Males mark out their territory and become defensive if another male tries to enter. Food / Feed Strategy: The Saltwater Crocodile is a predator and has many different types of prey. When young, Crocodylus porosus is restricted to smaller prey like insects, amphibians, crustaceans and small fish and reptiles. When they become an adult, they feed on larger prey such as mud crabs, turtles, snakes, birds, buffalo, wild boar, and monkeys.

Body Form or Style:


Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation:

Title: saltwater

Species #:04

Common Name: angelfish Scientific Name: Holacanthus ciliaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: Queen angelfish are primarily found in coral reefs, which provide shelter and abundant food sources. They can be found at depths up to 70 m. Although they are naturally marine fish, queen angelfish can tolerate changes in salinity. As such, they are often placed in marine aquariums Life Strategy: Queen angelfish are believed to be polygynous, and harems have been observed during courtship and pre-spawning. Harems generally consist of 1 male and up to 4 females. A male courts a female by displaying his pectoral fins, flicking them outward every few seconds. The female then ascends in the water, and the male positions himself below the female. The male touches his snout to her vent (genital) area, rising with the female with his belly close to hers. As the pair rises to about 18 m in depth, they release eggs and sperm. Food / Feed Strategy: Queen angelfish primarily feed on sponges and corals. They also eat other marine invertebrates, including tunicates, jellyfish, hydroids, bryozoans. They may also eat plankton and algae.

Body Form or Style: taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: filter feeder Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Holacanthus_ciliaris/ Title: saltwater Species #:05 Common Name: Lates calcarifer Scientific Name: Asian seabass Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Latidae

Geography / Habitat: Barramundi are catadromous, spending most of their life in fresh water and migrating to salt water in order to breed. Smaller fish are found in rivers and streams and larger fish are found in the ocean and estuaries

Life Strategy: Barramundi spawn seasonally. Since they are broadcast spawners (Luna, 2008; Moore, 1982), it can be inferred that there is very little social interaction among individuals. Males and females congregate for the purpose of spawning. Spawning events tend to take place at the mouths of estuaries on or near a full moon, after which tides draw the eggs up into the estuaries

Food / Feed Strategy: Barramundi are opportunistic predators. They eat microcrustaceans such as copepods and amphipods as juvenile fish under 40 mm. As larger juveniles they eat macrocrustaceans like Penaeidae and Palaemonidae. These crustacean prey are found mainly near the bottom of the water column, so this diet also protects juveniles from most of their predators, which hunt closer to the water surface. Mollusks are consumed to a lesser degree.

Body Form or Style: compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:carangiform Mouth Position: gape-and-suck Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lates_calcarifer/

Title: saltwater

Species #:06

Common Name: Petromyzon marinus Scientific Name: Eel sucker Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: none

Order: Petromyzontiformes

Family: Petromyzontidae

Geography / Habitat: Sea lampreys are anadromous, and migration is triggered by changes in water temperature. In general, they prefer shallow coastal areas, though they are found at depths between 0.91 and 4.57 m. Young lampreys are hatched in gravel or rock beds in small, freshwater streams and rivers.

Life Strategy: Little is known about the mating systems of sea lampreys. It is thought that male sea lampreys emit a pheromone composed of bile acids that alerts ovulating females to their presence. This signal may also be related to mating preferences and may be sent over large distances. Male sea lampreys selectively dig holes into river or stream bottoms and fertilize eggs once the female has laid them. This external fertilization allows multiple males to fertilize eggs.

Food / Feed Strategy: Newly hatched larval sea lampreys are freshwater filter-feeders that consume detritus, algae, and other organic material found at river bottoms. Once in a saline environment (or in the Great Lakes), sea lampreys develop parasitic abilities, attach themselves to a fish and ingest their blood and skin.

Body Form or Style: anguiliform


Swim / Locomotion Style:anguiliform Mouth Position: tubular Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Petromyzon_marinus/

Title: saltwater

Species #: 07

Common Name: Globicephala melas Scientific Name: long-finned pilot whale Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetacea

Family: Delphinidae

Geography / Habitat: Long-finned pilot whales prefer cooler saltwater aquatic biomes from 13 to 30 degrees Celsius. Their diving depths can vary tremendously, with a range of from 30 to 1,800 meters. They are found in both pelagic and coastal aquatic biomes.

Life Strategy: Mating takes place between, not within, pods. Males display an aggressive courtship behavior, including forcefully colliding melon-to-melon at a heightened speed. The mating system is polygynous.

Food / Feed Strategy: Long-finned pilot whales are carnivorous, feeding primarily on mollusks and fish, and eating around 34 kg (75 lb) of food a day. Squid, such as Logio pealei and Illex illecebrous, are favorite foods. Fish, such as mackerel, Atlantic herring, cod, and turbot, are also popular foods. These whales are known to take advantage of the grouping effects of human commercial fishing activities as a way to easily catch prey.

Body Form or Style: globiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:thunnniform Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Globicephala_melas/

Title:saltwater

Species #:08

Common Name: dermatolepis Scientific Name: Leather bass Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: Leather bass live in reef areas with a depth between 4 to 40 m in the subtropics (35째 N to 7째S). Leather bass inhabit rocky reefs and areas near the base of rocky faces. Juveniles are vulnerable to larger predators and will often times seek shelter in the spines of sea urchins.

Life Strategy: Leather bass assemble at dusk to mate. They locate a spot high on the reef, and then gather by the hundreds to spawn. The males and females pair off and hurry towards the surface, releasing a cloud of eggs and sperm.

Food / Feed Strategy: Leather bass can be found hovering above rocky reefs during the day searching for food. They feed on small benthic fishes that are disturbed when foraging grazers come to feed in an area. Occasionally, they feed on crustaceans, crabs, and shrimp nekton.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style:


Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dermatolepis_dermatolepis/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:09

Common Name: Leopard Shark Scientific Name: Galeocerdo Cuvier Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Tiger sharks are found in many subtropical and tropical waters, primarily from 45째N to 32째S. Tiger sharks have been sighted from the eastern coast of North America to the eastern coast of Brazil. This includes the coasts of southern North America, Mexico, and Latin America along the Gulf of Mexico. Although they prefer the sea grass ecosystems of the costal areas, they occasionally inhabit other areas due to prey availability. Tiger sharks spend approximately 36 % of their time in shallow coastlne habitats (Heithaus et al., 2002), generally at depths of 2.5 to 145 m. This species, however, has been documented several kilometers from the shallow areas and at depths up to 350 m.

Life Strategy: Tiger sharks are a nocturnal predators and are solitary except during the mating seasons or while communally feeding on large carcasses. During these group feedings, tiger sharks have a loose social hierarchy where larger sharks feed first. Smaller sharks circle around the carcass until the larger sharks are full, then move in to feed. Violence is minimal during these scavenging feasts. In tiger sharks, the heterocercal tail, or caudal fin, is the primary source of propulsion. The caudal fin produces a downward thrust of water behind the center of balance in a shark, which should cause its head to turn upwards. However, because the tail also moves side to side, it keeps the head from turning upwards. Because of this, tiger sharks move in an S-shaped fashion.

Food / Feed Strategy: The diet of tiger sharks includes mollusks, birds, snakes, crustaceans, sea turtles, and dugongs. Serrated teeth give this species the ability to penetrate the shells of sea turtles. Tiger sharks often scavenge dead or injured whales, and large tiger sharks can survive several weeks without feeding. This species most likely relies on stealth rather than strength and speed to catch prey.

Body Form or Style: Fusiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Galeocerdo_cuvier/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:10

Common Name: Seatrout Scientific Name: Atractoscion Nobilis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percifromes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: White sea bass can be found along the Pacific coastline, from Alaska to Baja California and in the Gulf of California. Larval and juvenile white seabass are often found in Sebastian Vizcaino Bay and San Juanico Bay, Baja California. Rocky reefs and soft bottomed habitats are ideal.

Juveniles are often found in shallow water along the coast, just beyond the surf zone where they preys upon mysids and drifting macrophytes.

Life Strategy: There is little data on the general behavior of white seabass in the wild. Captive-bred individuals that have been tagged at hatcheries, have been recaptured at locations up to 85 nautical miles away. Other evidence from tagged specimens suggest that these fish tend to migrate northward along the coast as ocean temperatures rise during summer, or as warmer extend north during El Ni単o events.

Food / Feed Strategy: white sea bass feeds on northern anchovy, market squid, Pacific sardines, blacksmith, silversides, and pelagic red crab. Larger A. nobilis also feed on Pacific mackerel, and juveniles feed almost exclusively on mysid shrimp.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Supraterminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Atractoscion_nobilis/

Title: Slatwater

Species #:11

Common Name: Potter Angel Scientific Name: Centropyge Potteri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chodata

Class: Actinpterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: Centropyge potteri is endemic to the Hawaiian islands and Johnston's atoll between 30 and 17 degrees north latitude. Life Strategy: C. potteri is a solitary species that only interacts with its consepcifics during courtship. It remains awake but inactive at night, and spends most of its time during the day foraging. Individuals are very territorial, and therefore remain close to their coral crevices. Perhaps the most interesting behavior of this species is its ability to change sex, as described in the development section above.

Food / Feed Strategy: Individuals use their many comblike teeth to pull food items off of hard reef surfaces. Their diet consists of benthic algae, cnidarians, and tunicates.

Body Form or Style: compressifrom Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: terminal


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Centropyge_potteri/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:12

Common Name: Sand Stargazer Scientific Name: Dactyloscopidae Kingdom: Aniamalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order:Percifromes

Family: Dactyloscopidae

Geography / Habitat: Dactyloscopids live buried in the sand with only the eyes, along with the snout and sometimes the top of the head, uncovered. They usually occupy shallow warm water at depths between two and 15 m, but one species, Gillellus semicinctus, has been found between five and 137 m. Some groups inhabit bare, open beaches in or behind the surge zone, but others are found exclusively in patches of sand that are near rocks, coral structures, or marl bottoms. A few species can be found in estuaries, and at least one enters fresh water.

Life Strategy: Sand stargazers burrow in the sand and remain there most of the time lying in wait for their prey. They delve into the sand using sinuous body and anal fin motions, and swimming movements of the pectoral fins. They may bury themselves completely or leave the eyes, snout or top of the head uncovered. One behavior engaged in by males is egg-guarding, accomplished by carrying a ball of eggs under each pectoral fin.

Food / Feed Strategy: Sand stargazers are carnivorous, lying in wait under the sand to attack small fishes and invertebrates.

Body Form or Style:globiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Dactyloscopidae/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:13

Common Name: Copper rockfish Scientific Name: Sebastes Caurinus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaenifromes

Family:Sebastidae

Geography / Habitat: Copper rockfish are demersal, preferring the ocean bottom near low-profile rocks and reefs. The range of water depths they inhabit is relatively broad, from 10 to 183 meters, and the fish are found in shallower water during upwelling. Most often, these fish are in close contact with reefs, maintaining an even closer contact during the winter and spring than in the summer months. Tagging experiments have suggested that mature fish do not move far from their home location.

Life Strategy: Adult copper rockfish are highly residential and remain near their home site. Although they are a solitary species and usually seen alone, they are sometimes present in mixed aggregates with other species. Individual fish display agnostic behavior to show "protective territoriality".

Food / Feed Strategy: Copper rockfish are opportunistic carnivores that feed mainly on organisms present near the ocean floor, usually crabs, mollusks and other fish. They feed during the day as well as at night. Often the prey varies with the season with crabs eaten more often in winter and early spring. Large copper rockfish tend to be aggressive feeders and sometimes prey on Squalus acanthias, a small shark species.

Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform


Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sebastes_caurinus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:14

Common Name: Dungeness Crab Scientific Name: Cancer Magister Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: N/A

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Cancridae

Geography / Habitat: Dungeness crabs are found on the Pacific coast in sandy bottoms below the tidal mark. They can also be found at lowtide in sandy or muddy bays where there is a good growth of eel grass. Dungeness crabs are intolerant of low dissolved oxygen conditions.

Life Strategy: Dungeness crabs bury themselves almost completely with sand. While covered, they are able to keep from suffocating due to hairs located above water intakes at the bases of their claws. These hairs keep the gill chamber free of sand grains.

Food / Feed Strategy: Cancer magister eat a variety of marine invertebrates and fish. As juveniles, the Dungeness crabs feed on fish, shrimp, molluscs and crustaceans. Adults feed on bivalves, crustaceans and fishes. The crabs are able to open shells by chipping away at them with their heavy pinching claws.

Body Form or Style: Globiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciform Mouth Position: Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cancer_magister/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:15

Common Name: Doctorfish Scientific Name: Anarrhichthys Ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Anarhichadidae

Geography / Habitat: Wolf-eels are found in the temperate North Pacific in coastal waters from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan to the Aleutian islands and along the western coast of North America to Baja California.

Life Strategy: Wolf-eels remain in their rock crevices during the day and emerge to forage at night. They roam widely looking for fish and invertebrate prey, but have a great deal of site fidelity - returning to the daytime dens and inhabiting them for long periods of time. Vacated dens are rapidly inhabited by other wolfeels, though, so they may patrol potential den sites regularly.

Food / Feed Strategy: Wolf-eels use their robust jaws and teeth to eat hard-shelled invertebrates, such as crabs up to 114 mm in width, snails, sand dollars, sea urchins, mussels, clams, and abalone, especially Haliotis kamtschatkana.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Anarrhichthys_ocellatus/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:16

Common Name: Greenland Shark Scientific Name: Somniosus Microcehalus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Squaliformes

Family: Somniosidae

Geography / Habitat: They occupy intertidal regions in addition to some river mouths and shallow bay areas during the winter months and often move to depths from 180 to 550 meters during warmer months. They have been observed as low as 1200 meters, with one observation at 2200 meters off the coast of Georgia extending its range both geographically and in terms of depth. In northern parts of their range, Greenland sharks are found from 0 to 1200 meters in waters from 1 to 12 degrees Celsius.

Life Strategy: They spend much of their time hovering near the sea floor in search of food. They may also be capable of pursuing prey. These sharks have been observed exhibiting the behavior of animals that often prey on seals, even stalking a camera operator in one rare instance. However, no attacks on humans by this species have been confirmed.

Food / Feed Strategy: Fish, marine mammals, and carrion are three staples in the diet of Somniosus microcephalus. Fish include herring (Clupeinae), salmon (Salmonidae), smelt (Osmeridae), cod (Gadidae), pollock (Theragra), haddock (Melanogrammus), halibut (Hippoglossus), redfish (Hoplostethus), sculpins (Cottoidei), lumpfish (Cyclopterus), and skates (Rajiformes). Seals (Phocidae) and small whales (Delphinidae) are also common food items. Drowned horses and reindeer have also been found in the stomachs of captured specimens.

Body Form or Style:Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Somniosus_microcephalus/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:17

Common Name: Mandarin Fish Scientific Name: Synchiropus Splendidus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymidae

Geography / Habitat:

Life Strategy:

Food / Feed Strategy:

Body Form or Style: Compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Obstrciiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Synchiropus_splendidus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:18

Common Name: Swell shark Scientific Name: Cephaloscyllium Ventriosum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Scyliorhinidae

Geography / Habitat: swell shark is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean, ranging from Central California, in the Monterey Bay, to southern Mexico and central Chile. The depth range of this species varies from inshore to 457 m and is most common at depths of 5 to 37 m. Cephaloscyllium ventriosum is sometimes found in algal-covered bottom without kelp, but prefers rocky, algal-covered areas of kelp beds.

Life Strategy: Although C. ventriosum is a solitary species, it is sometimes found in groups of several individuals while resting. Occasionally they are found piled atop one another.

Food / Feed Strategy: Swell sharks have large mouths and relatively small, sharp-pointed teeth that could handle large prey, but these sharks seem incapable of dashing after active prey. It is thought that this species specializes in catching diurnal bony fishes that are relatively inactive and unresponsive at night. The nocturnal activity pattern of this slow and weak-swimming species aids in capture of prey.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cephaloscyllium_ventriosum/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:19

Common Name: Gobies Scientific Name:Gobiidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Gobiidae

Geography / Habitat: Gobies are found worldwide in fresh, brackish and saltwater. They are concentrated in the tropics and subtropics, mainly of the Indo-Pacific, but some marine species can be found in the subarctic streams of southern Siberia. Gobies have been transported beyond their natural range via the intake pipes or ballast water of large ships.

Life Strategy: Nearly all gobies are benthic (bottom-dwelling) but in some groups (Iglossus, Nemateleotris) individuals hover just above the bottom, seldom moving very far from shelter. Many male gobies are extremely aggressive towards invading males but exhibit a much more relaxed behavior in response to females entering their territory. Pheromones are thought to play a pivotal role in this recognition.

Food / Feed Strategy: Gobies are classified as zooplanktivores, omnivores, and carnivores, as they feed on a wide variety of small organisms like crabs, shrimps, smaller crustaceans (such as copepods, amphipods, and ostracods), mollusks, annelids, polychaetes, formaninferans, sponges, small fishes, and eggs of various invertebrates and fishes. Many gobies are quite selective in their feeding habits, favoring an individual prey item, such as a minute algae or small invertebrate.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gobiidae/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:20

Common Name: Black Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Chinook Salmon are found natively in the Pacific from Monterey Bay, California to the Chukchi Sea, Alaska in North America and from the Anadyr River, Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan in Asia. Freshwater streams, estuaries, and the open ocean are all important habitats. The freshwater streams are relatively deep with course gravel. The water must be cool, under 14 C for maximum survival, and fast flowing. Estuaries provide a transition zone between the freshwater and saltwater .

Life Strategy: Chinook Salmon are anadromous, making great migrations out to the deepest parts of the ocean and returning as mature adults to their natal streams. In order to return to the exact right stream, they use sun-compass orientation out in the open ocean and then smell to get them to the right stream. All adults return at the same time, spawn so that all fry will emerge at the same time, and then all smolts migrate downstream at the same time.

Food / Feed Strategy: While in freshwater, Chinook Salmon fry and smolts feed on plankton and then terrestrial and aquatic insects, amphipods and crustaceans. After migrating to the ocean, the maturing adults feed on large zooplakton, herring, pilchard, sandlance and other fishes, squid, and crustaceans .

Body Form or Style:Compressifrom


Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha/

Title: Saltwater

Species #: 21

Common Name: Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Pristiophoriformes

Family: Pristiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: Longnose sawsharks prefer a variety of marine habitats including the open sea and coastal regions. They are typically found at depths below 40 meters.

Life Strategy: Longnose sawsharks are motile. Little is known about their social structure, but they do form schools. A notable behavior of longnose sawsharks is the use of their snouts (lined with sharp teeth) to side-swipe their prey. Longnose sawsharks are generally sedentary.

Food / Feed Strategy: Longnose sawsharks feed on bony fish,including cornet fishes (Fistularia), shrimp, small squids, and various crustaceans. Longnose sawsharks uses their barbels and snout to detect prey on the ocean floor, and then immobilize their prey by hitting it with a side-swipe of their snout, which is lined with sharp teeth.

Body Form or Style:Sagittifrom Swim / Locomotion Style:Subcarangiform


Mouth Position:Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pristiophorus_cirratus/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:22

Common Name: Elfin shark Scientific Name: Mitsukurina owstoni Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:Chondrichthyes

Order: Lamniformes

Family: Mitsukurinidae

Geography / Habitat: Originally caught in Japan, the range is wide, but not evenly distributed. The majority of known specimens come from bays of Japan while the rest are mostly found off New Zealand, southern Africa, and in the Eastern Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Life Strategy: Due to its morphology, it is assumed that Mitsukurina owstoni is rather sluggish and accomplishes most of its hunting by swimming lazily or waiting for vertically migrating animals to come within striking distance.

Food / Feed Strategy: feed mid-water or close to the bottom where it uses a combination of electrical sensors, smell and (minimal) eyesight to catch any vertically migrating animals that it comes across. It is also possible that they stay deep and scan the bottom for prey.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Subcarangiform


Mouth Position:Subuterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Mitsukurina_owstoni/

Title:Salwater

Species #:23

Common Name: Barbour Seahorse Scientific Name: Hippocampus Barbouri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Syngnathiformes

Family: Syngnathidae

Geography / Habitat: Their distribution has been confirmed in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Their habitats are found scattered along coastlines and in sheltered bays. Oftentimes, this seahorse is associated with calcareous seaweed.

Life Strategy: There is little information available regarding the general behavior of Hippocamous barbouri. It spends most of its time attached to hard corals and other solid surfaces.

Food / Feed Strategy: Although there is little information on the diet of the Hippocampus barbouri in the wild, their sedentary nature likely restricts them to zooplankton and phytoplankon, which they ingest via the snout.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hippocampus_barbouri/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:24

Common Name: Rivulated parrotfish Scientific Name: Scarus rivulatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scaridae

Geography / Habitat: Scarus rivulatus inhabit coral reefs and are most abundant in the mid-shelf region. They may also inhabit inshore reefs. Unlike other scarid species, they often move onto the reef flat at high tide to feed and therefore may be seen in tidal pools.

Life Strategy: S. rivulatus are strictly diurnal. They are non-aggressive, and are usually found in large feeding schools. Initial phase S. rivulatus often school with other initial phase scarids of similar coloration, such as S. globiceps or S. psittacu.s

Food / Feed Strategy: S. rivulatus, as are all other scarids, are herbivores. They feed on many types microscopic algae that grow on calcareous material, such as coral skeletons. S. rivulatus only graze during daylight hours, and have been observed to increase their feeding rate in the late afternoon.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform


Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Scarus_rivulatus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:25

Common Name: Red-spotted cat shark Scientific Name: Schroederichthys chilensis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Cacharhiniformes

Family: Scyliorhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Redspotted catsharks are found from the rocky sublittoral areas to the border of the continental shelf. Their distribution appears to be seasonal, in the rocky subtidal areas in spring, summer, and fall, and spending winter in deeper offshore waters. This is believed to be because of strong currents and tubulence that occurs during winter. Redspotted catsharks are typically only found in waters ranging from one to fifty meters in depth.

Life Strategy: Redspotted catsharks are a solitary species. They are nocturnal, staying in caves and crevices during the day and emerging at night to feed. They migrate during the winter months to deeper waters than they live in during the rest of the year, typically moving toward the edge of the continental shelf.

Food / Feed Strategy: Redspotted catsharks are predators that feed on a variety of small vertabrates and invertabrates. Their primary food source includes crabs (Allopetrolisthes punctatus, and Petrolisthes violaceus) and rock shrimp.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Red-spotted+c

Title: Saltwater

Species #:26

Common Name: Black moray Scientific Name: Gymnothorax funebris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Anguilliformes

Family: Muranidae

Geography / Habitat: Green morays live in rocky, intertidal areas, coral reefs, mangroves, tidal creeks, harbors, seagrass beds, and other areas over sandy or muddy bottoms. They reside in rock crevices and small caves, usually no deeper than 30 m.

Life Strategy: This species is solitary and nocturnal. Adults are rarely active outside of feeding and spawning. Larvae, however, must migrate from the spawning site to a suitable habitat. Adults activley hunt fish in caves and crevices along coral reefs or shorelines. When an eel encounters a fish too large to swallow whole, it wraps itself around its prey in a characteristic knot, allowing for leverage against the fish.

Food / Feed Strategy: It readily consumes most species of fish, so long as they are small enough to swallow whole or can be ripped into manageable pieces. Green morays will also prey on crustaceans and cephalopods. Larvae prey on diatoms, smaller crustaceans, and other zooplankton.

Body Form or Style: Anguilliform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Pharyngeal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gymnothorax_funebris/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:27

Common Name: Blue Tang Scientific Name: Acanthurus coeruleus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae

Geography / Habitat: Blue tangs live primarily on hard-coral reefs. They can also be found near soft corals, rubble, seagrass beds, and algal beds. Young fish prefer areas with plenty of cover. Breeding individuals congregate at flat, sandy areas between patches of reef.

Life Strategy: Juvenile blue tangs are solitary and occupy home ranges that increase with body size. Juveniles aggressively defend their home ranges from A. bahianus juveniles. Juveniles also avoid damselfishes (Stegastes), that overlap in range with them. Adult blue tangs have three social modes: territorial, wandering, and schooling. Territorial adults chase conspecifics. Schooling adults are not aggressive. Wanderer adults are not aggressive nor do they interact with other individuals like schooling fish do.

Food / Feed Strategy: Blue tangs are herbivorous as adults, feeding largely on filamentous algae. They avoid eating calcareous material, like corals, because they lack the gizzard-like stomach of other surgeonfishes. Acanthurus coeruleus individuals feed singly, in small groups, or in large aggregations numbering over 100.


Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Obstraciiform Mouth Position:Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acanthurus_coeruleus/

Title: Saltwater

Species #: 28

Common Name: Frill shark Scientific Name: Chlamydoselachus anguineus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family:Chlamydoselachidae

Geography / Habitat: Frilled sharks are wide ranging. They have been found almost worldwide, including the eastern Atlantic coast of northern Norway, the western Indian Ocean near South Africa, the western Pacific near New Zealand, and the eastern Pacific near the coast of Chile.

Life Strategy: They are among the slowest of shark species (Parker & Parker, 1999). Like most sharks, they are solitary.

Food / Feed Strategy: Because of their sharp, cuspidate teeth, it is thought that their primary foods are small deep-water fishes, and squid. Because frilled sharks live on the ocean floor, they may also feed on carrion floating down from the surface.

Body Form or Style: Taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position:Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chlamydoselachus_anguineus/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:29

Common Name: California hagfish Scientific Name: Eptatretus stoutii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: N/A

Order: Myxiniformes

Family: Myxinidae

Geography / Habitat: Pacific hagfish are found typically on muddy bottoms to depths of 633 meters, but can also be found occasionally on rocky bottoms. They are more common at shallower depths, from 40 to 100 meters. Pacific hagfish may make small migrations from shallow waters in the fall into deeper water.

Life Strategy: One of the most distinguishing behaviors of hagfish is the ability to produce large amounts of mucilaginous slime almost instantaneously. The slime is secreted as a defense mechanism from pores that line the sides of the body. Upon contact with seawater, the slime rapidly expands into a sticky gel that can sometimes suffocate an attacker.

Food / Feed Strategy: Pacific hagfish have two pair of primitive, yet effective, rasps on the tongue used primarily for grasping. After establishing a firm hold on a food source, the hagfish ties and unties a knot within its own body to generate a ripping force. Pacific hagfish feed on a variety of dead or dying organisms, including fish and mammals, but also probably include marine invertebrates in their diet.


Body Form or Style:Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position:Pharyngeal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Eptatretus_stoutii/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:30

Common Name: Rabbitfishes Scientific Name: Siganidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Siganidae

Geography / Habitat: Siganids are naturally confined to the tropical Indo-Pacific, but are now found in the eastern Mediterranean as well. Siganus rivulatus is at least one species that has been able to penetrate from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, where it is now locally common.

Life Strategy: Siganids are commonly known as rabbitfishes partly because of their peaceful temperament. They are diurnal herbivores, hiding in reef crevices during nighttime and browsing over reefs to feed during the day. Some species school while others browse individually among corals.

Food / Feed Strategy: Most siganids are herbivorous and feed on phytoplankton or attached algae.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:


Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Siganidae/pictures/collections/contributo rs/martin_taylor/fish06e/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:31

Common Name: ciliated sponge Scientific Name: Sycon ciliatum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: N/A

Class: Calcarea

Order: Leucosolenida

Family: Sycettidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found on the underside of rocks in relatively protected areas among bryozoans, hydroids, and other organisms. but rarely more than 150 meters deep. They are predominant in temperate regions.

Life Strategy: It is believed that the large fine spicules surrounding the diaphragm help separate the inhalent and exhalent currents. They may also prevent small predators such as amphipods, syllid worms, and polyclads from entering the spongocoel.

Food / Feed Strategy: Sycon ciliatum obtain food by filtering water through choanocytes. Water enters the incurrent canal. The canal is lined with pinacocytes and communicates with the flagellated chambers through small holes, the propsopyles, which open into an internal flagellated tube lined with choanocytes.


Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sycon_ciliatum/

Title:Saltwater

Species #: 32

Common Name: False skunk striped clown Scientific Name: Amphiprion perideraion Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: These fish are found in lagoons and seaward reefs (Fautin and Allen, 1992; Myers, 1991). They are non-migratory fish living in brackish marine water with depths ranging up to 38 meters and temperatures around 25째C. These fish live in symbiotic relationships with various sea anenomes including Heteractis crispa, Hetaractis magnifica, Macrodactyla doreensis and Stichodactyla gigantea. Amphiprion perideraion often occurs in the same environment with the closely related Amphiprion akallopison, often in the same anemone

Life Strategy: They are sedentary as adults, remaining within several meters of their host anemone. Juvenile fish rub against their host anemone in order to develop immunity to the anemone toxin. After an immunity is built up, A. perideraion live in the anemone as a source of protection from predators. Anemone fish are active during the day.

Food / Feed Strategy: The maxilla pushes the premaxilla forward, which causes an area of low pressure inside the mouth, resulting in suction.

Body Form or Style: Compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:Obstraciiform Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Amphiprion_perideraion/ Title:Saltwater

Species #:33

Common Name: Anchovies Scientific Name: Engraulis mordax Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Engrauildae

Geography / Habitat: Northern anchovy are found off the west coast of North America, from Queen Charlotte Islands in British Columbia, Canada, to Cabo San Lucas in Baja California, Mexico, and in the Gulf of California.

Life Strategy: Northern anchovies create large schools, which aids in antipredator defense and finding prey. Adult northern anchovies typically attack prey only once and rarely make a second attempt. Swimming and feeding behavior is dependent on a number of different factors including temperature, developmental stage, and where they are distributed in the water column. Northern anchovies perform seasonal migrations, moving to deeper, offshore waters during winter, and returning to shallow, coastal waters for spring.

Food / Feed Strategy: Northern anchovies feed upon krill, copepods, and decapod larvae, and collect food via filter feeding and active predation. When filter feeding, water and zooplankton pass through its large gaping mouth as it swims.


Body Form or Style:Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Engraulis_mordax/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:34

Common Name: Convict surgeon Scientific Name: Acanthurus triostegus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae

Geography / Habitat: Convict tangs are found throughout the Indo-Pacific region, as well as the eastern Pacific Ocean from the lower Gulf of California to Panama. They are also known as convict surgeonfish or Manini.

Life Strategy: Convict tangs are often found in schools (large and small) but may also be found individually. While less territorial than other tangs, tank size is still an important consideration for those keeping this species. Convict tangs have been observed in the wild exhibiting tonic immobility (death feigning).

Food / Feed Strategy: Convict tangs are herbivores, grazing on algae found on rocks and corals. Adaptations to their algivorous diet include mouths that are slightly downwardly-directed and flexible, comblike teeth.


Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Acanthurus_triostegus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:35

Common Name: Blackfin wolf herring Scientific Name: Chirocentrus dorab Kingdom: Animlia

Phylum: Chordaata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Chirocentridae

Geography / Habitat: Blackfin wolf-herrings prefer warm coastal waters, often in inland areas. They inhabit brackish and marine waters up to depths of 120 m. This species, however, is most commonly found in turbulent waters at depths from 9 to 28 m. Blackfin wolf-herrings also frequent coral reefs, which are potential hunting grounds.

Life Strategy: Unlike most herring fishes, blackfin wolf-herrings are often found in small groups rather than large schools. However, schooling maybe more prevalent in this species during its larval stage to avoid predation.

Food / Feed Strategy: As a carnivorous fish, blackfin wolf-herrings prey mainly on other members of the order Clupeiformes, as well as members of the class Cephalopoda

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chirocentrus_dorab/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:36

Common Name: American shad Scientific Name: Alosa sapidissima Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Clupeidae

Geography / Habitat: American shad, Alosa sapidissima, are restricted to temperate climates and spend the majority of their life in coastal areas of the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean.

Life Strategy: American shad are social animals that swim in schools. As juveniles travel toward the ocrean, they avoid larger species of fish which may prey on them. As they grow larger and reach the ocean, American shad live in closer proximity to other fish.

Food / Feed Strategy: Juvenile American shad are omnivores with a diet consisting of mostly zooplankton and insect larvae. Juveniles eat more once they have left spawning areas. As they get older, American shad broaden their diet to include small fish, crustaceans, plankton, worms, and occasionally fish eggs.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Alosa_sapidissima/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:37

Common Name: Day grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus striatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: Nassau groupers are most commonly found in shallow water reefs, both natural and artificial. While they have been recorded at depths up to 100 m, they are more prolific in depths above 30 m. Nassau groupers can also be found in beds of sea grasses and prefer areas of high visibility.

Life Strategy: Except while spawning, Nassau groupers are a solitary predators that prefer to stay close to reefs, wrecks or other protective cover. They are typically inactive during the day, as they prefer to feed under the cover of darkness.

Food / Feed Strategy: Nassau groupers are generalists which feed predominantly at down and dusk. This species has a unique method of engulfing its prey, quickly moving its gills to create suction, or negative pressure, that draws prey into its open mouth.


Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Obstraciiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Epinephelus_striatus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:38

Common Name: Atlantic bluefin tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus thynnus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Bluefin tuna are distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in subtropical and temperate waters. In the western Atlantic Ocean, they are found from Labrador, in Canada, to northern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico.

Life Strategy: Bluefin tuna display schooling behavior based on size not species. It is not uncommon to see many different species of similarly sized tuna in a school together. Schools migrate north during summer months along the coast of Japan and the west coast of the United States. Trans Pacific migrations have been observed. Bluefin tuna have been known to cross the Atlantic Ocean in 60 days.

Food / Feed Strategy: Bluefin tuna chase down their prey using their ability to swim at very high speeds. They can also use modified filter feeding to catch small, slow moving organisms. They have also been known to eat kelp.


Body Form or Style: Fuiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Obstraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Thunnus_thynnus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:39

Common Name: Albacore Scientific Name: Thunnus alalunga Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Albacore reside in the subtropical regions of the North Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea. In the North Pacific, albacore are distributed throughout a region from 10 to 50 degrees north latitude, with migration towards the tropical waters during spring and summer spawning months.

Life Strategy: Albacore travel in large schools of mixed species that include skipjack tuna, yellowfin tuna and bluefin tuna. These schools are usually formed around floating objects such as sargassum weeds.

Food / Feed Strategy: The primary diet of albacore includes pacific saury, northern anchovy, crustacean zooplankton, gonatid squid, and Japanese anchovy. Albacore are opportunistic piscivores and their diet varies seasonally depending on location.


Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Obstraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Thunnus_alalunga/

Title:Saltwater

Species #: 40

Common Name: Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrchthyes

Order: Hexanchiformes

Family: Hexanchidae

Geography / Habitat: With the exception of the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, broadnose sevengill sharks can be found in all oceans.

Life Strategy: Little is known about the migratory behaviors of N. cepedianus. They seem to associate in groups with other individuals of the same sex and similar size. Their movements in bays seems to be correlated with tides.

Food / Feed Strategy: An opportunistic predator, N. cepedianus feeds on many prey including sharks, rays, chimeras, dolphins, porpoises, seals, bony fish such as salmon, sturgeon, herring, anchovies and mammalian carrion, including rats and humans.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position:Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Notorynchus_cepedianus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:41

Common Name: Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Blenniidae

Geography / Habitat: Blennies can be found in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans, in tropical, subtropical, and temperate waters throughout the world.

Life Strategy: Blennies tend to be secretive, remaining near the bottom and hiding their eggs in crevices. Some hide in holes and dart out at their prey. Blennies may eat invertebrates or algae, or survive by nipping the skin, scales, or fins of other fish.

Food / Feed Strategy: Primarily bottom-dwellers, blennies tend to feed on other benthic organisms, both algae and invertebrates. Some are planktivores, some carnivores; others scrape algae off coral and rocks and in the process may be feeding on small organisms that live in association with the algae. Some blennies nip pieces of skin, scales, or fins from larger fish.

Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Obstraciiform


Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Blenniidae/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:42

Common Name: Guitarfish Scientific Name: Rhinobatos productus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Rhinobatos

Geography / Habitat: Shovelnose guitarfish are found along the Southwestern coast of North America, ranging from San Francisco to Guerrero, Mexico as well as within the Gulf of California and along the coast of Baja California.

Life Strategy: These animals are solitary outside of mating aggregations. They are not known to be territorial. They tend to lie, partially buried, on sandy or muddy sea bottoms.

Food / Feed Strategy: Shovelnose guitarfish feed nocturnally on infaunal organisms such as worms, crabs, clams, and smaller fish. In Elkhorn Slough, California, their preferred prey is yellow shore crabs

Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Thunniform


Mouth Position:supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Rhinobatos_productus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:43

Common Name: Dannevig's dragonfish Scientific Name: Chauliodus sloani Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Stomiifomres

Family: Stomiidae

Geography / Habitat: There are a few regions in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean north of the equator where there have been no records of Sloane’s viperfish . Life Strategy: For this reason, very little is known about their behavior. As mentioned above, they vertically migrate during the night. Many fish do this to improve their chances of finding food and to avoid predators that could normally see them during the day.

Food / Feed Strategy: Sloane’s viperfish have some characteristics typical of deep-water fishes which aid in acquiring food in regions of low light. These features include a straight intestine and an elongated, distensible stomach.

Body Form or Style:Taeniform


Swim / Locomotion Style:Anguilliform Mouth Position:Supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chauliodus_sloani/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:44

Common Name: California sheephead Scientific Name: Semicossyphus pulcher Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: California sheephead inhabit rocky shoreline reefs, in and around kelp beds between 6 and 30 m in depth. They are sometimes seen in the Gulf of California, Mexico, but are most abundant south of Point Conception, California.

Life Strategy: California sheephead forage during the day with harem members and the dominant male. At night, they station themeselves beneath rock overhangs or within crevices, and like several other species of wrasse, they encase themselves in a protective cocoon of mucus while quiescent.

Food / Feed Strategy: California sheephead consumes benthic invertebrates including the purple sea urchins, Pacific rock crabs, acorn barnacles, mussels, clams, and bryozoans. They also eat snails, squids, common sand dollars, eccentric sand dollars, and sea cucumbers.


Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Semicossyphus_pulcher/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:45

Common Name: Arctic bonito Scientific Name: Katsuwonus pelamis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: An epipelagic fish, skipjacks are distributed in water with temperatures ranging from 14.7 and 30 C. Larvae are mostly restricted to areas with temperatures of at least 25 C. Skipjacks tend to be associated with regions of upwelling, or areas where cold, nutrient-rich waters are brought up from the bottom of the ocean to the surface, as well as regions where cold and warm water mix.

Life Strategy: Skipjack tuna are schooling migratory fishes (Collette and Nauen 1983). They tend to school with each other, other tuna, whales or sharks. They also tend to shoal under objects floating on the surface of the water (World Wide Fund For Nature 1996). Skipjacks are thought to have a north to south migratory seasonal pattern but there is still some question as to whether or not these tuna migrate with a purpose or use advective movements

Food / Feed Strategy: The wide variety of food items consumed suggests that the skipjack is a highly opportunistic feeder. Feeding activities peak in the early morning and again in the late afternoon


Body Form or Style:Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Osttraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Katsuwonus_pelamis/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:46

Common Name: Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carchhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: The whitetip reef shark in found in both the Indian and Pacific oceans. They exist as far west as the coasts of South Africa and Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and can be seen as far east as the coasts of Costa Rica and Panama in the Pacific Ocean.

Life Strategy: The whitetip reef shark is a docile, non-aggressive shark. It has the ability to pump water across its gills without moving forward, so it can sit motionless on the sea floor. However the shark prefers the safety and seclusion of caves.

Food / Feed Strategy: Despite the docile nature of this shark during the day, during feeding at night they become very aggressive. It will thrash through coral reefs looking for food. The whitetip reef shark usually hunts alone but will work with other sharks to pursue prey throughout the coral reefs. Sometimes in pursuit of a fish, the shark will wedge the front half of its body into a crack or crevice on the reef and stay there until it catches the fish.


Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Triaenodon_obesus/

Title: Saltwater

Species #:47

Common Name: California flounder Scientific Name: Paralichthys californicus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order:Pleuronectiformes

Family: Paralichthyidae

Geography / Habitat: California halibut are a benthic species that inhabits sandy bottoms to depths of 183 m. They congregate in the nearshore waters and embayments of California.

Life Strategy: California halibut are solitary ambush predators that lie on the bottom, waiting for their prey to swim by. They use chromatophores to help match the color and patterning of the sand and muddy flats which they inhabit, which allows them to be inconspicuous to their prey.

Food / Feed Strategy: California halibut are carnivorous, with their diet changing in association with growth. They feed both during the day and night, but appear to favor catching prey during the day.

Body Form or Style:Depressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Paralichthys_californicus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:48

Common Name: Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater, brackish, or marine waters of temperate zones. The anadromous form, called steelhead, spawn and complete their early development in freshwater mountain streams, then migrate to spend their adult life in the ocean.

Life Strategy: Steelhead and rainbow trout are solitary fish, leaving the group of juveniles once they have hatched from eggs. As adults, they compete with all kinds of trout and salmon for food and habitat. The largest trout tend to get the best habitat.

Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout and steelhead are insectivorous and piscivorous. Resident rainbow trout tend to eat more fish than steelhead. Both species primarily feed on invertebrate larvae drifting in midwater to conserve energy that would be expended if they were foraging for food in the substrate.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:49

Common Name: Blue cod Scientific Name: Ophiodon elongatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaenifromes

Family: Hexagrammidae

Geography / Habitat: Lingcod are coastal fish that occupy submerged banks with dense communities of algae, and channels with strong currents flowing over and around rocky reefs. They avoid muddy and sandy bottoms, and stagnant areas.

Life Strategy: Lingcod are solitary, benthic fish and spend most of their time resting within holes or crevices amongst rocks. Lingcod's cryptic coloration helps it to blend into its rocky surroundings, where it lies in wait to ambush any prey that swims by.

Food / Feed Strategy: Lingcod are ambush predators that eat anything that can fit in their mouths, especially fish and large invertebrates. Lingcod exhibit cannibalism and prey on various species of salmon and rockfish as well as Pacific herring and octopus.

Body Form or Style:Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform


Mouth Position:terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ophiodon_elongatus/

Title:Saltwater

Species #:50

Common Name: Clown anemonefish Scientific Name: Amphiprion ocellaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Percifromes

Family: Pomaciformes

Geography / Habitat: the false clownfish, is a tropical marine fish found in parts of Asia and Australia. Its range includes Northwest Australia, Southeast Asia, and as far north as the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. More specifically, it is mainly found in or near the anemones Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla gigantean,

Life Strategy: These fish are dependent upon the anemone for shelter. In open waters these fish are more susceptible to predators and are poor swimmers. In addition, anemones provide protection for the nests. The anemones are observed to generally do better with a host fish and may also benefit possibly from fish consumption of parasites and increased water circulation from fanning.

Food / Feed Strategy: Planktonic food such as zooplankton, copepods, and algae are the primary source of food for A. ocellaris (Myers 1999). They are classified as generalized omnivores as they feed on equal amounts of algae and animals (Sano et al. 1984). They are also reported to consume parasites from their host anemones (Thresher 1984). Feeding is also dominated by the hierarchical structure of the group dynamics in the anemone.

Body Form or Style:Sagittiform


Swim / Locomotion Style:Ostraciiform Mouth Position:Terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Amphiprion_ocellaris/ Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 1

Common Name: Wolf Eel Scientific Name: Anarrhichthys ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Anarhichadidae

Geography / Habitat: Wolf-eels are exclusively marine, found in shallow, cold, coastal waters. They have been found in depths as low as 226 meters, but are generally found in shallow water. They are demersal in their habits, being found almost exclusively in sheltered, rocky, sub-tidal areas or near rocky structures in areas with sandy bottoms.

Life Strategy: Males and females form monogamous pairs at about 4 years old, or 91.4 cm in length. Some evidence suggests they mate for life.

Food / Feed Strategy: Wolf-eels use their robust jaws and teeth to eat hard-shelled invertebrates, such as crabs up to 114 mm in width, snails, sand dollars, sea urchins, mussels, clams, and abalone, especially Haliotis kamtschatkana. In the Monterey area the dominant food items are slender crabs (Cancer gracilis) and sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus). Wolf-eels occasionally eat fish as well, although they seem best able to capture slow-moving prey.

Body Form or Style: anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguilliform


Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Anarrhichthys_ocellatus/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 2

Common Name: Potter angel Scientific Name: Centropyge potteri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: C. potteri inhabits coral reef ecosystems at least 15 feet in depth. Life Strategy: A single male maintains a harem in his territory and will fertilize the eggs of several females within a single spawning season

Food / Feed Strategy: Individuals use their many comblike teeth to pull food items off of hard reef surfaces. Their diet consists of benthic algae, cnidarians, and tunicates.

Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:ostraciiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Centropyge_potteri/


Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 3

Common Name: Garibaldi Scientific Name: Hypsypops rubicundus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: Unlike most other members of the damselfish family (Pomacentridae), H. rubicundus lives in cooler temperate waters as opposed to tropical reefs. Their habitats range from the shallow subtidal regions down to depths of approximately 100 feet. H. rubicundus occupies shallow rocky reefs near where the intertidal and subtidal zones meet.

Life Strategy: Once a male is successful in attracting a female, he deposits his spermatozoa over her huge clutch of eggs (15,000-80,000). By depositing his sperm over such a large clutch of eggs, the male is able to somewhat conserve his energy expenditures when producing these sperm and is thus able to expend that energy in attracting females and protecting his offspring.

Food / Feed Strategy: H. rubicundus feeds primarily on small sessile sponges, bryozoans, and plankton that are found in and around the kelp forests that serve as its home.


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypsypops_rubicundus /

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 4

Common Name: Leopard shark Scientific Name: Stegostoma fasciatum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Stegostomatidae

Geography / Habitat: Stegostoma fasciatum is commonly found around warm water reefs and sandy areas. It is common along the Australian coast. It usually resides at a depth of 62 m. Life Strategy: Females lay eggs, and are suspected to lay more than one egg at a time. The eggs are large, about 17 cm in diameter and are fertilized externally. The eggs hatch at about 20 to 36 cm.

Food / Feed Strategy: Natural foods include gastropod and bivalve mollusks with smaller amounts of crabs, shrimp, and small fish.

Body Form or Style: fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform


Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http: //animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Stegostoma_fasciatum/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 5

Common Name: Threefin blennies Scientific Name: Tripterygiidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Tripterygiidae

Geography / Habitat: Primarily benthic reef-dwellers in tropical and warm temperate seas, triplefin blennies commonly live near reef surfaces, rocky slopes, rubble, or algae-covered rocks. Depth and habitat can vary according to specific local adaptations. One species can sometimes be found in estuaries.

Life Strategy: Male triplefin blennies establish territories on rocks covered with algae. From this vantage point they signal to passing females by “loop-swimming,� a courtship motion that varies from species to species, but entails quickly hopping up and down in a loop. Males of species in Axoclinus pose before loop-swimming, resting on their pelvic fins and waving the caudal fin, which gives the female a better chance to view his courtship colors. One male may spawn with several females. Food / Feed Strategy: Triplefin blennies feed on algae and tiny invertebrates.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Tripterygiidae /

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 6

Common Name: Clown coris Scientific Name: Coris aygula Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: C. aygula is a marine reef-associated fish, inhabiting rocky reef and coral areas. It lives in depth from 2 to 30 meters. It is tropical fish requiring a temperature between 24 and 28 degrees Celsius. Life Strategy: When spawning, wrasses gather in loose aggregations where one dominant male oversees many females within a general territory. If the dominant male dies then usually the largest female will transform into the resident male.

Food / Feed Strategy: C. aygula eat shelled mollusks, hermit crabs, other crabs, and sea urchins.


Body Form or Style: depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguilliform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coris_aygula/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 7

Common Name: Clinids Scientific Name: Clinidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Clinidae

Geography / Habitat: A marine family, clinids are mostly bottom-dwellers (benthic) (see an exception below in Predation). They occupy various habitats in shallow water, including tide pools, coastal reefs, under stones, or amongst sea grass or algae. They are mostly found in intertidal zones of temperate waters and tend to live in close association with seaweed.

Life Strategy: Males of some clinids, such as Paraclinus marmoratus, may be sequentially polygynous. Evidence for this comes from the fact that eggs at different stages of development can be found in their nests, suggesting that multiple females deposited eggs in the nest. Food / Feed Strategy: Clinids are primarily carnivorous bottom-feeders who consume small fishes and invertebrates from worms to crustaceans.


Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style:carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Clinidae Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 8

Common Name: Black jewfish Scientific Name: Stereolepis gigas Kingdom:

Phylum:

Class:

Order:

Family:

Geography / Habitat: Juvenile giant sea bass are found at depths of 6 to 10 m, over mud flats and in coastal lagoons of southern California and the Baja California peninsula. Older juveniles and adults are found in 10 to 40 m of water over sandy bottoms, kelp beds and rocky reefs, as well as within deep ridges at depths of 70 to 80 m.

Life Strategy: Spawning behavior of giant sea bass has rarely been observed in the field. One study documented groups of 2 to 20 fish spawning in one particular area. As is the case with other broadcast spawning species, pair bonds are not formed, and individuals may spawn multiple times with several different mates.

Food / Feed Strategy: Giant sea bass mainly consume benthic invertebrates including rock crab (Cancer antennarius) and California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus), and will also prey on other fishes, such as round stingrays (Urobatis halleri), ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps), California barracuda (Sphyraena argentea), kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus), and barred sand bass (Paralabrax nebulifer).


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: gape and suck Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Stereolepis_gigas/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 9

Common Name: California hagfish Scientific Name: Eptatretus stoutii Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Eptatretus

Order: Myxiniformes

Family: Eptatretus

stoutii

Geography / Habitat: Pacific hagfish are found typically on muddy bottoms to depths of 633 meters, but can also be found occasionally on rocky bottoms. They are more common at shallower depths, from 40 to 100 meters. Pacific hagfish may make small migrations from shallow waters in the fall into deeper water. Although this is unconfirmed, it is consistent with seasonal migrations in other hagfish.

Life Strategy: Sexes are separate, but hermaphroditic adults can be found. No specific spawning season has been identified as males and females are found at various maturation stages throughout the year. Some females have been found with distinctly separate egg batches in them. Smaller sized egg batches do not develop further until the larger batch has completed development.

Food / Feed Strategy: Pacific hagfish have two pair of primitive, yet effective, rasps on the tongue used primarily for grasping. After establishing a firm hold on a food source, the hagfish ties and unties a knot within its own body to generate a ripping force. Pacific hagfish feed on a variety of dead or dying organisms, including fish and mammals, but also probably include marine invertebrates in their diet. Male hagfish may eat hagfish eggs.


Body Form or Style: taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguiliform Mouth Position: tubular Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Eptatretus_stoutii /

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 10

Common Name: Spot Croaker Scientific Name: Leiostomus xanthurus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: Leiostomus xanthurus are found in estuaries and coastal saltwaters roaming over sandy and muddy bottoms. They migrate seasonally--entering the bays and estuaries in the spring. They can go to waters as deep as 60 meters but usually stay in much shallower areas. Life Strategy: Fertlization is external and occurs at night in shallow waters. The larvae grow rapidly in the warmer offshore waters. The young Spot then move into coastal shallows and the lower bays during the winter. This is where they spend their first year. Usually, during the summer, the young reside in the tidal creeks and shallow estuarine areas. Then, during the winter, once again, they go into deeper estuarine waters or the ocean.

Food / Feed Strategy: Leiostomus xanthurus are omnivores. They consume bottom dwelling, soft bodied (benthic) invertebrates and smaller, easily crushed crabs and shrimp. Polychaetes, crustaceans, worms, small fish, small plankton, and mullusks, as well as plant and animal detritus, are also favorites


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Leiostomus_xanthurus/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 11

Common Name: spectacled porpoise Scientific Name: Phocoena dioptrica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetacea

Family: Phocoenidae

Geography / Habitat: Spectacled porpoises prefer cold ocean waters of the southern hemisphere. They normally live near offshore islands but are sometimes found in the open ocean. They seem to prefer the subantarctic area where there are cold currents like the Falkland Current.

Life Strategy: All mammals reproduce sexually via internal fertilization and all eutherian mammals give birth to live young.

Food / Feed Strategy: The food preferences of spectacled porpoises are not well known. They are most likely similar to other porpoises, which eat fish, squid, and crustaceans.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Phocoena_dioptrica/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 12

Common Name: Bullhead Scientific Name: Heterodontus portusjacksoni Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthye

Order: Heterodontiformes

Family: Heterodontidae

Geography / Habitat: Port Jackson sharks live in tropical marine waters usually near the bottom of rocky environments. They tend to be found in caves with sandy bottoms. They are nocturnal, bottom-dwelling sharks and are commonly found in depths of 100 meters, but have been found up to 275 meters.

Life Strategy: Mature female Port Jackson sharks move to inshore reefs accompanied by some males beginning in July and August. They mate on coastal reefs and of the coast of New South Wales. Many males do not participate in breeding and remain in deeper water offshore. Breeding sharks congregate in caves but little is known about courtship and pair formation.

Food / Feed Strategy: Port Jackson sharks feed primarily on invertebrates, mainly echinoderms. They eat sea urchins, starfish, polychaetes, large gastropods, prawns, crabs, barnacles, and small fishes. Juveniles, with their smaller, more pointed teeth, apparently take more soft-bodied prey than adults.


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Heterodontus_portusjacksoni /

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 13

Common Name: Day grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus striatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: Nassau groupers are most commonly found in shallow water reefs, both natural and artificial. While they have been recorded at depths up to 100 m, they are more prolific in depths above 30 m. Nassau groupers can also be found in beds of sea grasses and prefer areas of high visibility. Late juveniles to young adults prefer corals with large macroalgal populations.

Life Strategy: Nassau groupers aggregate to specific spawning sites on the full moon during December and January. This peculiar timing is of particular interest to scientists, who have suggested that, like other marine mammals, the gravitational pull of the moon at this specific time of year inspires migration to breeding grounds. Spawning aggregates can be as large as 100,000 individuals.

Food / Feed Strategy: Nassau groupers are generalists which feed predominantly at down and dusk. This species has a unique method of engulfing its prey, quickly moving its gills to create suction, or negative pressure, that draws prey into its open mouth. As age and size increase, so do the preferred prey size. Juveniles and smaller young adults prey on crustaceans and bivalves, while older Nassau groupers mainly eat fish, lobsters, and gastropods.


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:ostraciiform Mouth Position: gape and suck Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Epinephelus_striatus/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 14

Common Name: butterflyfishes Scientific Name: chaetodontidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Chaetodontidae

Geography / Habitat: Butterflyfishes are a marine family occupying tropical to warm temperate waters. Some occur in the brackish water of estuaries and protected bays, commonly along steep parts of rocky reefs. They are most often found in shallow (less than 20 m) water near coral reefs, but some are deepwater dwellers descending to 200 m.

Life Strategy: Butterflyfishes, according to existing research, are characteristically monogamous and pairforming. Occasionally pairs have been observed accompanied by a juvenile, which allows for the possibility that juveniles may be ambisexual, or able to mature into male or female depending on which sexually mature fish in a pair dies and needs to be replaced.

Food / Feed Strategy: Generally benthic feeders, many butterflyfishes eat small invertebrates, sponges or polychaete worms. Some feed on zooplankton, and others exist exclusively on coral polyps. Another feeding method is scraping the surface of live coral to obtain algae, attached invertebrates, and mucus from the coral.


Body Form or Style: depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chaetodontidae/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 15

Common Name: Combtooth blennies Scientific Name: Blenniidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Blenniidae

Geography / Habitat: They inhabit shallow, inshore, often intertidal, waters. Blennies are generally benthic, occupying grass beds, tide pools, or areas near rocks, shells, or corals. The saber-toothed blennies, Aspidontus and Meiacanthus, are free swimming. Life Strategy: Blennies attract mates near the holes or crevices in which spawning occurs. The females will often initiate courtship, some assuming new coloration for spawning. When the female enters the area the male engages in courtship behavior that can include changing into spawning colors, bobbing the head up and down at the mouth of the cave, and leading the female to the nest by swimming with an undulating motion.

Food / Feed Strategy: Primarily bottom-dwellers, blennies tend to feed on other benthic organisms, both algae and invertebrates. Some are planktivores, some carnivores; others scrape algae off coral and rocks and in the process may be feeding on small organisms that live in association with the algae. Some blennies nip pieces of skin, scales, or fins from larger fish.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Blenniidae/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 16

Common Name: Lemon sailfin Scientific Name: Zebrasoma flavescens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae

Geography / Habitat: Yellow tangs are reef-associated fish. Their preferred water temperature is around 21 degrees Celsius. They inhabit coral reefs in subtropical waters, but generally do not live in tropical seas. Yellow tangs mainly live in the sub-surge zone of a coral reef, this is the area with the least wave action.

Life Strategy: Zebrasoma flavescens can spawn in groups or in pairs. When in groups, females release eggs and males release sperm into open water where fertilization occurs. When in pairs, the male courts a female by changing colors and exhibiting a shimmering movement. The two fish then swim upward and simultaneously release their eggs or sperm into the water. Food / Feed Strategy: Yellow tangs have a long, down-turned mouth with small teeth that are specialized for grazing on algae. Because they are mainly herbivores, they spend a large amount of their time grazing either alone or in groups.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: subterminal \ Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Zebrasoma_flavescens/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 17

Common Name: common eel Scientific Name: Anguilla anguilla Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Anguilliformes

Family: Anguillidae

Geography / Habitat: Depending on the lifestage of the individual eel, European eels can be found in marine, freshwater, and brackish aquatic environments. Typically, the European eel is found in depths of 0-700 m, most often on the floor of the ocean or river in which it is living.

Life Strategy: Upon reaching sexual maturity, European eels migrate from freshwater streams back to the Sargasso Sea in order to spawn and die in the late winter months to the early summer months. European eel males release sperm into the water in which female European eels have already laid eggs, thereby fertilizing the eggs. Very little is known about the actual spawning mechanism, and time to hatching is variable.

Food / Feed Strategy: European eels have completely different diets during different life stages. No food contents have ever been discovered in the guts of leptocephali, therefore their diet is unknown. Glass eels consume insect larvae, dead fish, and small crustaceans.


Body Form or Style: anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: anguilliform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Anguilla_anguilla/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 18

Common Name: California sheephead Scientific Name: Semicossyphus pulcher Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: California sheephead inhabit rocky shoreline reefs, in and around kelp beds between 6 and 30 m in depth.

Life Strategy: California sheephead are polygamous, with dominant males maintaining a harem of females that is defended from other males.

Food / Feed Strategy: California sheephead consumes benthic invertebrates including the purple sea urchins, Pacific rock crabs, acorn barnacles, mussels, clams, and bryozoans. They also eat snails, squids, common sand dollars, eccentric sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. Their large canine-like teeth are used to pry sessile invertebrates from rocks.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: subcarangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Semicossyphus_pulcher/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 19

Common Name: Copper rockfish Scientific Name: Sebastes caurinus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeniformes

Family: Sebastidae

Geography / Habitat: Copper rockfish are demersal, preferring the ocean bottom near low-profile rocks and reefs. The range of water depths they inhabit is relatively broad, from 10 to 183 meters, and the fish are found in shallower water during upwelling. Most often, these fish are in close contact with reefs, maintaining an even closer contact during the winter and spring than in the summer months.

Life Strategy: Spawning in copper rockfish occurs once a year in the spring at a time that varies geographically. Fertilization occurs internally, and little is known about the specific courtship or mating behaviors.

Food / Feed Strategy: Copper rockfish are opportunistic carnivores that feed mainly on organisms present near the ocean floor, usually crabs, mollusks and other fish. They feed during the day as well as at night. Often the prey varies with the season with crabs eaten more often in winter and early spring. Large copper rockfish tend to be aggressive feeders and sometimes prey on Squalus acanthias, a small shark species.


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sebastes_caurinus/

Title: saltwater invertebrates

Species #: 20

Common Name: Gobies Scientific Name: Gobiidae Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Gobiidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found from subarctic streams in Siberia to mountain streams at altitudes of 2,000 m on islands to ocean depths of 800 m. On coral reefs, they can be found in the numerous cracks and crevices or out in the open among corals (Gobiosoma).

Life Strategy: A typical mating sequence begins with nest preparation by the male, which involves clearing and cleaning the area where eggs will be deposited. In response, the ventral area of the female swells and the male proceeds to swim back and forth between the female and nest site and in some cases the male will nudge the female with its snout. The male may also make exaggerated swimming motions in place by anchoring himself with the sucking disc.

Food / Feed Strategy: Gobies are classified as zooplanktivores, omnivores, and carnivores, as they feed on a wide variety of small organisms like crabs, shrimps, smaller crustaceans (such as copepods, amphipods, and ostracods), mollusks, annelids, polychaetes, formaninferans, sponges, small fishes, and eggs of various invertebrates and fishes. Many gobies are quite selective in their feeding habits, favoring an individual prey item, such as a minute algae or small invertebrate.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: suptraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gobiidae/

Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 1

Common Name: Three-lined pencilfish Scientific Name: Nannostomus trifasciatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Lebiasinidae

Geography / Habitat: It is also usually found in shaded, weedy areas. This species fares best at temperatures between 78-80째 F. Within these conditions, N. trifasciatus is found in several different habitat types. In the Rio Negro, it inhabits the large swamps that form where tributaries meet the main branch of the river. Life Strategy: N. trifasciatus spawns during the daytime among plant leaves. The eggs are adhesive and are sometimes placed on plants and sometimes scattered throughout the water. Fertilization takes place externally, and anywhere from 30-70 eggs are produced at a time. The eggs hatch in 18-72 hours, depending on the water temperature.

Food / Feed Strategy: N. trifasciatus spends much of its time near the water surface, where it feeds primarily on insects. It has also been reported to eat detritus and algae. In captivity, it will eat just about any type of standard fish food.


Body Form or Style: sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: carangiform Mouth Position:supraterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Nannostomus_trifasciatus/

Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 2

Common Name: False neon tetra Scientific Name: Paracheirodon simulans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae

Geography / Habitat: Paracheirodon simulans is mainly found in black water rivers of the South American tropics. They have been found in northwest Brazil in the River Negro to Colombia and Venezuela in the upper Orinoco River basin. Life Strategy: Paracheirodon species generally spawn in schools, although single males and females may become closely associated while the female releases her eggs and the male releases his sperm.

Food / Feed Strategy: Paracheirodon simulans is omnivorous. These fish tend to eat small live foods such as crustaceans, fish larvae, and insects.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciform Mouth Position: ternimal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Paracheirodon_simulans/

Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 3

Common Name: Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae

Geography / Habitat: Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers. Shelter in the pools includes rocks and woody debris, along with other inputs from the terrestrial landscape, which help to slow the flow of the river. Life Strategy: River blackfish reproduce sexually, but their mating system is unknown. Fertilization of eggs occurs outside of the mother’s body, and eggs are normally laid inside hollow logs. Egg deposition has also been observed inside of man-made structures (e.g., hollow pipes), which may simulate the conditions of hollow logs.

Food / Feed Strategy: River blackfish are carnivorous, ambush predators. They prefer to ambush prey areas of cover in order to most efficiently use their short, quick bursts of speed. They have a diverse diet. Prey items include insects, mollusks, crustaceans, small fish, and terrestrial invertebrates that fall into the water.


Body Form or Style: compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:carangiform Mouth Position: terminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/

Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 4

Common Name: Bronze hammerhead shark Scientific Name: Sphyrna lewini Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Sphyrnidae

Geography / Habitat: Although they primarily inhabit open marine waters, scalloped hammerheads can also be found near continental and island shelves and often enter bays and estuaries as well.

Life Strategy: Mating behavior in scalloped hammerheads is not fully understood, but it has been observed that during mating season, sexually mature males migrate to deeper waters in search of females. Since schools are formed primarily of females, male sharks will enter and swim in an S shape, signaling the desire to mate.

Food / Feed Strategy: Younger individuals tend to feed in coastal waters, on benthic and neritic fish. Adults live in deeper oceanic waters, feeding on neritic and epipelagic fishes and cephalopods (squid, octopus and cuttlefishes), lobsters, shrimps, and crabs, as well as various smaller sharks and rays.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: thunniform Mouth Position:subterminal Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sphyrna_lewini/

Title: freshwater invertebrates

Species #: 5

Common Name: Devils Hole Pupfish Scientific Name: Cyprinodon diabolis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cyprinodontiformes

Family: Cyprinodontidae

Geography / Habitat: Cyprinodon diabolis inhabits the Devil's Hole Pool, which is found in the very arid Death Valley in California. Devil's Hole is 2.5 by 3.5 meters in area and is composed of two separate areas. One is a limestone rock shelf that is 3.5 by 5.0 by 0.3 meters deep. The second component is 3.5 by 17.0 meters in area and is of unknown depth. Life Strategy: Cyprinodon diabolis exhibits a polygynous mating system, following a consort pair breeding system, defined as a gravid female being closely followed by one or more males. The male follows the female for up to one hour, and both male and female periodically move to the bottom of the pool and spawn. Food / Feed Strategy: Devils Hole pupfish feed primarily on algae that grows on the limestone shelf in Devils Hole. Diatoms are the major food source in the winter and spring, while Spirogyra serve as the food source in the summer and fall.


Body Form or Style: globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: ostraciiform Mouth Position: filter feeder Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cyprinodon_diabolis


Sherita Smith Fish I.D Project