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KIM KI DUK: SILENCE & VIOLENCE K B VENU PUBLISHED IN HONOUR OF KIM KI DUK BY KERALA STATE CHALACHITRA ACADEMY AT IFFK 2013, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, KERALA, INDIA

KERALA STATE CHALACHITRA ACADEMY THIRUVANANTHAPURAM 2013 3


Chairman & Festival Director IFFK Vice Chairman Secretary& Executive Director IFFK Treasurer Executive Committee Governing Council Deputy Director & Artistic Director IFFK Deputy Director (Programmes) Programme Manager (Finance) Programme Manager (Fest) and Print Coordinator Programme Managaer (Programmes) Print Unit Coordinater Festival Cell

: : : : : : : : : : : : :

Delegate Pass Cell Festival Programme Assistant & Jury Assistant

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S. Priyadarshan Gandhimathi Balan S.Rajendran Nair Unnikrishnan (Under Secretary, Dept. of Cultural Affairs) Renjith M., Joshy Mathew Ramachandra Babu, Leela Pannickar, S. Krishna Prasad, Roy Peechat Bina Paul Venugopal Jayanthi Narendrenath Beena M Gopeekrishna S. Sanal C.V P.S Sivakumar Mary Ninan , K. Venukuttan Nair, K. Ravikumar, K. Harikumar, J. Sukumaran, Binoyraj R, S. Omana, A. Velappan Pillai, D. Jayakumari, G. Sasikala, Velayudhan Nair K , John Kurian, Krishnakumar G.K., Nishanth S.T., Lizy M , S. Thanseer, V..Jayanarayanan, Shiji G.R. Deepika Suseelan

KIM KI DUK : SILENCE & VIOLENCE Chief Editor

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S. Rajendran Nair (Secretary, KSCA)

Author Word Processing, Layout design

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K B VENU (venukarakkatt@gmail.com) vbhattathiri@gmail.com

Published by

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Processed and printed at

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Kerala State Chalachitra Academy Lotus Villa, Sasthamangalam, Thiruvanathapuram Kerala, India - 695 010 Tel: +91-471-2310323, 2312214 Fax: +91-471-2313022 Email: iffkoffice@gmail.com, www.keralafilm.com, , www.iffk.in Akshara Offset, Thiruvanathapuram, 0471-2471174

Price : `.100.00 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ We are grateful to various film journals, festival publications, Film Festival websites and film websites from which we have borrowed materials to enrich this book. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarity of the Karala State Chalachitra Academy or the editors.

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Inw In ZIv: au\hpw lnwkbpw sI _n thWp 5


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5 6 8 16 22 28 36 42 48 54 61 62 68 76 84 88 94 98 104 108 114 118 122 126 132 138 140 144

BapJw apJ-hpc [oc-amb Ac-t߉w : s{Ims°m-ssU¬ \odp∂ ]mcnkv A\p-`-h-߃ : ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv kaqlw Iq´n-e-S-®p-h-f¿Øp∂ s]¨In-fn-Iƒ : t_UvtIPv C≥ aqI-bmb Pe-tZ-hX : Zn sF¬ ]co-£-W-Øns‚ hgn-I-fn¬ : dnb¬ ^nIvj≥ bp≤-Øns‚ ÿncw-X-S-hp-Im¿ : A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ P∑-\m-´nse BZy-hn-Pbw : _mUv Kbv ]pcpj∑mtc°mƒ Db¿∂-h-cmWv kv{XoIƒ (A-`n-ap-Jw) A`n-apJw ˛2 ASn-t®¬∏n-°-s∏´ tZi-kvt\-l-Øns‚ Cc-Iƒ : Zn tImÃv Km¿Uv EXp-t`-Z-߃s°mcp _p≤-k-¶o¿Ø\w: kv]nMv, kΩ¿, t^mƒ, hn‚¿... kv{]nMv \√ ia-cn-bm-°m-cn-bpsS IY : ka-cn-‰≥ tKƒ hnNn-{X-am-sbmcp kl-Po-h\w : {Xo Atb¨ IpSpw-_-Po-hnXw Hcp ]co-£-bmWv (A-`n-ap-Jw) Ing-h\pw ISepw I\y-Ibpw : Zn t_m Ime-Øn\p aptº \S-°p∂ kn\na : ssSw Xq°p-a-c-Ø-W-en¬ Hcp {]W-b-IY : s{_Xv Nn{X-i-e-`-ß-fmbn ]p\¿÷-\n-°p∂ kz]v\-߃ : {Uow kzXz-{]-Xn-k-‘n-bpsS aq∂p-h¿j-߃ : Bcn-cmwKv ho≠p-samcp ]co-£-W-Nn{Xw : Bta≥ ]m]-Øns‚ iºfw : ]ntbØ Iym∏n-‰-en-k-Øns‚ {Iqc-apJw (A-`n-ap-Jw) h\y-amb \n»-_ZvX : sabv_n-bkv GIm-¥-Zzo-]p-Iƒ Inw In Z°ns‚ kv{XoIƒ Pohn-X-tcJ ˛ Ne-®n-{X-tcJ


BapJw

a

e-bm-fn-Iƒ°v G‰hpw {]nb-¶-c-\mb hntZi Ne-®n-{X-Imc-∑m-cn-sem-cm-fmWv Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b≥ kwhn-[m-b-I-≥ Inw In ZIv. 2005 se sF F^v F^v sI bn¬ At±-l-Øns‚ Bdp Nn{X-ßfpsS ]mt°Pv {]Z¿in-∏n-®ncp-∂p. Aß-s\-bmWv auenIk¿§-{]Xn-`b - p≈ Cu Ne®n-{X-Im-cs\ \ΩpsS t{]£-I¿ Xncn-®d- n-bp-∂Xv. XpS¿∂v F√m taf-I-fnepw Inw In Z°ns‚ G‰hpw ]pXnb kn\na-Iƒ {]Z¿in-∏n-°m≥ Ign-™p. Hmtcm {]Z¿i-\Øn\pw Xnb-‰-dpIƒ Xnßn-\n-d-™p. Inw In Z°n\v kz¥w \m´n-ep-≈-Xn-t\-°mƒ Bcm-[I - ¿ tIc-fØ - n-ep-s≠∂p ]d-™m¬ AXn-it- bm-‡n-bm-hn√. Ipd™ _P-‰n¬ Npcp-ßnb kabwsIm≠v anI® kn\n-a-Isf-Sp-°p∂ kwhn-[m-b-I-s\∂ JymXnbpw Inw In Z°n\v Ah-Imi-s∏-´-Xm-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv 1996 apX-ep≈ ]Xn-t\gph¿j߃°n-Sb - n¬ ]sØm-ºXp kn\n-aI - ƒ kwhn-[m\wsNøm≥ At±l-Øn\p Ign-™-Xv. Xnc°-Ym-IrØpw kwhn-[mbI\pw am{X-a-√, Iyma-dm-am-\pw FUn-‰dpw \n¿Ωm-XmhpwIqSn-bmWv Inw In ZIv. Ne®n-{X-hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ°v amXr-I-bm-Wv Inw In Z°ns‚ Ne-®n{X PohnXw. Inw In Z°ns\ t\cn´pImW-m\pw kwh-Zn-°m\pw \ΩpsS

{]Xn-\n-[n-Iƒ°v Ah-k-c-sam-cp-°-W-sa-∂p-≈ Ne-®nt{Xm’h kwLm-SIkan-Xn-bpsS B{Klw Cu h¿jw k^-e-am-Ip-I-bm-Wv. temI-sa-ºmSpw Bcm-[I - c- p≈ {]Xn-`m-[\ - \ - mb B kwhn-[m-bI - ≥ Cu h¿jsØ taf-bn¬ \ap-s°m-∏-ap-≠v. Gsd hnhm-Z-߃ krjvSn® At±-l-Øns‚ G‰hpw ]pXnb Nn{X-amb sabv_n-bkv taf-bnse temI-kn-\namhn`m-K-Øn¬ {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNøpw. Inw In Z°ns\ BZ-cn-°p-∂-Xns‚ `mK-ambn A°m-Zan ]pdØn-d° - p∂ Cu ]pkvXIw Ne-®n{Xkwhn-[m-bI - \pw \S\pw am≤ya-{]-h¿Ø-I-\p-amb sI _n thWp-hmWv cNn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-I-sfbpw Ah-bpsS ]cn-k-c-ß-sfbpw hne-bncp-Øp∂ Cu ]pkvXIw tIc-f-Ønse Ne-®n-{Xm-kzm-Z-I¿°p apºn¬ ka¿∏n-°p-∂p.

Fkv. {]nb-Z¿i≥ sNb¿am≥ tIcf kwÿm\ Ne-®n{X A°m-Zan Xncp-h\ - ¥ - ] - pcw 20.11.2013

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apJ-hpc

G

gp h¿j-߃°p apºv tKmh-bnse A¥m-cmjv{S Ne®n-{X-ta-f-bv°nsS ]qs\ ^nenw C≥Ãn-‰yq-´n¬ tImÃyqw Unssk\nMv ]Tn-°p∂ Hcp Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b≥ hnZym¿∞n-\nsb ]cn-N-bs∏-Sm-\n-S-bm-bn. Z£nWsImdn-b-bn¬\n∂m-sW-∂-dn-™-t∏mƒ BZyw B s]¨Ip-´n-tbmSv kwkm-cn-®Xv AXn-\Iw tIc-f-Ønse ^nenw s^Ãn-h¬hrØ-߃°v kp]-cn-Nn-X\ - m-bn-cp∂ Inw In Z°ns\-°p-dn-®m-Wv. kz¥w\m´n¬ Cu kwhn-[m-b-I≥ Xosc P\-{]n-b\-s√∂pw At±-l-Øns‚ kn\n-am-k-¶-ev]-ß-tfmSv \ncq-]-I¿°v, {]tXy-In®v s^an-\n-Ãp-Iƒ°v, ISpØ hntbm-Pn-∏m-Wp-≈-sX∂pw B kwkm-c-Øn¬\n∂mWv t\cn´p a\- n-em-°n-b-Xv. Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b-bnse t{]£-I-cp-am-bpw \ncq-]-I-cp-ambpw ]eXhW Inw In ZIv hmKzm-Z-ß-fn¬ G¿s∏-´n-´p-≠v. ssk_¿ temI-ØneqsS kn\nam\n-cq-]Ww \S-Øp∂ C‚¿s\‰v ]uc∑mcpw At±-lØ - n-s\-Xnsc ]e-Ipdn B{IaWagn®phn´p. sImdn-b≥kn\na-bnse "_mUv Kbv' F∂v Inw hnti-jn-∏n-°-s∏-´p. sImdn-b-bn¬ At±-l-Øns‚ an° kn\n-a-Ifpw t_mIvtkm-^o-kn¬ ]cm-P-b-aS-™p. hntcm-[m-`m-k-sa∂p ]d-bs´, 2001¬ ]pd-Øp-h∂ _mUv Kbv F∂ kn\n- a - b mWv sImdn- b - b n¬ Z°ns‚ hmWn- P y- h nPbwt\Snb BZykn\n-a. 8

A[n-Iam¿°pw ]nSn-sIm-Sp-°m-Ø-h-bmWv Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-Iƒ. kn\nam`yk\sa∂-√, Bh-iy-Øn-\p≈ Hu]-NmcnIhnZym-`ymkwt]mepan√mØ kvIqƒ t{Um∏u´mWv Inw. BcpsSbpw Iogn¬ kwhn-[m\klm-bn-bmbn {]h¿Øn-®n-´n-√. BcpsSbpw kwhn-[m-\-ssi-en-bpsS bmYm-ÿn-Xn-IXzw At±-lsØ _m[n-®n-´n-√. 1990I-fp-sS X - p-S° - Ø - n¬ ]mcnkn¬ sXcphpNn{XImc\mbn Ae-bp∂ Ime-ØmWv B-Zy-ambn kn\na ImWp-∂Xp t]mepw. Ahn-iz-k-\o-b-ambn tXm∂m-sa-¶nepw kXyaXm-Wv. CtX°p-dn®v Hc-`n-ap-J-Øn¬ Inw hy‡-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v: ""]Xn-\©mwhb p-ap-X¬ ^mIv‰-dn-I-fn¬ tPmensNbvXn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v kmwkvImcnI{]h¿Ø-\-sam∂pap≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. Fs∂-t∏m-ep-≈-h¿°v kn\na Isø-Øn-∏n-Sn-°m≥t]mep-am-ImsØmcp ^m‚-kn-bm-bn-cp∂p. tImfPv hnZym`ymkw kn≤n®h¿°pam{Xta kn\na Bkz-Zn°m≥ ]‰q F∂m-bn-cp∂p Fs‚ hnizm-kw. ]mcnkn-se-Øp-∂-Xphsc kn\na A¿∞-iq-\y-amsbmcp hnt\m-Zam≤y-aa- m-sW∂v Rm≥ [cn®psh®n-cp-∂p.'' ]t£, ]mcn-kn¬sh®p I≠ kn\n-a-Iƒ Inw In Z°ns\ Bg-Øn¬ kzm[o-\n-®p. sske≥kv Hm^v Z emw_vkv, Zn ethgvkv Hm¨ Zn {_nUvPv F∂nh-bmWv BZywI≠h. ]pd-ta°v im¥-cm-


sW∂p tXm∂n- ° p∂ hy‡nIƒ°p- ≈ n¬ Hfn- ™ n- c n- ° p∂ kwL¿j-ß-fp-sSbpw A{I-am-k-‡n-bp-sSbpw I\-ep-I-sf-°p-dn®v sske≥kv Hm^v Zn emw_vkv Inw In Z°ns\ ]Tn-∏n-®n-´p-≠m-IWw. {]W-b-_-‘-߃°-∏p-d-Øp≈ \nKqVtemI-ß-sf-°p-dn®v ethgvkv Hm¨ Zn {_nUvPn¬\n∂pw a\- n-em-°nbn´p-≠mImw. s{Im°-ssU¬ F∂ BZy-Nn-{Xw ethgvkv Hm¨ Zn {_nUvPn-\p≈ BZ-c-am-Wv. lm≥kv \Zn-bnse ]me-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Wt√m B IY {][m-\-ambpw \S-°p-∂-Xv. c≠m-asØ kn\n-a-bn¬ (ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv) ethgvkv Hm¨ Zn {_nUvPnse \mb-I-\mb sZ\nkv emhMpw as‰mcp {]apJ {^©p\S-\mb dn®mUv t_mdn-ßdpw A`n\- b n- ° p- I - b pw sNbv X p. ]q¿Æ- a mbpw ]mcn- k n- e mWv Nn{Xw jq´psNbvX-Xpw. A`n-ap-J-ß-fn¬ Hcn-°epw a\x-im-kv{X-⁄-sctbm XXz-Nn¥-I-sctbm D≤-cn-°m-dn-s√-¶nepw Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-IfpsS ASn-Ø-´n¬ KmV-amb Z¿i-\-ß-fpsS ASn-sbm-gp-°p-I-fp-≠v. t{]£-I-cn-te°v tNmZy-ß-sf-dn™psImSpØpsIm≠mWv At±l-Øns‚ ]e Nn{X-ßfpw Ah-km-\n-°p-I. au\w\nd® s{^bvapI-fn¬t∏mepw hb-e≥kns‚ Xo°-\-ep-Iƒ Hfn-∏n-®n-´p-≠m-Ipw. Xnb-‰-dn¬\n∂n-d-ßp∂ t{]£-I¿ B I\-ep-Iƒ DuXn-bqXn Im´pXo-bm-°n-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw. Fgp-Øp-Im-c≥ t]\sIm≠v t\mhsegp-Xp-∂-Xp-t]mse IymadsIm≠v kn\nasbgp-Xp∂ (Ae-Ivkm-WvU¿ Akv{Sq°ns‚ hm°p-Iƒ) Ne-®n-{X-Im-c∑m-cn¬ {][m-\n-bmWv Inw In ZIv. kn\na-bpsS kakvXtaJ-e-I-fnepw At±-l-Øns‚ {i≤]Xn-bm-dp-≠v.

hnhmZwkrjvSn® G‰hpw ]pXnb kn\n-a-bmb sabv_n-b-kn s‚ Xnc-°Y - bpw kwhn-[m-\hpw Iyma-dbpw FUn-‰nßpw At±lwXs∂ \n¿Δ-ln-®n-cn-°p-∂p. ]eXc-Ønepw hymJym-\n-°-s∏-Sm-hp∂ kn\n-a-Iƒ sNbvXn´ps≈mcp kwhn-[m-b-I-s\-°p-dn®v Fgp-XpI Aev]w {ia-I-c-am-Wv. Ne-®n-{X-Pohn-XØn¬ Inw In ZIv \S∂pXo¿Ø hgn-Iƒ k¶o¿Æam-Wv. A{X-bvs°m∂pw k©-cn-°m≥ Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn\p Ign™n-´n-√. Inw In ZIv CXp-hsc kwhn-[m\wsNbvX ]sØm≥]Xp kn\na-I-sfbpwIpdn-®p≈ A≤ym-b-߃ Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn-ep-≠v. _mUv Kbv, {Xo Atb¨, ]ntbØ F∂o Nn{X-ß-fp-ambn _‘-s∏´v At±lw hntZiam≤y- a - ß ƒ°p \¬Inb A`n- a p- J - ß - f psS {]k‡`mK-ßfpw Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-Isf°p-dn-®p≈ Nne \nco-£-W-ßfpw IqSmsX At±-l-Øns‚ Pohn-X-tc-Jbpw ^nentam-{K-^nbpap≠v. Cu ]pkvXIw Xøm-dm-°m≥ Ah-kcw\¬In-b- kwÿm\ Ne-®n{X A-°m-Z-an-tbm-Spw {i≤m-]q¿Δw CXv AWn-bn-s®mcp°nb Fs‚ {]nb kplrØv {iohmkp-tZh `´-Xn-cn-tbmSpap≈ \μn tcJs∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-≈-s´.

sI _n thWp F^v-˛1, {iolcn A∏m¿Svsa‚ vkv aÆØv sebv≥ Xr»q¿ ˛ 1

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[oc-amb Ac-t߉w

\ne-\n¬]n\pth≠n-bp≈ hen-sbmcp ka-ca - mWv Fs‚ PohnXw ˛Inw In ZIv 10


s{Im°-ssU¬

k

aq-lØ - ns‚ G‰hpw Xmtg-Ø´- n-ep-≈h - c - psS Akm[m-cW - a - mb IY]dbp∂ s{Im°-ssU¬ F∂ Nn{Xw kwhn[m\w sNbvXp-sIm≠v 1996-˛¬ Inw In ZIv Xs‚ kw`-h-_lp-e-amb Ne-®n-{X-Po-hnXw XpS-ßn. kn\n-a-bn¬ HcpXcØnep-ap≈ kmt¶-XnIhnZym-`ym-khpw ]cn-N-bhpan√m-Ø Hcp sNdp-∏-°m-cs‚ [oc-amb Ac-t߉ambn-cp∂p AXv. Bfll-Xym-{]-hW - X - b - p≈ \nc-h[n IYm-]m-{X-ßsf ]n¬°m-eØv Xs‚ kn\n-a-I-fn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n® Z°v BZy-kn-\n-a-bpsS {][m\ semt°-j-\mbn sXcs™SpØXv Z£nW sImdnb- b nse Adn- b - s ∏- S p∂ Bfl- l XymtI{μ- a mb lm≥ \Znbnse hen-sbmcp ]me-Øns‚ ASn-`mK-am-Wv. ChnsS Xma-kn-°p∂ `h-\-c-ln-X-\mb Hcp {Inan-\-emWv \mb-I≥.

11


\Zn-bn¬®mSn Bfl-lXysNøp-∂-hcpsS ]gvkn¬\n∂v ]WwtamjvSn-°p∂ kz`m-ha - p-≠v, "apXe' F∂v hnfn-t∏-cp≈ Cu sNdp-∏° - m-c\ - v. \Zn-bn¬\n∂v Nne Ah-kc - ß - f - n¬ arXtZl߃ apßn-sb-Sp-°m≥ s]menkv Chs‚ klmbw tXSm-dpap-≠v. Ahs‚ ]e Poh-t\m-]m-[n-If - n¬ H∂mWXpw. BZy-kn-\n-a-bpsS BZy-ko-\n¬Øs∂ ZIv Hcm-fl-lXy-bmWv Nn{Xo-Icn-°p-∂-Xv. \Zn-bnte°v Hcmƒ NmSp∂p. "apXe' AXp ImWp-∂p. hkv{X-߃ Agn®psh®v ]cn]q¿Æ\·-\mbn Abmfpw sh≈-Øn-te°v apßm-¶p-gn-bnSp-∂p. acn-®-bm-fpsS t]gvkp-ambn Icbv°pIb-dn, AXn¬ \n∂v ]W-sa-Sp-°p-∂p. hfsc efn-X-ambn Ah-X-cn-∏n® Cu cwK-ØneqsS EPp-hmb Ne-®n-{X-`m-jb - n¬ Xs‚ kn\n-ab - psS A¥-co-£hpw {][m\IYm-]m-{X-Øns‚ kz`m-hhpw hy‡am-°nb ZIv temI-kn-\n-a-bnse Hcp ]pXp-bpK-Øns‚ hch-dn-bn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. "apXe'bpsSIqsS Hcp hr≤\pw Hcp _me\pw Xma-kn°p-∂p-≠v. B{In-km-[-\-߃ tiJ-cn®p hn¬°-emWv hr≤s‚ tPmen. Ip´n-bm-Is´ "apXe'bpsS Xcn-InS sXcphp I®-hS- ß - f - nse klm-bn-bpw. kwkvIm-ci - q-\y-Xbpw kvt\lcm-ln-Xyhpw shdp∏pw £n{]-tIm-]h - p-aS- ß - nb A{I-am-k‡ - X-bmWv "apXe'bpsS kz`m-h-Øns‚ apJ-ap-{Z. B{I-an°p∂Xpw B{I-an-°-s∏-Sp∂Xpw ioeam-°nb Abmƒ Hcp cm{Xn-bn¬ ]pg-bn¬ NmSn acn-°m≥ {ian® kpμ-cn-bmb Hcp s]¨Ip-´nsb c£n-°p-∂p. hb-e≥kns‚ `mjam{Xw 12


ioen® "apXe' Xma-kn-bmsX Ahsf _em-XvImcw sNøpIbpw shdp-samcp t`mtKm-]-I-cWambn XcwXmgvØp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. (kv{Xo-Isf XcwXmgvØn-°m-Wn-°p∂psh∂ Btcm-]Ww BZykn\naapX¬ Inw In ZIv G‰p-hmßnØpSßnsb∂¿∞w.) "apX-e'- s]¨Ip-´n-tbmSpsNøp∂ {IqcX I≠p kln-°m≥hømsX Abm-fpsS enwK-Øn¬ apdnth¬]n-°p-∂p≠v, IqsS Xma-kn-°p∂ _me≥. Ah-bh hnt—-Z\w Inw In Z°ns‚ ]n∂o-Sp≈ ]e kn\n-a-I-fnepw ImWp-∂p-≠v. G‰hpw ]pXnb Nn{X-amb ta_n-bkns‚ {][m\- { ]- t abw Iuam- c - { ]m- b - Ø n- e p≈ Hcp hnZym¿∞nsb Ahs‚ AΩXs∂ enwK-hn-t—-Z\ - w sNøp∂ AXn-{Iq-ca - mb IrXyamWv. apdn-th¬∏n-°p-Ibpw c‡wNn¥p-Ibpw c‡m`n-jn-‡-cm-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-I-sb-∂Xv Inw In Z°ns‚ an° kn\n-a-I-fn-sebpw IYm-]m-{X-ßfpsS kz`m-h-am-Wv. tÃmIvtlmw kn≥t{Umw F∂ am\-kn-Im-h-ÿ-bnemWv "apXe' XS-¶e - n¬h®v ]oUn-∏n-°p∂ s]¨Ip´n FØns∏-Sp-∂-Xv. (_μn-I-fm-°-s∏-´-h¿°v _μn-I-fm-°n-b-h-tcmSv tXm∂p∂ A\p-Xm-]amWv tÃmIvtlmw kn≥t{Umw.) as‰mc¿∞-Øn¬ "apXe' Dƒs∏-Sp∂ ]mc-º-cy-\n-tj-[nbmb "IpSpw_'Ønte°v Hcp kv{Xo IS-∂p-h-cp-tºm-ƒ s]mXpth kw`-hn-°p∂ am‰-ß-fpsS `mK-am-bmWv Akm-[m-c-W-amb Cu kvt\lw DdshSp-°p-∂-Xv. IpSpw_w F∂ k¶¬]sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ hntbm-Pn∏pXs∂-bmWv Iq´mbn Xma-kn°p∂ sXcp-hp-a-°-fpsS Pohn-X-Øn-eqsS ZIv tcJ-s∏-SpØp13


∂-Xv. "apXe' F∂ IYm-]m-{Xhpw IqsS-Øm-a-kn-°p∂ hr≤\pw Ip´nbpw XΩn¬ c‡-_-‘-apt≠m F∂v hy‡-a√. ]t£, GsXm-s°tbm Xc-Øn¬ Ah¿ ]c-kv]cw B{ibn-°p-∂p≠v. ]me-Øn-\-Sn-bnse Ah-cpsS Xpd∂ho´nse D]IcW ߃ apgp-h≥ \mK-cnIkaqlw Dt]-£n®pIf™ km[-\ß-fmWv. "kaqlw hen-s®-dn-™pIf™XmWv Fs∂' F∂v "apXe'Xs∂ Hcp L´-Øn¬ ]dbp∂p≠v. Cßs\ s]mXpk-aq-l-Øns‚ amen-\y-°q-ºm-c-ß-fn¬\n∂v kuμ-cyhpw Z¿i-\hpw krjvSn-°p-Ib - mWv Xs‚ e£y-sa∂v BZykn\na-bn-eqsSØs∂ Inw In ZIv Dds° hnfn®p]d-™p. {]W-b-ss\-cm-iy-sØ-Øp-S¿∂v Bfl-l-Xy-bvs°m-cpßnb B s]¨Ip-´nsb IqSp-X¬ a\- n-em-°m\pw Ahsf kvt\ln-°m\pw XpS-ßp-∂-tXmsS "apX-e-'bn¬\n∂v A[-ahn-Im-c-߃ Hgn-™p-t]m-Im≥ XpS-ßp-∂p. ]t£, A{]-Xo£n-X-ambn Hcp sIme-]m-X-It°kn¬ \nc-]-cm-[n-bmb Abmƒ AI-s∏-Sp-∂p. Abm-fpsS IqsSØma-kn-°p∂ hr≤s\ bYm¿∞ sIme-bmfn hI-h-cp-Øp-∂p. Ct∏mƒ Xs‚ {]W-b-`m-P-\-amb s]¨Ip-´n-bpsS ]q¿Δ-Im-ap-Is‚ kplr-ØmWv sIme-bm-fnsb∂v Abmƒ a\- n-em-°p-∂p. Abm-fpw s]¨Ip-´nbpwtN¿∂v B a\p-jys\ h[n-°p-∂p. Ct∏mƒ c≠p t]cpw sIme-]m-XI - n-If - m-bn. A∂p cm{Xnbn¬ \Zo-Xo-cØ,v _em-XvIm-c-Øns‚ `mj Dt]-£n® Abmƒ XnI™ kvt\l-tØmsS Ah-fp-ambn thgvN\S14


Øp-∂p. ]nt‰∂p ImeØv s]¨Ip´n B-fl-l-Xy-bv°mbn ho≠pw \Zn-bn¬ NmSp∂p. Abmƒ Ahsf c£n-°p-∂n-√. ]Icw Ahƒs°m∏w \Zn-bpsS ASn-Ø´- n-te°v Bgv∂p-t]mIpIbmWv ˛ bYm¿∞ Pe-k-am-[n. Bfl-l-Xy-bn¬ XpSßn Bfl-l-Xy-bn¬Øs∂ Ahkm-\n-°p∂ BZykn\n-ab - n¬Øs∂ X\n-°p-≈nse kmUn-

Ãn-s\bpw atkm-°n-Ãn-s\bpw Inw In ZIv shfn-s∏-SpØn. XpS¿∂v ]pd-Øp-h∂ an°kn\n-a-I-fnepw Bfl-l-Xytbm I≠n-cn-°m≥ {]bm-k-ap≈ Bfl-l-Xym-{i-a-ßtfm Cu kwhn-[m-bI - ≥ Ah-Xc - n-∏n-®n-´p-s≠∂v A¬]w sR´-temsS Hm¿t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.

15


BZy-Nn{Xsa∂ \ne-bn¬ Inw In ZIv F∂ Ne-®n-{XIm-cs‚ thdn´ Zriy-t_m-[hpw ImgvN-∏m-Sp-Ifpw s{Im°ssU¬ hy‡-am-°n. ]n¬°m-eØv At±lw krjvSn® hfsc auen-I-amb ]e Zriy-_nw-_-ß-fp-sSbpw DZvLm-S\w s{Im°-ssU-en¬ ImWmw. AXn¬ G‰hpw {][m-\-s∏-´Xv Pem-i-b-ß-tfmSp≈ A`n-\n-th-i-am-Wv. "apXe'sb∂ hnfnt∏cpw B IYm-]m-{X-Øns‚ {]hr-Øn-Ifpw CXn\v ASn-hc-bn-Sp-∂p. lm≥\Zn-bpsS ASn-bn¬ Pem-¥¿`m-KØv Abmƒ hnNn-{X-amsbmcp kzIm-cy-temIw krjvSn-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. AhnsS Abmƒ ]e-t∏m-gmbn hen-s®-dn™ tkm^bpw s_©pw a‰p-ap-≠v. F{Xt\cw thW-sa-¶nepw Abmƒ°v Pem-¥¿`m-K-Øp≈ Xs‚ kzImcytemI-Øn¬ Hcp Ipg∏hpw IqSmsX sNe-h-gn-°mw. sNdp-∏-Im-eØv Hcp-]mSp XhW a\- n¬ apdn-th-‰n-´p≈ Abmƒ°v bYm¿∞-Øn¬ hoSn-s‚bpw IpSpw_Øns‚bpw Bizmkw\¬Ip-∂Xv Cu Pem-i-b-hm-k-am-Wv. Hcp hna-eo-I-cW{]{InbIqSn-bm-W-Xv. Pem-¥-c-Øn-ep≈ Zriy-߃ hfsc at\m-l-c-am-bmWv Hcp Nn{X-Im-c≥IqSn-bmb kwhn-[m-bI - ≥ ]I¿Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂X - v. Nn{XIe-bp-sSbpw s]bn‚n-ßp-I-fp-sSbpw km≤yX GXm≠v F√mkn\n-a-I-fnepw Inw In ZIv D]-tbm-K-s∏-SpØn-bn-´p-≠v. s{Im°-ssU-en¬ Hcp sNdnb Basb \oe®mbw]qin \Zn-bn-te-°v hnSp-∂p-≠v. Nn-{X-I-ebpambpw \ndß-fp-ambpw _‘-s∏´ hfsc hnNn-{X-amb CØcw {]hrØn-Iƒ ]n∂oSv ]e kn\n-a-I-fnepw Inw In Z°ns‚ IYm16


]m-{X-߃ Bh¿Øn-®p. t_Uv tIPv C≥ (1998) F∂ Nn{XØn¬ \oe-®mbw ]pc-´nb Cu Basb ho≠pw ImWp∂p-≠v. (Z°ns‚ aq∂m-asØ kn\n-a-bm-Wn-Xv.) "apXe'bpsS kl-Nm-cn-bmb _me≥ \Zn-bn-sem-gp-°p∂ Nmbw]pc-´nb IS-em-kp-tXm-Wn-Ifpw hcm-\n-cn-°p∂ kn\n-a-I-fnse CtaPp-I-fpsS {]h-N-\-am-bn. A{I-am-k-‡\pw \ntj-[nbpamb Hcp sNdp-∏-°m-cs‚ (Hcp _mUv Kbv) am\-kn-I-]-cn-Wm-a-amWv ZIv BZy-Nn-{XØn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-®-Xv. tNm Pm lyq¨ F∂ \S-\mWv Cu IYm-]m-{X-ambn Ac-ßp-X-I¿Ø-Xv. tNm Pm lyq¨ ]n∂oSv Inw In Z°ns‚ A]-c-kz-Xz-ambn Adn-b-s∏-´p. _mUv Kbv (2001) F∂ Nn{X-Ønse "NoØ a\p-jy≥' BbXpw Ct±lw Xs∂. c≠m-asØ Nn{X-amb ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬knepw (1996), Zn sF¬ (2000), A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ (2001) F∂o Nn{X-ß-fnepw G‰hpw]pXnb Nn{X-amb sabv_n-b-knepw (2013) tNm Pm lyq¨ thj-an-´p. kvt\l-c-ln-X-hpw _ln-jvIr-X-hp-amb sXcp-hp-Po-hnX-Ønse Akm-[m-cW aplq¿Ø-߃ Ah-Xc - n-∏n®psIm≠v Xs‚ hgn GXm-sW∂pw ]£-]mXw Btcm-Sm-sW∂pw hy‡-am-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p temI-kn-\n-a-bnse Cu GIm-¥]-Yn-I≥.

z 17


\odp∂ ]mcnkv A\p-`h - ß - ƒ

Fs‚ C\n-bp≈ kn\n-aI - fpw arKo-bX \nd-™X - m-sW∂v t{]£-I¿ hn[n-sb-gp-Xn-tb-°mw. ]t£ Cu A{I-am-k‡n Ah-cpsS kzXz-Øns‚ {]Xn-^-e\wXs∂-bm-Wv. Hc-f-hphsc \Ω-tfm-tcm-cp-Ø-cnepw Cu A{I-am-k‡n \ne\n¬°p-∂p-≠v. -˛Inw In ZIv

18


ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv

1

990 IfpsS XpS-°-Øn¬ ]mcn-knse sXcp-hp-I-fn¬ kz¥wNn{X-߃ {]Z¿in-∏n-°p-Ibpw hn¬°p-Ibpw sNbvXp \S- ∂ n- c p∂p Inw In ZIv . ]mcnknse A\p- ` - h - ß - f n¬ \n∂mWv c≠m-asØ Nn{X-amb ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv (1997) ZIv sa\-s™-Sp-ØX - v. Nn{X-Ie - b - p-sS-bpw in¬]-Ie - b - p-sSbpw am{X-a-√, ]mcn-knse At[m-tem-I-Øn-s‚bpw ]›m-Ø-eap≠v Cu Nn{X-Øn-\v. alm-\K - c - ß - f - psS ap-Jy-[mcmPohn-XØ - ns‚ `mK-am-Im≥ Ign-bmØ ]pd-tºm°pPohn-X-ß-fmWv ssh¬Uv A\na¬knepw Z°ns‚ {]tabw. ]pXn-sbmcp PohnXw sI´n-∏Sp-°msa∂ {]Xo-£-bp-ambn ]mcn-kn¬ FØn-t®-cp∂ tlmMv km≥ F∂ DØ-csImdn-b≥ bphmhpw ]mcn-kn¬ t\ctØXs∂ Xma-kn-°p∂ tamjvSmhpw h©-I\pw A£19


20


cm¿∞-Øn¬ X√p-sIm-≈n-bp-amb tjmMv lmbv F∂ Z£nW-sIm-dn-b≥ bphmhpw XΩn-ep≈ cmK-tZzj_‘-amWv kn\n-a-bnse {][m\{]ta-bw. tlmMv km≥ ]´m-f-°m-c-\mbn-cp-∂p. Akm-am\y Imbn-I-_-ehpw ss[cyhpw ssIap-Xep-≠v. A]-c\ - m-Is´ Nn{X-Im-c\ - m-Im-\mWv XmXv]c - y-sa-¶nepw kz¥wcmPy- ° m- c mb Nn{X- I m- c - ∑ m¿ hc® Nn{X- ß ƒ tamjvSn®v sXcp-hn¬ hn¬°p-∂-bm-fm-Wv; Ah-cpsS a¿±-\ta¬°epw ]Xn-hm-Wv. tlmMv kms‚ _mKv tamjvSn-°m≥ tjmMv lmbv {ian-°p-tºm-gmWv Ccp-hcpw ]cn-Nb - s - ∏-Sp-∂Xp Xs∂. ]n∂oSv Ah¿ sXcp-hn¬ IØn-tbdS-°-ap≈ Nne Imbn-I-{]-Z¿i-\-߃ \S-Øp-Ibpw AXp-hgn \K-c-Ønse Hcp At[m-temI Kp≠mkwL-Øns‚ `mK-am-Ip-Ibpw sNøp∂p. h≥XpI {]Xn-^ew]‰n Bfp-Isf a¿±n-°p-It- bm th≠n h∂m¬ hI-hc - p-Øp-Itbm sNøp-Ib - mWv Xmc-Xt- ay\ kam[m-\-t{]-an-bmb tlmMv km\v sNtø≠nhcp∂ tPmen. Ipcp´p_p≤n-°m-c-\mb tjmMv lmbv BIs´ {^©v `mj Xosc hi-an-√mØ tlmMv kms\ XcwIn´p-tºm-sg√mw kmºØn-I-ambn ]‰n-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cu kplr-Øp-°-ƒ ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp∂ c≠v bph-Xn-Iƒ IqSn Nn{X-Ønse {][m\IYm-]m-{X-ßfmWv. _pUm-s]-Ãn¬ \n∂v ]mcn-knte°p≈ s{Sbn≥ bm{Xbv°nSbn¬ tlmMv km≥ I≠p-ap-´p∂ temd F∂ s]¨Ip´n bYm¿∞-Øn¬ {^©pImc-\m¬ ZsØ-Sp-°-s∏´ sImdn-b-°m-cn-bm-Wv. ]mcnknse Hcp Nph∂sXcp-hn¬ \·-Xm-{]-Z¿i\w (]o]v tjm)

\S-Øn-bmWv Ah-ƒ Pohn-°p-∂Xv. Fan¬ F∂ {^©p-Imc-\p-ambn KmV{]W-b-Øn-ep-am-Wv. _pUm-s]-Ãn¬\n∂v ]mcn-kn-te°v ape-°® - b - nsemfn-∏n®v ab-°p-ac - p∂p IS-Øm≥ temdsb Fan¬ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p-ap-≠v. tlmMv km≥ ]n∂oSv temd ]s¶-Sp-°p∂ ]o]v tjmbpsS \nXy-k-μ¿i-I-\mbn amdp-∂p. Ac-bv°p-ap-If - n-te°v \·-bmbn icocwapgp-h≥ sh≈®mbw ]qin sXcp-hp-tI-{μ-ß-fn¬ {]Xn-a-t]mse \n¬°pIbpw ImWn-Iƒ Fdn™p-sIm-Sp-°p∂ ]Ww kzoI-cn-°pIbpw sNøp∂ sImdo≥ F∂ s]¨Ip´n lwK-dn-°m-cn-bmb A`-bm¿∞n-bm-Wv. AXn-{Iq-c-\pw kv{Xo]o-U-I-\p-amb Hcp {^©p-Im-c≥ Ahsf ASn-a-bm-°n-sh-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. Hcn°¬ {]Z¿i-\-Øn-\nsS Ahsf D]-{Z-hn-°m≥ apXn¿∂ c≠p {^©p-Imsc tjmMv lmbv ASn-t®m-Sn-°p-∂p. tjmMv tlmbv Ahfpambn ASp°pIbpw imco-cn-I_‘Ønte¿ s∏SpIbpw sNøp-∂p. tjmMv lmbpw kplrØpw AI-s∏´ At[m-temI kwL-Øn¬ kwL¿j-߃ DS-se-Sp-°p-∂p. CXn-\nsS kwLØehs‚ \n¿t±-i-a-\p-k-cn®v Hcp sIme-]m-XIw \SØm≥ tlmMv km≥ \nbp-‡-\m-Ip-∂p. ]t£ sIme-]mXIwsNøm≥ Xøm-ds - √∂v Abmƒ Xo¿Øp]d-bp-∂p. kq{Xim-en-bmb tjmMv lmbv sIme-]m-XIw \S-Øm-sa∂v kwLØ-e-h-t\mSv ]d-bp-∂p. sIm√-s∏-tS≠ hy‡n temd-bpsS Imap-I\pw kwc-£-I-\p-amb Fan¬ BWv. Fan-ep-ambn 21


h\y-amb Hcp cXn-_‘ - Ø - n\ptijw temd Ipfn-ap-dn-bn-te°v Ib-dnb X°-Øn\v tlmMv km\pw tjmMv lmbpw AhcpsS apdn-bn¬ IS-°p-∂p. InS-°-bn¬ InS-°p∂ Fan-ens\ tlmMv km≥ ASn-®p- t_m[wsISp-Øp-∂p. ]pd-Øn-d-ßnb tijw tjmMv lmbv ho≠pw AI-tØ°p IS∂v t_m[iq-\y-\mb Fan-ens\ sIme-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. temdbpsS IÆpw Iøpw sI´n-bn´ tij-amWv Abmƒ sIme \S-Øp-∂X - v. Fanens‚ ]pXnb hm®v tamjvSn-°pIIqSn sNbvXn-´mWv Abmƒ ]pd- Ø p- I - S - ° p- ∂ Xv . C°m- c y- s am∂pw tlmMv km≥ Adnbp∂p-an-√. Cu hm®v ]pXp-Xmbn Xm≥ hmßn-bX - m-sW∂v \pW]d™v Abmƒ Iq´p-Im-c\v kΩm-\n-°p-∂p. B hm®p sI´n temd-bpsS ]o]v tjm ImWm≥t]mIp∂ tlmMv km≥ kz¥wPohnXwXs∂ A]-I-S-Øn-em-Ip-I-bm-sW∂v Adn-bp∂n-√. \nXy-k-μ¿i-I-\mb \m´p-Im-cs‚ Iøn¬ sIme-sNø-s∏´ Imap-Is‚ hm®v ImWp-∂-tXmsS temd Imcy-߃ Duln-°p-∂p. kwL-Ø-e-hs‚ `mcybv°v kwLØnse as‰mcp bphm-hp-ambn cl-ky-_‘-ap-s≠∂ hnhcw ]pd-Øm-Ip-∂p. B kv{Xosb h[n-°m-\p≈ ZuXyw tlmMv km≥ Gs‰-Sp°p-∂p. h≥Xp-I-bmWv Abm-f-Xn\v {]Xn-^ew hmßp-∂-Xv. Cu ]WwsIm≠v X\n°pw kplr-Øn\pw Xma-kn-°m≥ Hcp hoSp hmßp-I-bmWv Abmƒ sNøp-∂-Xv. sImdos\ ssIam-dm-sa∂ Icm-dn¬ Ah-fpsS t_mbv {^≠v tjmMv lmbn¬\n∂v hen-sbmcp XpI Bh-iy-s∏Sp22

∂p. kln-sI´v sIm-do≥ Abmsf sImes∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. tjmMv lmbpw sImdo\pw tN¿∂v arX-tZlw ]pg-bn¬ X≈p-∂p. CXn\v km£ywhln® Kp≠m-kw-L-Ønse Hcp-h≥ (kwL-Ø-e-hs‚ `mcy-bpsS Imap-I≥) tjmMv lmsb ªmIv sabn¬ sNøp-∂p. X߃°v `oj-Wn-bmbn amdnb i‡\mb tlmMv kms\ Fß-s\-sb-¶nepw sIme-s∏-Sp-Ø-Wsa-∂mWv Ah-cpsS Bh-iyw. A°mcyw \S-°msXh∂tXmsS Kp≠-Iƒ°v Ah-tcmSv ]I-bm-bn. c≠p kplr-Øp°-sfbpw tXm°pNq≠n X´n-s°m≠pt]mbn Hcp Nm°n¬ sI´n Kp≠-Iƒ shSn-bp-Xn¿Øp. AXn-\p-tijw Nm°v ISen-te°v hen-s®-dn-bp-∂p. ]t£ `mKy-hi - m¬ shSn-tb¬°mXn- c p∂ Ah¿ Hcp- h n[w c£s∏Sp∂p. ]gb sXcphp {]Z¿i\wsIm≠pXs∂ PohnXw XpS-cm-sa∂ ip`-{]-Xo£ ]¶p- s h®psIm≠v Hcn- S p- ß nb sXcp- h n- e qsS Ccp- h cpw \S∂phcp∂p. ]t£ AhnsS Ahsc ImØn-cn-°p-∂Xv BXy-¥nIamb hn[n-bm-Wv. Fan-ens\ h[n-®Xv tlmMv km\pw tjmMv lmbp-am-sW∂v a\- n-em-°nb temd Ahcn-cp-h-scbpw shSn-sh®psIm√p-∂p. Ccp-h-cp-sSbpw c‡w \ne-sØm-gp-In-∏c - ∂v H∂m-Ip∂p. Iq´p-Im-c\ - p-th≠n F¥pw sNøm≥ Xøm-dm-bn-cp∂ tlmMv km≥ Xm≥ sNbvXn-´n-√mØ Hcp sIme-]m-X-I-Øns‚ t]cn¬ sIm√-s∏-Sp-∂p. A\y-tZ-iØv PohnXw sI´n-∏-Sp-°m≥ shºnb c≠v sNdp-∏° - m-cpsS Zpc¥w kw`-h_ - l - p-ea - m-bn-Øs - ∂-bmWv ZIv ]d-bp-∂X - v. Cu kplr-Øp-°ƒ am{X-a√ - , Ah-cp-ambn _‘-


s∏-Sp∂ c≠p kv{XoIYm-]m-{X-ßfpw GXm≠v kam-\-amb Pohn- X m- h - ÿ - b n- e m- W v . lwtK- d n- b ≥ A`- b m¿∞n- b mb sImdos\ s]men-kn¬ G¬]n-°p-sa∂v ]d™v `oj-Wn-s∏Sp- Ø n- Imap- I ≥ \nc- ¥ cw a¿±n- ° p- ∂ p. Xma- k - ÿ - e Øns‚bpw kpc-£n-X-Xz-Øn-s‚bpw {]iv\-ß-ƒsIm≠v a¿±\w kln-°p-Ibpw HSp-hn¬ i‡-ambn {]Xn-I-cn-°pIbpw sNøp∂ IYm-]m-{X-amWhƒ. hen-sbmcp kzXz{]Xn-k-‘n-bmWv temd-bp-tSXpw. sImdn-b-bn¬ P\n®v {^m≥kn¬ ZsØ-Sp-°-s∏´ Ahsf sNdp-∏-Øn¬ ]nXmhv ]oUn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sXcp-hn¬ X≈pIbpw sNbvXp. ]n∂oSv Ah-fpsS kwc-£-I\pw Imap-I-\pambn amdp∂ Fanepw kXy-Øn¬ Ahsf NqjWwsNøpI-bm-Wv. ab-°p-ac - p∂p IS-Øn\pw \·Xm{]Z¿i\w \SØn ]W-ap-≠m-°p-∂-Xn-\p-am-Wt√m Ahƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sp∂Xv. hn`-Pn-X-amb sImdn-b-I-fpsS cmjv{So-bhpw ZIv N¿® sNøp-∂p-≠v. tlmMv kms\bpw tjmMv lmsbbpw H∂n∏n®p \n¿Øp-∂Xv {]hm-kn-Ifmb sImdn-b-°m¿ F∂ \nebnep≈ Ccp-hcpsSbpw Ah-ÿ-bm-Wv. Ccp sImdn-b-Ifpw XΩn- e p≈ _‘- Ø ns‚ ]›m- Ø - e - Ø n¬ ZIv ]n∂oSv ]d™ Nne IY-I-fpsS (A-{Ukv A¨t\m¨, tImÃv Km¿Uv) XpS-°-amWv ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv. Hcp hntZ-i-cmPyØv A]-IS- I - c - a - mb kml-Nc - y-ßf - n¬ Pohn-°p∂ tlmMv km\pw tjmMv lmbpw ]e L´-ß-fnepw {^©pImcpsS

Nqj-W-Øn-s\-Xnsc Hcp-an®p\n¬°p-∂p-≠v. ]t£, c≠p sImdn-bI - t- fmSpw {]tXy-In®v XmXv]c - yan√mØ hy‡n-bmWv ZsØ-Sp-°-s∏´ sImdn-b-°m-cn-bmb temd. hen-sbmc]-I-SØn¬\n-∂v, acW h{‡-Øn¬\n∂v, c£-s∏-´v Pohn-X-Øntebv°v XncnsIhcp∂ tlmMv kms‚bpw tjmMv lmbpsSbpw Poh-s\m-Sp-°p-∂Xv temd-bm-sW∂Xv {i≤n-°p-I. acn-®p-ho-gp∂ kplr-Øp-°-fpsS c‡w \ne-sØmgpIn∏c∂v H∂m-Ip∂ ko≥ Xo¿®-bmbpw Ccp sImdn-bI - fpw XΩn-ep≈ "c‡'_‘-Øns‚ {]XoIwXs∂-bm-Wv. ]mcnkv \K-c-tØmSpw AXns‚ DXvIr-„-amb Iem-]mc-º-cy-tØm-Sp-ap≈ BZcw Inw In ZIv Cu Nn{X-Øn¬ {]ISn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. At±lw BZy-ambn kn\na I≠Xv Cu \K-cØn¬sh®m- s W∂v Bap- J - Ø n¬ kqNn- ∏ n®ncp- ∂ - t √m. entbmkv ImcmIvkv kwhn-[m\w sNbvX ethgvkv Hm¨ Zv {_nUvPv Bbn-cp∂p Nn{Xw. AXnse \mb-I-\mb sZ\nkv emhßns\bpw (F-an¬) as‰mcp {]apJ {^©p\S-\mb dn®mUv t_mdn-ßsdbpw (A-t[m-tem-I-\m-b-I≥) Cu Nn{XØn¬ A`n-\-bn∏n®n-´p≠v. {^©v inev]n-I-fmb HKqÃv tdm\m≥, Iao¬ ¢qZ¬, Hmkv{Sn-b≥ Nn{X-Im-c≥ CtKm¨ jnev F∂n-h-tcm-Sp≈ Bcm-[-\bpw Cu kn\n-a-bnse Cta-Pp-I-fn¬ \nd-bp-∂p-≠v.

z 23


kaqlw Iq´n-eS- ®p hf¿Øp∂ s]¨Infn-Iƒ

ap≥[m-cW - I - f - mWv \ΩpsS kmaq-ly-hy-hÿ sb `cn°p-∂Xv ˛Inw In ZIv

24


Inw

t_UvtIPv C≥

In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-I-fpsS s]mXp-kz-`mh-߃ ]eXpw {]I-Sn-∏n°pIbpw Hcp kwhn-[mbIs\∂ \ne-bn¬ At±-l-Øns‚ ap{Z ]XnbpIbpwsNbvX Nn{XamWv t_UvtIPv C≥ (1998). ]n∂oSv ]pd-Øp-h∂ an° kn\n-aI - f - nepw Bh¿Øn®ph∂ {]ta-bß - fpsSbpw _nw_ßfpsSbpw XpS°w, Iø-S-°tØmsS kwhn-[m\wsNbvX Cu Nn{X-Øn¬\n∂mWv. G‰hpw Ipd®v kw`m-j-W-߃ D]-tbm-Kn®v IY]d-bp∂ coXnbmWv AXn-sem-∂v. CXn\p sXm´p-]n-dsI h∂ Zn sF¬ F∂ Nn{X-Ønse \mbnIm IYm-]m{Xw Hc-£cwt]mepw an≠p-∂n-√. XpS¿∂v ]e Nn{X ßfnepw ZIv CØcw IYm-]m-{X-ßsf hnP-b-I-c-ambn AhX-cn-∏n-®p. ISpØ GIm-¥-Xbpw hnjm-Z-hpw -A\p-`-hn-°p ∂hfmWv t_Uv tIPv C∂nse tI{μIYm- ] m- { Xamb ssewKn-IsØmgn-em-fn- s]¨Ip-´n. ]n∂oSv F{Xtbm Inw In ZIv kn\n-aI - f - n¬ thiym-hrØnsNøp∂ IYm-]m-{X-߃ {]Xy-£s - ∏-´p. Nn{X-Ie - t- bm-Sp≈ A`n-\n-thiw as‰√m kn\na-I-fnepwt]mse CXnepw kwhn-[m-b-I≥ XpS-cp-∂p. Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b-bnse Hcp IS-temc sNdp-InS]´-WØnep≈ Hcp thiym-Kr-lØns‚ t]cmWv t_Uv tIPv C≥. Pohn-°m≥ A{Xhenb Np‰p-]m-Sp-Is - fm-∂p-an-√msØmcp 25


IpSpw-_-amWv \S-Øn∏p-Im¿. a≤y-h-b-kvI-cmb amXm-]n-Xm°fpw {]mb-]q¿Øn-bmb, hnZym¿∞n-If - m-b, aIfpw aI\pw AS-ßp∂ IpSpw-_a - m-WXv. AhnsS Ah¿°p-th≠n tPmen sNbvXn-cp∂ s]¨Ip-´n°v ]I-c-°m-cn-bmbn hs∂-Øp∂ Pn≥ B F∂ bph-Xn-bmWv tI{μ-I-Ym-]m-{Xw. Nn{X-Im-cnbmWhƒ. {]ikvX Hmkv{Sn-b≥ Nn{X-Im-c≥ CtKm¨ jnens‚ Ãm≥UnMv bMv \qUv tKƒ F∂ s]bn‚nßns‚ ]I¿∏pam-bmWv Ahƒ FØp-∂X - v. h¿§˛h¿Æ˛enwK t`Zsat\y Inw In ZIv IYm-]m-{X-߃ Nn{X-˛-in-ev]-I-e-I-tfmSv A`n-\nthiw ImWn-°m-dp≠v. t_UvtIPv C∂n¬ Pn≥ B A\p-`-hn-°p∂ {][m\ {]iv\w B ho´nse aqØaIfpw tImfPv hnZym¿∞n-\n-

26

bpamb tly anbn¬\n∂p≈ Ah-K-W-\-bm-Wv. ka-{]m-b°m-cn-bmb Pn≥ Bsb AhƒsNøp∂ A[aamb tPmenbpsS t]cn¬ H‰-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ib - mWv tly an. Ah-fpambn SqØv t]Ãv ]¶n-Smt\m Hcp-an®v `£WwIgn-°mt\mt]mepw tly an Xøm-dm-Ip-∂n-√. ho´p-S-aÿbm-Is´ ]W-ap-≠m-°m-\p≈ shdp-samcp D]-I-c-W-am-bmWv Pn≥ Bsb ImWp-∂-Xv. XmcX-tay\ am\y\pw \n»-_vZ\ - p-ambn ImW-s∏-Sp∂, ]nXm-hns‚ {]mb-ap≈ Krl-\mY≥t]mepw Bcp-an-√mØ Ah-kc - Ø - n¬ Pn≥ Bsb _e-ambn {]m]n-°p∂p. Iuam-c-°m-c-\mb aI\v Hcp amK-kn≥ \S-Øp∂ t^mt´m-{K^n a’c-Øn-te°v Ab®psImSp-°m≥ Ah-fpsS \·-Nn-{X-߃ ]I¿Ø-Ww. F∂p am{X-a√ Ah-fp-ambn ibn®v Xs‚ cXn-Po-hnXw DZvLmS\wsNøp-Ibpw thWw. BZyw Ah-K-Wn-s®-¶nepw ]n∂oSv Ahs‚ c≠mh-iy-߃°pw Ahƒ hg-ßn-s°m-Sp-°p-∂p. {]Ir-Xn-hn-cp≤k{º-Zm-b-ß-fn¬ XmXv]-cy-ap≈ CS-]m-SpImcpw \cm-[-a-\mb Hcp ]nw]pw tN¿∂v Ah-fpsS PohnXw \c-I-Xpey-am-°p-∂p. hnhm-lØ - n\ptijw am{Xta imco-cnI_‘w ]mSp≈q F∂p hniz-kn-°p∂ tly anbpsS Imap-I\pw Hcp cm{Xnbn¬ Ah-fpsS hoSm-sW-∂-dn-bmsX t_UvtIPv C∂n¬ h∂v Pn≥ Bbvs°m∏w ibn-°p-∂p. C°mcyw tly an a\ n-em-°p-∂p. Ah-fpsS A\p-P≥ FSpØ Pn≥ BbpsS \·Nn{X-߃ hncp-X-\mb Hcp amK-kn≥ {]h¿Ø-I≥ Npcpßnb hnebv°v ssI°-em°n {]kn-≤o-Ic - n-°p-∂p. CXv


ImWm-\n-S-bmb Pn≥ BbpsS ]nw]v Ah-fn¬\n∂v ]Ww Bh-iy-s∏-´v ]oUn-∏n-°m≥ XpS-ßp-∂p. CXn-\Iw Pn≥ B tbmSv A\p-Xm]w tXm∂n-Øp-S-ßnb tly an Ahsf Abmfn¬\n∂v c£n-°p-∂p. ]n∂oSv hfsc Akm-[m-cW - a - mb Hcp _‘w Ah¿°n-S-bn¬ hf-cp-∂p. Bfl-l-Xym{iaw \SØn ]cm-P-b-s∏´v Xncn-s®-Øp∂ Pn≥ Bbv°v ]Icw Hcp cm{Xnbn¬ CS-]m-Sp-Im-c-t\m-sSm∏w ibn®v tly an Xs‚ I\yImXzw \jvS-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. F¥p-sIm-≠mWv tly anbpw Pn≥B bpw Cß-s\sbms° s]cp-am-dp-∂Xv F∂p-≈-Xn\v {]Xy-£-amb hni-ZoI-c-W-sam∂pw Inw In ZIv kn\nabn¬ Xcp-∂n-√. kn\n-abn¬ \S-°p∂ Imcy-߃ hni-Zo-I-cn-t°-≠ Npa-Xe kwhn[m-b-I\-n√ F∂mWv At±lw Hc-`n-ap-J-Øn¬ ]d-™n-´p≈-Xv. ap≥[m-cW - I - f - m¬ \bn-°s - ∏-Sp∂ s]mXpkaq-lØ - n¬ Xs‚ IYm-]m{X߃ F√m IW-°p-Iq-´-ep-I-sfbpw sX‰n ®psIm≠v s]cp-am-dWsa∂v Cu kwhn-[m-b-I\v \n¿_-‘ap-≠v. kaq-lØ - ns‚ Xmtg-Ø´- p-If - n¬ {]Xn-jvTn-°s - ∏´ IYm]m-{X-ß-tfm-SmWv XpS°wapXte Inw In Z°n\v XmXv]-cyw. apJy-[mcmkaq-l-Øns‚ CkvXn-cn-bn´ ssien-bn-em-bn-cn°n√ Ah-cpsS s]cp-am-‰w. {]h-N-\m-Xo-X-am-bn-cn°pw AhcpsS \o°-߃. Aßs\t\m°p-tºmƒ CØcw IYm-]m{X-ßsf Ah-cpsS kmaq-ly-mhÿ-bn¬Øs∂ hne-bn-cptØ≠nhcpw. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v, Hcn-°epw Xs∂ AwKo-Icn-°mt\m kvt\ln-°mt\m Xøm-dm-ImØ tly antbmSp≈

Pn≥ BbpsS kao-]\wXs∂ hnNn-{X-am-Wv. ag \\™phcptºmƒ Hcp IpS-°o-gn¬ \n¿Øm\pw Ahƒ°v hmIvam≥ sk‰v hmßn-s°m-Sp-°m-\p-sam-s°bmWv- Pn≥ B {ian°p∂Xv . CtKm¨ jnens‚ ‰p en‰n¬ tKƒkv F∂ s]bn‚nßns‚ ]I¿∏v kmtlm-Z-cy-Øns‚ {]Xo-I-sat∂mWw tly an°v kΩm-\n-°m\pw Ahƒ Xøm-dm-Ip-∂p≠v. BZy-ambn B ]´-W-Øn¬h∂ Znhkw Pn≥ IS-∏p-dØp- h ®v I≠p- a p- ´ nb Hcp sNdp- ∏ - ° m- c - \ p- ≠ v . Xt∂mSv XmXv]cyw {]I-Sn-∏n® Abmƒ°v hg-ßn-s°m-Sp°m≥ Ahƒ BZyw Xøm-dm-Ip-∂n√ ˛ Abmƒ ]Ww sImSp-Øn´pt]mepw. ]t£, ]n∂oSv Abm-fp-am-bp≈ Ah-fpsS ASp-∏Ø - n\v A\pcm-K-Øns‚ ]cn-th-j-ap-≠m-Ip-∂p. kz—-μ-amb kam-K-a-Øn\mbn Ah¿ IS-en-\p≈n¬ a’y-_-‘-\-Ønt\m at‰m ]SpØp-b¿Ønb teml-\n¿Ωn-X-amb Hsc-Sp-∏ns‚ apI-fn-te°v t]mIp-∂p. 27


28


]pdta \√-h-s\∂v \Sn-°p∂ IpSpw-_-\m-Y-\mb a≤y hb-kvI≥ Pn≥ Bsb _em-XvImcw sNøp-∂ps≠¶nepw ]n∂oSv Ahsf c£n-°p-∂-Xns‚ `mK-ambn Ah-fpsS ]nw]n¬ \n∂v a¿±-\-ta¬°p-∂p. ssewKn-I-k-Zm-Nmc \njvTbn¬ I¿i\ \njvI¿j ImWn-®n-cp∂ tly an Xm≥ \Jin-Jm¥w FXn¿Øn-cp∂ Pn≥ Bbpambn ASp-°pIam{Xa-√, Ahƒ°p ]Icw ssewKn-I-sØm-gn-en¬ G¿s∏-Sm≥ kzbw k∂-≤b - m-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. bYm¿∞-Øn¬ t_Uv tIPv C≥ F∂ thiym-k-Z-\-Øn¬ Iq´n-e-S-bv°-s∏´ Hcp Infn-bmWv Pn≥ B F∂ s]¨Ip-´n. AtX Iq´n-te°v kz¥w CjvS-{]-Imcw Ib-dp-I-bmWv tly anbpw. kaqlw ]mc- X - { ¥y- Ø n- s ‚bpw ]oU- \ - Ø n- s ‚bpw Iq´n- e - S ®n´v kzm¿∞-Xm-Xv]c - y-߃°p th≠n D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ hf¿Øp]£nIfmWv Inw In Z°ns‚ ]e kv{XoI-Ym-]m-{X-ß-fpw. F¥p-sIm-≠mWv Ch-scms° hnNn-{X-amb coXn-I-fn¬ Pohn-X-sØbpw kl-Po-hn-I-sfbpw kao-]n-°p-∂Xv F∂-Xn\p-Øcw tXSn t{]£-I¿ t]mtI-≠Xv Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b≥ kmaq-ly-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ bmYm¿∞y-ß-fn-te°m-Wv. kz¥w Pohn-X-]-cn-k-c-Øns‚ cmjv{So-bhpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-hp-amb bmYm¿∞y-ß-sfbpw hkvXp-X-I-sfbpw ad-®p-sh-®p-sIm≠v \pW-]-d-bp∂ kpμ-c-Nn-{X-߃ sa\-bm≥ {ian-°p∂ Hcp kwhn-[m-b-I-\√ Xms\-∂mWv aq∂m-asØ Nn{X-Øn-eqsS Inw In ZIv sXfn-bn-®-Xv.

z 29


aqIbmb Pe-tZ-hX

kwhn-[m-b-I≥ H∂pw hni-Zo-I-cn-°m≥ _m≤y-ÿ\ - √. ˛Inw In ZIv 30


Zn sF¬

bm

Ym¿∞yØn\pw ^m���kn°pw CSbv°p≈ AXn¿hcºv hfsc t\¿ØXmsW∂ t_m≤ytØmsSbmWv Xm≥ kn\nasbSp°p∂sX∂v Hc`napJØn¬ Inw In ZIv hy‡am°nbn´p≠v. kXyØn\pw AkXyØn\panSbv°v Du™memSp∂ PohnXk‘nIfnemWv Xs‚ kn\naIsf ZIv {]XnjvTn°p∂Xv. t{Im°ssU¬, t_UvtIPv C≥ XpSßnb Nn{Xßfn¬ GXpXcØnepw hymJym\n°mhp∂ IYmkμ¿`ßfpw IYm-¥y-ßfpw Hcp°nb Inw In ZIv, Zn sF¬ (2000) F∂ kn\nabnseØptºmtg°v Bcpw IS °m≥ ss[cys∏SmØ `mh\mtemItØ°v t{]£Is\ Iq´ns°m≠pt]mIp∂p. At±lØns‚ \memasØ kn\na bmWnXv. 31


{]IrXnbpsS hntem`\obamb kuμcyw \nd™pXp fpºp∂ Hcp XSmIhpw ]cnkchpamWv CØhW ZIv Xs‚ IYbv°v ]›mØeam°p∂Xv. XSmIØn¬ Sqdnkv‰pIƒ°v Xmakn°m\p≈ GXm\pw sNdnb tImt´-Pp-I-fp≠v. NßmS-ß-fn¬ sI´nb tImt´-Pp-Iƒ XSm-I-Øn¬ Ahn-S-hn-sSbmbn \¶q-c-an-´n-cn-°p-∂p. Imap-In-am-tcmsSmØpw A`n-kmcn-Ia - mtcmsSmØpw H‰-bv°p-sa√mw AhnsSh∂p Xma-kn-°p∂-h¿°v BXn-Yy-a-cp-fp-∂Xv ln Pn≥ F∂ kpμ-cn-bmb bphXnbmWv. kμ¿iIsc Xs‚ tamt´m¿ LSn-∏n® tXmWn bn¬°b‰n Ah¿°njvSap≈ tImt´PpIfn¬ FØn°p ∂Xpw `£W]m\ob߃ FØn®psImSp°p∂Xpsa√mw 32

AhfmWv. Bhiy°m¿°v ]pdØp\n∂v ssewKnIsØm gnemfnIfmb s]¨Ip´nIsf FØn®psImSp°m\pw Nnet∏mƒ Xs∂Øs∂ hn¬°m\pw Ahƒ XømdmWv. A]acymZbmbn s]cpamdp∂hsc {Iqcambn ssIImcyw sNøm\pw Ahƒ°p aSnbn√. tImt´-Pp-I-fn¬ FØn-s∏Sp∂ kμ¿i-I¿°v XncnsI Ic-bn-se-Ø-W-sa-¶nepw AhfpsS klmbw IqSntbXocq. ImcWw Ah-ƒ Cu Pe-k-{Xß-fpsS \S-Øn-∏p-Imcn am{X-a√ IS-Øp-Im-cnbpam-Wv. Aßs\bncns° ImapInsb sImes∏SpØnbtijw \nbaØn¬\n∂v Hfnt®mSnsbØp∂ Hcp sNdp∏°mc≥ AhnsSsb-Øp∂p. Abm-sfmcp s]meo-kp-Im-c-\m-bn-cp-∂p.


`bhpw Bfl-lX - ym-{]-hW - X - b - p-ap≈ lyq¨ jnIv F∂ B bphm-hv GIm-¥\pw ZpxJn-X-\p-am-Wv. ]e-t∏mgpw Abmƒ Xs‚ tXm°v Xe-bn-te°v Nq≠p-∂p-≠v. Hcp-]t£ BfllXy sNøm-\m-bn-cn°mw Abmƒ Ahn-sS-sb-Øn-b-Xv. ÿncw kμ¿i-I-cn¬\n∂v hyXy-kvX-\mb Abmfn¬ lo Pn≥ A-\p-c‡ - b - m-Ip-∂p. c‡-cq-jnXsa∂p-Xs∂ hnti-jn∏n-°m-hp∂ cmKtZzj_‘-amWv Ah¿°n-Sb - n¬ hnI-kn®p hcp-∂-Xv. lyq¨ jn°n\pth≠n lo Pn≥ hnfn®phcpØp∂ ssewKn-Is - Øm-gn-em-fn-bmb s]¨Ip´n ]n∂oSv Abmfn¬ A\p- c - ‡ - b m- I p- I bpw hmcm- ¥ y- ß - f n¬ Abmsf kμ¿in-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. lo Pn≥ Ahsf ssIIm-ep-

Iƒ _‘n®v Hcp tImt´-Pn¬ X≈p-∂p. c£-s∏-Sm-\p≈ {ia-Øn¬ B s]¨Ip´n XSm-I-Øn¬ apßn-a-cn-°p-∂p. lo Pn\mIs´ s]¨Ip´nbpsS kvIq´¿IqSn Ahƒs°m∏w XSmI-Øn¬ sI´n-Øm-gvØp-∂p. s]¨Ip-´nsb Xnc-°n-sb-Øp∂ Ah-fpsS ]nw]n-s\bpw ImØn-cn-°p-∂Xv kam-\-amb hn[nbm-Wv. (A-`n-km-cn-Isbbpw Nqj-I\ - mb ]nw]ns\bpw t_Uv tIPv C≥ F∂ Nn{XwapX¬ ImWm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. _mUv Kbv F∂ Nn{X-Ønse {][m-\-I-Ym-]m-{X-߃ Hcp ]nw]pw AbmƒImcWw thiym-hr-Øn-bn-te°v hen-®n-g-bv°-s∏´ Hcp tImfPv hnZym¿∞n-\n-bp-am-Wv. )

33


34


kzbw]oU-\Ø - ns‚ ]c-aI - m-jvTb - n-ep≈ c≠p ko\pIfmWv Cu kn\n-a-sb-°p-dn®p ]d-bp-tºmƒ Hgn-hm-°m-\m-ImØ-Xv. A{]-Xo-£n-Xa - mbn tImt´-Pp-If - n¬ ]cn-tim-[\ - b - vs°Øp∂ s]meo-kp-Imsc ImWp-tºmƒ lyq¨ jnIv Bfll-Xym-{iaw \S-Øp-∂p. Nq≠-s°m-fp-Øp-Iƒ hngp-ßp-IbmWv Abmƒ sNøp-∂X - v. AhnsS ]ms™-Øp∂ lo Pn≥ Abmsf XSmI-Øn¬ Hfn-∏n-°p-∂p. s]meo-kp-Im¿ t]mbXn-\p-tijw Nq≠ D]-tbm-Kn®v sImfp-Øn-e-I-s∏´ a’ysØ-sb∂t]mse Ahƒ Abmsf hen®pIb-‰p-∂p. sXm≠bn¬ Ipcp-ßnb sImfp-Øp-Iƒ Hs∂m-∂mbn FSp-Øpam‰p-∂p. Abm-fpsS thZ-\b - I - ‰- m-s\-t∂mWw D]-cn-kp-cXw \SØp-∂p. XSm-I-Øn¬\n∂v c£-s∏-Sm≥ {ian-°p∂ lyq¨ jn°ns\ ]n¥n-cn-∏n-°m≥th≠n lo Pn≥ \S-Øp∂ kzbw ]oU-\-am-Wv as‰m∂v. Nq≠-s°m-fp-Øp-Iƒ tbm\n-bn-te°v ISØn c‡m-`n-jn-‡b - mbn InS-°p∂ Ah-fn¬\n∂v lyq¨ jn°v Hmtcm sImfpØpw ]pd-sØ-Sp-°p-∂p. XSm-I-Øns‚ h\y-amb GIm-¥-X-bn¬ \S-°p∂, k¶-ev]n-°m≥t]mepw Ign-bmØ CØcw cwK߃ hntZi Ne-®n-{X-ta-f-I-fn¬ ImWn-Isf sR´n-®p. Nne¿ t_m[wsI´p-ho-Wp. Nne¿ O¿±n®p-sIm≠v Xnb-‰-dn\p ]pd-tØt°m-Sn. ^nenw s^Ãn-h¬ hrØ-ß-fn¬ Inw In Z°ns‚ {]kn-≤nbpw Ip{]-kn-≤nbpw s]s´∂pb¿∂p.

bp‡n-bpsS am\-Z-WvU-߃sIm≠v Cu kn\n-asb hne-bn-cp-Øm≥ Ign-bn-√. ]e-t∏mgpw a\p-jy-km-≤y-amb {]hr-Øn-I-f√ Inw In Z°ns‚ IYm-]m-{X-߃ sNøm-dp-≈Xv. t\ctØ hnh-cn® c≠v c£m-\-S-]-SnIfpw DZm-l-c-Wam-sb-Sp-°mw. IYm-]m-{X-߃ ]c-kv]-chpw kzbhpwsNøp∂ tNmcNn-¥p∂ {Iqc-X-Iƒ a‰p Pohn-I-fnte°pw \ofp-∂p-≠v. lyq¨ jnIv F∂ IYm-]m{Xw XSm-IØ - nse tImt´-Pn-te°v hcp-∂-Xv Iq´n-e-S® XØ-bp-am-bm-Wv. lo Pn≥ Hcp Xh-fsb ]nSn®v Poh-t\msS sXmen-bp-cn®v B XØbv°v Xn∂m≥ sImSp-°p∂p. tImt´-Pnse kμ¿i-I¿ Poh-\p≈ a’yØns‚ hi-߃ apdn®v ]®bv°v Xn∂tijw ]nS-bv°p∂, tNmc-sbm-en-°p∂ a’ysØ XSm-I-Øn-te°pXs∂ hnSp∂p. arK-ß-tfm-Sp≈ AXn{I-a-ß-fpsS AXn-{]-k-c-ap≠m-bncp∂p ]n∂oSp h∂ A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ F∂ Nn{X-Øn¬. kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hns‚¿ F∂ Nn{X-Øn-se-Øp-tºmƒ Poh-Pm-e-ß-tfm-Sp≈ {Iqc-X-bvs°-XnscbmWv ZIv kwkmcn-°p-∂-Xv. Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-aI - f - n¬ ]n∂oSp {]Xy-£s - ∏-Sp∂, ]q¿Æ-ambpw aqI-cmb IYm-]m-{X-ß-fpsS XpS-°hpw Cu Nn{X-Øn¬\n∂m-Wv. XSm-I-Ønse \nXy-km-∂n-≤y-amb lo Pn≥ H∂pw an≠p-∂n-√. Ahƒ Hcp ssewKn-I-sØm-gn-em-fntbmSv t^mWn¬ kwkm-cn-°p-∂X - mbn kqN-\b - p-≠v. ]t£, i_vZwtIƒ°p-∂n-√. HSp-hn¬ Nq≠-s°m-fp-Øp-Iƒ P\-t\35


{μn-b-Øn¬ {]th-in-∏n-®-Xn-\p-ti-j-ap≈ Hc-e¿®- am{Xta Ah-fn¬\n∂p-b-cp∂ i_vZ-ambn kn\n-a-bnep-≈p. Iem-]c - a - mb \n¿Ωn-Xn-It- fm-Sp≈ B`n-apJyw Cu Nn{XØnepw ZIv hn´p-I-f-bp-∂n-√. lyq¨ jnIv Xs‚ GIm¥ \nan- j - ß - f n¬ sNºp- I ºnsIm≠v ]e- X cw cq]- ß ƒ D≠m°p∂p-≠v. Abm-fn¬ A\p-c-‡-bm-bn-Øo¿∂ s]¨ Ip-´n°pw lo Pn\pw Abmƒ Ch kΩm-\n-°p-∂p. Cu IºnIƒsIm≠mWv Nq≠-s°m-fp-Øp-If - p-≠m-°p-∂X - v. B sImfpØp-I-fmWv Ccp-hcpw kzbw ]oU\Øn\p]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv. Htc hkvXp k¿§m-fl-I-{]-h¿Ø-\-Øn\pw th´bv°pw kzbw]o-U\ - Ø - n\pw D]-tbm-Kn-°s - ∏-Sp-∂p. lo Pn\ns‚ P\t\-{μn-bØ - n¬\n∂v ]pd-sØ-Sp-°p∂ sImfp-Øp-Iƒ Abmƒ tN¿Øp-h-bv°p-∂Xp t]mepw lrZ-bm-Ir-Xn-bnemWv. ]ckv]cw a\- n-em-°n-°-gn-™-Xn-\p-tijw Ccp-hcpw tN¿∂v tImt´-Pn\v a™-®mbw tX°p-∂p≠v. 36

kXy-Øn¬ lo Pn≥ F∂ IYm-]m{XwXs∂ Hcp k¶¬]-am-sW∂v Icp-Xm-hp-∂X - m-Wv. Ahsfmcp a\p-jy-kv{Xobm-Im≥ Xc-an-√. Ah-fpsS A¤p-XI - c - a - mb k¿Δ-km-∂n≤yw Xs∂-bmWv Hcp Imc-Ww. ssewKn-I-ambpw A√m-sXbpw NqjWwsNø-s∏-Sp∂ Ahƒ AØcw AXn-{I-a-ßsf Hcp ]cn-[n-bn-e-∏pdw A\p-h-Zn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂pan-√. Xs‚ A[nIm-c-]-cn-[n-bn-ep≈ B XSm-I-Øn¬ hs∂-Øp-∂-h-cpsS sb√mw hn[n Ahƒ Xocp-am-\n-°p∂p. sIme-sN-ø-s∏´ s]¨Ip-´n-bp-sSbpw Ah-f-psS ]nw]n-s‚bpw arX-tZ-l-߃ XSm-IØ - n¬\n∂v ]pd-sØ-Sp-°p∂ kml-Ncyw a\- n-em-°ptºmƒ lo Pn≥ Xs‚ t_m´ns‚ tamt´m¿ lyq¨ jnIv Xma-kn-°p∂ a™tImt´-Pn-s‚ NßmSØn¬ LSn-∏n °p∂p. \¶q-cß - ƒ am‰n B tImt´-Pns\ Hcp lukv t_m´pt]mse XSm-I-Øn-eqsS sIm≠p-t]m-Ip-∂p. Cu kn\n-a-bn¬ ZIv Hcp-°n-bn-´p≈ AkwJyw temMv tjm´p-I-fn¬ G‰hpw


kpμ-c-amWnXv. XSmIw Imb¬t]mse henb Hcp Pem-i-bØns‚ `mK-am-sW∂v Cu tjm´n-eq-sS-bmWv shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp∂-Xv. Pem-ib - Ø - nse \of≥]p-√p-Ifpw kky-ßfpw \nd™ ssPh-k-ar-≤n-bn-te°v Ib-dn A{]-Xy-£-\m-Ip∂ lyq¨ jnIv, tXmWn-bn¬ \·-bmbn acn-®p-In-S° - p∂ lo Pn≥, AhfpsS D]-ÿØ - n¬\n∂p hf¿∂ \ndsb ]®-∏p≈ Hcp Zzo]v. CXmWv Nn{X-Ønse Ah-km\ tjm´v. Zn sF¬ F∂mWv t]sc-¶nepw kn\n-ab - n¬ BsI {]tXy-£s - ∏-Sp∂ Zzo]v CXpam-{X-am-Wv. ssZh-sa-∂m¬ F\n°v {]IrXnXs∂-bm-sW∂v ]n¬ °m-eØv Hc-`n-ap-J-Øn¬ ZIv ]d-™p. Aam-\p-jnI ]cnth-ja - p≈, aqIbpw A{I-am-k‡ - b - p-am-b, c£-Ibpw in£I-bp-amb Cu bphXn bYm¿∞-Øn¬ BcmWv?

z

37


]co-£W - Ø - ns‚ hgn-If - n¬

Ft∏mgpw amdn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ DØ-c-ß-fmWv Fs‚ kn\n-a-Iƒ ˛Inw In ZIv 38


dnb¬ ^nIvj≥

Zn

sF¬ Ne®n{XtafIfn¬ tImfnf°w krjvSn® 2000˛¬Øs∂ Inw In ZIv A©masØ Nn{Xamb dnb¬ ^nIvj≥ ]pdØnd°n. BJym\Ønepw \n¿ΩmWcoXn bnepw hensbmcp ]co£WamWv Cu Nn{XØneqsS At±lw \SØnbXv. tIhew 200 an\n‰psIm≠v H‰ dotS°v t]mepan√msX jq´vsNbvX Nn{XamWnXv. 18 IymadIƒ D]tbmKn®mbncp∂p Nn{XoIcWw. CXn¬ 35 FwFw Iyma dIfpw UnPn‰¬ IymadIfpap≠mbncp∂p. c≠mgvNtbmfw \So\S∑mcpw kmt¶XnIhnZKv≤cpw ITn\amb ]cnioe\w \SØn. ]Xns\m∂v klkwhn[mbI¿ hnhn[ semt°j \pIfn¬ Htckabw Nn{XoIcWØn\v Np°m≥ ]nSn®p. \q‰ºtXmfw t]cmWv Nn{XoIcWØns‚ kmt¶XnI{]h¿ Ø\ßfn¬ klIcn®Xv. dnb¬ ^nIvj≥ F∂ ]ZsØ A\z¿∞am°ns°m≠v bmYm¿∞ysØbpw k¶ev ] sØbpw kw_‘n® s]mXp[mcWIsf Hcn°¬°qSn Inw In ZIv sh√phnfn®p. 39


]mcoknse sXcphpIfn¬ Nn{X߃ hc®v hn‰psIm≠v Ign®pIq´nb ImeL´sØ ho≠pw Hm¿Ωn®psIm≠v ]oUnX\pw \nμnX\pamb Hcp Nn{XImcs\Øs∂bmWv Inw In ZIv ChnsSbpw \mbIÿm\Øp sIm≠phcp∂Xv. sXm´∏pdØp≈ ]ªnIv sSet^m¨ _qØn¬ \S°p∂ kwkmc߃ Cb¿ t^m¨ hgn tI´psIm≠v Abmƒ sXcphns‚ Hcp `mKØncp∂v OmbmNn{X߃ hc®p sImSp°p∂p. H´pan°hcpw Abmƒ hc® t]m¿s{Sbv‰pIƒ bYmXYambns√∂pw hnIrXamsW∂pw Bt£]n®v Abmfnse IemImcs\ A]am\n°p∂p. (Cu IemImc≥ Inw In ZIv F∂ Ne®n{XImc≥ Xs∂bt√? kz¥w PohnX]cnkcßfpsSbpw klPohnIfpsSbpw hnIrXamb 40

kzXz߃ AtX-]Sn hc®pIm´p∂, B bmYm¿∞yw AwKoI-cn-°m≥ P∑\m´nse t{]£-Icpw \ncq-]-Icpw Xøm-dm-ImØ-Xn¬ thZ-\n-°p∂ Ne®n{XImc≥?) Kp≠m∏ncnhp \SØp∂ c≠paq∂p sNdp∏°m¿ CSbv ° nsS \n lmb\mb Cu Nn{XImcs\ D]{Zhn °p∂p≠v. Abmƒ°pap∂n¬ OmbmNn{Xw hcbv°m≥ h∂ Hcp s]¨Ip´n \nc¥cw AbmfpsS sNbvXnIƒ lm≥UnIymw D]tbmKn®v ]I¿Øp∂p≠v. (Cu bphXn am≤yaßfpsS {]Xn\n[nbmsW∂v thW-sa-¶n¬ k¶ev ]n°mw.) Xs∂ ]n¥pScm≥ Ahƒ Nn{XImct\mSm hiys∏Sp∂p. Ahƒ Abmsf \bn°p∂Xv \mSI dntl gvk¬ \S°p∂ Xnb‰dnte°mWv. dntlgvk¬ sNøs∏ Sp∂ (AtXm {]Z¿in∏n°s∏Sp∂tXm) Bb \mSIØns‚ t]cv A\Z¿ an (as‰mcp Rm≥) F∂mWv. AhnsSh®v Hcp \S≥ Nn{XImcs\ AbmfpsS ]oUnXamb `qXImesØbpw h¿Øam\ImesØbpwIpdn®v Hm¿Ωn∏n°p∂p. ]pdta aqI\pw A¥¿apJ\pw ]oU\߃ G‰phmßp∂h\pamb Nn{XImcs‚ tcmjmIpeamb {]Xn_nw_amWv B \S≥. tÃPnse A`n\bcoXnbmWv NSpehpw Zo¿Lhpamb Cu cwKØn¬ IYm]m{X߃ ]n¥pScp∂Xv . Xs∂ am\knIambpw imcocnIambpw ]oUn∏n® F√mhscbpw C√mbva sNøWsa∂ {`m¥amb Xocpam\w Nn{XImc\n¬ thcp]nSn°p∂p. {]XnImcw Xo¿t°≠hcpsS ]´nIbn¬ Abmsf Ct∏mgpw NXn®psIm≠ncn°p∂ ImapInbp≠v.


kz¥w ]q°Sbv°p≈n¬ as‰mcp ImapI\pambn ]pjv] ߃°p apIfn¬h®v Ahƒ kpcXØnte¿s∏Sp∂ps≠∂v Abmƒ°dnbmw. ssk\nItkh\w \SØnbncp∂ ImeØv AImcWambn Xs∂ a¿±n°mdp≠mbncp∂ kl{]h¿Ø I\p≠v . HcpImeØv Xm≥ kv t \ln®ncp∂ as‰mcp s]¨Ip´nsb hnhmlwsNøpIbpw ]n∂oSv Dt]£n°p Ibpw sNbvX Iq´pImc\p≠v. PohnXØns‚ \nd߃ \jvSs∏´ B s]¨Ip´n Ct∏mƒ Hcp tImanIv _pIv tjm]v \SØpIbmWv. tNmZywsNøms\∂ `mhØn¬ tÃj\n¬ hnfn∏n®v A]am\n°pIbpw ]oUn∏n°pIbpw sNbvX s]meokpImc\p≠v, Xm≥ hc® t]m¿s{Sbv‰v hmßnb tijw Xs‚ ap∂n¬h®v \n¿±bw No¥nsbdn™ Hcp kv{Xobp≠v, CSbv°nsS Xs∂ D]{Zhn°m\pw ]Ww X´n sbSp°m\pw hcmdpff Kp≠Ifp≠v... {]XnImcw Xo¿t° ≠hcpsS ]´nI hepXmWv. Xnb‰dn¬ I≠ \S≥ Nn{XImcs‚ Iøn¬ Hcp tXm°v sImSp°p∂p. AXv \mSIØn¬ D]tbmKn°p∂ IfntØm °mbncn°mw. GXmbmepw Nn{XImc≥ BZyw shSnbp Xn¿°p∂Xv \Ss‚ t\¿°pXs∂bmWv. Abmƒ acn®p hogp∂pap≠v. Cu sIme]mXIw bYm¿∞amtWm shdpw A`n\bamtWm F∂p hy‡a√. Hcp]t£, as‰mcp Rm≥ F∂ \mSIØns‚ `mKamImanXv. GXmbmepw \Ss\ shSnshbv ° p∂tXmsS Nn{XImc≥ A∂v \SØm≥ t]mIp∂ sIme]mXI]cºcbv°v XpS°wIpdn°p∂p. 41


Cu sIme]mXIßtfmtcm∂pw \S°ptºmgpw ZpxJIcamb as‰mcp kXyw \ap°pap∂n¬ Npcpfgnbp∂p. Nn{XImcs‚ CcIfn¬ ]ecpw Abmsfs∏msetbm Abmtf°mƒ IqSpXtem XI¿∂ PohnXw \bn°p∂ hcmWv. AØcw PohnXkmlNcyßfmbncn°mw Ahsc Nn{XImct\mSv {IqcX ImWn°m≥ t{]cn∏n®Xv. Aßs\ AbmfpsS {]XnImcw hy¿∞amsW∂pw {]XnImca√ {]iv\߃°v ]cnlmcsa∂pw ZIv kqNn∏n°p∂p. ]t£ {]XnImchpw Nnet∏mƒ Hcp ]cnlmcamWv. PohnXØn¬ Hcp ]cn[n°∏pdw Nhn´nØmgv Ø s∏Sptºmƒ GXp a\pjy\pw tXm∂mhp∂XmWv Cu {]XnImcNn¥. GsX ¶nepsamcp L´Øn¬ Cßs\ Nn¥n°mØh¿ Bcpap ≠mIn√. Xs‚ sNbvXnIsf√mw hoUntbm Iymadbn¬ ]I¿Øn s°m≠ncp∂ bphXnXs∂bmWv Nn{XImcs‚ Ahkm\ Cc. Zn sF¬ AS°ap≈ kn\naIsf AXn\ninXambn hna¿in® P∑\m´nse s^an-\nÃv \ncq]I¿s°XnscbmWv kwhn[mbI≥ Xncnbp∂sX∂v hy‡w. s^an\nÃv \ncq]I¿ kv{Xohncp≤≥ F∂v ap{ZIpØnb ZIv hoUntbm Iymadtb¥nb Hcp kv{Xosb am≤yaßfpsS {]XoIambn AhXcn∏n®Xv kzm`mhnIamWv. AXphsc \S∂ kw`hßsf√mw Nn{XImcs‚ kz]v\ ambncp∂psh∂ kqN\bmWv Nn{XØns\mSphn¬ e`n °p∂Xv. C°mcyw kwhn[mbI≥Xs∂ ]n∂osSmcn°¬

42


]d™n´p≠v . kn\nabpsS kao]ImeNcn{XØn¬ \S∂n´p≈ \s√mcp ]co£Wambncp∂p dnb¬ ^nIvj≥. kn\namNn{XoIcWsa∂ k¶o¿Æ{]{Inbsb°pdn ®pIqSn Cu Nn{Xw N¿®sNøp-∂p≠v. D≈S°Ønepw BJym\ Ønepw ]co£W߃ \SØp∂tXmsSm∏w Fßs\ Ipd™ sNehn¬ \√ kn\naIsfSp°mw F∂ At\zj Whpw Inw In ZIv \nc¥cw \SØnt∏mcp∂p≠v. CXn\p sXm´papºv kwhn[m\w sNbvX Zn sF¬ ]q¿Æambpw H‰ semt°j\nemWv Nn{XoIcn®sXt∂m¿°pI. Aßs\ t\m°ptºmƒ Xs‚ kn\namPohnXØn¬ ]camh[n krjv S nIƒ Npcpßnb kabwsIm≠v D≠mIWsa∂v At±lw B{Kln°p∂ps≠∂p hy‡w. 1996 apX¬ 2000 hscbp≈ A©p h¿j߃ °p≈n¬ A©pNn{XßfmWv Inw In ZIv kwhn[m\w sNbvXXv. A©masØ Nn{Xw {]tabØnsebpw \n¿ΩmWØnsebpw Nn{XoIcWØn sebpw ]pXpaIƒsIm≠v hyXncn‡am°n. AXn¬ kz¥w hy‡nPohnXØns‚bpw IemPohnXØns‚bpw thZ\n °p∂ aplq¿Ø߃IqSn hnf°nt®¿°m\mbn F∂Xn emWv Inw In Z°ns‚ hnPbw.

z 43


A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ F∂ kn\na Atacn°bnse bphXeapd ImWWsa∂pw a\ nem°Wsa∂pw Rm≥ B{Kln°p∂p. bp≤w XI¿Ø Hcp cmPyØnse sNdp∏°mcpsS PohnXw Ah¿ \∂mbn a\ nem°s´. ˛Inw In ZIv

bp≤Øns‚ ÿncw XShpIm¿ 44


1

A{Ukv A¨t\m¨

950 apX¬ 1953 hsc \o≠ bp≤w sImØn∏dn® kz¥w cmPyØns‚ \n¿`mKyIcamb Ncn{X]›mØe ØnemWv A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ (2001) Inw In ZIv kwhn[m\w sNbvXXv. Atacn°bpsS ]n¥pWtbmsS Z£nWsImdnbbpw ssN\bpsS ]n¥pWtbmsS DØcsImdnbbpw ]ckv]cw bp≤wsNbvXp. 1959 Pq¨ 25 \v Bcw`n® bp≤w 1950 Pqsse 27 hsc \o≠p\n∂p. bp≤w Ahkm\n°m≥ [mcWbmsb¶nepw kam[m\°cm sdm∂pw H∏ph®ncp∂n√. C∂pw sImdnb≥ D]`qJWvUw hS°pw sX°pambn thdn´pInS°p∂p. Aim¥n B cmPy߃°p apIfn¬ \ng¬hncn®ncn°p∂p. sImdnb≥ bp≤w Ahkm\n®n´n√ F∂pXs∂ ]dtb≠nhcpw. Zn tImÃv Km¿Uv (2002) F∂ Nn{XØnepw Xnc°Y cNn® ]qMvkm≥ (2011) F∂ Nn{XØnepw ZIv Cu cmjv{Sob {]iv\w ho≠pw D∂bn°p∂p≠v. Z°ns‚ kwhn[m\klm bnbmbncp∂ Pp≥ Pmbv tlmMv BWv ]qMvkm≥ kwhn [m\w sNbvXXv. 45


A{Ukv A¨t\mWn¬ ZIv AhXcn∏n°p∂ kw`h߃ \S°p∂ ImeL´w 1970 BWv. bp≤wIgn™v ]Xnt\gph¿jambncn°p∂p. Z£nWsImdnb≥ Xeÿm\ amb tkmfn¬\n∂v Ipd®Ise Atacn°≥ ssk\nIØmh fØn\SpØps≈mcp {Kmaw. bp≤w Ahtijn∏n® sISpXnIƒ hns´mgn™n´n√. Atacn°≥ ssk\nI km∂n≤yw krjvSn°p∂ Atemkcw ÿnXn IqSpX¬ Zp lam°p∂p≠v. kmºØnI˛cmjv{Sob {]Xnk‘nI fn¬\n∂v IcIbdm≥ Z£nWsImdnb {ian®psIm≠ncp∂ ImeL´Øn¬ B \m´n≥]pdsØ Nne IYm]m{XßfpsS hyYnXNn{X߃ hcbv°pIbmWv Inw In ZIv. A[n\nthiImeØv Bt{^m˛Atacn°≥ hwiP \mb Hcp ssk\nI\n¬\n∂v K¿`nWnbmIpIbpw k¶c amb apJicochSnhpIfp≈ aIs‚ AΩbmIpIbpw sNbvX Hcp kv{Xo. A¬]w am\knIm]{`wiap≈ Ah¿ Atacn°≥ Fb¿t^mgv k ns‚ Dt]£n°s∏´ Hcp _ nemWv Xmakw. Atacn°bnte°v Xncn®pt]mb ImapI\v Ah¿ Imeßfmbn Zn\w{]Xn IØb°p∂p≠v. Hmtcm IØpw "ta¬hnemk°mcs\ Is≠Øm\mbn√' (A{Ukv A¨t\m¨) F∂ Ipdnt∏msS aSßnsbØp∂p. F¶nepw \ncmibmImsX Ah¿ IsØgpØp XpScp∂p. AhcpsS {]mb]q¿ØnsbØnb aI≥ NmwKv KpIv k¶c kzXzØns‚ t]cn¬ Np‰pap≈hcpsS ]cnlmkta‰p hmßn Pohn°p∂p. Fs∂¶nepw Atacn°bnte°v t]mIm\mIp 46


sa∂ {]Xo£bn¬ AΩ Ahs\ Nne Cw•njv hm°pIƒ ]Tn∏n®n´p≠v. ]t£ Ah≥ D]Poh\w Is≠Øp∂Xv lo\amb Hcp sXmgn¬sNbvXmWv. AΩbpsS Ct∏mgsØ t_mbv{^≠ns\ klmbn°emWv Ahs‚ tPmen. Abmƒ IÆn¬t®mcbn√mØ Cd®nsh´pImc\mWv. ]ebnSØp \n∂mbn hnebv°phmßnbXpw A√mØXpamb \mbv°sf bmWv Abmƒ Iim∏psNøp∂Xv. tUmKv sF (]´n°Æ≥) F∂mWv AbmfpsS hnfnt∏cv. \mbv°sf sI´nØq°n X√ns°m√pIbmWv CbmfpsS coXn. Cu {IqcX ImWn °m≥ Iq´p\n¬°mØXp-sIm≠v Abmƒ NmwKv Kp°ns\ a¿±n°pw. Cu X√pw thZ\bpw apgph≥ NmwKv KqIv AΩ bv ° v Xncn®psImSp°pw. ImapInsb X√nb hnhcadn ™m¬ ]´n°Æ≥ NmwKv Kp°ns\ ho≠pw a¿±n°pw. bp\Iv F∂ s]¨Ip´nbpsS HcpIÆn\v ]q¿Æ ambpw ImgvNbn√. bp≤ImeØv Iøn¬°n´nb B{In km[\߃sIm≠v ktlmZc≥ D���m°nb IfntØm°v A_≤Øn¬ s]m´nbmWv AhfpsS IÆp XI¿∂Xv . apJØns‚ Hcp`mKw apSnsIm≠p aqSnbmWv AhfpsS \S∏v. sIm®pIp´nIƒt]mepw Ahsf Ifnbm°pIbpw {]tIm]n∏n°pIbpw sNøpw. Hcp \mbv°p´n am{XamWv Ahƒ°v Iq´v. Bsc¶nepw tamjvSn®psIm≠p t]mIpsa∂ `bØm¬ AhfXns\ ÿncw sI´nbn´p hf¿Øp∂p. Polpw F∂ sNdp∏°mc\v Xct°Sn√mØ tPmen bp≠v. F∂n´pw Ah≥ a‰p≈hcpsS ÿncamb Ahtl

f\Øn\v ]m{XamIp∂Xv A]I¿jXmt_m[wsIm≠mWv. ka{]mb°mcmb c≠pt]¿ Hcp ImcWhpan√msX Ahs\ a¿±n°mdp≠v. \√ ImbnI_eap≈ NmwKvKp°mWv ]e t∏mgpw Ahs\ c£n°mdp≈Xv. Po lqan\v bp\°n t\mSv CjvShpap≠v. ]t£ B CjvSw Ahƒ hkv{Xw amdp∂Xv Hfn™pt\m°p∂XS°ap≈ sshIrX߃ tN¿∂XmWv. bp≤ImeØv IayqWnÃpImcmb DØcsImdnb≥ ]´mf°msc sIm∂Xns‚ hockvacWbnepw KrlmXpc Xbnepw Pohn°p∂ {KmaØnse ]gbXeapdbmIs´ ]pXnbsXm∂nt\mSpw XmXv]cyan√mØhcmWv. Iønep≈Xp apgph≥ hn‰ps]dp°n Fß-s\-sb-¶nepw Pohn°m\mWv Ah¿°p XmXv]cyw. ab°pacp∂n\Snabmb Hctacn°≥ ]´mf°mc≥ bp\°n\p ]n∂mse IqSp∂p. anI® ikv{X{InbbneqsS AhfpsS ImgvN Xncns®Sp°msa∂mWv AbmfpsS hmKv Zm\w. H‰ \n_‘\ am{Xw, ]Icw Ahƒ AbmfpsS Imap InbmIWw. bp\°n\pw AΩbv°pw AXp kzoIcn°mXn cn°m\mbn√. Hm∏-td-j\ptijw AhfpsS IÆv ]q¿Δ ÿnXnbnembn. ]´m-f-°m-c≥ Ah-fpsS ho´nse \nXy-kμ¿i-I-\p-am-bn. ]t£, AbmfpsS Aklyamb s]cpam‰ Øn¬ s]mdpXnsI´v Ahƒ Xs‚ IÆv Nqgvs∂SpØv ho≠pw H‰°ÆnbmIp∂p. ]n¬°meØv πmÃnIv k¿Pdn bpsS AXn{]kcap≈ ssSw (2006) F∂ Nn{XØn¬ D]tbm Kn® Nne CtaPpIƒ CXpambn _‘s∏´ ko\pIfnep≠v. 47


FØnbn´p≠mhn√) bp≤w aq∂p XcØnemWv _m[n®Xv. k¶cc‡ap≈ NmwKv Kp°n\v P∑wXs∂ \n¿`mKyamWv kΩm\n®Xv. am\knIhn{`m¥nbp≈ AΩImcWw Ah\v Atacn°≥_‘w th¿s]SpØmt\ IgnbmØ Ahÿ bmWv. k¶cc‡Øns‚ XShpImc\mWh≥.

bp≤w Ahkm\n®v ]Xnt\gph¿jw Ign™p≈ ImeL´Øn¬ aq∂p sNdp∏°msc tI{μoIcn®v Hcp IY]dbptºmƒ AXv bp≤ImetØm AXn\p sXm´SpØ h¿jßfntem P\n®hcpsS IYbmWv. Cu aq∂p sNdp ∏°mscbpw (Ah¿ Hcp]t£ Ccp]Xp hb nte°v

48


bp\°ns‚ PohnXw amdnadn™XpXs∂ bp≤Øns‚ {]XoIamb tXm°psIm≠mWv. ]n∂oSv AhfpsS hn[n c≠pXhW am‰nsbgpXs∏Sp∂Xpw bp≤Øns‚ AhinjvS amb Atacn°≥ ImapI≥ ImcWamWv. Polqw bp≤Øns‚ as‰mcp CcbmWv. `bhpw A]I¿ jXbpamWv Ahs‚ {]iv\߃. Bsc¶nepw Ft∏mgpw Xs∂ B{Ian°psa∂ `bhpw B{Ian°s∏´m¬ {]XnIcn °m\p≈ Ignhn√mbv a bpw ImcWw Ah≥ Ft∏mgpw \nμnX\pw ]oUnX\pambn XpScp∂p. hnZqcamb Hcp Z£nWsImdnb≥ {KmaØn¬ kz¥w \m´ns‚ B¿`mSßtfm kuIcyßtfm C√msX Dujcamb PohnXw\bn°p∂ Atacn°≥ ]´mf°mcpw as‰mcp XcØn¬ bp≤Øn‚ Cc-IfmWv. ho´pap‰Øv IpgnsbSp°ptºmƒ bp≤Øn¬ acn® i{Xp]£sØ ]SbmfnbpsS arXtZlmhinjv S ߃ I≠pIn´ps∂mcp cwKap≠v. bp≤mhinjvS߃°p apIfn¬ ]SpØpb¿Ønb BhmkhyhÿbmWv B {KmaØnte sX∂v kqN\. {]Xy£Øn¬ bp≤w \S°p∂ns√¶nepw B {KmaØnseßpw kwL¿jw \nd™p\n¬°p∂p. Aim¥n \ng¬hncn® t{]X`qanbmWXv. kz¥w cmPyØns‚ Ncn{XsØbpw cmjv{SobsØbpw IrXyambn hnebncpØp∂ Inw In Z°ns‚ G‰hpw Xo£v Wamb cmjv{Sobkn\nabmWv A{Ukv A¨t\m¨.

z 49


P - ∑-\m-´nse BZyhnPbw

Fs‚ kn\n-a-I-fnse aqI-I-Ym-]m-{X-߃ PohnXwsIm≠v Bg-Øn¬ apdn-th-‰-h-cm-Wv. ˛Inw In ZIv 50


_mUv Kbv

B

-ZysØ aq∂p Nn{X-ß-fnepw Bhn-jvI-cn® sImdn-b≥ Pohn-X-Øns‚ ]n∂m-ºp-d-°m-gv®-I-fn-te°v Inw In ZIv ho≠pw Xncn-s®-Øp-∂Xv _mUv Kbv (2001) F∂ kn\n-ab - n-eq-sS-bm-Wv ˛ A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ ]pd-Øn-dß - nb AtXh¿jw. kn\n-am-Po-hnXw XpSßn \meph¿j-Øn-\p≈n¬ ]pd-Øn-d-ßp∂ Ggm-asØ Nn{Xw. AXp-hsc kz¥w \m´n¬ P\-{]n-b-\-√m-Xn-cp∂ Inw In Z°ns‚ Cu Nn{Xw BZy-ambn Z£n-W sImdn-b-bnse Xnb-‰-dp-I-fn¬ hmWn-Pyhn-Pbwhcn-®psh∂-XmWv as‰mcp khn-ti-jX. \mb-I-\-S\mb tbm Pm lyq¨ Bbn-Sbv°v ]nbmt\m F∂ sSen-hnj≥ kocn-b-en-eqsS P\-{]n-b-\m-bn-cp-∂p. Zn sF¬ AS-°ap≈ BZy-ImeNn{X-߃°v bqtdm∏v Dƒs∏-sSbp≈ hntZ51


i-cm-Py-ß-fn¬ e`n® \ncq-]-I-{i-≤bpw {]kn≤nbpw At∏mtgbv°pw Inw In Z°n-s\bpw {]i-kvX\ - m-°n-bn-cp-∂p. t{]£Isc Xnb-‰d- n-te°v sIm≠p-hc - m≥ ]‰nb Ft¥m Hcp am{¥nIX _mUv Kbv F∂ kn\n-a-bpsS {]ta-b-Øn-\p-ap-≠m-bncp-∂p. GXm-bmepw AXp-hsc sImdn-b≥ kn\n-am-th-Zn-bnse "_mUv Kbv' Bbn Adn-bs - ∏-´n-cp∂ Inw In Z°n\v BZysØ hmWnPyhnPbw kΩm- \ n- ° m≥ Hcp _mUv Kbv X s∂ th≠nh∂p. Xpey-cmbn P\n-°p-Ibpw ]n∂oSv Xß-fp-tS-X√ - mØ ImcW- ß - f m¬ kaq- l - Ø ns‚ hyXykv X Xe- ß - f n¬ Pohnt°≠nhcn-Ibpw sNøp-∂-h¿°v D®-\o-N-Xz-Øns‚ aXn-epIƒ XI¿Øv H∂n-°m≥ Ign-bp∂ kml-N-cy-ap-≠m-Int√ F∂ At\z-j-W-amWv _mUv Kbv F∂v kwhn-[m-b-I≥ ]d-bp-∂p. {]Xy-£-Øn¬ AXn-{Iq-c-amb Hcp NXn-bpsS IYsb∂v tXm∂n-°p∂ Cu kn\n-a-bnse kw`-h-hn-Im-k-ßsf Aß-s\-bmWv Inw In ZIv hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv. tkmƒ \K-c-Øn¬ Pohn-°p∂ lm≥ In F∂ ]nw]n\v ]m¿°n¬ Imap-Is\ ImØn-cn-°p∂ tjm¨ lzm F∂ A`n-Pm-Xbpw kpμ-cn-bp-amb tImtfPv hnZym¿∞n-\n-tbmSv {]Y-aZ- ¿i-\m-\p-cmKw tXm∂n. (A-\p-cmKsa∂v AXns\ hnfn°mtam F∂-dn-bn-√.) Abm-fpsS Xpdn-®p-t\m-´w kln-°msX Ahƒ Ip]n-X-bmbn \S-∂-I-ep-∂p. Imap-I-\p-ambn kwkmcn-®psIm≠p\n¬°p∂ s]¨Ip-´nsb Abmƒ IS-∂p-]n-Sn®v _e-ambn Npw_n-°p-∂p. {]tIm-]n-Xb - mb Ahƒ Abm-tfmSv 52


am∏p]d-bm≥ B⁄m-]n-°p-∂p. H∂pwan≠msX \S-∂-Iep∂ Abm-sf Ahn-sS-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂ Nne ]´m-f° - mcpw a‰pw tN¿∂v a¿±n-°p-∂p. A]-am-\n-X\ - mbn \n¬°p∂ Abm-fpsS apJØv Ahƒ Xp∏p-∂p. At∏mgpw Abmƒ \n»-_vZ-\mbn \n¬°p-∂p. A{I-am-k-‡\pw aqI-\p-amb as‰mcp Inw In ZIv IYm-]m-{X-amWv Abmƒ. Hcn°epw Abmƒ kwkm-cn°p-∂n-√. H∂pw kwkm-cn-°p-∂n-s√-¶nepw Abmƒ B s]¨Ip´n-bpsS \mi-Øn\v sIWn-sbm-cp-°p-∂p. Abm-f-hsf ]n¥pS¿∂psIm≠n- c n- ° p- ∂ p. Hcp ]pkv X - I - i m- e - b n¬\n∂v CtKm¨ jnev F∂ {]kn-≤-\mb s]bn‚-¿ cNn® Nn{X-ß-

fpsS kam-lm-c-Ønse Hcp t]Pv Ahƒ tamjvSn-°p-∂Xv Abm-fpsS {i≤-bn¬s∏-Sp-∂p. (ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv, t_Uv tIPv C≥ F∂o Nn{X-ß-fnepw Ct±-l-Øns‚ s]bn‚n-ßpI-fpsS km∂n≤yw I≠-Xm-Wv.) tamjWkz`m-h-ap-≈-hsc sIWn-bn¬s∏-Sp-Øm≥ Ffp-∏-am-W-t√m. Btcm Hcmƒ ad∂ph® ]gvkpw Ahƒ kz¥w _mKn¬ Hfn-∏n-°p-∂p. ]gvkv ad-∂p-h-®-X-s√∂pw lm≥ InbpsS sIWn-bm-bn-cp∂p AsX∂pw {]tXy-In®p ]d-tb-≠-Xn-√. XpS¿∂v ]gvkns‚ DS-aÿ - s\∂p \Sn®phcp∂bmƒ Ah-fn¬\n∂v Bh-iy-s∏Sp-∂Xv AXn-∂p-≈n¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ hfsc hensbmcp XpI-bm-Wv. Cu {]iv\-Øn¬ AZr-iy-\mb c£-I53


\mbn Ah-X-cn-°p∂ lm≥ In X{¥-]q¿Δw Hc-\p-N-cs‚ klm-bt- ØmsS Ahsf Xs‚ A[o-\X - b - n-ep-ff Hcp thiyme-b-Øn-se-Øn-°p-∂p. GsXmcp Inw In ZIv kn\n-a-bnepw {]h-N-\m-Xo-XambmWv IYm-]m-{X-߃ s]cp-am-dp-I. BZy-sams° ssewKnI- s Øm- g n- e n- t e¿s∏- S m≥ hnk- Ω - X n- ° p∂ tjm¨ lzm ]n∂oSv hnZ-Kv≤-bmsbmcp A`n-km-cn-I-bm-Ip-∂p. lm≥ In Ah-fpsS ap∂n¬ BZy-sam∂pw {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂-tX-bn-√. tjm¨ lzmbpsS InS-∏p-ap-dn°∏p-d-ap-≈ apdn-bn-en-cp∂v Hcp hiwam{Xw tKmN-ca - mb Nn√pP\m-eb - n-eqsS Ahƒ ]Xp-s°∏-Xps° Hc-`n-km-cn-I-bmbn hf-cp-∂Xv Ip‰-t_m-[-tØmsS ho£n-°pI am{XamWv Abmƒ sNøp-∂Xv. tjm¨ lzm bpsS AZr-iy\pw \n»_vZ\pamb kwc£-I\ - m-bmWv ]ns∂ 54

\Ωƒ Abmsf ImWp-∂-Xv. Ahƒ B{K-ln® CtKm¨ jnse-bpsS ]pkvXIw FØn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-I-t]mepwsNøp∂p-≠bmƒ. Ahƒ t]Pv Iodn-sb-SpØ AtX ]pkvX-I-ambn-cp∂p AXv. jnens‚ Zn Fwt{_bvkv F∂ Nn{X-amWv Ah-f∂v Iodn-sb-Sp-Øn-cp-∂-Xv. HSp-hn¬ Hfn-™n-cn-°p∂ Abmsf Ahƒ Is≠-ØpIbpw B{I-an-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. thiym-e-b-Øn¬\n∂v c£-s∏-Sm≥ {ian-°p∂ Ahsf lm≥ In ]nSn-Iq-Sp-∂p. Hcp]mSv kw`- h - ] - c - º - c - I ƒs°m- S p- h n¬ "tÃmIv tlmw kn≥t{Umw' tjm¨ lzm sbbpw ]nSn-Iq-Sp-∂p. Ahƒ Abmsf a\- n-em-°p-∂p. kvt\lhpw shdp∏pw Htc \mWb-Øns‚ c≠p hi-ß-fm-sW-∂mIpw kwhn-[m-b-Is‚


]£w. IS-s°-Wn-bn¬\n∂v ap‡-bmbtijw lm≥ In bv°pw X\n°pw Pohn-°m≥th≠nam{Xw ssewKn-I-sØmgn-en¬ G¿s∏-Sm≥ Ahƒ Xocp-am-\n-°p-∂n-S-ØmWv kn\na Ah-km-\n-°p-∂-Xv. ]pcp-j-tI-{μo-Ir-Xhpw kv{Xohn-cp-≤-hp-amb Hckm-[mc-W {]W-b-IY F∂v hnti-jn-∏n-°m-sa-¶nepw as‰mcp hymJym\wIqSn km≤y-amWv. {]Xn-Im-c-Zm-ln-bmb lm≥ In Xs∂ P\- a - ≤ y- Ø n¬sh®v apJØp Xp∏n A]- a m- \ n® s]¨Ip-´nbpsS kmaqly]ZhnbmWv hen®p XmgvØp-∂-Xv. sImdn-b-bnse kv{Xo]£ \ncq-]-I¿ \nin-X-ambn hna¿in® Cu Nn{X-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v sk≥kkv Hm^v kn\na Inw In Z°p-ambn \S-Ønb A`n-ap-J-Øns‚ kw£n]vXcq]w ASpØ A≤ym-b-Øn-ep-≠v. kwhn-[m-b-Is‚ \ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ IqSp-X-embn a\- n-em-°m≥ AXp klm-bn-°pw.

z

55


Fs‚ kn\n-a-bnse kv{XoI-fpsS Zpc-¥-߃ Inw In ZIv F∂ kwhn-[m-b-I≥ D≠m-°n-b-Xm-sW∂ at\m-`mhamWv A]-I-S-I-cw. ˛Inw In ZIv

56


A`n-apJw

shdp∏v F∂ hnIm-c-Øn¬\n∂mWv Fs‚ F√m kn\n-aIfpw ]nd-hn-sb-Sp-°p-∂Xv F∂v Xm¶ƒ Hcn-°¬ ]d-™p. _mUv Kbv F∂ kn\n-a-bnte°v Xm¶sf sIm≠p-h-∂Xpwv AXp-X-s∂-bmtWm?

]pcp-j∑ - m-tc-°mƒ Db¿∂-hc - mWv kv{XoIƒ

shdp∏v F∂ hm°v Rm≥ D]-tbm-Kn-®Xv hnime-amb A¿∞-Øn-em-Wv. kμ¿`-Øn¬\n∂v AS¿Øn am‰n B hm°ns\ ]cn-K-Wn°cpXv. B¿s°-¶nepsa Xn-sc As√-¶n¬ F¥n-s\-¶nepsaXn-sc-bp≈ shdp∏√ Rm\pt±- i n- ® - X v . a\-   n- e m- I mØ Imcy- ß ƒ ImWptºmƒ F\n°p-≠m-Ip∂ hnIm-c-sØ-°p-dn®mWv ]d-™X - v. AXp-sIm-≠mWv Rm≥ kn\na sNøp∂-Xv. a\- n-em-ImØ Fs¥-¶nepwI≠m¬ Rm≥ AXn-s\-°p-dn®v kn\n-a-sb-Sp-°pw. Aßs\ B hnjbsØ a\- n-em-°pw. bYm¿∞-Øn¬ shdps∏∂-√, sX‰n-≤m-cW As√-¶n¬ a\- n-em-ImbvI Fs∂m s°∏d-bp-∂-XmIpw icn. 57


_mUv Kbv F∂ Nn{X-Øn-eqsS F¥mWv a\- n-em-°m≥ {ian-®Xv? Rm≥ tNmZn-°m≥ {ian-®Xv CXmWv ˛ F√m-hcpw ka-∑m-cmbn P\n-°p-∂p. Htc Ah-Im-iß - t- fm-sS, Htc KpW-ß-tfm-sS. ]t£, F¥p-sIm-≠v hf-cp-t¥mdpw \Ωƒ ]e X´p-If - n-embn XcwXncn-°s - ∏-Sp-∂p? _mly{]- I rXnbpsSbpw kuμcyØns‚bpw kº- Ø n s‚bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ \Ωƒ hne-bn-cp-Ø-s∏-Sp-∂sX-¥p-sIm≠v? ASn-t®¬]n-°s∏Sp∂ am\-Z-WvUßfp]-tbm-Kn®v a\p-jysc h¿§m-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ hn`Pn-°p-∂p. Cu h¿§-߃ ]c-kv]cw tbmPn-°m≥ Ignbm-Øh - c - mWv. Cßs\ h¿§o-Ic - n-°s - ∏-´h - ¿°v tbmPn®p-t]m-Im≥ Ign-bnt√? Ah-cpsS temI-߃ ]ckv]cw tbmPn-°pI-sb-∂Xv Akm-≤y-amtWm? CXmbn-cp-∂p, Fs‚ tNmZyw. F∂n´v DØcwIn´ntbm? a\p-jy¿ ]c-kv]cw _lp-am-\n-°-Ww. h¿§tam h¿Ætam ]Wtam AXn\v XS- -am-I-cp-Xv. CXm-bncn°pw Fs‚ DØ-cw. ]t£ kn\n-a-sb-Sp-ØXv Cu tNmZy-hp-ambn t{]£-Isc t\cn-Sm-\m-Wv. Hmtcm-cpØ¿°pw Hmtcm DØcw In- ´ p- s a- ∂ mWv Fs‚ hnizmkw.

58

Xm¶-fpsS ]e kn\n-a-I-fn-ep-sa∂t]mse Cu Nn{X-Ønsebpw {][m-\-I-Ym-]m{Xw H∂pw kwkm-cn-°p-∂n-√. A{Ia-Øns‚ `mjam{Xta Abmƒ°dn-bq. F¥mWv Cu au\Øn\v ImcWw? Fs‚ kn\n-aI - f - nse aqI-IY - m-]m-{X-߃ PohnXw sIm≠v Bg-Øn¬ apdn-th-‰h - c - m-Wv. ]ecpw sImSpØ a[p-ch - m-KvZm-\ß - ƒ ]men-°s - ∏-Sm-Xm-bt- ∏mƒ Ah¿°v kl-Po-hn-I-fn-ep≈ hnizmkw \jvS-s∏-´p. "Rm≥ \ns∂ kvt\ln-°p∂p' Fs∂ms° Nne¿ Ah-tcmSv ]d-™n-´p-≠m-Imw. AsXms° s]m≈-hm-°p-I-fm-bncp-∂p. Cßs\ \nc-¥cw \ncm-i-bn-e-I-s∏´v F√m-hcnepw hnizmkw \jvS-s∏-´-Xp-sIm-≠mWv B IYm-]m{X-߃ BtcmSpw an≠m-Xm-b-Xv. ]ns∂, Ah-cpsS A{I-am-k‡ - X - sb HcpXcw ico-c`- mjsb∂p hnfn-°m\mWv F\n-°n-jvSw. \mtim-∑p-J-amb A{I-am-k-‡nb√Xv. Hcp imco-cn-I-{]-I-S-\-am-Wv. Fs‚ IYm-]m-{Xß-fpsS ico-c-Øn¬ ImWp∂ apdn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ Zpc¥ßsf th≠hn[w t\cnSm≥ Icp-Øp-t\-Sn-bn-´n-√mØ Cfw{]m-bØnep≠mb A\p-`-h-ß-fpsS AS-bm-f-ßfm-Wv. Ah¿°v c£n-Xm-°-fn¬\n∂-S-°-ap≈ imcocnI B{I-a-W-ß-sftbm iIm-c-ß-sftbm t\cn-Sm≥ Ign™n-√. As√-¶n¬ amXm-]n-Xm-°ƒ ]c-kv]cw Ieln-°p-∂Xp I≠p-\n¬°p-tºm-gp-≠m-Ip∂ Bi-b° - pg-∏s - Øbpw at\m-hn-ja - s - Øbpw ssIImcywsNøm-\m-


bn-√. shdpsX hgn-bn¬°qSn \S-°p-tºmƒ Hcp -Im-cW-hp-an-√msX Bsc-¶nepwh∂v Ahsc ASn-®n´p≠mImw. Cu A\p-`-h-ß-fmWv apdn-∏m-Sp-I-fmbn Ah-cn¬ F°m-ehpw Ah-ti-jn-°p-∂-Xv. F\n°pw CØcw A\p-`h - ß - f - p-≠m-bn-´p-≠v. ]s≠m-cn-°¬ Ft∂-°mƒ {]mbwIpd™, ]t£ Ft∂-°mƒ XSn-an-Sp-°p≈ Iptd ]ø-∑m-cpsS B{I-aW - t- a-‰n-´p-≠v. ssk\y-Øn-embn-cp∂ ImeØv Ft∂-°mƒ Db¿∂ dm¶n-ep≈ ssk\n-I¿ Hcp Imc-W-hp-an-√msX Fs∂ X√n-®-X-®n´p-≠v. Cß-s\-bp≈ A\p-`h - ß - f - p-≈X - p-sIm≠v Rm≥ kzbw tNmZn-°m-dp-≠v ˛- - F-¥m-Wn-ßs\ kw`hn°m≥ ImcWw? kwhn- [ mbI\mbn amdp- ∂ Xphsc Cu tNmZy-߃ Ft∂m-sSm∏w sIm≠p \-S∂ - p. AsXms° ho≠pw tNmZn-°p-I-bm-Wn-t∏mƒ. Xm¶-fpsS kn\n-a-Iƒ Bfl-I-Ym-]-c-amtWm? _mUv Kbv F∂ kn\n-a-bpsS Imcyw BZyw ]dbmw. F\n°Xnse ]nw]mb lmMv Kosbt∏m-ep-≈hsc H´pw CjvSa - √ - . Nph∂sXcp-hn¬ tPmensNøp∂ Hcm-sf Hcn-°¬ Rm≥ I≠p-ap-´n. AIm-c-W-ambn Abmsfs∂ X√n. Abm-tfmSv F\n°v Ak-ly-amb shdp∏ptXm∂n. A∂v Abmsf a\- n-em-°m≥ F\n°m-bn-√; Aßs\ B{K-ln-s®-¶n-epw. Cu kn\n-ab - n¬ Rm≥ Abm-fpsS a\- n-eqsS k©-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.

F¥psIm≠mWv Abmƒ Aß-s\-sbms° s]cp-amdnbsX∂p I≠p]nSn-°m≥. Xm¶-fpsS kwhn-[m-\-Øn¬Øs∂ _mUv Kbv tlmfn-hpUn¬ FSp-°m≥ Btem-N-\-bp-s≠∂p tI´-t√m ? {_mUv ]n‰n-s\-t∏m-se-bp≈ Hcp \Ss\ sh®v Hcp tlmfn- h pUv ` mjyw FSp- ° m\m{K- l - a p- ≠ v . Fs‚ B{Klwam{X-am-WXv. Bcpw AhnsS\n∂v Fs∂ kao]n®ns´m∂p-an-√. hfsc sshb-‡n-I-amb, H∏w A{I-am-k-‡-amb Xm¶-fpsS kuμ-cy-k-¶-ev]-߃ tlmfn-hp-Uns‚ coXn-I-fp-ambn tN¿ ∂p-t]m-Iptam? tlmfn-hpUv kn\n-aI - ƒ hfsc I¿°-ia - mb Nne N´-߃°-\p-k-cn-®mWv \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-sX-∂v ]pdta-°v tXm∂pw. ]t£, bmYm¿∞yw AX-s√-∂mWv F\n°p tXm∂p-∂-Xv. ]d-bm\p≈Xv Ah¿ ]d-bp-∂p≠v. ]t£, t\cn-´s√∂p am{Xw. F∂p-sh-®m¬ kz¥w AXn¿Øn-Iƒ°p-≈n-emWv Ah¿ \n¬°p-∂-sX∂v \ap°p tXm∂pw. ]t£ kXy-a-X-√. AXp-sIm-≠mWv tlmfn-hp-Un¬ Hcp kn\nasNøm≥ F\n-°m-{Klw tXm∂p-∂X - v. Ah-cpsS coXn-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn®v Ah-cpsS kwhn-[m-\ß - sf XInSwand-°p-I. ]t£, F\n°v Cu

59


kn\n-a-bpsS Hcp {^©v`mjywIqSn D≠m-°n-bm¬ sIm≈m-sa-∂p-≠v, {^©pIm-cpsS ssien-bn¬. Cu kn\n-a-bpsS {]ta-b-hp-ambn kmay-ap≈ Htc-sbmcp tlmfn-hpUv Nn{Xw tUhnUv ^n©-dpsS ss^‰v ¢_v (1999) BsW∂p tXm∂n. AXnepw Bfl-{]-Im-i-\-Øn\v ico-c_ew D]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ IYm-]m-{X-ß-fp-≠-t√m. ss^‰v ¢_v Rm≥ I≠n-´n-√. tI´n-S-tØmfw B kn\n-abv°v Fs‚ dnb¬ ^nIvj≥ F∂ Nn{X-tØmSmWv ASp∏sa∂p tXm∂p-∂p. shdpw aq∂paWn-°q¿ Ccp-]Xp an\n‰p sIm≠mWv AXv Nn{Xo-I-cn-®-Xv. Xm≥ shdp-°p-∂-h-sc-sb√mw sIm√m≥ Cd-ßn-∏p-d-s∏-Sp∂ Hcm-sf-°p-dn-®mWv B kn\n-a. ]t£, Cu sIme-]mXI]c-ºc Abm-fpsS kz]v\wam{X-am-bn-cp-s∂∂v Nn{Xm-¥y-Øn¬ hy‡-am-Ip-∂p. GXm≠v Ata-cn-°≥ sskt°m (tacn lmc¨-, 2000) t]mse. kz¥wkn\n-a-Isf "skan A_vkv{SmIv‰v' F∂m-Wt√m Xm¶ƒ sh_vssk-‰n¬ hnti-jn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv. F¥m-WXns‚ A¿∞w? bmYm¿∞y-sØ-°mƒ Aev]wIqSn IqSp-X¬ kn\n-a-bn¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°pI F∂mWv Rm\pt±-in-®Xv . \Ωƒ Cu ImWp∂ temI- Ø n- t e°v Rm≥ \ΩpsS Nn¥-I-fpw hnIm-c-ßfpw Iq´n-t®¿°p-∂p. 60

kwhn-[m-b-I-\m-Ip-∂-Xn\papºv Xm¶ƒ Hcp s]bn‚-dm-bn-cp∂p. Zn sF¬ F∂ kn\n-a-bn-sems° k¿dn-b¬ Cta-PpIƒ°mWv BJym-\-tØ-°mƒ {][m\yw sImSp-Øn-cn-°p∂-Xv. _mUv Kbv F∂ kn\n-a-bn¬ CtKm¨ jnens‚ s]bn‚n-ßp-Iƒ°v Hcp tdmƒ Xs∂-bp-≠v. {^m≥knse tamws]-sey-bnse IS¬Øo-c-ßfn¬ c≠ph¿jw Rm≥ s]bn‚-dm-bn-cp-∂p. HutZym KnI {]Z¿i- \ - ß sfm∂pap- ≠ m- b n- c p- ∂ n- √ . Rm≥ s]bn‚ v sNøpw. s]bn‚n-ßp-Iƒ sXcp-hn¬ {]Z¿in∏n-°pw. P¿Ω-\n-bnse ayqWn-°nepw Rm≥ sXcphp {]Z¿i- \ - ß ƒ \S- Ø n- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . Aß- s \- b mWv CtKm¨ jnens‚ s]bn‚n-ßp-Iƒ ImWp-∂-Xv. Cu kn\n-a-bn¬ Rm\-t±-l-Øns‚ s]bn‚n-ßp-I-fpsS ]I¿∏p-Iƒ D]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ Hcp Imc-Wa - p-≠v. H‰t\m´Øn¬ B Nn{X-߃ A«o-e-am-sW∂p tXm∂mw. ]t£ {i≤n®pt\m°n-bm¬ Ah kXy-k‘ - a - m-sW∂v t_m≤y-s∏-Spw. AZ-ay-amb B{K-l-ß-fm¬ s]mXn-bs∏´ a\p-jy-cpsS Nn{X-ßf - m-Wh - . kXy-Øn¬ F\n°v IqSp-X-enjvSap≈ Nn{X-Im-c≥ KpÃmhv ¢nw BWv. F∂m¬ jnens‚ s]bn‚n-ßp-Iƒ IqSp-X¬ \nco-£n®-t∏mƒ Rm≥ At±-l-Øn-te°p Xncn-bp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p.


Xm¶-fpsS Zn sF¬, A{Ukv A¨t\m¨, _mUv Kbv XpSßnb Nn{X-ß-fn¬ ImWp-∂-Xp-t]m-se-bp≈ ]Xn-X-kv{Xo-Isfbpw A`n-km-cn-I-am-sc-bp-amWv jnev ]e-t∏m-gpw hc-®n-´p≈-Xv. GsX-¶nepwXc-Øn¬ icocwhn¬°m≥ \n¿∫-‘n-Xcm-Ip∂ kv{XoI-tfmSv Xm¶ƒ°v XmXv]-cy-ap-≠m-Im≥ ImcW-sa-¥mWv? ]pcp-j-∑m-tc-°mƒ Db¿∂ \ne-bn-emWv Rm≥ kv{XoIsf IW-°m-°p-∂-Xv. ]pcp-j-∑m¿ Ft∏mgpw B{K- l n- ° p∂, Ah¿°m- h - i y- a mb Ft¥m H∂v kv{XoIƒ°v \¬Im-\p-≠v. AXp In´m≥th≠n ]Ww apS- ° m\pw ]pcp- j ∑m¿ Xøm- d m- I pw. ]pcp- j \pw kv{Xobpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘wXs∂ hy`n-Nm-c-am-sW∂mWv Fs‚ A`n-{]m-bw; Ah¿°n-S-bn¬ ]Ww ssIam‰w sNbvXn-s√-¶n¬t∏m-epw. Fs‚ A`n-{]m-btØmSv `qcn-]£w t]cpw hntbm-Pn-t®-°mw. kv{Xo]pcpj-∑m¿°n-S-bn¬ kwL¿j-ap-≠m-Ip-tºmƒ temIØn\v apt∂m´pt]mIm-\p≈ Du¿÷-ap-≠m-Ip-∂p. ]t£, AXv as‰m-c¿∞-Øn¬ kmwkvIm-cn-Ia - mb `n∂X-I-fp-sSbpw {]Xn-^-e-\-am-Wv. bqtdm-∏n¬ Iptd-°me-ambn kv{Xo]pcp-j-∑m¿ XΩn-ep≈ kmwkvIm-cnI˛km-aqly kwL¿j-߃ Cs√-∂mWv a\- n-em-Ip∂-Xv. bqtdm-]y≥kn\n-a-Iƒ I≠m¬ AXv a\- n-em°mw. ]t£ Gjy≥cmPy-ß-fn¬ Cu kwL¿jw

i‡-ambn XpS-cp-Ib - mWv. AXv Gjy≥kn\n-aI - f - nepw {]Xn-^-en-°p-∂p-≠v. Xm¶-fpsS ap≥ Nn{X-߃s°-Xnsc D≠m-b-Xp-t]mse i‡amb s^an-\nÃv {]Xn-tj[w Cu kn\n-abpw t\cnt´m? Xo¿®-bm-bpw. sXmÆqdpiX-am\w kv{Xo\ncq-]Icpw kn\n-asb hna¿in-®p-sIm-≠m-sW-gp-Xn-b-Xv. ]t£, Cu kn\nabpsS F¨]XpiX-am\w t{]£Icpw kv{XoI-fm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂mWv IW-°p-Iƒ ]dbp-∂-Xv. \ncq-]-I¿ `qcn-]-£hpw hna¿i-\-_p-≤n-tbmsS-bmWv kn\na I≠-Xv. ]t£, km[m-cWt{]£I¿°v _mUv Kbv CjvS-am-bn. Ah¿°v B kn\na a\- n-em-bn-´p-≠v. Fs‚ kn\n-ab - nse kv{XoI-fpsS Zpc¥-߃ Inw In ZIv F∂ kwhn-[m-b-I≥ D≠m-°n-bXm-sW∂ at\m-`mhw A]-I-S-I-c-am-Wv. ]t£, kaql-Øn¬ t\ctØXs∂ \ne-\n¬°p∂ Hcp {]iv\sØ-bmWv _mUv Kbv Bhn-jvI-cn-°p-∂sX∂v Nn¥n®m¬ \n߃°v B kn\n-asb shdp-°m≥ Ign-bn-√.

z 61


62


_mUv Kbv ]pd-Øn-dß - nb ka-bØv \S∂ as‰m-c`- n-ap-JØ - ns‚ {]k‡`mK-߃ F¥p-sIm-≠mWv Cu Nn{XsØ sImdn-b≥ kaq-lhpambn _‘-s∏´ Hcp A\ym-]-tZ-i-IYbmbn \ncq-]-Itcm _p≤nPo- h n- I tfm hn- e - b n- c p- Ø m- Ø Xv ? Bcpw B kn\nasb BgØn¬ hne-bn-cp-Øn-°m-Wp-∂n-√t√m. F¥mWXn\p ImcWw? bmYm¿∞y-t_m-[-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv Cu kn\n-a-bpsS BJym\sa∂v IcpXn Aßs\ hymJym-\n-°p∂ Nne-cp-≠v. AXp \√Imcy-am-Wv ˛ bYm¿∞IYbpw IYm-]m-{X-ßf - p-ap≈ IYm-Km-{X-amWv kn\n-a-bv°p-≈-sX∂ tXm∂-temsSbp≈ kao-]\w. Cu bYm-XYt_m[-amWv _mUv Kbv F∂ kn\na \ne-\n¬°m≥ Imc-Ww. F¥p-sIm-≠mWv lm≥ In B s]¨Ip-´nsb IS-∂p-]n-Sn®v Npw_n-®Xv? Ah-fpsS {i≤-bm-I¿jn-°m≥ as‰-{Xtbm am¿§ß-fp-≠v. shdpsX sI´n-∏n-Sn-®m¬ aXn-bm-bn-cp-∂-t√m. GXmbmepw B ko≥ hfsc Xo£vWambncp-∂p. Npw_-\-Øn\v skIvknt\-°mƒ BLm-X-ap≠m °m≥ Ign-bpw. BƒØn-c-°p≈ Hcp ÿe-Øp-sh®v Hcp s]¨Ip-´nsb Hc-]-cn-Nn-X≥ IS-∂p-]n-Sn®v Npw_n°pI F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv hfsc A]-am-\-I-c-amWv. ]e kn\n-a-I-fn-sebpw Npw_-\-cw-K-߃ shdpw Im´n-°q´epIfm-Wv. Nn{Xo-I-c-W-Øn¬ Fs¥-¶nepw hyXy-

kvXX sIm≠ph∂mte Npw_-\-cw-K-߃ ^e-{]-Z-amIq. ]pcp-j\pw kv{Xobpw XΩn-ep≈ icockwth-Z-\Ønse G‰hpw i‡-amb `mj Npw_-\-Ønt‚XmsW∂v F\n°p tXm∂p-∂p. lm≥ Inbpw tjm¨ lzmbpw s_©n¬ Ccn-°p∂ tjm´v hfsc hnNn-{X-am-bn-tØm-∂n. Ir{Xn-a-amb Hcp IpSpw_ t^mt´mt]mse. B ko\ns‚ BwKn-fn\pw IYm-]m-{X-ßfpsS hn\ym-k-Øn\pw Ft¥m Ipg-∏-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Cu tjm´v Cßs\ hfsc km[m-cW - a - mbn FSp-°m≥ F¥mWp ImcWw? t^mt´mbv°v As√-¶n¬ t]m¿s{S-bv‰n\pth≠n t]mkvsNøp∂ a´n¬ IYm-]m-{X-ßsf Nn{Xo-Ic - n-°m≥F\n-°n-jvSamWv. \n›-e-Nn-{X-߃ FSp-°p-∂Xp t]mse-bmWv ]e ko\p-Ifpw s{^bnw sNbvXn-cn-°p∂-Xv. BZy ko≥Xs∂ t]m¿s{Sbv‰v ssÃen¬ Bbt∏mƒ Hcp IpSpw-_m-¥-co-£-Øns‚ {]Xo-Xn-bp-≠mbn. IYm-]m-{X-ß-fpsS icocw B-]m-Z-NqUw ImWp∂ coXn-bn¬ sshUv tjm´p-Iƒ FSp-°p-∂Xpw F\n-°njvSa - m-Wv. At∏mƒ IYm-]m-{X-߃°p Np‰pw [mcmfw kvs]bvkv D≠m-Ipw. AXp-hgn Ah¿°n-S-bn¬ Hcp Xcw kaXzw ÿm]n-s®-Sp-°m\pw km[n-°pw.

z 63


Have you ever really seen the lives I present through my films? Have you ever truly looked into the desperate messages contained in my work?” -Kim Ki-duk

ASn-t®¬∏n°s∏´ tZi-ktv \lØns‚ Cc-Iƒ 64


Zn tImÃv Km¿Uv

""`q

an-bnse Htc-sbmcp hn`-PnXcmPy-amWv sImdnb≥ D]-Zzo-]v. sImdn-b≥ bp≤Øn\ptijw Nmc∑m¿s°Xn-sc-bp-ff ap≥I-cp-X-embn Z£n-W -sIm-dn-b-bpsS Xoc{]tZiw apƒthensI´n AS-®p. bp≤-Øn\ptijw Ccp-]tXmfw Nmc∑msc ]nSn-Iq-Sp-Itbm sIm√p-Itbm sNbvXn-´p≠v . Ct∏m- g pw kqcym- k v X - a - \ - Ø n\ptijw XocsØ AXn¿Øn-tcJ IS-°p∂ Bscbpw Nmc-\mbn IW-°m°n shSn-sh-®p-sIm-√m-dp-≠v.'' Inw In Z°ns‚ tImÃv Km¿Uv (2002) F∂ kn\n-abpsS Bap-J-amWnXv. sImdn-b≥bp≤-Øns‚ \nXy-im]w t]dn-°-gn-bp∂ Hcp Xe-ap-dbpsS IY sXm´p ap≥h¿jw A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ F∂ Nn{X-Øn-eq-sS At±lw ]d-™n cp∂p. tImÃv Km¿Uv AXns‚ XpS¿®-bm-Wv. bp≤wIgn™v 65


]Xn-t\gp h¿jambn´pw bp≤m-¥-co-£-Øn¬ Pohn-t°≠n hcp∂ Fgp-]-Xp-I-fnse sImdn-b≥ bph-Xz-sØ-°p-dn-®m-Wv A{Ukv A¨t\m¨ kwkm-cn-®X - v. Ct∏mgpw bp≤-km-≤yX ap∂n¬°≠v anI® `mhn-bp≈ sNdp-∏-°msc Bbp-[-sa-Sp∏n®p\n¿Øp∂ Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b≥ `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS kwi-b-tcm-K-hpw AXp-hgn ssk\n-I-k-aq-lhpw s]mXp-kaq-lhpw A\p-`hn-°p∂ {]iv\-ß-fp-amWv tImÃv Km¿Uv N¿®sNøp-∂-Xv. Z£n-Ws - Im-dn-bb - nse Hcp IS¬Øo-cw. ]e-XhW DØc-sIm-dn-b≥ Nmc-∑msc Is≠-Øn-bn-´p≈ kwc-£n-X-{]-tZi-am-W-Xv. Xoc-c£mssk\y-sØ AhnsS hn\y-kn®n-´p-≠v. HcpkwLw sNdp-∏-°m-cmb ssk\n-I-cmWv AXnse AwK߃. Ah-cpsS Iymw]v ÿnXn sNøp-∂ Xoc-tZ-i{- Km-aØ - n¬ a’y-_‘ - \ - s - Øm-gn-em-fn-Iƒ°pw A°q-´Ø - nse Kp≠m-kz`m-h-ap≈ sNdp∏°m¿°pamWv {]map-Jyw. kz¥w {]tZisØ A\m-hi - y-amb ssk\n-Ik - m-∂n≤yw Ah¿°v AtcmN-I-am-Wv. ssk\n-I-cp-ambn kZm Ie-l-Øn-emWv Ah¿. AXn¿Øn-then IS-°m≥ {ian-°p∂ Nmcs\ shSn-hbv°p-∂b - mƒ°v _lp-aXn am{X-a√ - , Ipd-®p-Imew Ah-[nbpw sImSp-°p-sa∂ Hm^¿ tae-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ tk\mw-K-߃°p \evIn-bn-´p-≠v. F∂m¬ Ahcn¬ `qcn-`m-K-Øn-\pw tkh-\Im-em-h[n ]q¿Øn-bm°n kz¥w\m´n-seØn km[m-cW PohnXw \bn-°m-\mWm{K-lw. ]t£, ImwKv F∂ Km¿Uv Xs‚ ssk\n-IP - o-hn-XsØ Bh-iy-Øn-e[ - nIw Kuc-ht- Øm66


sS-bmWv ImWp-∂-Xv. Fs∂-¶n-ep-sam-cn-°¬ Hcp Nmcs\ h[n°psa∂ ZrV-\n-›-b-Øn-em-W-bmƒ. B e£yw \ndth-‰m≥th≠n a‰p-≈h - t- c-°mƒ IqSp-X¬kabw ]cn-io-e\w \S-Øp-Ibpwa‰pw sNøp∂ ImwKn\v A]-I-S-Im-cn-bm-sbmcp {`m¥≥ ssk\n-Is‚ ]cn-th-j-amWv kl-{]h¿ØI¿°nS-bnep≈Xv. \m´p-Im-cmb sNdp-∏-°m-cp-ambn ÿncw Ie-lØn-ep-am-W-bmƒ. Hcp cm{Xn-bn¬ \m´p-Im-c-\mb Hcp sNdp-∏-°m-c\pw Abm-fpsS Imap-Inbpw aZy-e-l-cn-bn¬ AXn¿Ønthen IS°p-∂p. \ntcm-[nX{]tZ-iØ - p-sh®v kpc-XØ - n-te¿s∏-´n-cp∂ Ahsc sNIv t ]mÃn¬ Uyq´n- b n- e p- ≠ m- b n- c p∂ ImwKv ss_t\m-°p-e-dn-eqsS ImWp-∂p. Ah¿ F¥mWp NbvXpsIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-sX∂pt]mepw ]cn-tim-[n-°msX Abmƒ Bth-i-]q¿Δw Ah¿°p-t\sc \nd-sbm-gn-°p-∂p. Ht∂m ct≠m _p≈-‰-√, tXm°nse _p≈-‰p-Iƒ apgp-h≥ Abmƒ Ah¿°p-t\sc h¿jn-®p. Imap-I≥ acn®p. Abm-fpsS icocw Imap-In-bmb an bpßn\p apI-fn¬ On∂-`n-∂-am-bn°n-S-∂p. \m´p-Im-cs\bmWv shSn-sh-®p-sIm∂sX-∂-dn™n´pw taep-tZym-Kÿ - ¿ ImwKn\v _lp-aX - nbpw Ah-[nbpw \¬In. ]t£ Iymw]n\p ]pd-Øn-d-ßnb Abmƒ°v \m´pIm-cpsS Iøn¬\n∂v AXn-{Iq-c-amb imcocnI]o-U-\-ta¬ t°≠nhcp-∂p. Ip-‰-t_m[w Abmsf ]n¥p-S-¿-∂p. \m´nseØn Imap-In-tbmSv kw`hw]d-bp-tºmƒ Ahƒ Abmsf sIme-bm-fn-sb∂p hnfn-°p-∂p. Hcp {`m¥-s\-t∏mse Abmƒ ho≠pw Iymw]n-se-Øp-∂p. 67


sIm√-s∏´ bphm-hns‚ ImapIn ao bpßn\pw sImebm-fn-bmb ImwKns\t∏mse am\-kn-I-\ne sX‰p-∂p. Ahƒ ho´p-ap-‰Øv ]´m-∏I - ¬ ]c-ky-ambn aq{X-sam-gn-°p-∂p. a’yhn¬]-\-°m-c-\mb ktlm-Z-cs‚ ao\p-I-fn-sem-sc-Æ-Øns\ shdpsX Iim∏psNøp-∂p. ao≥ sh´m-\p≈ XSn-°p-‰n-bn¬ kz¥w apSnsh®v IØnsIm≠v B™psh´p-∂p.- tN-´≥ ]pdØp-t]mbn°gn-™m¬ Ahƒ Ae-®n¬ XpS-ßp-I-bm-bn. ssk\n-Ic - n¬ ]e-cnepw Ahƒ acn® Imap-Is - \-bmWv ImWp∂-Xv. am\-kn-I\ne sX‰nb Ah-fpsS Ahÿ apX-se-SpØv ]e tk\mw-K-ßfpw ]e Ah-k-c-ß-fn-embn Ahsf {]m]n°p-∂p. HSp-hn¬ Ahƒ K¿`n-Wn-bp-am-Ip-∂p. tIm]m-{Im-¥\mb Ah-fpsS ktlm-Zc - s\ A\p-\b - n-∏n®v Iymw]ns‚ NpaX-eb - p≈ DtZym-Kÿ - ≥ saUn-°¬ ]cn-io-e\ - w- kn≤n® Hcp ssk\n-Is\s°m≠v Ah-fpsS K¿`w Ae-kn-∏n-°p-∂p. GXm≠v ]q¿Æ-ambpw am-\-kn-I-hn-{`m-¥n-°-Sn-s∏´ ImwKns\ ho≠pw Uyq´n-bn¬ {]th-in∏n-°m≥ A[n-Ir-X¿ Xøm-dm-Ip-∂n-√. Iymw]n-s‚bpw IS¬Øo-c-Øn-s‚bpw ]cnk-cß - f - n¬ Hcp t{]X-km-∂n-≤y-ambn Ae-bp∂ ImwKv ]gb kl-{]-h¿Ø-I-cpsS t]Sn-kz-]v\-ambn amdp-∂p. ImwKn-s‚bpw an bpßn-s‚bpw Hcn-°epw Xncn-®p-Ibdn h-cm≥ Ign-bm-Ø{X Bg-Øn-ep≈ ]X-\-ßsf a\x-im-kv{X]-ca - mbn am{X-a√ kwhn-[m-bI - ≥ A]-{K-Yn-°p-∂X - v. ImwKn¬ t\ctØapX¬ ImW-s∏-Sp∂ A{I-am-k‡n Abmfn¬ `cW-IqSw A\m-h-iy-ambn ASn-t®-ev]n® tZikvt\l-Øns‚ 68


]cn- W n- X - ^ - e - a m- W v . `c- W - I q- S - Ø ns‚ Ac- £ n- X m- h ÿ AXns‚ Imh¬`-S\ - n¬ am\-knIhn{`m-¥n-bmWv krjvSn-°p∂Xv. A\m-hi - y-amb ssk\n-Ik - m-∂n-≤y-Øns‚ Cc-If - mWv ImwKpw an bpßpw Ah-fpsS ktlm-Zc - \pw sIm√-s∏´ ImapI\psa√mw. ssk\nI-s\∂\ne-bn-ep≈ kwc-£Ww ]pdØv s]mXp-k-aq-l-Ønte°p {]th-in-°p-tºmƒ ImwKn\v e`n°p-∂n-√. an bpßns‚ ktlm-Z-c-s‚bpw kwL-Øn-s‚bpw a¿±\w Abmƒ \nc-¥cw G‰p-hm-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p. bp≤-Øn\ptijw Bflmhp\jvS-s∏´ sImdn-b≥ P\X-bpsS a\x-im-kv{Xhpw tImÃv Km¿Uv ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am-°p∂p-≠v. kmaq-ln-Ia - mtbm kmº-Øn-Ia - mtbm Imbn-Ia - mtbm _en-jvT-cm-b-h¿ sXm´pXmsg-bp-≈-hsc B{I-an®psImt≠bn-cn-°p-∂p. tImÃv Km¿Un¬ Bhn-jvI-cn-°p∂ ssk\n-IPo-hn-X-Ønepw ]pd-ta-bp-≈ Ipd®pIqSn tcmjm-Ipe-cmb km[m-c-W-°m-cnepw Cu A{I-am-k‡n {]I-S-am-Wv. ssk\nI-Po-hn-X-Ønepw s]mXpPohn-X-Ønepw Xm≥ t\cn´ AImc-Wa - mb B{I-aW - ß - s - f-°p-dn®v Inw In ZIv ]e-t∏m-gpw hnhcn-®n-´p-≠v. Hcp]t£ kz¥w ssk\n-Im-\p-`-h-ßsf G‰hpw \∂mbn Inw In ZIv D]-tbm-Ks - ∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈Xpw Cu kn\na-bn-em-bn-cn-°pw.

z 69


EXp-t`-Z-߃s°mcp _p≤-k-¶o¿Ø\w

If you meet the Buddha on the road, kill him. -Linji, Zen master

70


kv{]nMv, kΩ¿, t^mƒ, hn‚¿... -kv{]nMv

Inw

In Z°ns‚ `mhp-IXz]cn-Wmaw AS-bmf- s ∏- S p- Ø nb {][m\s∏´ - a q∂p kn\n- a - I ƒ tImÃv Km¿Un\ptijw XpS¿®-bmbn ]pd-Øp-h∂p. AXn¬ BZytØXv kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚¿... -kv{]nMv (2001) BWv. Ggph¿jsØ Ne-®n-{X-Po-hn-XØ - n-\nSbn¬ F´p Nn{X߃ kwhn-[m\w sNbvX Inw In ZIv Hcp hna-eo-I-cW{]{Inbbv°v hnt[-b-\m-Ip-∂-Xp-t]m-se. hb-e≥kpw cXnbpw sIme-]m-XI - {- ]-hW - X - b - pw Bfl-]o-U\ - ˛- ] - c - ] - o-U\Xzc-If - pw arK-ßt- fm-Sp≈ {Iqc-Xb - pw Nn{X-˛i - n-ev]- I-eI - t- fm-Sp≈ B`nap-Jy-hpw GIm-¥X - b - pw {]Ir-Xnbpw Pem-ib - ß - fpw tXmWnIfpw... -Cßs\ AXp-hsc Xs‚ Nn{X-ß-fn-em-hn-jvI-cn® F√m‰ns\bpw ]uckvXyZ¿i-\-Øn-s‚ ˛ IrXy-ambn ]d™m¬ _p≤- Z ¿i- \ - Ø n- s ‚ ˛ im¥- a mb Imgv N - ∏ mSn¬\n∂psIm≠v hfsc ]Iz-X-tbmsS t\m°n-°m-Wp-IbmWv sImdn-b≥ kn\n-a-bnse Cu "_mUv Kbv'. t]cp kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mseØs∂ Pohn-X-Øns‚ EXpt`-Z-ß-sf-°p-dn®pw AXns‚ A{]-Xn-tcm-≤y-amb Nm{In71


I-Xs - bbpwIpdn-®p≈ GIm{K[ym\-amWv Cu kn\na. A©p JWvUß - f - n-em-bn, EXp-t`-Zß - sfbpw Pohn-Xs - Øbpw CXn¬ hn\y-kn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.

hk¥w Np‰pw ImSpw ae-bp-ap≈ Hcp XSm-I-Øn¬ Nßm-SØn\pta¬ Dd-∏n®p \¶q-c-an-´n-cn-°p∂ _p≤nkv‰v B{i-aw. hk-¥ImeØnse {]`mXw. B{i-a-Øn¬ Dd°ap-W-cp∂ a≤y-h-b-kvI-\mb Kpcphpw Xosc sNdnbIp´n-bmb injy\pw XSm-I-Øn-eqsS tXmWn72

tbdn ae-bn-tebv°v Huj-[-k-ky-߃ tiJ-cn-°m≥ t]mIp-∂p. N]-e\ - mb injy≥ ao\p-w Xh-fbpw ]mºp aS-°-ap≈ Pohn-Isf ]oUn-∏n-°p-∂Xv Kpcp ImWp∂p. A\-ßm≥Ign-bmØhn[w Ah-bpsS ico-cØ - n¬ I√psI´n-bn-Sp-Ib - m-bn-cp∂p injy≥. ]nt‰∂pImeØv Ip´n DW-cp∂Xv Ac-bn¬ _‘n-°-s∏´ hen-sbmcp I√p-am-bm-Wv. C∂se D]-{Z-hn® F√m Pohn-I-sfbpw I≠p]nSn®v kzX-{¥-cm-°-W-sa∂pw Hcp Pohn-sb¶nepw acn®n´ps≠¶n¬ AXns‚ ZpxJ-`mcw PohnXw


apgp-h≥ lrZ-b-Øn¬ t]td≠nhcp-sa∂pw Kpcp ]dbp-∂p. c≠p Pohn-Iƒ acn-®n-cp∂p. Ip´n Gß-e-Sn®p Ic-bp-∂p. Pohn-X-Ønse BZysØ ITn-\-amb ]mTw Ah≥ ]Tn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.

{Kojvaw injy≥ Iuam-c-Øn-te°v IS-∂p. Ah≥ {]Ir-Xn-bpambn IqSp-X¬ ASp-Øn-cn-°p-∂p. Ahs‚ ImgvNb - n¬ CWtNcp∂ ]mºp-Iƒ. Kpcp-hn-\-Sp-tØ°v hnjm-Zh-Xnbpw tcmKn-bp-am-b, F∂m¬ kpμ-cn-bmb aI-fpambn HcΩ hcp∂p. NnIn-’-bv°mbn B{i-a-Øn¬ Ign-bp∂ Ah-fn¬ Xma-kn-bmsX Ah≥ A\p-c-‡\m-Ip-∂p. ImSns‚ GIm¥-Xbn¬ Ah¿ CW-tN-cp∂p. Xma-kn-bmsX Kpcp AXp a\- n-em-°p-∂p. am∏p tNmZn-°p∂ injy-t\mSv At±lw ]d-bp∂p: ""AXv kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv. {]IrXn \nb-a-am-W-Xv.'' F∂m¬ At±lw Cßs\bpw ]d-bp-∂p≠v: ""Imaw F¥ns\bpw IøS°m\p≈ B{K-l-ap-W¿Øpw. AØcw B{Kl߃ sIme-]m-XI - Ø - n-te°p \bn-°pw.'' {]Wbhpw cXnbpwsIm≠v a\- p-sXfnbpIbpw tcmK-hnap-‡-bmIp-IbpwsNbvX s]¨Ip-´nsb Kpcp bm{Xbm-°n. ]t£, Ahsf kz¥-am-°m-\p≈ B{Klw Ah- \ n¬ DW¿∂n- c p- ∂ p. Kpcp- h - d n- b msX Ah≥ Ahƒt]mb hgntb bm{X-bm-bn. 73


74


inincw Ce s]mgnbpw Ime-Øn¬ buΔ\w IS∂ injy≥ Xncn-s®-Øp-∂p. Ahs‚ apJsØ \njvI-f-¶X \jvSam-bn-cn-°p-∂p. as‰m-cmfpambn {]W-b-Øn-emb ImapInsb sIme- s ∏- S p- Ø n- b n- ´ mWv Ahs‚ hc- h v . tZjyhpw \ncm-ibpw kln-°msX Bfl-l-Xy-s°mcp-ßp∂ Ahs\ Kpcp s]mXnsc X√p-∂p.- ]ns∂ B{i-a-Øn\p ap∂n-ep≈ henb XSnØ-d-bn¬ Xs‚ ]q®-bpsS hm¬ Nmb-Øn¬ ap°n {]⁄m-]-cm-anXm kq{Xw hSn-shmØ A£-c-ß-fn¬ Fgp-Xp-∂p. B¥cn- I - i m¥n {]Zm\wsNøp∂ _p≤kq‡- a m- W - X v . FgpØp XpS-cp-tºmƒ Kpcp ]d-bp-∂p, ""\n\°v Bsc thW-sa-¶nepw sIm√mw. Ffp-∏-am-W-Xv. ]t£ kzbw acn°pI A{X Ffp-∏-a-√. \ns‚ Iønse ITmc sIm≠v Rms\-gp-Xnb Hmtcm A£-chpw hc-™p-am‰p- I . Hmtcm A£- c Øn\psam∏w a\-   n¬\n∂v hntZzjw shSn™psIm≠n-cn-°p-I.'' injy≥ GIm{K-X-tbmsS tPmen XpS¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Ahs\-tØSn s]meo-sk-Øn. ]t£ sNbvXp-sIm-≠n-cn°p∂ tPmen Xo¿∂nt´ Ah\p t]mIm-\m-Iq. Kpcphns‚ B⁄-bmW-Xv. s]meokv Kpcp-hns\ A\pkcn°p∂p. XSn-°m-Xe - n¬ hc-™p-Xo¿∂ A£-cß - f - psS sh≈-\n-d-Øn¬ hnhn[ h¿Æ-߃]pc-´m≥ s]meokp-Imcpw klm-bn-°p-∂p. ]pe¿t® injy≥ Ah¿

s°m∏w t]mIp-∂p. Ah¿ Ahs\ hne-ßp-sh-®n-√. Imew A¬]wIqSn IS∂pt]mbn. Pohn-Xk - mbm-”-Øn-se-Ønb {Im¥-Z¿in-bmb Kpcp tXmWnbn¬ hnd-Ip-I-f-Sp°n sh®v AXn-\p-ap-I-fn-en-cp∂v Xo sImfpØn A·n-bn-se-cn™v kzbw Poh≥ shSn-bp∂p. At±-l-Øns‚ ]p\¿÷-∑sa-t∂mWw Hcp Pek¿∏w B{i-a-Øn-te°v Cg™pIb-dp-∂p.

ssiXyw XSmIw a™n-ep-d-™p. in£ Ign-s™-Ønb IqSpX¬ ]Iz-Xbm¿÷n® injy≥ B{i-a-Øn-te°p hcp∂p. tXmWn Bh-iy-an-√m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v a™neqsS \S∂v B{i-a-Øn-se-Øp-∂p. a™p-d™ XSmI-Øn¬\n∂v Kpcp-hns‚ `uXn-Im-h-in-jvS-߃ tiJcn-°p-∂p. cm{Xn B{i-a-Øn¬ ssI°p-™p-ambn Hcp A⁄m-Xkv{Xo FØp-∂p. kvIm¿^vsIm≠v apJw ad®n-cn-°p∂ Ahƒ ]›m-Øm]hnh-ib - m-Wv. cm{Xn-bn¬ ssI°p-™ns\ B{i-a-Øn¬ Dt]-£n®v IS∂pIfbm≥ {ian- ° p∂ Ahƒ sh≈saSp- ° m≥th≠n a™p-d™ Xd-bn¬ Ipgn® Ipgn-bn¬hoWv acn-°p∂p. injy≥ Ahsf ]pd-sØ-Sp-°p-∂p. apJwaqSnb kvIm¿^v Agn-°p-∂p. Bcm-bn-cp∂p Ahƒ? At±l-Øn\Xv a\- n-em-bn. t{]£-I¿ AX-dn-bp-∂n-√. Ip™ns\ At±ltas‰-Sp-°p-∂p. B{i-aØ - ns‚ Npa75


Xe Gs‰-Sp-°p-∂-Xn\papºv Ac-bn¬ _‘n® hensbmcp I√pw Iøn¬ _p≤-hn-{K-l-hp-ambn At±lw aeIb-dp-∂p. tbip-hns‚ Im¬h-cn-bm{X Hm¿Ωn-∏n°p∂ cwKw. hoWpwXS™pw ]›m-Øm-]h - n-hi - \ - mbn ae- a p- I - f n- s eØn AhnsS _p≤- { ]- X naÿm]n®v injy≥ [ym\\n-a-·-\m-Ip-∂p.

ho≠pw hk¥w a≤y-h-b-kvI-\mb injy\mWv Ct∏mƒ Kpcp. N]-e\mb as‰mcp _me≥ (B-Zy-cw-K-Øn¬ I≠ AtX Ip´n) At±-l-Øns‚ injy≥. Ah≥ Hcp Basb D]-{Z-hn®psIm≠n-cn-°p-∂p. -Po-hnXw XpS-cp-∂p. Ejn-Xp-ey-amb Ah-[m-\X - t- bm-sS Ah-Xc - n-∏n-®n-cn-°p∂ Cu Nn{X-Øn¬ Hcp tjm´v t]mepw Inw In ZIv A\m-h-iyambn D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´n-√. AXp-sIm≠pXs∂ kwhn-[m-b-I≥ ]pe¿Ønb [ym\m-fl-I-amb {i≤-tbmsS t{]£-Icpw Cu kn\na I≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pw. temI-kn-\n-ab - psS Ncn-{X-Ønse Xs∂ G‰hpw auen-Ia - mb Nn{X-ßf - n-sem-∂m-Wn-sX∂v \n wibw ]dbmw. Pohn-X-Øns‚ Ime-t`-Z-ßsf ka-{K-ambn kwtbm-Pn-∏n-°p∂ Hcp tamtU¨ ¢mknIv. ho≠pwho≠pw ImWm≥ t{]cn-∏n-°p-∂, Hmtcm ImgvN-bnepw ]pXnb]pXnb Z¿i-\ß - ƒ ]I-cp∂ kn\n-a. ]uckvXyZ¿i-\ß - f - psS \nKqVX a\- n-em-°m≥ {ian-°p∂ ]m›mXykaq-lsØbpw 76


kz¥w Z¿i-\ß - f - n-te°v ho≠pw Bgv∂n-dß - m-\m-{K-ln-°p∂ ]uckvXykaq-l-sØbpw CXv Xo¿®-bmbpw A¤p-X-kvX_v[-cm-°pw. Pbn¬in£Ign™v Xncns®Øn B{i-a-Øns‚ NpaX-e-tb-s‰-Sp-°p∂ injy≥ Ac-bn¬ _‘n® ]md-°√pw Iøn-te-¥nb _p≤-hn-{K-l-hp-ambn aeIb-dp∂ cwKw CXn\Iw temI-{]-i-kvX-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Inw In ZIvXs∂-bmWv B thjw A`n-\-bn-®-Xv. ]n��°m-e-Øv, 2011 ¬, Bfl-I-Ym]-c-amb Bcn-cwKv F∂ tUmIyp^nIvj\n¬ At±lw ho≠pw Cu cwKw Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn. Z£nW sImdn-b-bnse Ccp-∂qdph¿jw ]g-°-ap≈ Pyqkm≥ XSm-I-Øn-emWv kn\n-a-bn¬ ImWp∂ _p≤nÃv B{i-a-Øns‚ sk‰v \n¿Ωn-®-Xv. XSm-I-Øn\v Np‰pw \q‰m≠p-Iƒ ]g-°-ap≈ h≥hr£-ß-fp-≠v. ]cn-ÿnXn a{¥m-eb-Øn¬ Bdp-am-k-tØmfw Ib-dn-bn-d-ßnb tij-amWv Cu kn\na XSm-IØ - n¬ Nn{Xo-Ic - n-°m≥ A\p-hmZwIn´n-bs - X∂v ]d-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. ASn-ÿm\]c-ambn Nn{X-Im-c-\mb Inw In ZIv ]d-bp∂Xv At±lw Hcn-°epw em≥UvkvtI∏p-Iƒ hc®n´ns√∂m-Wv. ""{][m-\-ambpw Ombm-Nn-{X-ß-fmWv Rm≥ hc-®n-´p≈-Xv. Iym≥hm-kn¬ ]p\¿kr-jvSn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn-t\-°mƒ kpμ-ca - mWv bYm¿∞-Øn-ep≈ {]Ir-Xn. AXp-sIm≠v Rm≥ {]Ir-Xnsb kn\n-a-bn¬ hc-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂p.''

z 77


Let any one of you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her. -The Bible, John 8:7

\√ ia-cn-bm-°m-cn-bpsS IY 78


ka-cn-‰≥ tKƒ

Z

£nW sImdn-bbpsS Xe-ÿm-\-amb tkmfn¬ ssewKn- I - s Øm- g n¬ sNøp- ∂ tP bpMv F∂ kv I qƒ hnZym¿∞n-\n- bp Pn≥ F∂ Ah-fpsS D‰ Iq´p-ImcntbmSv Cßs\ ]d- b p∂p: ""]pcm- X \ `mc- X - Ø n¬ hkp- a n{X Fs∂mcp A`n-km-cnI-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-fpsS IqsS ibn® ]pcp-j-∑m-sc√mw _p≤-k-\ym-kn-am-cm-b-t{X.'' ssewKn-I-sØm-gn-em-fn-Ifmb s]¨Ip-´n-Isf, As√¶n¬ icocw hn´p-sIm-Sp-°mt\m ]pcp-js‚ ]oU-\ß - ƒ G‰phm-ßmt\m hn[n-°-s∏´ kv{XoIsf GXm≠v F√m kn\n-aI-fnepw Ah-Xc - n-∏n® Inw In ZIv 2004 ¬ kwhn-[m\wsNbvX ka-cn-‰≥ tKƒ F∂ Nn{X-Ønse IYm-]m-{X-ß-fmWv Cu s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ. cXn-bnte¿s∏-Sp-tºmƒ F√m ]pcp-j∑m-cpw 79


Ip™p-ß-sf-t∏m-se-bm-sW-∂mWv tP bpMv ]d-bp-∂-Xv. hkp-an{X F∂ KWnI Xs∂{]m]n® ]pcp-j∑ - msc Ip™pß-sf-sb-∂-t]mse emfn-®n-´p-≠m-I-Ww. Aßs\ emf-\bpsS cXn-kv]¿i-ta‰ Ah¿ ]n∂oSv _p≤n-kØ - n-te°v Xncn™-Xm-Imw. GXm-bmepw C\napX¬ hkp-an{X F∂-dn-b-s∏Sm-\mWv Xs‚ B{K-l-sa∂v tP bqMv Iq´p-Im-cn-tbmSv ]dbp-∂p. tP bpMvam{X-amWv CS-]m-Sp-Imsc kzoI-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Ct∏mgpw I\y-I-bmb bp Pn≥ Ah-fpsS kwc-£-I-bm-Wv. tlm´-¬apdn-Iƒ°p ]pdØv \nco-£-I-bmbn \n¬°p-∂Xv Ah-fm-Wv. tP bpßns‚ CS-]m-Sp-Im-tcmSv Ahƒ°v tZjyhp-ap≠v. bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Hcp ]nw]mWv bp Pn≥. Z°ns‚ a‰p]e Nn{X-ß-fnepwI≠ A`n-km-cn-I˛]nw]v _‘sØ as‰mcpXc-Øn¬ ]p\¿\n¿Δ-Nn-°p-I-bmWv Chn-sS. Pohn-°m≥th≠nb√ Cu icocw hn¬]\. bqtdm-∏nte°v ]d-°m-\p≈ hnam\Sn°‰v kwL-Sn-∏n-°m-\p-ff ]Ww XnI-bp-∂Xphsc CXp XpS-cm-\mWv Ah-cpsS Xocp-am-\w. HmtcmZnh-khpw Iq´p-Imcn kºm-Zn-°p∂ ]Ww tiJ-cn®p hbv°p-∂Xpw bp Pn\mWv. s]meokv sdbvUn¬\n∂v c£-s∏-Sm≥th≠n Hcp tlm´ens‚ apIƒ\ne-bn¬\n∂v Xmtg°p NmSp∂ tP bMv Bip]-{Xn-bn¬sh®p acn-°p-∂p. AtXmsS bp Pn≥ Akm-[m-cW-amsbmcp ZuXyw XpS-ßp-∂p. ssewKn-I-sØm-gn-¬sNbvXv Iq´p-Imcn AXp-hsc kºm-Zn® ]W-a{- Xbpw CS-]m-Sp-Im¿°v 80


XncnsIs°mSp-°p-I. Ub-dn-bnse t^m¨\º-dp-Iƒ t\m°n Hmtcm-cp-Ø-sc-bmbn Ahƒ tlm´¬ apdn-I-fn-te°pw a‰pw £Wn-°p-∂p. Ah¿s°m∏w ibn®tijw ]≠v Ah¿ \¬Inb XpI Xncn-t®-ev]n-°p-∂p. s]meo-kp-tZym-K-ÿ-\mb A—≥ aIfpsS A]-Y-k©mcw A{]-Xo-£n-Xa - mbn I≠p]nSn-°p-∂p. `mcy-bpsS ZpcqlacWw At\z-jn-®psIm≠ncn-s°-bmWv At±lw aIsf Cu Ah-ÿb - n¬ Is≠-Øp-∂X - v. ]n∂oSv kn\n-ab - n-ep-S\ - ofw A—≥ aIsf ]n¥p-S-cp∂p. hkp-an-{X, kam-cnb, skmWm‰ F∂n-ßs\ aq∂p `mKß- f mbn kn\n- a sb Xncn- ® n- ´ p- ≠ v . BZy- ` m- K - Ø n¬ tb Pßns‚ acWwhsc-bp≈ kw`-h-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. hkp-an{X F∂ KWn-I-sb-bpw _p≤n-k-sØbpwIpdn-®p≈ ]cm-a¿i߃ AXn-ep-≠v. hkp-an-{Xsb A\p-Ic - n®v, Hcp Xc-Øn-ep≈ hntZz-jhpwIqSmsX CS-]m-Sp-Imsc kt¥m-jn-∏n-°p∂ tP bMv Ah-cn-sem-cmsf CjvS-s∏-Sp-∂p-ap-≠v. Bip-]-{Xn-bn¬ acn-°m≥InS-°p-tºmƒ Ah-fm-{K-ln-°p-∂Xv Abmsf Ahkm-\-ambn Hcp-h´w ImWm-\m-Wv. AXn-\p-th≠n Abmƒ°cn-In-se-Øp∂ bq Pn\v Xs‚ I\y-ImXzw ASn-bdhbvt° ≠n hcp-∂p. \√ ia-cn-bm-°m-cs‚ ]p\¿÷-am-Whƒ. tP bMv tlm´¬apdn-I-fn¬ Ib-dp-tºmƒ ]pdØp Imh¬ \n¬°p-Ibpw Ahƒ XmsghoWv Kpcp-X-c-ambn ]cn-t°¬ °p-tºmƒ apXp-In¬ Npa∂v Bip-]-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-°p-Ibpw Ah-fpsS A¥ym-`n-emjw \nd-th-‰m-\mbn I\y-ImXzw ASn81


82


bdhbv°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ \√ ia-cn-bm-°m-cn. ISpØ ]m]-t_m-[Ø - n¬\n∂mWv c≠mw`mK-amb kamcn-b XpS-ßp-∂Xv. Iq´p-Im-cn-bpsS CS-]m-Sp-Imsc bp Pn≥ ho≠pw ImWp-∂p. Iq´p-Imcn k©-cn® hgn-I-fn-eqsS ho≠pw k©-cn-°p-∂p. aI-fpsS amdnb k©m-c-co-Xn-Iƒ a\- n-em-°n-bX - n-\p-ti-jhpw A—≥ ]Xn-hp-t]mse Ahsf kvIqfn¬ sIm≠p-t]m-Ip-∂p. Imdn¬ k©-cn-°p-tºmƒ At±lw Ahƒ°v IY-Iƒ ]d-™p-sIm-Sp-°m-dp-≠v. ImtdmSn-°p-tºmƒ £oWn-X-\m-bn-cn-°p∂ A—-t\mSv aIƒ tNmZn°p∂p: ""Cs∂¥m, A—≥ IY-sbm-∂pw ]d-bm-ØXv?'' ""\o {i≤n-°m-dn-√-t√m...'' ""Rm≥ Ft∏mgpw {i≤n-°m-dp-≠v.'' ""C‰-en-bnse Hcp sNdp]´-W-Øn¬ aq∂p s]¨Ip-´nIfp≠m-bn-cp-∂p. HcpZnhkw Ah¿ Im´n¬ Ifn-°m≥ t]mbn. s]s´∂v BIm-iØv sh≈n-sh-fn-®-Øn¬ I\yIm amXmhv {]Xy-£-s∏-´p. s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ aq∂pt]cpw t_m[w sI´p hoWp. At_m-[-Øn¬ Ah¿ temIm-h-km-\-sØ-°pdn-®p≈ `oI-c-am-b Hcp kz]v\wI≠p...'' ""A—m, A—\v Znhym-¤p-X-ß-fn¬ hnizm-k-apt≠m?'' ""H-cp Znhym-¤pXw D≠m-Ip-sa∂pXs∂-bmWv Fs‚ hnizm-kw.'' aq∂mw `mK-amb skmWm-‰-bn¬ A—\pw aIfpw Hcp bm{X ]pd-s∏-Sp-∂p. AΩ-bpsS Ipgn-am-S-Øn-te-°mWv B 83


bm{X. A—≥ aIsf a\- n-em-°n-b-Xp-t]mse aIƒ A—s\bpw a\- n-em-°p-∂Xv B bm{X-bn-em-Wv. B bm{X-bnepw A—≥ aI-tfmSv Znhym-¤p-X-Øns‚ IY kqNn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v. aZ¿ sXtc-ks - b-°p-dn-®mWv At±lw ]d-bp-∂X - v. AXp tI´Xn-\p-tijw aIƒ cm{Xn-bn¬ DW¿∂n-cp∂v ]›m-Øm-]-hnh-i-bmbn Ic-bp-∂p. _p≤n-khpw {InkvXo-b_nw_-ßfpw tN¿Øph®p sIm≠v ]m]-sØ-°p-dn®v N¿®sNøm-\mWv Cu kn\n-ab - n¬ Inw In ZIv {ian-°p-∂-Xv. Xo¿®-bmbpw thiymhr-Øn-sb°p-dn®√ Cu kn\n-a. Hscm‰ cXn-cwKwt]mepw CXn¬ Nn{XoI-cn-®n-´n-√. ]m]-t_m-[-amWv Inw In ZIv N¿®sNøp∂ {]tabw. F√m a\p-jy-cnepw Dd-ßn-°n-S-°p∂ ]m]-t_m-[-sØbmWv \√ ia-cn-bm-°m-cn-bmb aIfpw Ah-fpsS A—\pw sXm´p-W¿Øp-∂X - v. hkp-an-{X-bpsS Hcn-S] - m-Sp-Im-ct- \mSv kacn-bm-°mcn ]d-bp-∂-Xv, ""Zm B P\-en-eq-sS-bmWv F‚ Iq´pImcn NmSnacn-®Xv'' F∂m-Wv. aI-fpsS {]mbwam{X-ap≈ s]¨Ip-´n-I-fp-ambn InS°]¶n-Sp∂ a≤y-h-b-kvIsc apgph≥ ]m]-t_m-[-Øns‚ Ib-Øn-te-s°-dn-bm≥ AXp- a-Xnbm-Ipw. aIsf \ng¬t]mse ]n¥p-S-cp∂ A—≥ a≤y-h-bkvI-\mb Hcmƒs°m∏w Hcp shfn-{º-tZ-iØv Imdn¬ Ahsf Is≠-Øp-∂p. AZr-iy-\mbn\n∂v At±lw Imdns‚ Nn√v Is√-dn™p XI¿°p-∂p. (]m-]-Øn\pt\sc-bp≈ It√dv Z°ns‚ ]e kn\n-a-I-fnepw Bh¿Øn®pImWmw.) ]n∂oSv A—≥ Cu a≤y-hb - k - vIs‚ kam-[m-\] - c - a - mb IpSpw84


_PohnX-Øn-te°v Ib-dn-s®∂v hnZym¿∞n-\n-bmb aI-fpsS ap∂n¬h®v Abm-sf A]-am-\n-°p-∂p. A—≥ B ^vfm‰n¬ \n∂n-dßn Imdn¬ Ib-dp-tºm-tg°pw ]m]-t_m-[hpw A]am-\hpw kln-°msX B a\p-jy≥ apIƒ\ne-bn¬\n∂p NmSn Bfl-lXysNbvXn-cp-∂p. thiym-hrØnsNøp-∂X - n-ep-ff ]m]-t_m[w B s]¨ Ip-´n-I-sfbpw ]n¥p-S-cp-∂p-≠v. s]mXpIpfn-ap-dn-I-fn¬ Htcm Xh-Wbpw Ah¿ Ipfn-°p-∂-Xns‚ Zriy-߃ kn\n-a-bn-ep≠v. aIsf hne-bv°p-hmßn D]-tbm-Kn® Hcmsf sIme-s∏Sp-Ønbtijw A—\pw c‡m-`n-jn-‡\ - mbn Ic™psIm≠v s]mXp-kv\m\L´-Øn¬ Ipfn-°p-∂p-≠v. ]m]ambn F√m-Øcw hnizm-kn-Ifpw Icp-Xn-t∏m-cp∂ ]eXpw ZIv Cu kn\n-a-bn¬ ]cm-a¿in°p-∂p-≠v. ]t£, AXnepa-∏pdw ]c-kv]cw £an-°p-∂X - n-s‚bpw a\- n-em-°p∂-Xn-s‚bpw {]m[m\yhpw AXp hnfn®p]d-bp-∂p. Bflip-≤oIc-W-Øns‚ ]mX-bn-eq-sS-bmWv Cu kn\n-a-bpsS k©m-cw. A]-Y-k-©mcw F∂p tXm∂n-∏n®v Bfl-mt\zjW-Øn¬ Ah-km-\n-°p∂ kn\na.

z 85


\Ωƒ Pohn-°p∂ Cu temIw bYm¿∞amtWm km¶-ev]n-Ia - mtWm F∂v \n¿ΔNn-°pI {]bm-k-amWv ˛Inw In ZIv

86

hnNn-{X-amsbmcp kl-Po-h\w


{Xo Atb¨

kv

{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚¿, ka-cn-‰≥ tKƒ F∂o Nn{X-ß-fn-eqsS Inw In ZIv XpS-ßn-h® Kl-\-amb Zm¿i-\nImt\zjWw {Xo Atb¨ (2004) F∂ Nn{X-Ønse-Øp-tºmƒ ]Iz-X-bm¿÷n-°p-∂XpImWmw. c‡m-`n-jn‡-am-bn-cp∂ BZyImekn\n-a-I-fn¬\n∂v H‰-bm-\mb Cu Ne-®n-{X-Im-c≥ amdn-\S- ∂ - t∏mƒ t{]£-It- emIw Bizmkw sIm≠p. Zn sF¬, _mUv Kbv F∂o Nn{X-߃°ptijw H∂pw an≠mØ Hcp \mb-Is\ Inw In ZIv ho≠pw Ah-X-cn-∏n°p IbmWv Cu Nn{X-Øn¬. sXbv kpIv F∂ sNdp-∏-°m-c≥ hoSpwIpSn-bp-an-√m-Øh - \ - m-Wv. F√m hoSp-Ifpw X\n°p kz¥am-sW∂ ImgvN∏ - m-SmWv Ah-t‚-Xv. Hgn-™p-In-S° - p∂ hoSpI-fn¬ Ah≥ Ib-dn-∏-‰p-∂p. Nne-t∏mƒ ho´p-Im¿ Fhn-sSsb-¶nepw bm{X-t]m-b-Xm-Imw. As√-¶n¬ Zo¿L-Im-e-ambn AS-®n-´n-cn-°p-I-bm-Imw. hoSp-Iƒ hnZ-Kv≤-ambn IpØn-Øpd∂v AIØp Ib-dp-sa-¶nepw tamj-W-a√ e£yw. Ipfn-°pIbpw `£Ww ]mIwsNbvXp Ign-°pIbpw sNbvX-Xn-\ptijw Ah≥ ho´p-Im-cpsS apjn™ XpWn-Iƒ Ae-°p-Ibpw hoSp hrØn-bm-°p-I-bp-sams° sNøpw. Nne-t∏mƒ ho´nse tISmb D]-Ic - W - ß - ƒ \∂m°n sh°pw. as‰m∂pw Ah\m{K-ln-°p-∂n-√. 87


H-cn-°¬ Ah≥ Ib-dn-∏‰- nb ho´n¬ `¿Ør-]o-U\ - t- a‰p ZpxJn-Xb - mbn°gn-bp∂ Hcp kpμ-cnbp≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Ah-fpsS km∂n≤yw BZyw Ah\dn-™n-√. Adn-b-s∏-Sp∂ Hcp ]ckytamUemb Ah-fpsS Nn{X-ßfp≠m-bn-cp-∂p, ho´n¬ \ndsb. InS-°-bn¬°nS∂v Ah-fpsS \·-Nn-{X-ß-f-S-ßnb B¬_w adn®pt\m°n kzbw-t`mKw sNøp∂Xn-\n-Sb - n-emWv Ah≥ A]-c-km-∂n≤yw Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂-Xv. Ah¿ ]c-kv]cw H∂pw kwkm-cn-°p-∂n-√. ]t£ au\Øns‚ `mj-bn¬ Ahf\p-`-hn-°p∂ ]oU\w Ah≥ a\ n-em-°p-∂p. ]oU-I-\mb `¿Øm-hn¬\n∂v Ah\hsf tamNn-∏n-°p-∂p. ]ns∂ Hcp-an-®p≈ bm{X-bm-Wv. Bsfmgn™ ]e hoSp-I-fnepw Ah-scm-∂n®p Xma-kn-°p-∂p. Hcp ho´n¬ acn-®p-In-S-°p∂ hr≤-s\bm-Wh¿ I≠Xv. Abmsf hrØn-bmbn ho´p-h-f-∏n¬ AS°wsNbvXp. At∏m-tg°pw A{]-Xo-£n-X-ambn Abm-fpsS aIs\Øn. Ah¿ s]meokv IÃ-Un-bn-em-bn. Ahsf `¿Øm-hv Iq´n-s°m-≠p-t]m-bn. Ah-fpsS `¿Øm-hns‚ {]Xn-Im-cØ - ns‚ `mK-ambn Pbnen¬ Ah\v ]oU-\t- a-‰p. _p≤-kl - P - a - mb \n w-KX - t- bmsS Ah≥ F√mw t\cn-´p. a-‰p-≈-h-cpsS ZrjvSn-bn¬s∏-SmsX AZr-iy-\m-Im-\p≈ hnZy Ah≥ Pbn-en¬sh®v hnP-bIcambn A`y-kn®p. ]n∂oSv Ahƒ°-√msX a‰m¿°pw Ah≥ shfn-s∏-Sp-∂n-√. apºv Ib-dnb ]e hoSp-I-fnepw ho≠pw {]th-in®v Xs‚ ]pXnb kn≤n ]co-£n-®p-d-∏n-®-Xn\ptijw Ah≥ BXy-¥n-I-ambn Ah-fpsS ho´n¬Øs∂ {]th-in88


°p-∂p. Ahs‚ AZr-iy-km-∂n≤yw Ahsf kpμ-cnbpw {]km-Z-h-Xn-bp-amb {]W-bn-\n-bm-°p-∂p. `¿Ømhv ho´n-eps≠-¶n¬t∏mepw Ahƒ°n\n Ah-t\m-sSm∏w Pohn-°mw. `mc-a-f-°p∂ b{¥-Øn¬ Ccp-hcpw Ibdn\n¬°p∂ XmWv Ah-km\cwKw. b{¥-Øns‚ kqNn ]qPy-Øn¬ \nebp-d∏ - n-°p-∂p. At∏mƒ kv{Io\n¬ sXfn-bp∂ hmIyw CXmWv ˛ "\Ωƒ Pohn-°p∂ Cu temIw bYm¿∞-amtWm km¶ev]n-I-amtWm F∂v \n¿Δ-Nn-°pI {]bm-k-am-Wv.' \c-Ia - m-sW∂v BZywtXm∂p∂ temIsØ kz¿§-am°n ]cn-W-an-∏n-°p∂ {]{In-b-bmWv Cu kn\n-a-bn¬ \S-°p-∂Xv. `qan-bn¬ kz¿§wXo¿t°≠ Npa-Xe a\p-jy\pXs∂-bmWv. AXn-\p≈ ASn-ÿm-\-]-c-ambam¿§w kam-[m-\-Ønt‚Xpw kl-\-Øn-t‚-Xp-am-sW∂ ktμiwIqSn Inw In ZIv Cu Nn{X-Øn¬ \evIp-∂p-≠v. Xs‚ kn\n-a-I-fnse au\-߃ hmNm-e-am-t°-≠Xv t{]£-I-cm-sW∂v Inw In ZIv ]d-™n-´p-≠v. Hcn-°epw ]q¿Æ-amb A¿∞w Ah-ti-jn-∏n-°mØ, apgp-h-\mbpw B¿°pw ]nSn-sIm-Sp-°mØ kn\n-a-I-fmWv At±-l-Øn-t‚Xv. Ne-®n{XPohnXw Bcw-`n®v F´p h - ¿j-߃°n-Sb - n¬ ZIv kwhn- [ m\wsNbv X ]Xn- s \m- ∂ m- a sØ Nn{X- a mWv {Xo Atb¨. Cu Nn{X-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v kwhn-[m-bI - \ - p-ambn \S-Ønb Hc-`n-apJw Xp-S¿∂p≈ A≤ym-bØ - n-ep-≠v. Hcp Ne®n-{X-Im-c-s\∂ \ne-bn¬ Inw In Z°n-\p-≠mb ]cn-Wm-aØns‚ GI-tZiNn{Xw AXn¬\n∂v hmbn-s®-Sp-°mw. 89


IpSpw-_-Po-hnXw Hcp ]co£bmWv

90


{Xo Atb¨ F∂ kn\n-a-sb°p-dn®v Inw In Z°p-ambn Gjym ]k-^nIv B¿´vkv \SØnb A`n-ap-J-Øns‚ kw£n-]vX-cq-]-w.

{Xo Atb¨ F∂ kn\na aq∂p `mK-ß-fmbn Xncn-®n-´p-≠t√m. kam-cn-‰≥ tKƒ, kv{]nMv kΩ¿ ^mƒ hn‚¿ F∂o kao-]I - mekn\n-aI - fnepw CXp ImWmw. Zn sF¬ F∂ Nn{XØn¬ Hmtcm tImt´-Pnsebpw kw`-h-߃ Hmtcm A≤ymb-ß-fmbn tXm∂n. icn-bm-Wv. Bsfm-gn™ hoSp-I-fn¬ {]th-in-°p∂-Xpw DS-a-ÿ¿ AXp I≠p]nSn-°p-∂-Xp-amWv Cu kn\n-a-bpsS BZy-`mKØp-≈-Xv. I≠p-]n-Sn-°-s∏-Sm-Xncn-°m-\p≈ ]cn-io-e-\-amWv c≠mw`mK-Øn¬. Pbn¬ apdn-bn¬ \S-Øp∂ ]cn-io-e\w AXns‚ `mK-am-Wv. aq∂mw`mK-Øn¬, Np‰pw Bfp-I-fp-s≠-¶n¬ t]mepw Bcpw I≠p-]n-Sn°mØ Ah-ÿ-sb-°p-dn-®mWv ]dbp-∂-Xv. Cßs\ B kn\n-a-bpsS Zriy-X-e-sØ-

Øs∂ aq∂mbn hn`-Pn-®n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. CXv t{]£Isc kn\na ImWm≥ t{]cn-∏n-°p∂ Hcp {]{In-b-bmWv. Akw-`-hy-am-bXv kw`-hn-°m-sa∂ tXm∂¬ Ahcn-ep-≠m-°m-\mWv IYsb Cßs\ hn`-Pn-®-Xv. hn`-PnX-amb Cu IY-I-fn-eqsS Rm≥ ]d-bm-\p-t±-in-®Xv bmYm¿∞y-Øn\pw ^m‚-kn°pw CS-bn-ep≈ AXn¿hcºv Ahy-‡-am-sW∂mWv. {Xo Atb¨ F∂ kn\n-a-bnse Hmtcm A≤ym-b-Øn\pw t]cp sImSp-°m≥ Btem-Nn-®n-cpt∂m? C√. "Hgn™ hoSp-Iƒ' F∂v H∂mw`mK-Øn-\pw "AZr-iy\m-Im-\p≈ ]cn-io-e\w' F∂v c≠mw`mKØn\pw "AZr-iy≥' F∂v aq∂mw `mK-Øn\pw t]cp sImSp-°m-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]t£ AXns‚ Bh-iy-an-s√∂v tXm∂n. Pbn¬apdn-bn¬ Xmbv kpIv AZr-iy-\mIm-\p≈ ]cn-io-e\w \S-Øp∂ ko≥ hfsc \∂m-bn-cp-∂p, F¥mWv Xm¶ƒ AXpsIm≠v Dt±-in-®Xv? Hcmƒ°v as‰m-cm-fpsS ]nd-In¬ Abm-f-dn-bmsX ad-™n-cn-°m≥ Ign-bpsa∂v kn\n-ab - psS `mj-bn-eqsS ]d-bp-Ib - m-bn-cp∂p Fs‚ e£yw. AXp km≤y-am-sW¶n¬ Abmƒ°v Bfp-I-fp-ff hoSp-I-fn¬ {]th-in°m\pw Ignbpw. Cu Ignhv e`n-°p-∂-Xn\papºv Xmbv 91


kp°n\v hoSp-I-fn¬ Hfn®pIS-t°≠nh∂n-cp-∂p. kn\n-a-bpsS Ah-km\`mKØv Xm≥ t\ctØ Hfn®p IS-∂n-cp∂ Hmtcm hoSp-Ifpw Bfp-I-fp-≈-t∏mƒØs∂ Abmƒ kμ¿in-°p-∂p-≠v. Bcpw Abmsf ImWp-∂n-√. BcpwImWmsX Fhn-sSbpw Ib-dn-s®√m-\p≈ Ignhp e`n®psh∂v Dd-∏n-®-Xn\ptij-amWv Ah-km\ko\n¬ Abmƒ kp¨ lzm bpsS ho´n¬ IS-°p-∂X - v. Cu ko\nte°p≈ {]thinI-bmWv Pbnense ]cn-io-e-\-cw-Kw. kp¨ lzmsb°p-dn®v NneXp tNmZn°s´. F¥n-\mWv Ah¿ Xmbv kp°ns‚ tKmƒ^v kznMv XS-bp-∂Xv? hb- e ≥kn- s \- ° p- d n- ® p≈ \nco- £ - W - a m- W - X v . Ahƒ ap∂n¬ \n¬°p-∂-Xp-sIm≠v Ah≥ kznßn s‚ Zniam‰p- I bpw AXp- I m- c Ww ]¥psIm≠v Hcmƒ°v ]cn-t°¬°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Ahƒ XS™n-s√-¶n¬ CXp kw`-hn-°n-√m-bn-cp-∂p. Hcp hntcm[m-`m-k-am-Wn-Xv. A]-I-S-߃ \ΩpsS e£y-ßsf XInSw adn-°p-∂p. PohnXw Aß-s\-bm-Wv. F{X \√ Dt±-iy-tØmsSsNøp∂ Imcy-Øn\pw A{]-Xo-£n-Xambn {]Xn-Iqe^ew D≠m-Imw. F¥p-sIm-≠mWv Ahƒ kz¥w Nn{Xw Ij-W-ß-fmbn apdn°p-∂Xv? 92

`qX-Im-eØ - n¬\n∂v c£-s∏-Sm≥ Ah-fm-{K-ln-°p-∂p. kz¥w {]Xn-_nw-_sØ kzbw am‰m-\p≈ {ia-am-W-Xv. Xmbv kpIv t\csØ dn∏- b ¿sNbv X p- s h®n- c p∂ `mcw t\m°m-\p≈ D]-I-cWw Ahƒ ho≠pw XI-cm-dnem-°p-∂p≠t√m? B b{¥w Xmdp-am-dm-bn-°n-S° - p-∂X - mWv \√-sX∂v Ahƒ hnNm-cn-°p-∂p. Ct∏mƒ XI-cm-dn-embncn°p∂-Xp-sIm≠v ]n∂oSv AXns‚ kqNn ]qPy-Øn-te°p ht∂-°mw. ]e Imcy-߃°pw \Ωƒ Is≠-Øp∂ A¿∞-߃ Imew IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-tºmƒ A{]-k‡ambn amdn-tb-°mw. CXv Ahƒ Xncn-®-dn-™n-´p-≠m-IWw. bYm¿∞ `mcw F∂ k¶ev]w A{]k‡-amsW∂v Ahƒ°p tXm∂n. AXpsIm-≠mWv ]n∂oSv Ahcncp-hcpw tN¿∂p≈ `mcw ]qPy-am-b-Xv. kz¥w ^m‚knIsf Ac-°n-´p-d-∏n-°m-\p≈ Ah-fpsS {iaam-bmWv tXm∂n-bXv. Aß-s\bpw hymJym-\n-°mw. Hmtcm t{]£Is‚bpw ImgvN∏ - mS-\p-kc - n®v A¿∞-߃ amdn-s°m-≠ncn-°pw. Cu kn\na kp¨ lzm bpsS Hcp ^m‚-kn-bm-sW∂v tXm∂nbn´p-≠v. Aß-s\-bm-sW-¶n¬ aq∂p `mjy-߃


km≤y-am-Wv. kn\na BZywapX¬ Ah-km\whsc Ah-fpsS k¶-ev]-am-Imw. As√-¶n¬ Ah≥ Ah-fpsS ho´n¬ BZyambn IS-∂p-h-∂-Xn-\p-ti-j-ap≈ `mK-߃. AXp-a-s√-¶n¬ s]meokv tÃj≥ kw`-h-Øn\ptij-ap≈ `mK-߃... Hmtcm t{]£-Is - ‚bpw Hmtcm hymJym-\hpw icnbm-bn-cn-°mw. Fs∂ kw_-‘n®nStØm-fw -AXv t{]£Is‚ ^m‚kn IqSn-bm-Wv. Hgn-™p-In-S-°p∂ hoSp-I-fn¬ Bsc-¶nepw D≠m-tb°pw F∂ tXm∂en¬ \n∂mWv B ^m‚kn D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. Cu kn\n-a Bcw-`n-°p-∂Xv Hcp kv{XobpsS inev]-Øns‚ tjm´n¬\n∂m-Wv. kp¨ lzm bpsS `¿Ømhv tKmƒ^v ]cnio-en-°p∂ DZym-\-Øn¬ Hcp knwl-Øns‚ {]Xn-a-bp-ap-≠v. ]n∂oSv `mcym-`¿Øm-°∑ - m¿ hoSns‚ kzoI-cW - a - p-dn-bn¬ Ccn°p-tºmƒ ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ Cu {]Xn-a-Iƒ ImWmw... R߃ jq´v sNbvX ho´n¬ B {]Xn-aI - ƒ D≠mbn-cp-∂p. {]tXy-In®v A¿∞-ß-sfm-∂p-an√? kXy-ambpw C√. B ho´nep≠m-bn-cp∂ ]eXpw Rm≥ kn\n-a-bn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´p-≠v. Hcp [\n-I-IpSpw-_-Øn-t‚-Xm-bn-cp∂p B hoSv. AhnsS am¿_nƒ {]Xn-aI - f - p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. s{^bn-ap-If - n¬ Ah \∂m-bncn-°p-sa∂pw hoSns‚ BUw-_cw h¿≤n-°p-sa∂pw

F\n°p tXm∂n. B kv{Xo{]Xna kp¨ lzbpsS-Xm-sW∂v BZyw hnNm-cn®p. AXv t{]£-I\p Xocp-am-\n-°mw. B {]Xn-abv°v \mbn-I-bpsS Omb-bp-≠m-Imw. Rm≥ shdpsX jq´v sNbvsX∂p am{Xw. Cu kn\n-ab - psS A¥yw hnNn-{X-amb Hcp kl-Po-h\ - Ø - ns‚ km≤y-X-bmWv ImWn-°p-∂-Xv. hnhm-l-sØbpw IpSpw-_sØ-bp-sams°∏‰n-bp≈ Xm¶-fpsS Imgv®-∏m-sS-¥mWv? ]c-kv]-c-kw-th-Z-\-Øn-\p≈ hen-sbmcp N´-°qSmWv IpSpw_w Hcp-°p-∂-Xv. IpSpw-_-Øns‚ ]cn-[n°p-≈n¬ Pohn-°p-I-sb-∂Xv a\p-jy≥ F∂ \nebv°p≈ BXy-¥n-I-amb ]co-£-bm-sW∂v F\n°p tXm∂p-∂p. Fß-s\-bmWv ]c-kv]cw s]cp-am-td-≠Xv, _‘-߃ Zo¿L-Imew \ne-\n¿-Øp-∂-sX-ß-s\bm-Wv, Hcp Ip™v ]nd-∂m¬ AXn-\p-ti-ja - p≈ amdnb Ah-ÿ-tbmSv Fß-s\-bmWv s]mcp-Ø-s∏-tS-≠-Xv... Hcp hyh-ÿb - p-ambn s]mcp-Øs - ∏´p t]mIm≥ \n߃ B{K- l n- ° p- ∂ pt≠m F∂ ]co- £ - W - a m- W Xv. hy‡nsb A]-\n¿Ωn-°m-\p≈ ]co-£-W-a-√. Cu kn\n-a-bpsS Ah-km\w Hcp ]pXnb XpS-°-sØ-bmWv ImWn-°p-∂-Xv. 93


Bbn- c n- ° mw. ]t£ CXv ip`- ] - c y- h - k m- b nbmtWm Zpc¥]cy-h-km-bn-bmtWm F∂v F\n°n t∏mgpadn-bn-√. `¿Øm-hns‚ `mK-Øp-\n∂v Nn¥n-®m¬ AXv \n¿`m-Ky-I-c-amb A¥y-am-Wv. Aß-s\-sbmcp A¥yw B{K-ln-®- t{]£-I-sc AXv kt¥m-jn-∏n-®n´pap-≠m-Imw. Ah-km\ ko\n¬ Hcp hntcm-[m-`m-kap-s≠-∂mWv F\n°p tXm∂p∂Xv. kXy-Øn¬ AØc-samchÿ kn\n-a-bn¬ am{Xta krjvSn-°m\pw Bhn-jvI-cn-°m\pw Ign-bq. AØcw ko\p-Iƒ h√t∏mgpw am{Xta k¶-ev]n-°m≥Xs∂ Ign-bq.

kn\n-a-bvs°m-Sp-hn¬ Fgp-Xn-°m-Wn-°p-∂p-≠t√m -"\-Ωƒ Pohn-°p∂ Cu temIw bYm¿∞am tWm kz]v\amtWm F∂p ]d-bm≥ hfsc {]bm-kam-Wv.' AXp-Xs - ∂-bmWpt±-in-®X - v. Pohn-XØ - n¬ kXytaXv \pW-tbXv F∂v IrXy-ambn ]d-bm≥ Ign-bp-∂n√. Ah-bv°n-S-bn¬ hy‡-amb AXn¿h-c-ºn√ F∂XmWv bmYm¿∞yw. Aß-s\-bmWv \ΩpsS PohnXw apt∂m´p t]mIp-∂-Xv. sNøp-∂ Hmtcm {]hr-Ønbpw icn-bmtWm sX‰mtWm F∂ Bi-b° - p-g∏ - Ø - n-emWv \Ωƒ.

CXnse Nne cwK-߃ Xm¶-fpsS Nne ap≥ kn\n-a-Isf Hm¿Ωn-∏n-°p-∂p. s{Im°-ssU¬ F∂ kn\n-a-bnse aen-\amb lm≥ \Zn, Zn sF¬, kv{]nMv kΩ¿ ^mƒ hn‚¿... F∂o Nn{X-ß-fnse Ptem-]-cn-X-e-Ønse hmk-ÿ-e-߃, kv{]nMv kΩ¿ ^mƒ hn‚-dnse ]uckvXykmwkvIm-cnI _nw_-߃, _mUv Kbv F∂ Nn{X-Øn¬ D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´p≈ kp¨ lzm F∂ t]cv. Cu kn\n-abv°v Xm¶-fpsS ap≥ Nn{X-ß-fp-am-bp≈ _‘-sa-¥mWv? Fs‚ Xs∂ kn\n-aI - f - m-bX - p-sIm-≠mWv AØcw kmay-ß-ƒ hcp∂-Xv. Fs‚ kwhn-[m-\-ssi-en-bpsS `mK-amWXv.

Z£n-W-sIm-dn-b-bn¬ kao-]-Im-eØp \S-°p∂ N¿®-I-fn¬ Db¿∂p-hc - p∂ Hcp tNmZyw, Inw In ZIv amdn-bn-´pt≠m F∂Xm-Wv. Xm¶-fpsS kn\n-a-IfpsS kz`mhw {ItaW amdp-∂Xmbn tXm∂n-bn-´pt≠m? AtXm Xm¶-sf-∏‰n \S-°p∂ N¿®Iƒ°mtWm am‰wh∂Xv? N¿® sNø-sems° \ncq-]-I-cp-sSbpw am≤y-a-{]h¿Ø-I-cp-sSbpw tPmen-bm-Wv. F√m-°m-cy-ß-sf-°pdn®pw A`n-{]mbw ]d-b-W-sa∂ hnNm-c-Øn¬\n∂p≠m-Ip-∂X - mWv AØcw N¿®-Iƒ. F¥m-bmepw AXh-cpsS tPmen-bpsS `mK-am-Wv. Rm≥ ]e \ncq-]-Wßfpw hmbn-®n-´n-√. ]t£ hna¿i-I¿ F¥p Nn¥n°p∂psh∂Xv {][m-\-am-Wv. F\n°v am‰w h∂n´pt≠m F∂v F\n-°p-Xs∂ Adn-bn-√. AX{X {][m-

{Xo Atb-WneqsS F¥mWv ]dbm-\p-t±-in-®Xv? 94


\-s∏´ Imcy-hp-a-√. Ne-®n{X\n¿ΩmWw F∂ {]{In-bsb Fß-s\-bmWv t\m°n°m-Wp-∂Xv? ]e KW-ßf - n¬s∏´ kn\n-aI - f - p-≠v. Fs‚ kn\na-Isf Aßs\ GsX¶nepsamcp KW-Øn¬ Dƒs∏Sp-Øm≥ ]‰n-√. BIvj≥ kn\n-a-b-√, satem-{Um-a-b√, F¥n\v B¿´v kn\na t]mep-a-√. Hcp hy‡n°v Hscm‰ apJw am{X-a√ D≠m-Ip-I. F\n-s°-t∏mgpw XmXv]cyw Htc a\p-jys‚ Xs∂ `n∂amb kz`m-hß-fn-em-Wv. D≈n-bpsS sXmen s]mfn-°p-∂Xp t]msesbmcp {]{In-bb - m-WX - v. Hmtcm AS-cp-If - mbn AS¿Ønb-S¿Øn B hy‡n-bpsS a\- ns‚ hyXy-kvX-amb taJ-e-Iƒ Is≠-Øp-I. AXmWv F\n°v kn\n-a. Fs‚ kn\na-I-fn¬ Akw-`-hy-am-b-sX-s¥-¶nepw ImWptºmƒ, icn-bm-Wv, Aß-s\bpw kw`-hn-°mat√m F∂v t{]£-I¿ Nn¥n-°p-sa∂v Rm≥ IcpXp-∂p.

z

95


Strength and a beautiful sound like in the tautness of a bow. I want to live like this until the day I die. -Kim Ki-duk, The Bow

Ing-h\pw ISepw I\y-Ibpw 96


t_m

Zn t_m

[-]q¿Δw krjvSn-°p∂ hnNn-{X-amb GIm-¥ÿ - en-If - n-te°v XpS-sc-Øp-Ssc k©-cn-°p∂ kwhn[m-bI - \ - mWv Inw In ZIv. kz¥w Xnc-°Y - I - f - n¬\n∂v kn\na krjvSn-°p∂ kwhn-[m-b-I¿ Aß-s\-bm-Wv. Ah¿°v Ft∏mgpw {]nb-s∏´ a\p-jycpw CS-ßfpw D≠m-bn-cn-°pw. Bh¿Ø-\-ßsf Ah¿ `b-s∏-Sp-∂n√. _nw_-I-ev]-\-Iƒ Bh¿Øn-°p-∂-Xn¬ Ah¿ B\-μn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Zn t_m (2005) Z°ns‚ Nne ap≥Nn{X-ßsf Hm¿Ωn-∏n°p- ∂ p- ≠ v . IS- e n¬ \¶q- c - a n- ´ p- I n- S - ° p∂ Hcp henb t_m´mWv semt°-j≥. Np‰pw ]c-∂p-In-S° - p∂ IS-epw. Adp]-Xp-Im-c-\mb t]cn-√mØ Hcp IYm-]m{Xw t]cn-√mØ Hcp kpμ-cn-s∏¨Ip-´ntbmsSm∏w AXn-\p-≈n¬ Xma-kn-°p-∂p≠v. \nb-a] - c - a - mbn {]mb-]q¿Øn-bm-Ip∂ Znhkw B s]¨ Ip-´nsb hnhmlw Ign-°m-\mWv hr≤s‚ ]≤-Xn. B Znhkw ASp-sØ-Øm≥ GXm\pw amk-߃am{Xta _m°n-bp-≈q. Ie-≠-dn¬ IS-∂p-t]m-Ip∂ Hmtcm Znh-khpw sh´nsh´n ImØn-cn-°p-I-bmWv hr≤≥. Ic-bn¬\ns∂Øp∂ Sqdn-Ãp-Iƒ°v BXn-Yy-a-cp-fnbmWv hr≤≥ D]-Po-h\w \S-Øp-∂X - v. sNdn-sbmcp t_m´n¬ Abmƒ Ahsc Ic-bn¬\n∂v sIm≠p-h-cpw. ao≥]nSpØhpw a‰p-ambn Sqdn-Ãp-Iƒ°v t_m´n¬ Ign-bmw. s]¨Ip´nbv ° pt\sc hgn- h n´p s]cp- a m- d p- ∂ - h sc in£n- ° m≥ hr≤s‚ Iøn¬ hn√pw Aºp-ap-≠v. kzbwc£n-°m≥ 97


Ahƒ°p-ad- n-bmw. hnNn-{X-am-sbmcp `mhn-{]-N\]cn-]m-Snbpw AXn-Yn-Iƒ°mbn Ah¿ ImgvNh - b - v°m-dp-≠v. t_m´n¬\n∂v IS-en-te°v RmØn-bn´ Du™men¬ s]¨Ip´n BSn-s°m≠n-cn-°p-tºmƒ hr≤≥ Ahsf D∂wh®v AºpIsføp-∂p. HscÆwt]mepw Du™m-em-Sn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂ Ahsf kv]¿in-°p-∂n√. ]n∂oShƒ Abm-fpsS ImXn¬ BXn-tYbs‚ `mhn ]d-bp-∂p. Abm-fXv BXn-tY-bs‚ ImXn¬ Bh¿Øn-°p-∂p. hr≤s‚ ssIøn-ep≈ hn√pw Aºpw tIhew Bbp[w am{X-a-√. cm{Xn-I-fn¬ B hn√ns‚ Rm¨ hb-en≥t]mse ao´n Abmƒ GIm-¥t- im-Ia - mb CuW-߃ hmbn-°pw. Ipg∏-°m-cmb kμ¿i-Isc \nebv°p\n¿Øm-\p≈ Bbp-[-hpam-W-Xv. G‰-hp-sam-Sp-hn¬ Aºv Abm-fpsSXs∂ Bflmhns‚ {]Xo-I-hp-am-Ip-∂p. sXm´papºv kwhn-[m\w sNbvX {Xo Atb¨ F∂ Nn{X-Ønse kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m-sc-t∏mse Chcpw H∂pw ]ckv]cw kwkm-cn-°p-∂Xv t{]£-I¿ tIƒ°p-∂n-√. Ah-cpsS -_‘sØ°p-dn®pw hnhm-l-]-≤-Xn-sb-°p-dn-®p-sa√mw Adn-bp-∂-Xv t_m´n¬ Xma-kn-°m-s\-Øp∂ Sqdn-Ãp-I-fpsS kw`m-j-W-ß-fn¬\n∂m-Wv. Aß-s\-bn-cns° kpμ-c-\mb Hcp hnZym¿∞n AXn-Ynbm-sb-Øp-∂p. s]¨Ip´n Ah-\n¬ A\p-c-‡-bm-Ip-∂tXmsS hr≤-\n¬ ssewKn-Im-kqb apf-s]m-´p-∂p. Abm-fpsS _e{]tbmK-߃s°m∂pw hg-ßmsX Ahƒ B sNdp-∏98

°m-c-s\m∏w sNdnb t_m´n¬ Ibdn Ic-bn-te°v t]mIp∂p. Ahƒ ssIhn-´p-t]m-Im-Xn-cn-°m≥ Bfl-]o--U-\-Øns‚ am¿§-amWv hr≤≥ tXSp-∂-Xv. Zn sF¬ F∂ Nn{XsØ Hm¿Ωn-∏n-°p∂p, B cwKw. Ah¿ c£-s∏-Sp∂ t_m´p-ambn _‘n-∏n® Hcp Ib¿ hr≤≥ kz¥w Igp-Øn¬ Ipcp-°p∂p. Xm≥ Ic-bn-te-°-Sp-°p-t¥mdpw hr≤s‚ Igp-Øn¬ Ipcp°p apdp-Ip-I-bm-sW-∂-dn-bp∂ s]¨Ip´n ]›m-Øm]-hn-h-i-bmbn Xncn-s®-Øp-∂p. sNdp-∏° - m-cs‚ km∂n-≤y-Øn¬ t_m´n¬h®v hr≤\pw s]¨Ip-´nbpw hnhm-ln-X-cm-Ip-∂p. ]n∂oSv Abmƒ Ah-fpambn sNdnb t_m´n¬ IS-en-te°v t]mIp-∂p. hnhm-lhkv{Xw Agn-®p-am-‰nbtijw hr≤≥ AhfpsS Ihn-fn¬ Npw_n-°p-∂p. Xo¿®-bmbpw AXv Zmlm¿Ø-\mb Hcp ImapIs‚ Npw_-\-a-√. Hcp c£n-Xm-hns‚ `mh-amWv Abmƒ°t∏mƒ. ]n∂o-Sb - mƒ t_m´n¬ Ah-fn¬\n∂-I∂ - n-cp∂v Xs‚ hn√v kwKo-tXm-]-I-c-W-am°n HcoWw hmbn-°p-∂p. AXptI´v Ahƒ ab-ßp-tºmƒ Abmƒ hn√n¬ Aºp-sXm-Sp°p-∂p. BZyw Ah-fpsS D]-ÿ-Øn-te°mWv e£yw hbv°p-∂-sX-¶nepw Abm-fXv BIm-i-Ønte°mWv sXmSpØp-hn-Sp-∂-Xv. ]n∂oSbmƒ IS-en-te°v Iq∏p-IpØn A{]Xy-£-\m-Ip-∂p. AZr-iy-\mb GtXm ]pcp-j-\p-ambn (AXv hr≤≥ Xs∂-bm-Imw) s]¨Ip´n cXn-bn-te¿s∏´psIm-≠ncnt° iq\y-X-bn¬\n∂v B Aºv ho≠p-saØn Ah-fpsS D]-ÿ-Øn-\-SpØv t_m´ns‚ Xdbn¬ Xpf™pIbdp∂p.


cXn-aq¿—-tbmsS s]¨Ip´n I\ym-ImXzw shSn-bp-∂p. sNdp∏-°m-c≥ kvX_v[-\mbn \n¬t°, ^njnMv t_m´v ]Xp-s°∏-Xps° IS-en¬Xmgv∂v A{]-Xy-£-am-Ip-∂p. I\y-Im-c‡w ]pc≠ DSp-∏p-ambn s]¨Ip-´nbpw Ah\pw Ic-bn-te°v bm{X-bm-Ip-∂p. Ing-h\pw ISepw I\y-Ibpw XΩn-ep≈ Cu Akm-[m-cW _‘-sØ-°p-dn®v Imhym-fl-Ihpw Zm¿i-\n-Ihp-amb F{X hymJym-\-߃thW-sa-¶nepw Na-bv°m-\p≈ km≤y-X-I-fmWv Inw In ZIv _m°nhbv°p-∂-Xv. a\p-jysc Aam-\p-jn-I-cm-°p-∂ {]tabw ]Sn-]-Sn-bmbn ]co-£n®p hnP-bn-∏n-°p-I-bmWv kwhn-[m-b-I≥. BZy-Nn-{Xamb s{Im°-ssU-ense \mb-I≥ \Zn-bv°-Sn-bn¬ Hcp PeKrlw Xo¿Øv AXn-\p-≈n-en-cn-°m-dp-≠v. Zn sF¬ F∂ Nn{XØn¬ XSm-I-Øn¬ Xma-kn°p∂ c£-Ibpw kwlm-c-I-bpamb Hcp kpμ-cn-bp-≠v. kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚¿ a\pjys\ {]Ir-Xn-bp-ambn tN¿Øp-sh®v ssZh-Xp-ey-\m-°p-∂p. {Xo Atb¨ {]Xy-£-\m-bn-cn-s°-Øs∂ AZriy\mIp∂ Hcp-h-s\-°p-dn-®m-Wv. AXns‚ XpS¿®-bmWv Zn t_m F∂ Nn{X-hpw. Ime-tZ-i-߃°-Xo-X-ambn Nne A\ym-]-tZ-i-IY-Iƒ ]d-bm-\mWv Cu kn\n-a-I-fn-e-{Xbpw Inw In ZIv {ian°p- ∂ - X v . imkv { Xhpw bp‡n- t _m- [ hpw \ne- \ n¬°ptºmƒØs∂ AXn- \ p- a - ∏ p- d - a p≈ a\-   ns‚ k©m- c ߃s°m∏w Cu a\p-jy≥ \S-∂p-t]m-Ip∂p.

z 99


I must get my soul back from you; I am killing my flesh without it. - Sylvia Plath

Ime-Øn\p aptº \S-°p∂ kn\na

100


ssSw

A

km-[m-c-W-amsbmcp kzXz{]Xn-k-‘n-bpsS IY]d-bp∂ ssSw F∂ Nn{Xhp-am-bmWv sXm´-SpØ h¿jw (2006) Inw In ZIv Xs‚ Bcm-[-Isc A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®-Xv. Hcp πmÃnIv k¿PdnbpsS hni-Zmw-i-߃ ImWn®p sIm≠mWv Nn{XwXpSßp∂-Xv. Ir{Xn-ak - u-μc - y-Øns‚ {]XoI-amWv πmÃnIv k¿P-dn-sb-¶nepw kn\n-ab - psS {]tabØn\v kuμ-cy-t{]-a-hp-ambn _‘-sam-∂p-an-√. sk -lo F∂ Akq-bm-ep-hmsbmcp Imap-In-bmWv \mbn-I. hfsc h¿j-ß-fmbn XpS-cp∂ {]W-b-_-‘-Øn¬ Xr]vX-\mWv Ah-fpsS Imap-I≥ Pnhq. ]t£ Ahs‚ ZrjvSn at‰-sX-¶nepw s]Æn-\p-ta¬ shdp-tX-sbm-∂p-S° - n-t∏mbm¬ Ah-fpsS ka-\nesX‰p-I-bm-bn. \ne-hmcwIpd™ 101


NoØhnfn-I-fp-ambn Ahƒ cwKwhj-fm-°p-Ibpw Pnhqhns\ A]-am-\n-°p-IbpwsNøpw. h¿j-ß-fmbn ImWp∂ Xs‚ apJhpw ico-chpw Ah\p aSp-Øn-´p-≠m-Ip-sa-∂mWv Ah-fpsS sX‰n-≤m-c-W. Hcpcm{Xn InS-∏-d-bn¬h®v Ahfm sX‰n-≤m-cW Du´n-bp-d-∏n-®p. ]nt‰∂v Ahs‚ Pohn-X-Øn¬ \n∂v Ahƒ A{]-Xy-£-bm-bn. ]n∂o-SmWv πmÃnIv k¿P-dn-bp-ambn Cu Nn{X-Øn-\p≈ _‘w shfn-hm-Ip-∂-Xv. sklo°v Bhiyw Xs‚ apJw am‰p-I-bm-Wv. πmÃnIv k¿P-dn-bmWv GI-am¿§w. Ct∏mƒ 102

Øs∂ kpμ-c-amb Cu apJw IqSp-X¬ kpμ-c-am-°m≥ Ignbn-s√∂v k¿P≥ ]d-bp-tºmƒ Ah-fmhiy-s∏-Sp-∂Xv IqSpX¬ kuμ-cy-a-√, ka-{K-amsbmcp am‰wam{X-am-Wv. ikv{X{In-b-°p-ti-j-ap≈ thZ\\nd™ Bdp-am-k-ß-fn-eqsS Ahƒ IS∂pt]mIp-tºmƒ Imap-I≥ hyYn-X-\mbn Ae ™p\- S - ∂ p. Hcpcm{Xn- b n¬ aZy- ] m\ ]m¿´n- ° p- t ijw tlm´¬ap-dn-bn¬ as‰mcp s]¨Ip-´n-s°m∏w Abmƒ InS° ]¶n-Sm-s\m-cp-ßp-tºmƒ P\m-e-®n√v Btcm Is√-dn™p XI¿Øp. k¿P-dn-°p-tijw apJwam‰n Xncn-s®-Ønb sklo


Bbn-cn-°Ww B Is√-dn-™-Xv. Acp-Xm-ØXp sNøp∂ h¿s°-Xnsc Inw In Z°ns‚ ]e IYm-]m-{X-ßfpw Cßs\ It√dp\S-Øm-dp-≠v. GXm-bmepw apJwam‰nb ImapIn ImapI-t\m-S-Sp-°p-∂p. Zzμzhy‡n-Xzhpw kwi-b-tcm-K-hp-ap≈ Ahƒ At∏mgpw Abmsf ]co- £ n- ® p- s Im- ≠ n- c p- ∂ p. BZysØ cXn°ptijw Abmƒ Ah-tfmSv ]q¿Δ-Im-apInsb ad-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂n-s√∂v shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. At∏mƒ Ahƒ Nn¥n-°p-∂Xv Abm-fpsS amwk-Zm-l-sØ-°p-dn-®mWv. ]ns∂ Ahƒ Abmsf Ah-K-Wn-°m≥ XpS-ßn. HSphn¬ kXyw a\- n-em-°p-tºmƒ Imap-I≥ kam-\-amb as‰mcp {]Xn-Im-cØ - n-s\m-cp-ßp-∂p. Abmfpw A{]-Xy-£\ - mIp-∂p. πmÃnIv k¿P-dn-bn-eqsS apJwam‰n Ahsf ]co-£n®p thZ-\n-∏n-°m≥th≠nam{Xw. C°mcyw Xncn-®-dn-bp-tºmƒ BZysØ apJw Xncn-s®-Sp-°msX \nhrØn-bn-s√∂ Ahÿ-bn-embn ImapIn. HSp-hn¬ apJw\jvS-s∏´ P\-°q-´-Ønse Xncn-®-dn-b-s∏SmØ c≠p ico-c-ß-fmbn Ccp-hcpw HgpIn\oßp-∂p. Akw-_-‘-sa∂v tXm∂n-∏n-°p∂ Hcp kzXz-Zpx-J-amWv ChnsS Bhn-jvI-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. bp‡n-bpsS am\-Z-WvUß-fp-]t- bm-Kn®v Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-aI - sf Af-°m≥ Ignbn-√. AXp-sIm-≠m-IWw At±-lØ - ns‚ Bcm-[I - scam{Xw Xr]vXn-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ Hcp Nn{X-ambn ssSw ]cn-W-an-®-Xv. Akw-_-‘-sa∂v km[m-cWt{]£-I¿°p tXm∂m-sa¶nepw kzXz{]Xn-k‘nsb∂ B[p-\nIImeka-kysb `mh-

\m-]q¿Æ-ambn Ah-X-cn-∏n-°m≥ kwhn-[m-b-I\p Ign-™n´p-≠v. Hcp {Xn√-dns‚ ssien-bn-emWv Cu kn\na apt∂m´p t]mIp-∂-Xv. Imap-Is‚ Pohn-X-Øn¬\n∂v s]s´-s∂mcp Znhkw A{]-Xy-£-bmbn as‰mcpcq]-Øn¬ ho≠pw {]Xy£-s∏-Sp∂ sk lnbpsS a\- n¬ Abm-tfm-Sp≈ {]Xn-Imc Nn¥am{X-a√ D≈-Xv. AhfpsS Zzμzhy‡n-Xz-amWv k¶o¿Æamb {]iv\ß - ƒ krjvSn-°p-∂X - v. Hc¿∞-Øn¬ Imap-It- \mSp≈ Xo£vW-amb kvt\l-Øn¬\n∂mWv sk lnbpsS {]iv\-߃ XpS-ßp-∂-Xv. Abmsf Bsc¶nepw X´n-sb-Sp°ptam F∂p `b-°p-∂, kz¥w kuμ-cy-Øn¬ th≠{X hnizm-k-an-√mØ Hcp kv{XobpsS a\- n-eq-sS-bmWv ZIv IS∂p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv. XnI®pw \mK-cn-I-amb ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ At±lw kwhn-[m\wsNbvX A]q¿ΔwNn{X-ßf - nsem∂m-WnXv. a\p-jy¿ GXp \nan-jhpw ]c-kv]cw \jvS-s∏-Sm-\n-Sbp≈, hnh-c-km-t¶-XnIhnZybpw imkv{X-km-t¶-XnIhn Zybpw btYjvSw e`y-amb hen-sbmcp \K-cØ - n¬ CXp kw`hn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. F{X s]s´-∂mWv Hcp bph-Xn°v h¿jß-fmbn XpS-cp∂ _‘-Øn¬\n∂v A{]-Xy-£bmIm≥ Ignbp-∂X - v. temI-hp-ambn tN¿Øp\n¿Øp∂ am\p-jn-Ihpw ({]W-bw) kmt¶-Xn-I-hp-amb (sam-ss_¬ t^m¨, C‚¿s\‰v) _‘-߃ sRmSn-bn-S-bn¬ apdn-®p-am-‰n AtX \K-cØn¬Øs∂ Ahƒ°p Xma-kn-°mw. a\p-jy≥ ssIh-cn® imkv{Xobt\´-ßsf ]q¿Æ-ambpw hniz-kn®psIm≠v _‘103


104


ß-sf sh´n-ap-dn-°p-Ibpw Iq´n-t®¿°p-Ibpw sNøp-tºmƒ A{]-Xo-£n-X-amb Xncn-®-Sn-Itf¬°p-sa∂ ktμ-ihpw Cu Nn{X-Øn-ep-≠v. Imew _‘-ß-fn¬ hcp-Øp∂ am‰-ß-sf-°p-dn®pIqSnbmWv Cu kn\n-a. Zo¿L-Imew c≠phy‡n-Iƒ ImWm-Xncp-∂m¬ Ah¿°n-Sb - n¬ \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ _‘-Øns‚ DujvafX \jvSs∏Sptam F∂ tNmZyw ChnsS D∂-bn-°s∏Sp-∂p≠v. cq]wXs∂ amdn Xncn-®-dn-bm≥Ign-bmØ Ah-ÿ-bn-emsW-¶n¬ B _‘-Øns‚ Ahÿ F¥m-bn-cn°pw? AØc-samcp {]Xn-k-‘n-bmWv Cu kn\n-a-bnse Imap-Io-Im-apI∑m¿ A`n-ap-Jo-Ic - n-°p-∂X - v. kzbw A\y-hX - vIc - n-°p∂ `bm\-I-amb Ah-ÿ. Ime-Øn\p aptº\S∂ Hcp kn\n-a-bmWv ssSw. Hcp ]t£ hcpwIme-ß-fn¬ Cu kn\na IqSp-X¬ N¿®sNøs∏-t´-°mw. AXm-Wt√m, aptº \S-°p∂ kn\n-aI - f - psS Xehn-[n.

z

105


Xq°p-a-c-Ø-W-en¬ Hcp {]W-b-IY

{Inbm-fl-IX Hcp ]qhns‚ P∑wt]mse £Wn-I-am-Wv. ˛Inw In ZIv

106


A

s{_Xv

]-I-S-I-c-amb Hcp {]W-b-Øn¬ kzbw AIs∏-Sp∂ hnhm-ln-Xbpw Hcp s]¨Ip-´n-bpsS AΩ-bp-amb bph-Xn-bmWv s{_Xv F∂ Nn{X-Ønse \mbnI. t]cv tbm¨. Ahsfmcp inev]nIqSnbm-Wv. aIsf AI-a-gn™p kvt\ln-°p-∂p-s≠-¶nepw `¿Øm-hp-ambn Ah¿ A{X kzct®¿®-bn-e-√. Abmƒ°v Hcp hnhm-tl-X-c-_-‘-ap-s≠∂v Is≠-ØpIIqSn sNøp-tºmƒ Ahfn¬ {]Xn-Imc_p≤n-bpZn-°p-∂p. Pn≥ F∂ Ip{]-kn-≤- Ip-‰-hmfn Pbn-en¬ Bfl-lXy bv°p {ian-®p-sh∂ hm¿Ø Ahƒ sSen-hn-j-\n¬ ImWp∂p. `mcy-sbbpw a°-sfbpw sIme-s∏-Sp-Øn-bX - n\v h[-in£ ImØp-I-gn-bp∂bmfmWv Pn≥. ]t£, AdÃp sNø-s∏Sptºmƒ sIm√-s∏´ IpSpw-_mw-K-߃s°m∏w Dd-ßn-°n-S°p-Ib - m-bn-cp∂p Abmƒ. sIme-bv°p-≈ ImcWw CXp-hsc hy‡-hpa-√. ]eXhW Abmƒ Poh-s\m-Sp-°m≥ {ian-®n-´p-≠v. IgpØn¬ apdn-th-ev]n®v Bfl-lX - ybv°p {ian-®X - p-sIm-≠mbn-cn°mw Abmƒ H∂pw kwkm-cn-°p-∂n-√. Inw In ZIv krjvSn® as‰mcp aqI-I-Ym-]m-{XamWv Pn≥. Pn∂ns\ Pbn-en¬s®∂p ImWm≥ tbm¨ Xocp-am-\n107


°p-∂p. h[-in£ ImØpIgn-bp∂ XS-hp-Im-cs\ kμ¿in°m-\m-In-s√∂v Imh¬°m-c≥ ]d-bp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw t¢mkv k¿Iyq´v Sn hn bneqsS F√mwImWp-∂, t{]£-I¿°v AZriy-\mb, Pbne[n-Imcn B kμ¿i\w A\p-h-Zn-°p-∂p. Hcp _‘- h p- a n- √ mØ c≠phy‡n- I - f mWv Pn∂pw tbmWpw. F∂n´pw Ah¿ XΩn¬ sshIm-cn-I-ambn ASp°p-∂p. Ip´n-°m-eØv Hcp Xam-ibv°v sh≈-Øn-\-Sn-bn¬ izmkw]nSn-®p-In-S∂ - t- ∏mƒ ac-WsØ apJm-apJwI≠ A\p`hw tbm¨ Abm-tfmSv hnh-cn-°p-∂p. Hcn-°epw Poh-s\mSp-°m≥ {ian-°-cp-sX∂v At]-£n®psIm≠v Ahƒ t]mIp∂p. ho≠pw kμ¿i-\-߃ \S-°p-∂p. EXp-t`-Z-ßsf ASbm-f-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ thmƒt]∏-dp-IƒsIm≠v kμ¿i\ apdn Ae-¶-cn®pw Hmtcm Ime-Øn\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb ]m´p-Iƒ Itcm-s°-bn¬ ]mSnbpw Ahƒ Abm-fp-ambn ASp-°p-∂p. HmtcmXh-Wbpw Ah¿ sshIm-cn-I-ambn am{X-a√ imco-cnI-ambpw ASp-°p-∂p. Ahsc Npw_n-°m≥t]mepw A\p-hZn-°p∂bmfmWv Pbne[n-Im-cn. kwi-bm-ep-hmbn Pbn¬ kμ¿in-°p∂ `¿Ømhpw Ah-cpsS Npw_\w kn kn Sn hn bneqsS ImWp-∂p-≠v. XS-h-d-bn¬ Pn∂ns\ ]oUn-∏n-°p∂ kl-X-S-hp-Im-cps≠-¶nepw Ah-cn-sem-cp-h\v Abm-fp-ambn GI-]£ - o-ba - mb kzh¿§m-\p-cm-K-ap-≠v. h[-in£ \S-∏m-t°-≠-Xns‚ Xte∂v ho≠pw Abmƒ Bfl-l-Xybv°p {ian-®p. AXp-sIm≠v h[-in£ \S-∏m108


°p∂ XobXn Hcp Znh-k-tØ°v \o´n. Cu hm¿Ø sSenhn-j-\n¬\n∂-dn™ tbm¨ ho≠pw Abmsf kμ¿in-°ms\m-cp-ßp-∂p. `mcy-bp-≠m-°p∂ A]-am\w Hcp ZnhkwIqSn am{Xw kln-®m¬ aXn-bt√m Ft∂m¿ØmImw `¿Ømhv aItfm-sSm∏w Ahsf A\p-Ka - n-°p-∂p. `¿Ømhpw aIfpw Pbnen\p ]pdØv a™pI-´-IƒsIm≠v ]c-kv]cw Fdn-™p-Ifn-°p-tºmƒ Ahƒ Pn∂p-ambn cXn-bn-te¿s∏-Sp-∂p. ssIIfn¬ hne-ß-Wn-™, \msf Xq°n-te-td≠ sIme-∏p-≈n-bpam-bp≈ CW-tN-c¬. ]n∂oSv apdn™ Np≠p-If - p-ambn ]p©ncn®psIm≠p ]pd-Øn-dßn Ahƒ `¿Øm-hn\pw aIƒ°psam∏w tNcp-∂p. Hcp]t£ Inw In Z°n-s\-t∏mse A]q¿Δw Nne kwhn[m-b-I¿ am{Xta CØcw cwK-߃ Nn{Xo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠m-Iq. {Iu®nMv ssSK¿ lnU≥ {UmK¨ t]mse-bp≈ hº≥ kn\n-a-Ifn¬ thj-an-´ NmMv sN≥ \mb-I-th-j-Øn¬ h∂n´pw ]m¿Iv Pn B F∂ \Sn-bpsS DPz-e-amb {]I-S-\-ap≠m-bn´pw Nn{Xw th≠{X kzoI-cn-°-s∏-´n-√. Hcp-]t£ t{]£-Ic - psSbpw \ncq-]I - c - p-sSbpw bp‡n-t_m-[sØ kwhn[m-b-I≥ \nc-¥cw sh√p-hn-fn-°p∂XpsIm-≠m-Imw.

z 109


Idp∏pw shfp∏pw Htc \ndwXs∂-bmWv ˛Inw In ZIv

Nn{X-i-e-`-ß-fmbn ]p\¿÷-\n-°p∂ kz]v\-߃ 110


""H

{Uow

cp Nn{X-ie - `- a - mbn amdn-sb∂v Rms\m-cn-°¬ kz]v\w I≠p. Ct∏mƒ Rm≥ DW¿∂n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Rm≥ BcmWv? Nn{X-i-e-`-ambn amdn-sb∂v kz]v\w I≠ Hcp a\p-jyt-\m? AtXm a\p-jy-\mbn amdnsb∂v kz]v\wI≠ Nn{X-i-e-`t-am?'' kz]v\-ß-sf-°p-dn®v ssN\okv XXz-Nn-¥-I≥ jzmMvkn Fgp-Xnb Cu hm°p-Iƒ Xo¿®-bmbpw Inw In Z°v hmbn®n-´p-≠m-I-Ww. kz]v\-߃°pw bmYm¿∞y-Øn-\p-an-Sbv °p≈ AXn¿h-cºv C√m-Xm-Ip∂-Xn-s\-°p-dn-®mWv jzmMvkn ]d-bp-∂-Xv. bmYm¿∞ysa∂v \mw [cn-®p-h-®n-cn-°p∂ Pohn Xwt]mepw Hcp kz]v\-am-bn-°q-sS-∂n-√. Z°v Xs‚ ]Xn-\©m-asØ kn\n-ab - mb {Uow cq]-I¬]\sNbvXX - v Cu {]tabsØ ASn-ÿm-\a - m-°n-bmWv. F¥mWv bmYm¿∞ysa∂pw 111


F¥mWv kz]v\sa∂pap≈ tNmZy-Øns‚ hni-I-e-\-amWv Cu Nn{Xw. XnI®pw k¿dn-bemb Ne-®n-{X-ssi-en-bmWv Z°v Cu kn\n-a-bn¬ ]co-£n-°p-∂Xv. Iem-Im-c-\mb Pn≥ F∂ bphmhv Hcp kz]v\wI≠v sR´n-bp-W-cp-∂p. Xm≥ HmSn-®n-cp∂ Im¿ as‰mcp Imdns\ CSn®psXdn-∏n®psh∂pw A]-I-S-Øn¬s∏´ Imdn-s\bpw AXnse bm{X-°m-cs - \bpw hgn-bnept]-£n®v IS-∂p-If - ™p sh∂p-ambncp∂p kz]v\w. hfsc sXfn®ap≈ kz]v\-am-bncp∂p AXv . sR´n- b p- W ¿∂ Pn≥ kz]v \ - Ø n¬°≠ ÿeØv sN√p-tºmƒ AhnsS AØ-c-Øn-ep≈ Hc]-ISw \Ss∂∂p a\- n-em-bn. kz]v\-Øn¬ I≠-Xp-t]mse Hcp ln‰v B≥Uv d¨ kw`-hw. tdmU-cn-Inse k¿ho-en-b≥kv Iyma-d-I-fn¬\n∂v A]-I-S-Øn\p Imc-W-amb Imdn-s\bpw AtXm-Sn-®n-cp∂ bph-Xn-sbbpw s]meokv Is≠-Øp-∂p. dm≥ F∂mWv Ah-fpsS t]cv. s]meo-kn-s\bpw {]Xn-sbbpw ]n¥p-S¿∂v tÃj-\n-se-Øp∂ Pn≥ Ip‰w Gs‰-Sp-°m≥ Xømdm-Ip-∂p. Xm≥I≠ kz]v\w {]mh¿Øn-Ia - m-°pIam{X-amWv dm≥ sNbvX-sX∂pw bYm¿∞Ip‰-hmfn Xm\m-sW-∂p-ap≈ Pn∂ns‚ hmZw s]meo-kp-Im¿ hne-bvs°-Sp-Øn-√. Hcmƒ kz]v\w ImWp∂p; as‰m-cmƒ AXp {]mh¿ØnI-am-°p-∂p. Pn∂n\pw dm\n\pw CS-bn¬ hnNn-{X-amb Ft¥m kw`-hn-°p-I-bm-Wv. Hcmƒ kz]v\-Z¿inbpw as‰m-cmƒ kz]v \m-S-I-bp-am-Wv. ]c-kv]-c-]q-c-I-ß-fmb hy‡n-Xz-ß-fmWv Pn∂pw dm\psa∂v Ahsc ]cn-tim-[n-°p∂ a\xim-kv{X⁄ 112

A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. Idp∏pw shfp∏pw H∂pXs∂-bm-sW∂mWv Ah¿ ]d-bp-∂-Xv. kn\n-a-bnepS-\ofw Pn≥ IdpØ hkv{X-ß-fnepw dm≥ shfpØ hkv{X-ß-fn-ep-amWv {]Xy£-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. kz]v\-Øn-s‚bpw bmYm¿∞y-Øn-s‚bpw {]Xo-I-ß-fm-bn-´m-bn-cn-°Ww kwhn-[m-b-I≥ Cu IYm-]m{X-ßsf Ah-X-cn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv. kz]v\hpw kz]v\m-S-\hpw \ne-\n¬]n-s\-Øs∂ A]-I-S-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ henb {]iv\-ßfmbn amdp-∂-tXmsS taen¬ kz]v\-߃ ImWm-Xn-cn-°m\mWv Pn∂pw dm\pw {ian-°p-∂-Xv. Dd-ßm-Xn-cn-°p-I-bmWv GI t]mwh-gn. F{X {ian-®n´pw Dd-ßn-t∏m-Ip-tºmƒ Pn≥ ho≠pw kz]v\wImWp-Ibpw dm≥ AXv {]mh¿Øn-I-am-°pIbpw sNøp-∂p. HSp-hn-eXv dm≥ shdp-°p∂ ap≥Im-ap-Is‚ sIme-]m-X-I-Øneh-km-\n-°p-∂p. dm≥ sIme-°p-‰-Øn\v Pbn-en-e-S-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw Ahn-sS-h®v Xqßn-a-cn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Dd-°sØ XS-™p-\n¿Øm\pw A]-I-S-I-c-amb kz]v\ß - ƒ ImWm-Xn-cn-°m-\p-ambn \S-Øp∂ kzbw]oU\ ]c-º-c-Iƒs°m-Sp-hn¬ Pn≥ Hcp ]me-Øn\p apI-fn¬\n∂v a™nepd-™p-In-S-°p∂ \Zn-bn-te°v NmSn acn-°p-∂p. dm\ns‚ `uXn-I-i-cocw A{]-Xy-£-am-Ip-Ibpw ]Icw Hcp Nn{X-i-e`w {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. \Zn-bpsS lna-iø-bn¬ acn-®p-In-S° - p∂ Pn∂n-\c - n-In-te°v B ie`w ]d∂p sN√p-∂p. Nn{X-i-e`w kzmX-{¥y-Øns‚ {]Xo-I-am-sW-¶n¬ ChnsS-bXv dm\ns‚ ap‡-amb Bflm-hmsW∂p ]d-bmw. ]e


]cn-Wm-a-Z-i-I-fn-eqsS IS∂phcp-∂XpsIm≠v Nn{X-i-e`w cq]m-¥c - W - Ø - n-s‚bpw ]p\-ch - X - m-cØ - n-s‚-bp-sams° {]XoI-am-Wv. Inw In Z°v D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´p≈ G‰hpw lrZy-amb Ne-®n{X{]XoIw Cu Nn{X-i-e-`-am-Wv. sImdn-b° - m-c\ - √ - msØmcp \S-s\-bmWv Pn≥ F∂ sNdp∏-°m-cs\ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°m≥ Z°v sXc-s™-Sp-ØXv ˛ Pm∏\okv \S≥ tPm HZm-Kn-cn-sb. kn\n-a-bn-ep-S-\ofw Pn≥ Pm∏\okv `mj-bn-emWv kwkm-cn-°p-∂X - v. a‰p≈ IYm-]m-{X-߃ AbmtfmSv kwkm-cn-°p-∂-XmIs´ sImdn-b≥ `mj-bn-epw. Cusbm-scm‰ kao-]-\-Øn-eq-sS bmYm¿∞yhpw kz]v\hpw XΩn-ep≈ AXn¿Øn-tcJ kwhn-[m-bI - ≥ ambv®p-If - b - p-∂p. bmYm¿∞y-Øns‚ N´-°q-Sp-Iƒ°p-≈n¬\n∂psIm≠v cNn°-s∏´ Ne-®n-{X-kr-jvSn-b-√, {Uow. AXns‚ BJym\w \S°p-∂Xv Hcp kz]v\-Øns‚ temI-Øn-em-Wv. Hcp \nb-a߃°pw hg-ßmØ kz]v\-Øns‚ `mj-bmWv AXv ]n¥pS-cp-∂X - v. AXn-cp-If - n-√mØ `mh-\b - psS `mjbm-WX - v. "Rm≥ acn-®m¬ Fs‚ kz]v\ß - fpw C√m-Xm-bn-t°mfpw' F∂v Pn≥ BizmkwsIm≈p-∂p-≠v. ]t£, kz]v\-߃°v ac-W-an-√t√m. Hmtcm kz]v\hpw Hmtcm Hm¿Ω-bm-Wv. Hm¿Ω-Iƒ°v ac-W-an-√. Ah Nn{X-i-e-`-ß-fmbn ]p\¿÷-\n®psImt≠bn-cn-°pw.

z 113


kzXz-{]-Xn-k-‘n-bpsS aq∂p h¿j-߃ A]- I ¿jXm- t _m- [ - Ø n¬\n∂mWv Fs‚ kn\n-aI - ƒ ]nd-hn-sb-Sp-°p∂-Xv. ˛Inw In Z°v

114


Bcn-cmw-Kv

2

008-˛¬ ]pd-Øp-h∂ {Uow F∂ Nn{X-Øn\p tijap≈ aq∂ph¿jw Hcp kn\nat]mepw Inw In Z°v kwhn[m\w sNbvXn-√. At±-lØ - ns‚ hy‡n-Po-hn-Xs - Ø-bpw IemPo-hn-X-sØbpw ]nSn-®p-e® Nne kw`-h-߃ Cu kn\n-abpsS Nn{Xo-Ic - W - Ø - n-\n-sS-bp-≠m-bn. {Uoanse \mbn-Ib - mbn A`n-\-bn® eo \m bqMv ss¢am-Ivknse Xqßn-a-cWcwKw Nn{Xo-Ic - n-°p-∂X - n-\nsS hen-sbm-c] - I - S- Ø - n¬s∏-´p. bYm¿∞Øn¬ Ah¿ Ipcp°v Igp-Øn¬ apdpIn acn-®p-t]m-tI-≠Xm-bn-cp-∂p. Fs¥-¶nepw A]-ISw kw`-hn-®mtem F∂p IcpXn kq£n-®n-cp∂ sNdn-sbmcp tImWn D≠m-bn-cp-∂-XpsIm-≠mWv Zpc¥w Hgn-hm-b-Xv. kwhn-[m-b-I≥ s]s´∂v tImWn-bn¬ NmSn-°-bdn Ipcp°v Agn-s®-Sp-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. Cu kw`hw Pohn-X-sØbpw ac-W-sØbpw Ipdn-®p≈ Nne AKm-[-amb Nn¥-I-fn-te°v At±-lsØ \bn-®p. kn\nabp-ambn am{X-a-√, ]pdwtemI-hp-ambnØs∂ Hcp _‘hpw ]pe¿ØmsX GXm≠v hnP-\a - msbmcp {]tZ-iØv henb kuI-cy-ß-sfm-∂p-an-√mØ Hcp sNdnb ho´n¬ 115


At±lw H‰bv°p Xma-kn-®p. Bflm-t\z-j-W-Øns‚bpw kzXz-{]-Xn-k-‘n-bp-sSbpw thZ-\-bn¬ IS-∂p-t]mb aq∂p h¿j-߃. kvt^mS-\m-flI - a - mb hnj-bß - fpw {`am-flI - a - mb Ah-Xc - W - s - si-enbpwsIm≠v A¥m-cmjv{S kn\n-ab - n¬ kPoh-ambn\n∂ Inw In Z°v "ssdt‰gvkv tªm°v' F∂ am\knI{]Xn-k‘nbn¬ AI-s∏-´p. B Ime-L-´sØ kXy-k‘-ambn ]I¿Øm≥{ian-°p∂ Bfl-`m-j-W-kz-`m-h-ap≈ kn\nabmWv 2011 ¬ Inw In Z°v ]pd-Øn-d-°nb Bcn-cmw-Kv. ^o®¿ kn\nsbt∂m tUmIyp-sa‚dnsbt∂m tUmIyp ^nIvjs\t∂m AXns\ hnfn-°m-\m-In-√. Inw In Z°v Xs∂bmWv Nn{X-Øn-ep-S-\ofw {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp∂ Htc-sbmcp a\pjy -I-Ym-]m-{Xw. Aev]w Ir{Xn-a-Xz-ap≈ Hcp kzbw hna¿i\-amWv Inw In ZIv Cu kn\n-a-bn¬ \S-Øp-∂Xv. Iyma-dsb t\m°n At±lw "sdUn' F∂pw "BIvj≥' F∂pw ]d-bp∂p. ]ns∂ kwkm-cn®p XpS-ßp-∂p. ""{Uow F∂ kn\na bYm¿∞-Øn¬ Hcp kz]v\w t]mse-Ø-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p,'' Z°v ]d-bp-∂p. ""AXn-\-SpØ kn\na ac-W-sØ-°p-dn-®m-bn-cn-°Wsa∂v Rm≥ Xocp-am-\n®n-cp-∂p. ]t£, B A]-ISw Ign-™-tXmsS ac-W-Øns‚ A¿∞wXs∂ amdn-t∏mbn.'' ac-W-sa-∂Xv \nKq-V-X-Iƒ \nd™ as‰mcp Pohn-X-Øn-te-°p≈ ]Sn-hm-Xn-em-sW∂ ImgvN-∏mSv ZIv BZy-kn-\n-a-bmb s{Imt°m-ssU-¬ apX¬ Xs∂ ]n¥p-S-cp-∂p-≠v. Akm-[m-c-W-amsbmcp Pe-k-am-[nbn- e m- W t√m B kn\na Ah- k m- \ n- ° p- ∂ - X v . ""Idp∏pw 116


shfp∏pw Htc \ndw Xs∂'', - Z°v ]d-bp-∂p. ""CXmWv Fs‚ kn\n-a-I-fpsS ASn-ÿm\kn≤m-¥w.'' ssdt‰gvkv tªm°ns\-°p-dn-®p≈ G‰hpw {][m-\-s∏´ kn\n- a - I - f n- s em∂v s^U- d nt°m s^eo- \ n- b psS Fbv ‰ v B≥Uv F lm^v BWv. {Inbm-flIPohnXØns‚ a≤y-hb- n-¬ A\p-`h - n® {]Xn-k‘ - nsb°pdn®p ]d-bm≥ s^eo\n D]-tbm-Kn-®Xv Xs‚ CjvSX - m-chpw kn\n-ab - nse _Z¬ kzXzhp-amb amgvÃtem amgvkv{Sn-tbm-Wn-sb-bm-sW¶n¬ Bcn-cmwKn¬ kwhn-[m-b-I≥Xs∂ Iyma-dbv°p ap∂n¬h∂v Xs‚ hy‡n-Po-hn-Xs - Øbpw Iem-Po-hn-Xs - Øbpw hen®pIodp-∂p. CSbv°v At±lw hnjm-Z-tcm-Knbpw Nn¥m-[o-\-\p-am-Ip-∂p. Nnet∏mƒ s]m´n-sØ-dn-°p-∂p. Ak-`y-]Z- ß - ƒ D]-tbm-Kn®v F√m-h-scbpw iIm-cn-°p-∂p, `oj-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. Nnet∏mƒ Ic-bp-∂p. Bcn-cmwKv F∂ ]¿Δ-X-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ sImdn-b≥ \mS≥]m´v Xs‚ Cº-an-√mØ i_vZ-Øn¬ ]mSp∂p. ]mNIw Dƒs∏sS F√m Imcy-ßfpw kzbw \n¿Δ-ln®v , ]pkv X Iw hmbn- ° p- I bpw kn\na ImWp- I - b pw sNbvXpsIm-≠v, ]e-t∏mgpw \ne-hn´v aZy-]n®v Znh-k-߃ X≈n-\o-°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bn-emWv Z°ns‚ Cu {Iqc-amb Bflhn-a¿i-\w. ]e-t∏m-gpw Cu hna¿i\w Bfl-c-Xn-tbmf-saØp-∂p-s≠∂Imcyw ]d-bmsXhø. ""Inw In ZIv \n߃ thKw kn\n-a-sb-Sp-°q. F¥pXcw kn\n-a-bm-bmepw AXp ImWm≥ \nß-fpsS t{]£-I¿ BImw-£-tbmsS ImØn-cn°p∂p'' Fs∂ms° At±lw ]d-bp-∂p-≠v.- ]{¥≠ph¿jw 117


sIm≠v ]Xn-\©p kn\nasbSp-°m\pw A¥m-cm-jv{S-th-ZnI-fnse Xnf-ßp∂ Xmc-am-Im\pw Ign-™-Xnep≈ A`n-am\w hywKy-ambn CSbv°v ]pd-Øp-h-cp-∂p-≠v. kz¥w\m´n¬ th≠{X AwKo-Imcw e`n-®n-s√∂p am{X-a√ hna¿i\ic߃- ˛ -hn-ti-jn®pw s^an-\n-Ãp-I-fn¬\n∂v- ˛ -[m-cmfw G¬°p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xn-ep≈ hnj-ahpw At±lw ad®p sh°p-∂n-√. ""Ncn- { X- Ø ns‚ Nne {]tXyIL´- ß - f n¬ Fs‚ cmPyhpw P\-Xbpw IS-∂p-t]mb Pohn-XØns‚ km£y-ßfmWv Fs‚ Hmtcm kn\n-a-bpw. Fs‚ \m´nse t{]£-I¿ B kn\n-a-I-sfms° th≠-hn[w I≠n-´pt≠m F∂mWv Fs‚ kwi-bw.'' kn\n-a-bn¬ ImWp-∂-Xp-t]m-ep≈ PohnXw\bn-°p∂ ]ecpw B[p-\nI kaq-l-Øn-ep-s≠-∂mWv Z°ns‚ hnizmkw. AXp-sIm-≠mWv hnNn-{X-kz-`m-hn-I-fmb AØcw a\pjy-sc-tØSn Cu kwhn-[m-b-I≥ Ae-bp-∂-Xv. Bcn-cw-Kn¬ \n∂v t_m≤y-am-Ips∂mcp kXy-ap-≠v ˛ Bcpw \S-∂p-t]mIm≥ ss[cy-s∏-SmØ GIm-¥-ho-Yn-I-fn-eqsS k©-cn-°p∂ Inw In Z°ns‚ IYm-]m-{X-߃ At±-l-Øns‚ hy‡n-XzØns‚ `n∂-ap-J-߃Xs∂-bm-Wv. bYm¿∞-Po-hn-Xhpw I¬]-\m-tem-Ihpw Cu a\p-jy-\n¬ XΩn¬ th¿Xn-cn-°m\m-ImØhn[w Cg-tN¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p. ""Fß-s\-sb-¶nepw F\ns°mcp kn\n-a-sb-SptØ Xocq. kn\n-a-sb-Sp-°p-tºmƒ am{X-amWv Rm≥ G‰-hp-a-[nIw kt¥m-jn-°p-∂Xv. ]t£ 118

F\n-°-Xn\p Ign-bp-∂n-√-t√m,'' ZIv hne-]n-°p-∂p. kz¥w \ng-en-s\-s°m≠pXs∂ Inw In ZIv tNmZy-߃ tNmZn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v. "\nß-fpsS Pohn-X-Øn¬ G‰hpw {][m\-s∏-´Xv F¥mWv?' F∂v \ng¬ tNmZn-°p-∂p. kz¥w kn\na-I-fpsS Z¿i\w hnh-cn-°p∂ {]tIm-]-\-]-c-amb Hc-`n{]mbamWv adp-]Sn ˛ "PohnXw F\n°v ]c-]o-U-\-c-Xn-bmWv. Bfl-]o-U-\hpw Bfl-]o-U-\-c-Xn-bp-am-Wv.' Ip´n-°mew apX¬ GIm-¥-\m-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂v Z°v Hm¿°p-∂p. "kn\n-abn¬h∂v Hcp-]m-Sp- t]¿°p \Sp-hn¬ \n¬°p-tºmƒt∏mepw a\- p-sIm≠v Rm≥ H‰-bv°m-bn-cp-∂p. kn\n-a-bn¬ hcp-∂Xn-\p-apºv ^mIv‰-dn-I-fn¬ tPmensNbvXp. sXcp-hn¬ Nn{X߃ hc-®p. \∂mbn kwkm-cn-°m≥ Adn-bm-Ø-Xp-sIm≠v ]e-t∏mgpw \n»-_vZ\ - mbn\n∂v a‰p-≈h - sc \nco-£n-®p. AXpsIm-≠mWv hnNn-{X-kz-`m-hn-I-fmb IYm-]m-{X-ßsf krjvSn°m≥ Ign-™Xv.' Xn∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ Hcp ]gw \o´n-s°m≠v At±lw ]d-bp∂p: "Rm\o ]gsØ sIm∂p˛F\n°p Pohn-°m≥ th≠n. FÆ-a‰ ac-W-߃ `£n-®mWv a\p-jy≥ \ne\n¬°p-∂-Xv. acn® ]d-h-Iƒ, acn® arK-߃. kky-ß-fpsSbpw arK-ßf - p-sSbpw acWwsIm≠v \ne-\n¬°p-Is - b-∂Xv a\p-jy\v A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv.' kzbw\n¿Ωn® ssItØm-°p-ta¥n Inw In ZIv \K-cØn-te°v Imtdm-Sn-®p-t]m-Ip-∂p. t{]£-Is - c-bS- °w Ak`yw hnfn®v Hcp-∑m-Zn-sb-t∏m-se-bmWv bm{X. At±lw Im¿


\n¿Øn Nne sI´n-S-ß-fn-te°v Ib-dnt∏mIp-∂p. Hmtcm XhWbpw shSn-sbm® apg-ßp-∂p. Hcp L´-Øn¬ At±lw Xs‚ G‰hpw {]i-kvX-amb kn\na ˛ kv{]nMv, kΩ¿, ^mƒ, hn‚¿ -˛- I-≠p-sIm-≠n-cn°p-∂p. Hm¿Ω-Iƒ th´-bm-Sp∂ Akz-ÿ-amb a\-t m-sS. sImSpwa™pImeØv D-d™XSm-I-Øn\p \Sp-hn-ep≈ B{i-aØ - n-te°v Xncn-s®-Øp∂ injy≥ Poh-XymKwsNbvX Kpcp-hns‚ ÿm\-ta-s‰-Sp-°p∂ Ah-km\ koIz≥kmWv At±lw ImWp-∂-Xv. Ac-bn¬ _‘n® ]md-°-√p-ambn _p≤s‚ inem-hn-{Klw Iøn-te¥n ae-ap-If - n-te°v t¢in®p \S∂p\oßp∂ injys‚ thjwsNbvXXv Inw In Z°v Xs∂-bmsWt∂m¿°p-I. PohnXw \ne-\n¬]n\pth≠nbp≈ hen-sbmcp kacwXs∂-bm-sW∂v ]d-bp∂ Cu kwhn[m- b - I s‚ Iem- P o- h n- X - Ø nse sImSp- a pSnXs∂- b mWv kv{]nMv, kΩ¿, ^mƒ, hn‚¿... F∂ kn\n-abpw AXnse {]kn-≤a - mb Ah-km\ koIz≥kpw. kv{]nMv, kΩ¿, ^mƒ, hn‚¿... F∂ kn\n-abv°p apºpw]nºpw F∂v Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-am-Po-hn-XsØ IrXy-ambn th¿Xn-cn-°mw. {Inbm-fl-I-ambn H∂pwsNøm-\m-ImsX `b-N-In-X-\mbn H‰bv°n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Z°n-s\-t∏mse auenI{]-Xn-`-bp-s≈mcp Ne-®n-{X-Im-c≥ ImtW-≠Xv B kn\naXs∂-bm-Wv. hcpwIm e-tØ°v Du¿÷w kw`-cn-°m≥.

z 119


ho≠psamcp ]co-£-W-Nn{Xw

Films do not change reality but rather the conscious state of an individual -Kim Ki-duk

120


Bta≥

bq

tdm∏v F°m-eØpw Inw In Z°ns\ hcth-‰n-cp-∂p. kz¥wcmPyØv Xnc-kvIr-X-\m-Ip-tºmgpw hntZi-cm-Py-ß-fn¬ ZIv Hc¤pX {]Xn-`m-k-ambn hne-bn-cp-Ø-s∏´p. ]´m-f° - m-c\ - mbpw sXmgn-em-fn-bm-bpw a‰pw ]e-Xcw tPmenIƒ sNbvX tijw Inw In ZIv ]mco-kn-te-°mWv t]mb-Xv. AhnsS sXcp-hn¬ Nn{X-߃ hc®pw hn‰pw \S-°p-tºm-gmWv kn\n-a-tbmSv A`n-\n-th-i-ap-≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. Aß-s\-bmWv \m´n¬ Xncn-s®Øn Ne-®n-{X-tem-I-tØ°v IS-∂-Xv. Bfl-I-Ym-]-c-amb Bcn-cwKv F∂ tUmIyp˛-^nIvj\p tijw ZIv AtXh¿jw kwhn-[m\wsNbvX Bta≥ F∂ Nn{Xw bqtdm-∏n-te-°v, hnti-jn®v ]mcn-kn-te-°p≈ Hcp aS°-bm-{X-bm-Wv. Bfl-hn-a¿i-\-ß-ƒ°pw Bfl-]-cn-tim-[-\bv°p-ambn sNe-hn´ aq∂p h¿j-ß-fpsS CS-th-f-bv°ptijw ZIv kwhn-[m\w sNbvX BZy ^o®-¿ F∂ khnti-j-Xbpw Cu Nn{X-Øn-\p-≠v. Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-am-Pohn-XsØ kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚-dn\p ap≥]pw ]n≥]pw F∂v c≠mbn hn`-Pn-°mdp≠v. Aß-s\-sb-¶n¬ At±-lØns‚ Ne-®n-{X-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ aq∂mw L´-Øns‚ XpS°w Ipdn-°p-∂Xv Cu Nn{X-Øn¬\n∂m-Wv. 121


t]cn-√mØ Hcp sImdn-b≥ bphXn ]mcnkv \K-c-Ønse-Øp-∂p. eo aypMv kq F∂p t]cp≈ Hcp sXcphp Nn{XIm-cs\ tXSn-bmWv Ah-sf-Øp-∂X - v. Abmƒ Hcp-]t£ AhfpsS t_mbv{^≠mbn-cn°mw. ta¬hn-emkw tXSn-∏n-Sn®v eo aypMv kq hns‚ Xma-kÿ - e - sØ-Øp-tºmƒ Abmƒ sh\okn-te°pt]mbn F∂-dn-bp-∂p. sh\o-kn-te-°p≈ s{Sbn≥ bm{X-bv°n-S-bn¬ apJw-aqSn[cn® Hcmƒ Ahsf _emXvImcw sNøp-Ibpw _mKpw jqhpw a‰pw tamjvSn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. sh\o-kn-se-Øp-tºmgmWv Xm≥ At\z-jn-°p∂ hy‡n Ahn-t™ym¨ F∂ \K-c-Øn-te°p t]mbn F∂dn-bp-∂X - v. Iøn¬ ]W-an-√m-sX, `mj hi-an-√msX A\y-amb 122

Hcp \K-cØ - n¬ Ae-bp∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bpsS c£-I\ - mbn amdp∂Xv Ahsf B{I-an® apJw-aqSn[mcn Xs∂. ]m¿°n¬ Ddßn-°n-S-°p∂ Ahƒ°-cn-In¬ Abmƒ _mKpw jqhpw sh°p-∂p. CXn-\nsS Abm-fpsS ssewKn-Im-{I-a-W-Øns‚ ^e-ambn Xm≥ K¿`n-Wn-bm-sW∂v Ahƒ a\- n-em-°p-∂p. Xs‚ Ip™ns\ {]k-hn-°W - s - a∂ A`y¿∞-\I - ƒ Abmƒ ktμ-i-cq-]-Øn¬ Ah-fpsS ap∂n¬ Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p. Ahsf B{I-an-®-Xn\v Ip‰-ta‰p ]d™v Xm≥ Pbn-en¬ s]mbvs°m-≈m-sa∂pw Abmƒ ]d-bp-∂p. HSp-hn¬ Abmƒ [cn-®n-cp∂ apJwaqSn (Hcp Kymkv amkvImWXv) h®psIm≠v s]¨Ip´n \K-c-Øn-eqsS \S-°p∂p.


A]-cn-Nn-X-amb Hcp \K-c-Øn¬ GIm-In-\n-bm-bn, `mjb-dn-bmsX AI-s∏´p t]mIp∂ s]¨Ip-´n-bpsS `bm-i-¶-IfpsS {]Xn-^-e-\-amb Hcp km¶-ev]nI IYm-]m{XamWv ]n∂oSv c£-I-\mbn amdp∂ B _em-’w-K-Is\∂v kwhn[mb-I≥Xs∂ ]d-™n-´p-≠v. ]t£, IYm-\m-bn-I-bpsS am{Xa√, kwhn-[m-bI - s - ‚bpw e£ywsX‰nb bm{X-bmWv Bta≥ F∂v i{Xp-]-£-Øp≈ Nne \ncq-]-I¿ A`n-{]m-b-s∏-´p. FSpØp]d-tb-≠Xv t]c-dn-bmØ sImdn-b≥ s]¨Ip´n-bmbn A`n-\-bn® Inw tb \m F∂ \Sn-bpsS A`n-\-bamWv. A]-cn-Nn-X-amb {^©v sXcp-hp-I-fn-eqsS `b-tØmsS Ae-bp-tºmƒ CS-bv°nsS "eo aypMv kq...' F∂v Ahƒ Dds° hnfn-°p-∂-X-√msX Hcp kw`m-j-Whpw Nn{X-Øn-en√. k_vssS-‰n-ep-Iƒ C√msX ImWm-hp∂ kn\n-abmWnXv. _em-XvIm-c-I\pw kwc£-I-\p-amb apJwaqSn-[m-cn-bmbn thj-an-´Xv Inw In ZIv Xs∂-bm-Wv. FgpØpw \n¿Ωm-Whpw kwhn-[m-\hpw am{X-a-√, Iyma-dbpw FUn-‰nßpw kwhn-[mb-I≥ \n¿Δ-ln-®p. "Inw In ZIv Ãp Untbm'bnemWv t]mÃv s{]mUIvj≥ \S-∂-Xv. lm≥Uv sl¬Uv Iyma-d-bn¬ [rXn s∏´v jq´vsNbvX kn\n-a-bm-Wv Bta≥ F∂v BZyZ¿i-\Øn¬ tXm∂p∂Xv shdp-sX-b√. BJym-\-Ønepw {]ta-bØnepw ]pXp-a-I-fp-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw A[n-I-amcpw {i≤n°msXt]mb Inw In ZIv kn\n-a-bmWv Bta≥.

z 123


I don’t think it’s really necessary to divide things into good and bad. -Kim Ki-duk

]m]-Øns‚ iºfw 124


]ntbØ

B

ta≥ F∂Nn{Xw A[nIamcpw N¿® sNbv Xn-s√-¶nepw ASpØNn{X-amb ]ntb-Ø- (2012) bn-eqsS Inw In ZIv AXn-i-‡-amb Xncn-®p-h-chp \S-Øn. hntZi Ne-®n{X-ta-fI - f - n¬ ]ntb-Ø-bpw Inw In Z°pw Nn{X-Ønse tI{μI-Ym-]m-{XsØ Ah-X-cn-∏n® tPm an≥ kq F∂ \Snbpw \nc-h[n ]pc-kvIm-c-߃t\Sn. Adp-]-Øn-sbm-º-Xm-aXv sh\okv A¥-cmjv{S Ne-®n-{X-ta-f-bn¬ a’-c-hn-`m-K-Øn¬ ]s¶-SpØpsIm≠v Ac-t߉wIpdn® ]ntb-Øbv°v- AhnsS tKmƒU≥ eb¨ ]pc-kvImcw e`n®p. sh\o-knepw s_¿en\nepw Im\nepw Nn{Xw D∂X]pc-kvIm-c-ßtf‰p-hmßn. 125


a\p-jy-tcmSpw arK-ßt- fm-Sp-ap≈ {Iqc-X, ]c-]o-U\ - hpw Bfl-]o-U-\-hpw, AK-ay-K-a-\w, ssewKn-IX XpSßn Inw In Z°ns‚ BZy-ImeNn{X-ß-fnse ÿncwLS-I-߃ F√map≈ ]ntb-Ø- BXy-¥n-I-ambn anIs®mcp a\x-imkv{X ]T\-am-Wv. ]ntb-Ø- F∂mWv t]sc-¶nepw {InkvXp-hns‚ arXtZlw aSn-bn¬ InSØn hne-]n-°p∂ I\ym-a-dn-b-Øns‚ _nw_-hp-ambn kn\n-abv°v Imcyamb _‘-sam-∂p-an-√. sIm≈-∏-en-ibv°v ]Ww ISwsImSp-°p∂ Hcp ÿm]\-Øn¬ ]en-i-∏n-cn-hp-Im-c-\mbn tPmensNøp∂ ImMv tZm F∂ sNdp-∏° - m-c≥ A£-cm¿∞-Øn¬ IÆn¬t®m-cb - n-√mØ-h-\m-Wv. ]en-i-°-º-\n-°v Xe-sh-®p-sIm-SpØ KXn-sI-´hcn¬\n∂v _ew{]tbm-Kn®v ]W-ao-Sm-°p-Ib - mWv Abm-fpsS tPmen. an°-h¿°pw ]enit]mepw AS-bv°m\p≈ Ign-hp≠m-In-√. Aß-s\-bp-≈-hsc AwK-`wKwhcpØn C≥jpd≥kv XpI X´n-sb-Sp-°pIsb∂-XmWv ImMv tZm bpsS coXn. ]e-t∏mgpw B ]mh-s∏-´-h-cpsS D]-Po-h-\-am¿§-amb b{¥ ap]tbmKn®pXs∂-bmIpw ImMv tZm Ahsc AwK-`w-K-s∏Sp-Øp-I. sNdp-InS _nkn-\  - p-IƒsNbvXp Pohn-°p∂ AØc-am-fp-Iƒ ]m¿-°p∂ tNcnÿeØpXs∂-bmWv ImMv tZmbpw Xma-kn-°p-∂X - v. hrØnbpw shSn-∏p-an-√m-Ø, kvt\lc-ln-Xhpw GIm-¥hpw arK-Xp-ey-hp-amb Pohn-Xw. HcpZnhkw sXcp-hn¬sh®v Hcp a≤yhbkvI Abmsf ]n¥p-S-cp-∂p. Ip™m-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ Ahs\ Dt]-£n®p t]mb AΩ-bmWp Xms\∂v B kv{Xo ]cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-∂p. 126

shdp-t∏m-sS-bmWv ImMv tZm {]Xn-Ic - n-°p-∂X - v. B´pw Xp∏pw ]oU-\-ßfpw kln®v B kv{Xo Ahs\ hns´m-gn-bmsX ]n¥p-S-cp-∂p. ]eXc-Øn-ep≈ ]co-£-W-߃s°m-Sp-hn¬ Ah≥ Ahsc ssewKn-I-ambnhsc ]oUn-∏n-°p-∂p. A{Xbp-am-Ip-tºmƒ s]m´n-°-c-™p-t]m-Ip∂ B kv{Xo Xs‚ AΩXs∂-bm-bn-cn-°p-sa∂v Abmƒ°p tXm∂p-∂p. ]n∂oSv ImMv tZmbpsS PohnXØn¬ a\p-jy-Xz-Øns‚ shfn®w\nd- b p- ∂ - X mWv ImWp- ∂ - X v . {Iq- c - X - I ƒam{Xw sNbvXp-Iq-´nb `qX-Im-e-Øn¬\n∂v {]Xn-Im-c-Øns‚ I\¬°Æp-I-fp-ambn ]gb Cc-Iƒ CS-bv°nsS Abmsf tXSnsb-Øp-∂p. a‰p-≈h - c - psS IpSpw-_ß - t- fmSp ImWn® \njvTqcX kz¥w AΩ-tbmSv A\y¿ ImWn-®t∏mƒ Abm-fpsS a\ v ]nS-™p. ]t£, Xncn-sI-sb-Ønb AΩbpw- bYm¿∞-Øn¬ `qXIm-e-Ønse ]m]-߃°p≈ in£-bm-bn-cp-s∂∂v ]n∂oSmWv ImMv tZm Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂-Xv. AhnsS aI≥ \jvS-s∏´ Hc-Ω-bpsS {]Xn-Im-c-I-Y-bp-≠v. sNbvXp-Iq-´nb ]m]-ßf - psS Bgw At∏m-gmWv Abmƒ Xncn-®-dn-bp-∂-Xv. ]m]-Øns‚ iºfw ac-W-am-Wv. AXn\p apºv ]›m-Øm-]-Øns‚ hgn-I-fn-eqsS Abmƒ IS-∂p-t]mtI-≠-Xp-≠v. B bm{X-bn¬ Xm≥ hnI-emw-K-\m-°nb Hcp sNdp-∏-°m-cs\ ImMv tZm ImWp-∂p. Abm-fpsS `mcy ]dbp∂p: "Cu \m´n¬ \nb-a-hmgvNbn√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬ \ns∂ Rm≥ \qdpXhW sImt∂- t \. Fs‚ Imdn- \ - S n- b n- e n´v


NX®ct®t\' F{X-am{Xw shdp-°-s∏´ hy‡n-bmWv Xms\∂ Xncn-®dnhv ]m]-Øns‚ BXy-¥nIiº-f-ta‰phmßm≥ Abmsf t{]cn-∏n-°p-∂p. Xs∂ NX®c-bv°Wsa∂v shdp-t∏msS ]d™ kv{XobpsS Imdn-\S- n-bn¬Øs∂ ImMv tZm PohnXw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°p-∂p. Iym∏n-‰-en-k-Øns‚ `bm-\-I-amb ]cn-Wn-X-^-e-ß-sf°p-dn-®mWv ]ntbØ N¿® sNøp-∂-sX∂pw AXn\v ]ntb Ø F∂ _nw_-hp-ambn t]cn-e-√msX a‰p_‘-sam-∂p-ans√∂pw ZIv hy‡-am-°n-bn-´p≠v. aIs‚ arX-tZlw aSnbn¬°nSØn kzbw IØn-sb-cn-bp∂ Hc-Ω-bpsS tjm´n¬ Nn{Xw Ah-km-\n-∏n-°m\mWv kwhn-[m-b-I≥ BZyw ]≤Xn-bn-´-Xv. hy‡-amb aXkqN-\-I-fp-≈-Xp-sIm≠v AXv Dt]£n- ° p- I - b m- b n- c p- ∂ p. A¥m- c mjv { S Ne- ® n{XthZn- b nte°p≈ Xs‚ i‡-amb Xncn®phc-hn\v \mμnIpdn® ]ntbØsb-°p-dn®v Hc-`n-ap-J-Øn¬ Inw In Z°v hni-Z-ambn kwkm-cn-®n-cp-∂p. ASpØ A≤ym-b-Øn¬ B A`n-ap-JØn¬ \n∂p≈ Nne `mK-߃ hmbn-°mw.

z

127


Iym∏n-‰e - n-kØ - ns‚ {Iqc-apJw

]Ww \ΩpsS Ime-L-´-Ønse sNIp-Øm-\mWv ˛Inw In ZIv

128


A`n-apJw ]e-t∏m-gpw Ccp≠ {]ta-bß - ƒ Xm¶ƒ Bhn-jvIc - n-®n-´p-≠v. Bcn-cw-Kn-\p-ti-j-ap≈ {][m\kn\n-a-bmb ]ntbØbpw AtX ]mX-bn-em-W-t√m... Ne-®n-{X-Im-cs\∂ \ne-bn¬ Fs‚ hnizm-k-ØI¿®-bpsS Ncn-{X-tc-J-bmWv Bcn-cw-Kv F∂ Nn{Xw. BcncwKv j q´v s Nbv X p- s Im- ≠ n- c p- ∂ - t ∏m- g mWv B XI¿®bv°p ImcWw Fs‚ AXym-{KlwXs∂-bm-bncp∂psh∂v Xncn-®d- n-™X - v. hnizmksa∂p \Ωƒ hnfn°p∂ Cu {]Xn-`m-kØ - n\v Fs¥-¶nepw `mhn-bpt≠m F∂-t\z-jn-°p-Ib - mWv ]ntbØbneq-sS. \Ωƒ Pohn°p∂ AXn-`-b-¶-camwhn[w ]Wm-[n-jvTn-X-amb kaql-sØ-°p-dn-®mWv B kn\n-a. H∏w Iym∏n-‰e - nkw kaql-Øn-ep-≠m-°p∂ Zpc-¥-^-e-ß-sf-°p-dn®pw AXv N¿®sNøp-∂p. ]≠v BibßfpsS t]cn-emWv bp≤߃ \S-∂n-cp-∂-Xv. B[p-\nIImeØv bp≤-߃ D≠m-Ip-∂Xv AXym-{K-l-Øn¬\n∂m-Wv. 129


Bcn-cwKvt]mse Hcp tUmIyp-˛-^nIvj\ptijw ^o®¿ kn\n-a-bn-tebv°p aSßnhcm≥ Fs¥-¶nepw {]bmkw t\cnt´m? Xnc-°-Y-bn-√msXbmWv Bcn-cwKv jq´vsNbvXXv. Rm≥ Aßs\sNøp-∂Xv BZy-am-bm-Wv. AsXmcp kzImcy Ubdnt]mse-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]ntbØ Fs‚ a‰p 16 ^o®¿ kn\n-a-I-sfbpwt]mse Rm≥Xs∂ FgpXn kwhn-[m\wsNbvX-Xm-Wv. ^o®¿ kn\n-a-bnte°p Xncn®phcm≥ {]bm-k-sam∂pap≠m-bn-√. Cu kn\na {^m≥knepw P∏m-\nepw jq´psNøm-\m-bncp∂p BZyw ]cn-]m-Sn-bn-´X - v. ]t£ ]‰nb \So-\S- ∑ - msc In´nbn√. ]ns∂ sImdn-bb - n¬Øs∂ Nn{Xo-Ic - n-°m≥ Xocp-am-\n-®p. AXp \∂msb∂v Ct∏mƒ tXm∂p∂p. Cu Nn{X-Ønse \mb-I IYm-]m-{X-amb eo ImMv tZm klXm-]-a¿ln-°p∂ IYm-]m-{X-amtWm? sNdp-∏Ønte-Xs∂ AΩ \jvS-s∏-´-Xp-sIm≠v hf¿® apc-Sns®mcp Ip´n-bmWv ImMv tZm. AXp-sIm≠mWv as‰m∂pw Btem-Nn-°msX BcpsS B⁄Ifpw A‘ambn ]n¥p-S¿∂v F{Xhenb {Iqc-Xbpw sNøm≥ Ah≥ Xøm-dm-Ip-∂-Xv. A{I-am-k-‡-cmb ]ecpw sNdp-∏-Øn¬ A{I-a-߃°n-c-bmbn´p≈-h-cmWv. klm-\p`qXnsb∂ hnImcw Ah-cnep≠m-In-√. Rm≥ ImMv tZmsb Hcp b{¥-a-\p-jy-\m-bmWv k¶130


ev]n-®-Xv. HcpZnhkw s]s´∂v Ahs‚ AΩ {]Xy£-s∏-´m¬ F¥p kw`-hn°psa∂ Pn⁄m-k-bn¬ \n∂mWv Cu kn\n-ab - p-≠m-bX - v. Hcp aIs‚ kvt\lw Ah-\n¬ ]p\¿÷-\n-°ptam? {Iqc-amb A\p-`h - ß - ƒ a\p-jysc shdpw tdmt_m-´p-I-fm-°pw. ]t£ th≠nh-∂m¬ Ahsc XncnsI a\p-jy-cm-°m\pw km[n°pw. CXmWv ]ntbØ-bn¬ Rm≥ ]d-bm\pt±-in® Hcp Imcyw. hnImccln-X-ambn {Iqc-X-Iƒ Im´p-∂-hsc Pbn-en-e-S-bv°p-Ibpw Xq°n-te-‰p-Ibpw sNbvXn´p Imcy-an-√. ]Icw Ah-cpsS ac-hn® lrZ-b-ßsf {ZhoI-cn-°p-I-bmWpth≠-Xv. Ip‰-t_m-[a - mWv Cu kn\n-ab - psS ASn-ÿm\ {]ta-bw. "Ip‰w sNbvX' ]e-¿°pw eo ImMv tZm ]ng-bn-Sp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw BXy¥n-Ia - mbn Abmƒ Ip‰-t_m-[Ø - ns‚ ]nSn-bn-ea - c - p-∂p. {IqcX-bv°p≈ in£-bm-W-Xv. {]ta-b-]-c-ambn Xm¶ƒ°v CXnt\mSv B`n-ap-Jy-apt≠m? kXy- Ø n¬ A{IatØmSv `b- a p≈bmfmWv Rm≥. A{I-aØ - n¬\n∂v ho≠pw A{IawXs∂ s]m´n∏p-d-s∏Spw. AΩsb _μn-bm°nsh®psIm≠v ImMv tZm F∂ A{I-am-k-‡s‚ lrZbaenbn°m\p≈ {ia-amWv ]ntb-Øbn¬ \S-Øn-bXv. c≠m-a-sXm-∂mtem-Nn-°msX ImMv tZm a‰p-≈-h-cpsS IpSpw-_-ßsf thZ-\n-∏n-°m-dp-≠v. kz¥w IpSpw-_-Øn\v AtX Ah131


ÿ-bp-≠m-Ip-tºmƒ Xm≥ ImWn® {Iqc-XI - f - psS `bm\-IX Ah≥ Xncn-®-dn-bp-sa∂v Rm≥ {]Xo-£n-®p. A{I-am-k-‡n-bpsS Cu ImeØv Bcpw kpc-£n-X-cs√∂v \Ωƒ a\- n-em-°-Ww. Hcn-°¬ thcp-d-®m¬ hf¿∂p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p∂ alm-hn-]Ø - m-WX - v. ]ntbØ-bn¬ hb-e≥kv {]Xy-£-Øn¬ ImWn-°p-∂n-√. kqN-\-Iƒ am{X-ta-bp-≈q. At∏m-gmWv ImWn-Iƒ Ah¿°v t\cn-´-dn-bm-hp∂ A{I-a-ßfpsS Zriy-߃ Hm¿sØ-Sp-°p-I. imco-cn-I-ambn Bsc-sb-¶nepw ]cnt°-ev]n-°p-∂-Xns‚ Zriy-߃ Nn{X-Øn-en-√. ]t£ Hcp b{¥-Øn-\n-S-bn¬h®v sRcn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xns‚ thZ\ \n߃°-\p-`-hn-°m≥ Ign-bpw. B kn\n-abnse b{¥-߃ anssk-ep-I-sf-t∏m-seØs∂-bm-Wv. BW-hm-bp-[-߃ ssIh-i-ap≈ cmPy-߃ F{X-bps≠-∂m-tem-Nn®v \Ωƒ \Sp-ßm-dp-≠v. F∂n-´p-sa-¥n\mWv \Ω-fn-t∏mgpw amc-I-amb Bbp-[-߃ \n¿Ωn®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xv? BW-hm-bp-[ß - ƒ D]-tbm-Kn®v \ΩpsS cmjv{S-Ø-e-h∑m¿ \S-Øp∂ Icp-\o-°-߃ F¥n-\m-sW∂v F\n°v a\- n-em-Ip-∂n-√. Z£nW sImdn-b≥ kml-N-cy-ß-fp-ambn ]ntbØ F{XtØmfw _‘-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p? sImdn-b-bn¬ \nb-a-hn-cp-≤-amb kzImcy ]W-anS-]mSp Iº-\n-IfpsS ]nSn-bn¬s∏´ [mcmfwt]¿ Bfl132

lXy sNøp-∂p-≠v. Cu ]Sw jq´vsNbvXpsIm≠n-cn°p- t ºmƒ CØcw ÿm]- \ - ß - f psS _nkn- \ kv Im¿Up-Iƒ CSp-ßnb sXcp-hp-I-fn¬ NnX-dn-°n-S-°p∂Xp I≠n-´p-≠v. ]W-Øn\p IjvS-s∏-Sp-∂-h¿ AXnsem- s cÆsaSpØv Cu ÿm]- \ - ß ƒ°p t^m¨ sNøpw. ISw hmßpw. Aan-X-amb ]eni Xmßm-\mImsX HSp-hn¬ Ah¿°v ASn-s∏-Spw. \ΩpsS ImeL-´-Ønse sNIp-Øm\mWv ]Ww. H∏w AXv a\pjys\ ]co-£n-°p∂ ssZh-hp-am-Wv. Hmtcm ko\pw jq´vsNøp-∂-Xn\p apºv Fß-s\-bmWv Xømsd-Sp-°pI? kn\na XpS-ßp-∂X - n\p apºpXs∂ Xnc-°Y - b - psS hnhn[ hi-ßs - f-∏‰n Rm≥ A`n-t\-Xm-°f - p-ambn aWn°q-dp-I-tfmfw kwkm-cn-°pw. jq´nMv XpS-ßn-bm¬ ∏ns∂ Rm≥ Ah-cpsS tPmen-bn¬ CS-s]-Sm-dn-√. "C{Xbpw aXn' Fs∂\n°v t_m≤y-s∏Spwhsc jq´v sNøpw. ]ntb-Ø-bnse Nne ko\p-Iƒ Rm≥Xs∂bmWv jq´v sNbvXXpw FUn‰p sNbvX-Xpw. Fs‚ a\- n-ep-≈Xv Ipd-®p-IqSn \∂mbn {]I-Sn∏n°m-\m-bncp∂p AXv. ]ntbØ Hcp {InkvXy≥{]XoIamW-t√m. F¥mWv AXns‚ kmwKXyw?


]ntbØ F∂ ssS‰n¬ Cu kn\n-a-bnse F√m Imcy- ß - s fbpw {]Xn- \ n- [ m\wsNøp- ∂ n- √ . ]Ww hcpØnhbv°p∂ Zpc¥-ßsf°pdn-®mWv Cu Nn{Xw ]d-bp-∂Xv. a\p-jy¿ XΩn-ep≈ hnizm-k° - p-dh - n-s\bpw Ah-cpsS A{I-am-k‡ - n-sb-°p-dn-®p-amWXv. hnizmkw C√m-Xm-Ip-tºm-fmWv A{Iaw s]m´n-∏p-d-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. sNdnb tXmXn-ep≈ hb-e≥kv hy‡n-Iƒ°n-S-bn¬ `oI-cm-¥-co£w krjvSn-°p-∂p. ]t£ hen-b -tXm-Xnep≈ hb-e≥kv hº≥ bp≤-ßfnemWv Iem-in-°p∂Xv.

z

133


h\yamb \n»-_vZ-X

PohnXw F\n°v ]c-]o-U-\-c-Xn-bm-Wv. Bfl-]o-U-\hpw Bfl-]o-U-\-c-Xn-bpam-Wv. ˛Inw In ZIv (B-cn-cw-Kv)

134


sabv_n-bkv

]n

tb-Ø-bn-eqsS Xs‚ kzX-kn-≤amb ssien hos≠-SpØ Inw In ZIv B Nn{X-Øns‚ Hcp XpS¿®-sb∂ t]mse-bmWv ASpØNn{X-amb sabv_n-bkv (2013) cq]I¬]\sNbvX-Xv. ]ntb-Ø-bn¬ I≠ CuUn-∏¬ _‘Øns‚ Xo£vWa - mb as‰mcp cq]w sabv_n-bk - n¬ ImWmw. a\-°-´n-bn-√m-Ø-h¿°v I≠ncn°m≥ ]‰m-Ø{X c‡-cq-jnXhpw a\w]nc-´-ep-≠m-°p-∂-Xp-amb cwK-ß-fp-≈XpsIm≠v Z£nW sImdn- b - b nse sk≥k¿t_m¿Uv Nn{X- Ø n\v {]Z¿i-\m-\p-aXn \ntj[n®ncp-∂p. Ah¿ \n¿t±-in® t`Z-KXn-I-tfm-sS-bmWv Nn{Xw AhnsS {]Z¿in-∏n-®-Xv. Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-aI - fpsS t{]£-I¿ GXpXc-Øn-ep≈ BLmXhptaev°m≥ Xøm-dm-bn-´mWv Xnb-‰-dnseØp-∂-Xv. ]t£ sabv_n-bkv Bscbpw sR´n-°p∂ Bfl-]o-U\˛]c-]o-U\ cXnbpw c‡-{]-hm-l-hp-ap≈ Nn{X-am-Wv. 135


IpSpw_w F∂ ÿm]-\-sØ-°p-dn®v hyXy-kvX-amb ImgvN-∏m-Sp-I-fp≈ ZIv CØ-hW XI¿∂ Hcp D]cnh¿§ IpSpw-_-sØ-bmWv hni-I-e\wsNøp-∂-Xv. kzc-t®¿®-bn√mØ ZmºXyw\bn-°p-∂ `¿Ømhpw `mcybpw. `mcy apgph≥ kabhpw aZyel-cn-bn-emWv. ]e-N-c°pIS \S-Øn-∏pIm-cn-bmsbmcp bph-Xn-bp-ambn `¿Ømhn\v _‘-ap-s≠∂p sXfnhpklnXw a\- n-em-°pIIqSn sNbvXtXmsS AhcpsS ka-\nesX‰p-∂p. `¿Øm-hns‚ ]ckv{Xo_‘w I≠p]n-Sn-°p∂, As√-¶n¬ Xm≥ `¿Øm-hns\ ]g-bt- ]mse Xr]v Xn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂ns√∂ tXm∂ep≈ c≠p `mcy-amsc CXn\p apºv ZIv Ah-Xc - n-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. ssSw F∂ Nn{X-Ønse ImapIn Xs‚ apJ-—mbXs∂ πmÃnIv k¿PdnsNbvXp am‰n-°-f-bp∂p. s{_Xv F∂ Nn{X-Ønse `mcy-bm-Is´ h[-in£ImØp Pbn-en¬ Ign-bp∂ Hcp sIme-]m-X-Insb am\-kn-I-ambpw imco-cn-I-ambpw kt¥m-jn-∏n-°m≥ Cd-ßn-∏p-d-s∏-Sp-∂p. sabv_n-b-knse `mcy `¿Øm-hns‚ enwKw Adp-Øp-am‰n Abmsf jWvU-\m-°m-\mWv Xp\n-bp-∂-Xv. B {iaw ]cmP-bs - ∏-Sp-tºmƒ Ah¿ IuamcØnse-Ønb hnZym¿∞n-bmb aI-s\- B{I-an®v Ahs‚ enwK-t—Zw \S-ØpIam{X-a√ B Ah-bhw hngp-ßpIIqSn sNøp-∂p. (C{Xbpw hmbn®n´pw XpS¿∂phmbn-°p-∂-h¿ am{Xta kn\n-a ImtW≠-Xp≈q.) ]ntbØbnepw CØ-c-Øn¬ A{I-am-k-‡-amsbmcp amXr-˛-]p{X _‘-ap-≠v. sabv_n-b-kn¬ AXv ]nXr-˛-]p{X _‘- Ø ns‚ Akm- [ m- c WtaJ- e - I - f n- t e°pw ]n∂oSv 136


]nXmhpw amXmhpw ]p{X\pw ]nXm- h ns‚ Imap- I nbpw Dƒs∏´ k¶o¿Æ-amb am\-kn-I-˛-im-co-cnI _-‘-ßfnte°pw hf¿∂p hnI-kn-°p∂p. A—≥sNbvX sX‰n\v in£-b\ - p-`h - n-°p∂ Iuam-c° - mc-\mb aI≥ Xs‚ ssewKnIPohnXw Bcw-`n-®n-´p-t]m-ep-an√. Ip‰-t_m-[-Øns‚ Ipcp-°n-emb A—≥ aIt\mSv {]mb›n- Ø wsNøm≥, Ahs\ klm- b n- ° m≥ imkv { X- s ØØs∂ B{ibn-°p-∂p. Ah-bhw am‰n-hb - v°¬ apX¬ cXnaq¿—-bn-se-Øm\p≈ _o`’amb am¿§-߃hsc Abmƒ C‚¿s\-‰n¬ ]cXn Is≠-Øp-∂p-≠v. H‰hiwam{X-ap≈ {]X-es - Ø-bmWv sabv_n-bkv F∂p hnfn-°p-I. Hcp t]∏¿ tSt∏m, dn_tWm Hcp XhW ]ncn®tijw (twist) c≠-‰-ßfpw Iq´n-tbm-Pn-∏n®m¬ AXn\v Hcp hiwam{Xta ImWq. t]∏¿ tS∏m-bn-cp-∂t- ∏mƒ AXn\p c≠p hi-ßf - p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. H´pw ]ncn-°msX Iq´n-tbm-Pn-∏n-®mepw IrXy-ambn c≠p hi-ß-fp-≠m-Ipw. HKÃv s^¿Un-\≥Uv sabv_n-bkv (August Ferdinand Moebius) F∂ P¿Ω≥ KWnX-im-kv{X-⁄-\mWv Cu {]Xew Is≠-Øn-b-Xv. sabv_nbkv {]X-e-Øn-eqsS Hcp Ddp-ºns\ \S-Øn-®m¬, AXv ]pds∏-´n-SØpXs∂ Xncn-sI-sb-Øpw. {]X-e-Øns‚ F√m `mKß-fn-eq-sSbpw AXp IS∂pt]mbn-´p-ap-≠m-Ipw. Ddp-ºns‚ bm{X Aßs\ XpS¿∂p sImt≠-bn-cn-°pw. sabv_n-bkv {]Xew Cu Nn{X-Ønse {][m-\s - ∏´ {]XoI-am-Wv. kzXzsØ°pdn®pw kz¥w ssewKn-IX - s - b-°p-dn®pw 137


Aan-Xa - mbn BIp-es - ∏-Sp∂ Hcp kaq-ls - Ø-°p-dn-®mWv Cu kn\na ]d-bp-∂-Xv. ]pd-s∏-´n-SØpXs∂ Xncn-s®-Øp-Ibpw AtX hgn-bn-eqsSØs∂ ho≠pw k©-cn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pIbpw sNøp∂ Nm{In-I-amb Ah-ÿ. aqI- c mb c≠pIYm- ] m- { X- ß - s f, As√- ¶ n¬ Hcp aqIIYm]m{XsØ D]-tbm-Kn®v ]e kn\n-a-Ifpw kwhn[m\w sNbvXn-´p-≈-bm-fmWv Inw In ZIv. sabv_n-b-kn¬ At±lw kw`m-j-W-ßtf D]-tbm-Kn-®n-´n-√. Hcp IYm-]m{Xhpw kwkm-cn-°p-∂n-√. ]t£ C{Xbpw i_vZ-ap≈ Hcp kn\na ZIv CXn\papºv \n¿Ωn-®n-´n-s√∂-XmWv kXyw. IYm]m-{X-ßf - psS Ic-®n-ep-If - p-sSbpw \nizm-kß - f - p-sS-bp-sams° i_vZ-ß-ƒam{Xta kn\n-a-bn¬ tIƒ°p-∂p-≈q. P¿Ω≥ FIvkv{]-j-\nÃv kn\n-a-Isf Hm¿Ωn-∏n-°p∂ kwhn-[m\ ssien-bmWv ZIv Cu Nn{X-Øn¬ ]n¥p-S-cp-∂-Xv. emgvkv shm¨ {Sb-dns\bpw ssa°¬ l\-sI-sbbpw CjvS-s∏-Sp∂bmfmWv Inw In ZIv. emgvkv shm¨ {Sb-dns‚ B‚n ss{IÃv F∂ Nn{X-ØnteXp-t]mse Xo{h-amb am\kn-Im-h-ÿ-I-fneqsS-bmWv sabv_nbknse IYm-]m-{Xßfpw IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv. Akm-[m-c-WthKØn¬ FUn‰vsNbvX Nn{XwIqSn-bmWn-Xv. IY-bpsS a¿Ω-Øn-te°p IS-°m≥ kwhn-[m-b-I≥ H´pw ka-b-sa-Sp-°p-∂n-√. t{]£-I\p \evIm-\p≈ tjm°pIƒ XpS°wapXte \¬In-s°m≠v apt∂-dp∂ Nn{Xw. Xnc°-Ybpw kwhn-[m-\hpw am{X-a-√, Ombm-{K-l-Whpw FUn138


‰nßpw \n¿Δ-ln-®Xv Inw In ZIv Xs∂-bm-Wv. C{Xbpw hnhmZ-]-c-amb Hcp {]tabw ssIImcyw sNøp-tºmƒ ]cn-N-b-kº-∂-\mb kwhn-[m-b-Is\∂ \ne-bn¬ ZIvXs∂ kn\n-abpsS G‰hpw {][m-\-s∏´ Npa-X-e-Iƒ Gs‰-Sp-ØXv A`n-\μ-\o-b-am-Wv. BZy-kn-\n-a-bmb s{Im°-ssU¬ apX¬ Inw In Z°nt\m-sSm∏w kl-I-cn-®n-´p≈ tNm Pm lyq¨ ]nXm-hns‚ thj-Øn¬ A`n-\b - n-®n-cn-°p∂p. sImdn-bb - n¬ kmº-ØnI hnPbw t\Snb BZy ZIv Nn{X-amb _mUv KbnemWv Ccphcpw G‰-hp-sam-Sp-hn¬ Hcp-an-®-Xv. amXm-hns‚bpw Imap-Inbp-sSbpw thjan´Xv eo bq¨ hq F∂ \Sn Xs∂-bm-Wv. ad-°m≥Ign-bmØ apJ-amWv Cu A`n-t\-{Xn-bp-tS-Xv. c≠p thj-ßf - nepw Akm-[m-cW - a - mb thj-∏I - ¿®-. Ch¿s°m∏w aIs‚ thj-Øn¬ tkym bpMv Pq F∂ bph-\-S\pw XI¿∏≥ {]I-S\w Imgv®-sh-®p. XpS-°-Øn¬ ]d-™-Xp-t]m-se, a\-°-´n-bp-≈-h¿°p am{Xta I≠n-cn-°m-\mIq F-¶nepw a\x-imkv{X]c-ambn kn\n-asb kao]n°p∂ kwhn-[m-b-I-s\∂\ne-bn¬ Inw In Z°ns‚ {]Xn`bv°v Ct∏m-gpw aß-te-‰n-´n-s√-∂mWv sabv_n-bkv sXfn-bn-°p-∂-Xv.

z 139


GIm¥Zzo]p-Iƒ

P

ehpw Pem-i-b-ßfpw Inw In Z°ns‚ Ne-®n-{Xtem- I - Ø nse Hgn®pIqSm- \ m- I mØ km∂n- ≤ y- ß - f m- W v . BZyNn{X-amb s{Im°-ssU-ens‚ semt°-j≥ lm≥kv\ZnbpsS Xoc-am-Wv. Hcmƒ sh≈-Øn¬ NmSn Bfl-lXysNøp∂-XmWv BZy ko≥Xs∂. kn\na Ah-km-\n-°p-∂Xpw Pek-am-[n-bn-emWv. Pehpw Pem-i-b-ßfpw Ptem-]-cnXeØnep≈ GIm-¥-hm-k-ÿ-e-ßfpw Imhym-fl-I-amsbmcp Z¿i-\m-\p-`q-Xn-bmbn Inw In ZIv kn\n-a-I-fn-eqsS ]I-cp-∂p. sNehpIpd™ Nn{X-߃ A{X-sbm∂pw {]kn-≤-c√mØ A`n-t\-Xm-°sf D]-tbm-Kn®v Ipd™ka-b-Øn-\p≈n¬ jq´vsNøp∂ Z°ns‚ Ne-®n{XtcJ-bn¬ ]q¿Æambpw H‰ semt°-j-\n¬am{Xw Nn{Xo-I-cn® kn\n-a-I-fp-≠v. Ahsb√mw Ptem-]c - n-Xe - Ø - nse hmk-tI-{μ-ßf - n-em-bn-cp∂p sh∂p am{X-a-√, {]ta-b-߃°pw kmay-ap-≠v. Z°ns\ A¥m-cmjv{S{]i-kvX-\m-°nb Zn sF¬ F∂ hnhmZNn{X-amWv CXnemZy-tØ-Xv. ]-Iz-amb ssien-bn¬ Hcp°nb kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚¿... BWv c≠m-asØ Nn{Xw. G‰hpsamSp-hn¬sNbvX H‰semt°-j≥Nn{Xw Zn t_m BWv. BZy c≠p Nn{X-ßfpw \n›-e-amb XSm-I-ß140


fn-em-sW-¶n¬ aq∂m-asØ Nn{Xw ]q¿Æ-ambpw IS-en-\p-≈nem-Wv. sh≈-Øn\p apI-fn¬ s]mßn-°n-S-°p∂ Cu aq∂p hmk-ÿe - ß - ƒ°pw Ne-\m-flI - X - b - p-ap-≠v. kwc-£n-°m\pw kwl-cn-°m-\p-ap≈ t- ijn Cu aq∂p hmk-ÿe - ß - f - p-sSbpw DS-aÿ¿°v Aam-\p-jnI ]cn-thjw \¬Ip-∂p. aqh¿°pw {Im¥-Z¿in-Xz-hp-ap-≠v. A]-I-S-߃ ap≥Iq´n ImWp-∂-hfmWv ln Pn≥. hr≤-Kpcp kn≤\pw sshZy\pam-Wv. IS-ense Ing-h≥ `mhn {]h-Nn°p∂-bmfmWv. aq∂p Nn{X-ß-fnepw kwc-£n-X-cmb IYm-]m-{X-ß-fpsS PohnXw am‰nadn-°p-∂Xv ]pd-Øp-\n∂v {]W-bh - p-ambn hcp∂ hy‡n-I-fm-Wv. BZy-tØ-Xn¬ kwc-£n-X-I-Ym-]m-{X-amb s]meo-kp-Im-cs\ {]W-bn-°p∂ A`n-km-cn-Ib - mWv Cu am‰ ap≠m- ° p- ∂ - X v . c≠m- a sØ Nn{X- Ø n¬ B{i- a - Ø n¬ NnIn’bvs°-Øp∂ bph-Xn-bn¬ A\p-c-‡-\mb injy≥ Ahƒs°m∏w HmSn-t∏m-Ip-Ibpw sIme-]m-XI - n-bmbn Xncn®p hcn-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. IS¬hr≤s‚ kwc-£W - b - n-ep≈ I\yI-bm-Is´ t_m´n¬ Xma-kn-°m-s\-Øp∂ bphm-hn¬ {]W bwIs≠-Øp-Ibpw Ah-s\m∏w t]mIp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. IYm-]m-{X-߃ \S-Øp∂ Bfl-l-Xym-{i-a-ßfpw Cu kn\n-a-I-fpsS s]mXp-L-S-I-am-Wv. s]meokpImc\pw lo Pn \pw Bfl-l-Xym-{iaw \S-Øp-∂p-≠v. Bfl-lXysNøm≥]‰nb ÿe- a - t \z- j n®mWv s]meo- k p- I m- c ≥ Ahn sSsbØn- b - s X∂v tXm∂n- t ∏m- I pw. kv { ]nMv kΩ- d nse injy\pw sIme-]m-X-I-Øn\ptijw B{i-a-Øn¬ Xncn-

s®Øn Poh-s\m-Sp-°m≥ {ian-°p-∂p-≠v. IS-ense Ing-hs‚bpw Bfl-lXym{ia-߃ \jvS-s∏Sp-sa∂p tXm∂nb {]Wbw Xncn-s®-Sp-°m-\p≈ {ia-Øns‚ `mK-am-Wv. Ptem-]-cn-X-e-Ønse GIm-¥-ÿ-e-ß-fn¬sh®v Nn{XoI-cn® Cu kn\n-a-I-fn-se√mw ZIv AkvXn-XzZ¿i\sØ-°pdn®v Bg-Øn¬ N¿®sNøp-∂p-. DZm-lc - W - Ø - n\v aq∂p kn\na-If - n-sebpw kwc-£IIYm-]m-{X-߃ HSp-hn¬ Poh≥ shSnbp-I-bm-Wv. aqh-cpw kz—-μ-arXyp°fm-Wv. ln Pn≥ Hcp tXmWn-°p-≈n¬ Pe-ka - m-[n-bn-se-t∂mWw ibn-°p-∂p. AhfpsS kwc-£-W-bn-em-bn-cp∂ Imap-I≥ Ah-fpsS D]-ÿØn-\p-≈n¬ hnebw {]m]n-°p-∂p. Pohn-X-km-bm-”-Øn¬ _p≤-k\ - ymkn kzbw NnXIq´n AXn-en-cp∂v Nmº-embn PeØn¬ ebn-°p-∂p. IS-ense hr≤-\m-Is´ Xm≥ kwc-£n® I\y-Isb hnhmlwsNbvXtijw IS-en¬NmSn A{]-Xy-£\m-Ip-Ibpw Hc-kv{X-Øns‚ cq]-Øn¬ Ah-fn¬ {]th-in®v CW-tN-cp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cu kwc-£I - s - c√mw BXy-¥n-Ia - mbn k¿Δw-kl - b - mb {]IrXnXs∂-bm-sW-∂p≈ kqN-\-bmWv kwhn-[m-b-I≥ \¬Ip-∂-Xv. Xs‚ kn\n-a-I-fnse ssZh-km-∂n-≤y-sØ-°pdn®v Inw In ZIv Hcn-°¬ ]d-™Xv Cß-s\-bmWv: ""ssZhw F\n°v {]IrXn Xs∂-bm-Wv, \Ω-f-dn-bp-Ibpw A\p-`-hn-°pIbpw sNøp∂ {]Ir-Xn.''

z 141


-Inw In Z°ns‚ kv{XoIƒ

142


Xp

S°w apXte kv{Xohncp-≤-\m-bmWv sImdn-b≥ Ne-®n-{X-tem-Ihpw s]mXp-k-aq-lhpw Inw In Z°ns\ IcpXn-t∏m-∂n-´p-≈-Xv. ]c-kv]cw ]Ww ssIam‰wsNø-s∏-´n-s√¶n¬t]mepw kv{Xobpw ]pcp-j\pw XΩn-ep≈ _‘Øn¬ Ft∏m-gpw hy`n-Nm-c-ap-≠v F∂ hnhm-Z-{]-kvXm-h\bpw Inw In ZIv \S-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. thiym-hr-Øn-bn-te¿s∏-Sp∂ kv{Xo Iƒ At±-l-Øns‚ ]e kn\n-a-I-fn-ep-ap-≠v. kZm-Nm-c-aq-ey߃ apdp- s I- ∏ n- S n- ° p∂ bmYm- ÿ n- X nIt{]£- I ¿°v Hcn°epw AwKo-I-cn-°m≥ Ign-bmØhn[-Øn-emWv Inw In ZIv kv{XoIsf Ah-X-cn-∏n-®n-´p-≈-Xv.

BZy-Nn-{X-amb s{Im°-ssU-en¬ A{I-a-Øns‚ `mj am{X-a-dn-bp∂ {][m-\-I-Ym-]m{Xw Hcp s]¨Ip-´nsb ]e-XhW _em-XvImcwsNbvXX - n\ptijw {]W-bn-°m≥ XpS-ßp∂p. ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kn¬ ]mcn-kn¬ AI-s∏´ {]hm-knI-fmb c≠p bph-Xn-Iƒ {^©p-Im-cmb ]pcp-j∑ - m-cm¬ imcocn-I-ambpw am\-kn-I-ambpw ]oUn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p. HSp-hn¬ c≠pt]cpw sIme-]m-X-In-I-fm-Ip-∂p. t_Uv tIbvPv C≥ Iem-]-c-ambn Hcp]mSp Ign-hp-I-fp-≠m-bn´pw hy`n-Nmcw sNbvXp Pohn-°p∂ s]¨Ip-´n-sb-∏-‰n-bm-Wv. F√m-h-cpsSbpw Nqj-W-߃°v Ahƒ Cc-bm-Ip-∂p. XnI™ kZmNm-c-hm-Zn-bmbn BZyw {]Xy-£-s∏´ as‰mcp s]¨Ip´n kzta-[bm hy`n-N-cn-°p-∂Xpw AXn-\p-th≠n I\y-ImXzw shSn-bp-∂Xpw Cu Nn{X-Øn-ep-≠v. Zn sF¬ F∂ Nn{XØnse \mbnI hy`n-Nm-cn-Wnbpw H∏w ]nw]p-am-Wv. Ahƒ sIm≠phcp∂ a‰p hy`n-Nm-cn-Wn-I-sfbpw Cu Nn{X-Øn¬ ImWmw. AXn-sem-cp-hƒ \mb-I-I-Ym-]m-{X-hp-ambn {]W-bØn-em-Ip-Ibpw AXp-hgn Zp¿Ω-c-W-a-S-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. dnb¬ ^nIvj\nse \mb-Is‚ ImapIn as‰m-cp-h-\p-ambn ÿncw imco-cn-I-_-‘-Øn-te¿s∏-Sp-∂-h-fm-Wv. A{Ukv A¨t\m-Wn¬ Ata-cn-°b - psS ssk\nIkm∂n≤yw krjv Sn-°p∂ kmaq-ly-{]-iv\-Øns‚ Cc-I-fmbn ]oUn-∏n-°-s∏Sp∂ c≠p kv { XoI- Y m- ] m- { X- ß - f p- ≠ v . _mUv Kbv Hcp ]nw]ns‚ {]Xn-Im-c-I-Y-bm-Wv. X\n°v CjvSwtXm∂nb Hcp tImtfPv hnZym¿∞n\n apJØp Xp∏n-bt- ∏mƒ Ahsf NXn®v 143


thiym-eb - Ø - n-se-Øn-°p-Ibpw ]n∂oSv Ahsf {]W-bn-°pIbpw sNøp-∂p. Ccp-h¿°pw Hcp-an®p Pohn-°m-\p≈ ]Ww Is≠-Øm≥th≠n Ahƒ kzta-[bm hy`n-N-cn-°p-∂p. tImÃv Km¿Un¬ Imap-Is‚ Zp¿Ω-c-W-w krjvSn® BLmX-Øn¬ {`m¥n-bm-bn-Øo¿∂ Hcp bphXn At\Iwt]cn¬ Imap-Ik - z-cq]w ImWp-Ibpw Ah-sc-sb√mw {]m]n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXv K¿`n-Wn-bm-Ip-∂p. kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚¿... F∂ Nn{X- Ø n¬ B{i- a - Ø n¬ NnIn- ’ bv ° phcp∂ s]¨Ip´n bph-k-\ym-kn-bpsS {hXw `wK-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p; Abmƒ sIme-]m-X-In-bm-Ip-∂p. kam-cn-‰≥ tKƒ F∂ kn\n-a-bn-se-Øp-∂-tXmsS hy`nNm-c-Øn\v ]pXn-sbm-c¿∞w sImSp-°p-I-bmWv Inw In ZIv, ]pcm-X\ `mc-X-Ønse Ipeo-\-bmb Hcp KWn-I-sb-°p-dn®p ]d™psIm≠v XpS-ßp∂ Nn{X-Øn¬ Iq´p-Im-cn-bpsS acW-tijw Ahƒ sNbvXn-cp∂ hy`n-Nm-c-hrØn Hcp hna-eoI-cW{]{In-b-bv°mbn D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp∂ s]¨Ip-´n-sbbmWv Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. Cu Nn{X-Øn\ptijw Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-I-fn¬ hy`n-Nm-cn-Wn-Isf I≠p-ap-´p-∂p-an-√. {Xo Atb¨ F∂ kn\na apX¬ Inw In Z°ns‚ kvXoI-tfm-Sp≈ kao-]-\-Øn¬ am‰whcp-∂p-≠v. `¿Xr-]oU\w kln-°msX ho´n¬\n∂v as‰mcp sNdp-∏-°m-c-t\msSm∏w Cdßnt∏mIp∂ kv{XobmWv AXnse \mbn-I. HSphn¬ `¿Øm- h ns‚ km∂n- ≤ y- a p- s ≠- ¶ nepw Imap- I s‚ AZriykm∂n≤yw k¶-ev]n-°m≥Ign-bp∂ am\-kn-Im-hÿ - 144

bn-te°v Ahƒ hf-cp-∂p. Zn t_m F∂ Nn{X-Ønse s]¨Ip´n Xt∂-°mƒ hfsc {]mb-ap≈ Hcp hr≤s‚ h[p-hm-Ip-∂p. AZr-iy-\mb Abm-fp-ambp≈ km¶-ev]n-Ikpc-XØ - n-\p-tijw Imap-It- \msSm∏w t]mIp-Ib - mWhƒ. kwi-bt- cmKw _m[n® Hcp ImapIn-bpsS IY-bmWv ssSw ]d-bp-∂-Xv. kwi-b-tcm-Khpw hy‡nXzsshI- e y- ß fpw ImcWw Hcp {]W- b - _ ‘w XIcpIbmWv Nn{Xm¥y-Øn¬. Cu IYm-]m-{X-Øns‚ XpS¿®-bmWv s{_Xv F∂ Nn{XØnse \mbn-I. `¿Øm-hns‚ ]c-kv{Xo-_‘w Is≠-Øp∂ `mcy Xq°p-I-b¿ImØv- Pbn-en¬ In-S-°p∂ Hcp-h-\p-ambn {]W-b-Øn-em-Ip-∂p. ]ntbØ F∂ Nn{X-Øn-se-Øp-tºm-tg°v kv{XobpsS amXr-`m-hs - ØbmWv kwhn-[m-bI - ≥ A]-{K-Yn-°p-∂X - v. sNdp∏-Ønte A\m-Y-\m-bn-Øo¿∂, ]n∂oSv sImSpw {Inan-\¬ {]hrØnIfn¬ apgp-Ip∂ Hcm-fpsS Pohn-X-Øn-te°v AbmfpsS AΩ ho≠pw IS∂phcp-∂-Xn-t\-°p-dn-®mWv ]ntbØ ]d-bp-∂-Xv. {]Xn-ImcNn¥-tbmsS Ahs\ kao-]n-°p∂ B kv{Xosb Pohn-X-Øn¬\n∂v ]dn-®p-am-‰m≥ Ign-bmØ Ahÿ-bn-em-Ip∂p Abmƒ. kv{XobpsS `bm-\-I-amb {]Xn-Imc-`mhØn¬\n∂mWv G‰hpw]pXnb Nn{X-amb sabv_n-bkv XpS-ßp-∂XpXs∂. s{Im°-ssU-en¬\n∂v sabv_n-bk - n-seØp-tºmƒ Inw In Z°n\v kv{XoI-tfm-Sp≈ ImgvN-∏mSn¬Øs∂ am‰wh∂n-cn-°p-∂p. BZy-Nn-{X-Øn¬ kv{Xo


_em-XvIm-c-Øn-\n-c-bm-hp-I-bm-Wv. F∂m¬, G‰hpw HSphnse Nn{X-Øn¬ Hcp kv{Xo hnizm-k-h-©-I-\mb `¿Ømhn-t\m-Sp≈ {]Xn-Im-c-Øns‚ `mK-ambn aIs\ enwK-t—Zw sNøp-∂p. Inw In Z°ns‚ kn\n-a-Iƒ kv{XoIƒ°pt\sc-bp≈ ssewKnI`oI-cm-{I-a-W-ß-fm-sW∂v sImdn-b-bnse s^an\nÃv \ncq-]-I¿ ]d-™n-´p-≠v. Inw In ZIv X\n-s°-Xnsc Db-cp-∂ Btcm-]-W-߃°v Cßs\ adp-]Sn ]d-bp∂p: ""kv{XoIƒ°p t\sc-bp≈ B{I-a-W-߃s°√mw ImcWw Inw In ZIv F∂ kwhn-[m-b-I-\m-sW∂ ImgvN-∏mSv A]-IS-am-Wv. ChnsS \S-°p∂ Imcy-߃ Rm≥ ]I¿Øn-hbv°p∂p Ft∂-bp-≈p.''

z

145


Pohn-X-tcJ

temI-kn-\n-a-bnse H‰-bm-\mb Inw In ZIv 1960˛¬ Z£n- W - s Im- d n- b - b nse t_mMv l zm F∂ ÿeØp P\n-®p. H≥]Xp hb- p-hsc \m´n≥]pdØpImc- \ mbn Pohn- ® p. ]n∂oSv amXm- ] n- X m°ƒs°m∏w Xe-ÿm\ \K-c-amb tkmfn-te°v Xmakw am‰n, Hcp Irjn-imkv{X]cn-io-e\ kvIqfn¬ tN¿s∂-¶nepw ]T\apt]-£n-®p. ]n∂oSv ^mIv‰-dnsØm-gn-em-fn-bm-bn. Ccp-]Xphb p XnI-™-t∏mƒ ]´m-f-Øn¬ tN¿∂p. 1990-˛¬ A©ph¿jsØ ]´mf-tk-h-\-Øn\ptijw ]mcnkn-te°p t]mbn. IebpsS alm-\-K-c-Øn¬ sXcp-hp-Nn-{X-Im-c-\mbn Ae™p. ]mco-kn¬h®mWv BZy-ambn kn\na ImWp∂-Xv. kn\n-at- bm-Sp≈ A`n-\n-thiwsIm≠v Fgp-Xnb Hcp Xnc-°-Y-bv°v sImdn-b-bn¬ \S∂ a’-c-Øn¬ kΩm\w In´n. AtXmsS kn\n-a-bmWv Xs‚ Pohn-Xsa∂p Xncn-®d- n-™p. kn\na imkv{Xo-ba - mbn ]Tn-°msXbpw ]cn-io-en-°m-sXbpw Inw In ZIv 1996 ¬ BZykn-\n-a-bmb s{Im°-ssU¬ kwhn-[m\w sNbvXp. 2008 apX¬ 2011 hsc kn\n-as - bm∂pw sNøm-\m-ImsX \n»-_vZ-\m-bn-cp∂p. 2012¬ Bta≥, ]ntbØ F∂o Nn{X-ß-fn-eqsS Inw In Z°v i‡-amb Xncn-®p-h-chp \S-Øn.

146

Ne-®n{XtcJ

1996 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2011 2012 2013

s{Im°-ssU¬, ssh¬Uv A\n-a¬kv t_UvtIPv C≥ Zn sF¬, dnb¬ ^nIvj≥ A{Ukv A¨t\m¨, _mUv Kbv Zn tImÃv Km¿Uv kv{]nMv kΩ¿ t^mƒ hn‚¿ -B≥Uv kv{]nMv ka-cn-‰≥ tKƒ, {Xo Atb¨ Zn t_m ssSw s{_Xv {Uow Acn-cmwKv, Bta≥ ]ntbØ sabv_n-bkv

Xnc-°Y/\n¿ΩmWw 2008 _yq´n-^pƒ d^v I´v 2010 ko{I´v do bqWn-b≥ (Xnc-°-Y) 2011 ]qMvkm≥


147


Kim ki duk