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Volume 5, Issue 2

THE SRAC JOURNAL

September 2009

Volume 5, Issue 2

THE SRAC JOURNAL T H E R EG I ON ’ S A R C H A E O LO G IC A L , C U LT U R A L , INSIDE THIS ISSUE:

AND

H I S T OR I C A L R E SO U R C E

THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION

1916 Susquehanna River Exp

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The Kassly Tablet

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Bears on Broad Street!

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Tom Jack-Native Am Friend

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SRAC Membership Drive

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Identity of the Andaste, Minquas..

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Recent Contributors

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Recent Events at SRAC

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Woolly Mammoth...in Waverly!

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Membership Form

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now! nline o C SRA o to Join g/join G e r .o r t n e C .SRA day! www to

• Our Vision

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is dedicated to education, research and preservation of the Native American archaeological, cultural and historical assets of the Twin Tier Region of Northeastern PA and Southern NY.

BY

DEB TWIGG, SRAC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

Early on in my investigations concerning Spanish Hill, I was told to read “Susquehanna’s Indians” by Pa Archaeology’s Dr. Barry Kent to find out why the site was considered to be not worthy to be preserved. It was then that I realized that Dr. Kent had relied on information from the 1916 Susquehanna River Expedition and its author, Warren K. Moorehead as one of his references. Once I had read all of the information that I could find on the Expedition to include hundreds of letters between Moorehead and others before, during and after the expedition, I felt it important to share the information that I uncovered. Personally I have come to the conclusion

that the Expedition was little more than a treasure hunting spree that left our region with fewer artifacts and even less understanding of our archaeology. But I will leave it up to you the reader to make your own opinions. – Deb Twigg On May 16 1916, an expedition of nine men left Lake Otsego, at the head of the Susquehanna River, central New York, and proceeded down that stream to the mouth of the river at Havre de Grace, Maryland. The purpose of the expedition was to record all the Indian sites along the main Susquehanna, and if possible to dis(Continued on page 2)

THE KASSLY TABLET BY VINCENT BARROWS, SRAC MEMBER (LOUISIANNA) A collection of carved stones found on and around Monks Mound, the world’s largest pyramid, is clear evidence of refined civilization. Arrows indicate the location that each engraved stone was found on Monks Mound. Today these objects have been graciously donated to museum collections including the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site, the Madison County Historical Museum, the Illinois State Museum, The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and the Quincy Museum. About 40 miles south of the Cahokia Mounds World Heritage site in Southern Illinois, an engraved stone object has been found by Elizabeth Agnes Kassly. The stone was named the “Kassly-Schaefer Tablet” after the finder, Kassly, and property owner, Schaefer.

The stone had been fractured and four fragments have been recovered to date on the surface of a farmer’s field south of Old Valmeyer, IL. Kassly discovered pieces of the stone on November 15, 2000 and May 15,

The Susquehanna Archaeological Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org BecomeRiver a member of Center SRACof Native today! See back page for more information.

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

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THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T . his own man, Alanson Skinner would accompany Moorehead’s crew and would be on Heye’s payroll separately. cover a cemetery of the Andastes. The expedition followed the plan However, once the announcement of adopted by the surveys in Maine, of the Expedition was made public, Heye traveling by canoe and camping…As and Moorehead were not the only ones we proceeded down the river the men who began making their plans for their would land at a site marked on our trip along the Susquehanna. maps as an Indian village of conseJust before the Expedition was to bequence during the historic period. Pergin, a letter was sent to Moorehead mission having been secured, these from Albany. It seems that New York men would scatter about and sink test State was quite aware of Mr. Moorepits fifty or one hundred yards apart head’s “archaeological tactics of taking over an area of from ten to fifty all of the artifacts and obliteracres. During the day our ating sites for further reworkmen would sink as many search, and they had insisted as two hundred of these pits, that none other than Arthur or one hundred in half a day. If C. Parker, the well respected this number of test pits reNative American NYS Musulted in no finds, the expediseum archaeologist accomtion would move on to another pany (and monitor) the expesite… Warren K. Moorehead dition until they reached the Background: Pennsylvania border. I am sure Moorehead cringed Apparently, local avocational when he learned that the archaeologist and founder of NYS Museum expected that the Tioga Point Museum in all archaeological specimens Athens, PA, Louise Welles would be taken at the NYS Murray already had an interMuseum in Albany. esting relationship with Moorhead as result of being inOne thing we know is that volved in rounding up artifacts Moorehead contacted Heye from our region for his 1917 immediately and told him book, “Stone Ornaments.” This Part of Moorehead’s exhibit at the Chicago Expo in 1893 about the letter. Moorehead book referred to many today as assured him that the best way nothing more than a collector’s catalog to handle the situation was to try to for buyers, was in its day quite a liter- But in the spring of 1916 it wasn’t just keep NYS in good humor so that conary work. This along with many other Moorehead who was making plans for cerns would not be raised in the newsexploits in Moorehead’s life such as the expedition that would take place. In papers that would surely cause trouaccumulating a huge exhibit of Native fact there was an even larger plan in bles for the Expedition. Instead, American artifacts for the Chicago Ex- the works to build a new museum and Moorehead told his financier that if he position in 1893 that had made him to stock it with the grandest artifacts could not get NYS to cooperate, he that could be found. This museum toquite a celebrity in his time. would take Parker in one direction, and day is known as the National Museum allow Skinner and the rest of the team As a result, it is no wonder that in 1916 of the American Indian, George Gustav to go elsewhere to find the specimens when he began sending letters out to Heye Center in New York City. that would go to Heye. the archaeological societies, museums, and collectors along the Susque- My research reveals that as early as The Expedition: hanna River where his next expedition February 1916, George Gustav Heye As one reads the accounts about the would take place, many were quick to had agreed to finance Moorehead’s expedition, they will find a very short Expedition and had agreed to pay want to work with the great Warren K. portion dedicated to the New York $2,500. In return, all specimens found Moorehead. or bought along the way would be State sector through which Moorehead It was Mrs. Murray in fact who asked brought to him exclusively. Mr. Heye and his men traveled from May 16 until Moorehead if a young man who also told Moorehead that all skeletons early June that summer. It seems that showed great promise in the field of should be packed separately in boxes Dr. Parker had many friends along the archaeology, Ellsworth Cowles, could marked with an “S” so that they could Susquehanna in New York State. join the expedition for a few weeks to be sent “where they belong,” and that (Continued on page 3) gain experience. Moorehead agreed to (Continued from page 1)

this wholeheartedly. As many of you know Ellsworth Cowles’s collection is now a part of the SRAC collections and is on exhibit. The Cowles family also donated a significant exhibit of Moorehead’s Southwestern collection that Ellsworth acquired at some point that we hope to have on display at some point soon. Also, those who visit our Center on most Thursdays, get the chance to have Ellsworth’s son, Dick Cowles give you a special tour of the collection on display.

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THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T . the beginning of a myth that still is as- that they just did not find them. In fact it sociated with our region today. Louise would be a much older Ellsworth These friends clearly spread the word Welles Murray detailed the event that Cowles who would find the palisaded ahead of the Expedition that the plan occurred that day as follows: village site at the foot of Spanish Hill in was not to show Moorehead and his 1933. While the writer was present one team any of the good sites and instead of the working in a grave exclaimed Another report by the Expedition about to keep them moving farther down the “There are horns over his head!” Mr. Spanish Hill that seems to have river as fast as they could. Skinner said that indicated chieftainevaded many was actually a report on another site, called Sugar Creek, loBy June 10th, a frustrated Moorehead ship. Later this was found to be a cated on the west bank of the Susquewho had to return to Andover, Massa- bundle burial, completely covered in hanna River three miles above Tochusetts for graduation ceremonies antlers of Virginia deer. A passing wanda. In this report, Moorehead wrote to Alanson Skinner who was to visitor, however, heard the exclamastates, “We found traces of a fortified arrive in Athens, PA. He told Skinner tion and attempted to verify it by inhilltop, there being distinct traces of that two gentlemen, Lang and Shoe- terrogating a fun-loving Maine workembankments. This is smaller that maker would need to be dealt with. It man, and the story grew and was Spanish Hill, but resembled the same.” was in Moorehead’s opinion that they printed from coast to coast that one (Moorehead: 1938) should first try to cooperate with these or more skulls had been found with people, but if that failed that they would horns growing from the forehead! – need to “smash through” to get to the (Murray: 1921) Andaste cemetery that Mrs. Murray Unfortunately for Spanish had offered to have excavated. Clearly, Hill, given the attention from the earlier work with Mrs. Murray and amount of time dediand her contribution of incredible arti- cated to the Valley area, facts photos for his “Stone Orna- Reverend Donehoo and a ments,” Moorehead knew what Athens, boy scout troop were the PA held in store for them, and as each only staff dedicated to mile along the Expedition had been trying to find a cemetery foiled by the NYS Museum efforts, the and artifacts for the expeMurray Farm seemed to be the light at dition at Spanish Hill. In the end of the tunnel and hopeful the end Moorehead would “treasure trove” that could redeem him claim that 400 test pits in the eyes of his financier who eagerly were dug at the hill to no awaited high quality artifacts for his avail. However when you museum. see the map of where the On June 12th, Alanson Skinner wrote test pits were dug, I think back to Moorehead from Athens, PA you will see that because and smugly assured him that he had the hill was actually everyone and everything properly in planted and the farmer hand and that there would be no need had refused to allow them to “smash through” anything, because to dig where the crops he had “the goods” and the permission were, that the majority of for all of it. He also stated that the Ath- test pits sunk all the way ens region was an important place with around the perimeter of many rich sites, and that Spanish Hill the top were bound to be Published by the Washington Post on July 30, 1916 would have to wait because he wasn’t fruitless. going to drop the Murray Farm until he L.D Shoemaker who was had to. present at the hill when the test pits Other sites in our region that the In the following three weeks, 59 skele- were dug later wrote to Mrs. Murray expedition reported finding artifacts tons including 6 bundle burials were and stated that Donehoo merely was from include: excavated and the expedition reported looking for a cemetery, and was not Upper and Lower Sheshequin * – Specimens included deer bones, antto have only found 8 shell-tempered interested in much else. pots, 4 Andaste pipes, 4 celts and 25 Moorehead would later write a frus- lers, and several bushels of unio other objects in the graves. trated Mrs. Murray concerning the little shells, along with fragments of two One of the bundle burials was covered attention paid to the site that the village pots, one with a very heavy rim, An(Continued on page 4) with several deer antlers, and this was site and cemetery probably existed, but (Continued from page 2)

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THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T . (Continued from page 3)

daste style, and one flint arrow point. (Moorehead: 1938) Towanda * – Referred to as an extensive Iroquoian site, but that the burial site seemed to have been washed away. Specimens included bone awls, celts, triangular points, and Iroquoian pottery. (Moorehead: 1938) Wysox * – This site was referred to having and Andaste settlement and burial ground with triangular arrow points and Iroquoian objects. (Moorehead: 1938) Wyalusing * – The expedition reported to visit the old location of the Moravian village of Friedenshutten, and also a prehistoric settlement to the south. Pottery, notched arrow points and implements were reported to have been found there for many years. (Moorehead: 1938) * Only a few sentences were dedicated to each of these sites in the book. I am not aware of any field notes that exist for any of these sites from the Expedition. As the Expedition continued to travel south along the river into the “Antracite Region,” it seems that that Moorehead must have felt like they had re-entered New York where the towns were alerting the others ahead of the Expedition to keep them moving southward: As we approached the hard coal fields, our men looked forward to seeing the miners. My New England men who were paying $16 to $17 per ton for anthracite wished to observe these miners and ascertain what manner of men they were. They were soon disillusioned. Conditions became intolerable. None of these men had ever seen large canoes such as ours, and they interfered with our camps on the journey to Plymouth. As the head of the expedition, I ordered my men to keep the canoes in midstream, and proceed as rapidly as possible. In passing under bridges, boys and men would frequently drop bits of coal or small stones on the boats as they passed. We had to carry our canoes around one or two dams, necessitating hired labor. Men swimming paused to throw stones. This had never occurred in any other expedition with which the writer has been connected. We made 32 miles that day, not stopping en route to search fields. (Moorehead: 1938) The Book As a result, the most impressive and most reported site in the whole report from “The Susquehanna River Expedition of 1916” by Warren K. Moorehead was the Murray Farm in Athens, PA. In fact, the introduction of the book goes to great lengths to thank Louise Welles Murray and her family for donating ALL the artifacts that were found on the Murray Farm site to include the skeletons. Strangely, however, the book did not get published until 21 years later. This, in my opinion, is because the book was never the real goal of the expedition, which instead was in search of cemeteries and artifacts to be sent to the financier, George Heye.

Moorehead stated in the book: It has always been a matter of regret to me that our publication has been delayed 21 years…Between June 2nd and 18th 1916, the writer (Moorehead) was at Andover Mass., attending exercises and taking care of departmental duties, so missed the exploration of the Murray cemetery at Tioga Point. George P. Donehoo wrote most of our field notes in the regions of Great Bend and below Athens. (excepting Mr. Skinner’s work on the Andaste cemetery)… The untimely death in 1925 of Alanson B. Skinner, active field director of the expedition delayed publication and many valuable maps and sketches of artifacts were lost. (Moorehead: 1938) The report that I received from the Smithsonian/Heye Museum told of 93 artifacts from Athens, PA, which they have in their collections. These artifacts are mostly reported to have been donated by Alanson Skinner. When I contacted the Peabody Museum in Andover, MA a few years ago, about coming up to see their artifacts from Athens, PA, I was told that their inventory was not completed yet. Moorehead’s Legacy? Warren K Moorehead died just a year after “The Susquehanna River Expedition of 1916” was published, on January 5, 1939 at the age of 72. As I searched the internet, I found many references to the claim that “Warren King Moorehead was known in his time as the 'Dean of American Archaeology’.” However, during my research on this topic, I was steered toward some letters that are still archived in the Ohio State Museum. They were written by associates of Moorehead, who may have even been with him during that long summer of 1916. The following is an excerpt from just one of several letters in response to a Mr. Tom Crouch, who in 1973 requested feedback from people who had worked with Moorehead, to be used as part of his dissertation which would be dedicated to Warren K. Moorehead’s affect on American archaeology. Each letter in the archive at OHS supports the content of the letter, dated April 20, 1973, excerpted here: Mr. Tom D. Crouch Ohio American Revolution Bicentennial Advisory Commission Ohio Historical Center Columbus, Ohio 43211 Dear Mr. Crouch, It is far better to let the memory of “W.K.” die quietly, as we hoped here that it would. Moorehead “knew everybody” but the only real attention paid to him was by collectors (some of them wealthy and many of them as avaricious as present day ones) and by non-archaeologists who were hood-winked by his barely truthful announce(Continued on page 5)

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THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T . (Continued from page 4)

ments and promotional letters. Perhaps you wrote me because you have learned that Moorehead supported me as a young graduate student during the depression when we were pretty hungry. I freely admit to being part of his operations, albeit reluctantly, because the fifty cents per hour made it possible to survive as an archaeologist. I was probably dishonest and reprehensible and I took some ribbing from my colleagues but I had one objective in life and had to eat to reach it. In the course of this really unhappy job I handled a very large portion of the record you mention. Also included were various personal files which you may never see. I do not remember the details after some forty years but I do recall vividly being forced to discard important papers which were significant records. The late Melvin Barnes, my successor at this job, was not an archaeologist and had had very little experience and I know that in one instance a rather important large file I had organized was badly “reorganized.” Moorehead’s insistence that this be done is an example of his stupid, crafty way of life. – (Anonymous: 1973) As requested, the letter’s author was kept anonymous, but the reference to Melvin Barnes who was the successor to his position makes it pretty easy for anyone to find out with the help of the internet just who the author probably was. As stated in the beginning of this article, I will leave the final opinion to the reader about Warren K. Moorehead, the Susquehanna River Expedition of 1916, and any references that were used about Spanish Hill by them. Instead I will close with a quote from Louise Welles Murray who was there that summer in 1916 and later wrote: The tendency of the intelligent student of history and archaeology today seems to require more facts, more particulars. Curiosity has ever led man to gather and preserve unusual or mysterious objects, which often are assembled in museums. Today it is a recognized fact that museums have a great educational value, and that the student views a collection for what it means rather than what it is. Archaeology has taken strides, and the search for Indian artifacts without making written records is considered vandalism. The skilled archaeologist deplores the fact that sites have been “dug to death” when they might have been “dug to life for the benefit of science. (Murray: 1921)

ABOUT WARREN K. MOOREHEAD Warren K. Moorehead was the first Curator of Archaeology for the Ohio Historical Society. Born in Siena, Italy in 1866, his family later moved to Xenia, Ohio. He attended both Denison University and the University of Pennsylvania, but did not graduate from either institution. The young Moorehead had a great interest in archaeology and excavated a number of sites in Ohio. He conducted excavations at Fort Ancient and the Hopewell Mound Group to obtain artifacts for the Columbian Exposition in 1893. He was hired by the Ohio Historical Society in 1894. He resigned as curator in 1897 for health reasons. (TB) He was head of the Peabody Institute of Andover in Andover, Massachusetts from 1902 to 1920. He was 51 in 1916 when the 1916 Susquehanna River Expedition took place. He died in 1939, at 72, 23 years after the expedition and 1 year after his Susquehanna River book came out.

Meetings: 407 E. Main St, Endicott, NY 7:30 PM, 4th Thursday, except July, Aug., & Dec. email: nysaatcc@yahoo.com

Have a Dandy Day! Nearly 60 stores in PA and NY

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THE KASSLY TABLET CONT. (Continued from page 1)

2003. On June 3, 2009 a fourth piece of the tablet was found, nearly completing the entire artifact. A unique clay head was also found within 30 feet of the tablet. Liz added a YouTube video of fitting up the pieces of the tablet, located at the following link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ct4W8O13CmE On January 14, 2007, The Tablet was donated by the finder and placed on display at the Cahokia Mounds Interpretive Center. The tablet is about palm size and the larger portion has a length (Ht.) equal to 86.67 mm, width equal to 60.76 mm, and thickness equal to 28.37 mm. The stone weighs 142.2 grams. The location of discovery is 18 feet of the south of the west curb line and 10 feet north of the north house line of 6714 Bluff Road in Valmeyer, IL at Schaefer’s house. The coordinates of the find are at Latitude= 38 deg 17’ 04.735” N, Longitude = 90 deg 18’23.083” W. Many artifacts were found at the site from a wide range of chronological periods including the Archaic, Late Woodland, Mississippian, and Historic period. The date of the sandstone engraving is not possible to precisely determine with analytical tools. However, an assemblage of diagnostic evidence in the form of lithics from the Schaefer’s site may be used to determine the time that the site was occupied. Lithic styles found at the site include: • Two (2) Oneoto style scrapers (Paleolithic) • One (1) Wade base (diagnostic from the late archaic and early woodland transition dating from 1000 BC to 500 BC).

Schaefer Site, Drawing by Mera Hertel

Drawing of the Kassly Schaefer Tablet from University of Illinois Drawing by Mera Hertel • One (1) Motley (800 BC to 600 BC), • One (1) Steuben (diagnostic of terminal Middle Woodland to early Late Woodland periods dating about 100 AD through 500 to 800 AD), • One (1) Hamilton incurvate arrowhead (diagnostic of Late Woodland Hamilton culture from about 500 AD to 1000 AD), • Two (2) Madison points, (900 AD to 1150 AD) • One (1) black and white Cahokia point found within a few feet of the Kassly-Schaefer Tablet (900 AD to 1150 AD) According to the Jesuit Relations on page 127 of Volume 68, a similar stone was used in the cabin of the Brother of the Great Sun, the War Chief, as follows: (Continued on page 7)

Schaefer Site Artifacts, Drawing by Mera Hertel

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CONT.

(Continued from page 6)

There are in this cabin a number of beds on the left hand at entering: but on the right is only the bed of the great Chief, ornamented with different painted figures. This bed consists of nothing but a mattress of canes and reeds, very hard, with a square log of wood, which serves for a pillow. In the middle of the cabin is seen a small stone, and no one should approach the bed until he has made a circuit of this stone. Those who enter salute by a howl, and advance even to the bottom of the cabin, without looking at the right side, where the Chief is. Then they give a new salute by raising their arms above the head, and howling three times. If it be [Page 127] one whom the Chief holds in consideration, he answers by a slight sigh and makes a sign to him to be seated. He thanks him for his politeness by a new howl. At every question which the Chief puts to him, he howls once before he answers, and when he takes his leave, he prolongs a single howl until he is out of his presence. A clay head was found with the stone and appears to have an upturned nose, open mouth showing teeth, and unique left eye. The right eye was only an indentation.

Obverse and Reverse of the Cahokia Point found a few feet from the Kassly- Schaefer Tablet. The reverse “crosshatched” side resembles a grouping of X shapes interlocking. In other Birchbark Scrolls, the X has been interpreted to symbolize war. This could be a representation of scales of a snake shedding diagonally from the halfway point toward the right. When compared with all other native venomous snake species of Illinois, this crosshatching is most similar to the copperhead snake species.

The symbolic attributes of the stone are a topic that is open to interpretation. Liz Kassly interpreted the symbols to be a Birdman image, similar to the other examples found at Monks Mound. Similar engravings have been found on Birchbark Scrolls from the Ojibwa. The following symbol from page 203 of The Midewiwin of the Ojibwa includes an English translation:

Bibliography: Elizabeth Agnes Kassly, The Prehistoric Birdman Tablets of Illinois. Prehistoric American #2, 2004. Illinois Antiquity, Volume 36, No 2 July 2001.

Translation: “Mi´-sha-kwat´-ni-yō´, meaning “I brought the medicine to bring life. The Midē´ Man´idō, the Thunderer, after bringing some of the plants—by causing the rains to fall—returns to the sky. The short line represents part of the circular line usually employed to designate the imaginary vault of the sky.” Other interpretations are open including a record of thunderbird mythology or watery elements.

http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallerypages/clayheadkasslypage1.htm http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallerypages/kasslytabletbirdlarge.htm http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallerypages/tabletssandstonebirdman.htm http://puffin.creighton.edu/jesuit/relations/relations_68.html

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BEARS ON BROAD STREET—MAKING A MEMORY! August 22nd 2009 was an awesome day for many reasons. First and foremost because SRAC had the opportunity to bring a LIVE BEAR show to downtown Waverly, NY that was filled with fun and education and bears that clearly loved to do what they were doing with their trainers, Derrick Rosairre and his two sons, Derrick and Frederick. I met up with these guys at the Tioga County Fair and bugged Derrick Sr. long enough for him to finally give in and come to SRAC in between stops in his travels through New York during fair season.

truck pulled in and blocked off Park Ave. from SRAC’s back alley to Broad St. Next we setup our blue and white tents across Park Ave. where it met Broad St., making our own little theatre for the day, enclosed by SRAC and the building on the opposite side of the street.

By then, MaryAnn and Don Taylor had arr i ve d, wi th Marilyn and nd August 22 was the date that he gave us with just a few Daran Weber, weeks lead time, and I still needed to get the Waverly CounBeryl Cleary, Nellie Brewster, Pat Miran, and so many othcil to approve my request to close down the street for the ers that manned the gift shop and sold tickets all day. Outdate. In the end they held a separate meeting one afternoon side in the front tents, Janet Andrus had borrowed the popjust to officially approve the request and give me enough corn maker from Elderwood and actually rented a snow lead time for advertising and setup plans. cone maker and bought fixings to sell popcorn and snow Next came the advertising – and asking Brian Denlinger of cones to the kids all day. The Rail House, Al Burgess and Denlinger Designs to create an eye catching poster that his wife, also filled a tent and sold spiedies and hotdogs. would get people to the event. Within a day he had created The dance studio also sold teddy bears to the kids. The a poster that in the end became a sought after piece of Waverly Police donated over $250 to pay for every child’s memorabilia. For a handful of complimentary tickets, Gary admission to the last show. Murrelle at Signs Express in Sayre made 100 full color postBy the time the show was to begin, the street was transers using Brian’s design, and we had our beautiful posters formed into a wonderful carnival-like place, and the audiready within days to be dispersed. My co-workers at Guthrie ence packed each of the three shows. and many SRAC members took the posters from Vestal, Corning and Ithaca, NY to Troy PA. For those that attended, from the time that the doors opened and the bears came out walking upright into the Our local radio station, WATS-WAVR gave away 20 complicaged arena to the last moments that Frederick Rosaire and mentary tickets on the air and promoted the event. The his bear “Indian” spent answering individual questions, it Morning Times and Daily Review papers covered the event was a magical time that will not be forgotten. as well. Our website and blog constantly pushed new info about the Rosaire’s Bears Show coming to Waverly. But to those of us who experienced creating the event and seeing everyone come together from the first moment the The night before the event, our own Tom Vallilee was still decision was made, to putting away the last item after the working and getting things ready for electrical needs, shows that day, it was a magical feeling of community that bleachers loaned from Sayre High School, and other last was overwhelming. Although I did not get to mention all of minute details. The Rosaires pulled into Waverly at about the names of the people who helped us – I hope that you 7:30pm and the Waverly Police escorted them to the place know that your efforts have touched me and those of us at we had arranged for them to stay the night. SRAC who wanted so much for the day to be a special one The next morning by 7am, things started back up with Mark for the community. Twigg, Mark Madill, Jeff Terwilliger, Tom Vallilee, Sam Without ALL of you, it would have been just another show. Ayres, and Brian Denlinger all on hand when the Rosaire’s With you, it became a proud moment and fond memory! The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org


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TOM JACK -A NATIVE AMERICAN FRIEND BY TED KEIR, SRAC CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD was instrumental in doing much good for her race in the Allegheny region. She brought about a reciprocity of good feelings between the Indians and the whites of that region. She never married, giving as a reason that the Great Spirit made her a Tom Jack became known as a "peace man." When it was mother of a nation rather than a proposed by the Indians and Tories to massacre the white mother of a family. settlers in the Wyoming Valley, he refused to join them and White Fawn died in 1823, highly moved up the river with his family. They moved into a cabin respected, and in 1836 a monuon the south side of Sugar Creek at Burlington. Tom Jack ment was erected to her memory shared his few provisions with the early settlers and in every by the Moravian Missionary Sociway proved he was a friend, inviting them into his home. He ety, of which church she was a Ted Keir, SRAC Chairman traded salt with the settlers, knowing how valuable it was, member as were her parents. of the Board and never disclosed the salt's location. It is believed there was a salt dome on a hill near Burlington. There is a Histori- Tom Jack's memory has been cal Marker in Burlington with Tom Jack’s name on it, saying perpetuated by the name Tom Jack Creek, near whose he was an Iroquois Indian. mouth he lived and several clubs and organizations that use his name. Tom Jack stayed in the Burlington area until 1794 and then moved to the Allegheny River, where he died in 1809. He Steve Sliwinski, a Troy High School art teacher and avocaand his wife had two children, a daughter named White tional archaeologist, has painted a large vibrant image of Fawn and a son named Sun Down. The son suffered a Tom Jack after researching the life story of this famous Natragic death but I could not find out the details. White Fawn tive American. was educated and became a teacher and a missionary, and Tom Jack is credited in past history books as the last fullblooded Indian of Bradford County. He was a self-described Mingo-Christian Indian who was born at Logan's Gap, Pa. near the Juniata River. When the white people began to settle nearby, he moved to the Susquehanna River near the present town of Forty Fort. There he married Betty Montour , who was three-quarters Indian.

Thank you Allen Pierce Foundation!!! SRAC was again blessed to have received a $10,000 grant from the foundation this year. It is important the public know that this foundation is truly the reason that many local organizations, like SRAC, survive. Thank you to Peggy Pierce Elfvin and The Allen Pierce Foundation. We are honored to receive your vote of confidence for 2009-2010!

S R AC M E M B ER S H IP D R I V E C O N T ES T ! From today until our next annual membership meeting at our Drumbeats Through Time event on October 10, 2009, we are having a membership drive contest. SRAC members can win huge prizes for referring new members to SRAC! There will be three top winners in two categories: Most new members referred and most membership dollars made. How can YOU win? 1.) You need to be a member. 2.) In order for a referral to count for you in this contest, the new member must write in that they were referred by you on their membership form. 3.) Download the form at http://www.sracenter.org/Join/MembershipForm.pdf, put your name on them as the referrer and give them to your friends to join the contest today! 4.) We will keep track of the new members and referrers in our database. We'll announce the leaders at different intervals throughout the contest. The top three winners for both categories will win prizes and will be announced at the annual event in October! Stay tuned for more information! The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org


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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 2

THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND CONTESTOGAS By John Gilmary Shea, 1858 Recently I came across a copy of the handwritten article written by John Gilmary Shea that I purchased from one of our local museums. Written in 1858 and subsequently published in the same year in the “Historic Magazine, Vol .II,” this piece was meant to clarify the identity of the Susquehannocks and the Andastes in early historical documentation that referenced them by different names in different languages. As a result, even though Shea’s references do not use Champlain and the reference to when Brule visited yet another name for the Andastes - the “Carantouannais” in our region, I still thought that it would be a good article to share with our readers; to read and learn about these people, and for the references to many early documents and maps about them. Please note that you can read all of the Jesuit Relations including those referenced in the following article by visiting my website, www.SpanishHill.com and clicking the ”Jesuit Relations” button. ~ Deb Twigg, Executive Director, SRAC The doubt that seems to hang over the Andaste of the French writers and the Susquehannas mentioned by Virginia and Maryland writers, can we think be cleared away by a closer examination of the earlier writers, and the present essay is an attempt to convey to others the grounds for a belief that one identical nation was known to the French by the name of Andaste, Andastoe, Andastogue, Andastoei, Gandastogue; to the Dutch and Swedes by that of Mengwe or Minqua; to the Maryland and Virginia by that of Susquehanna, and by other Pennsylvanians, by that of Contestoga. THE ANDASTES Name – the Andaste are frequently mentioned by the early French writers from about 1630 down to their overthrow nearly fifty years later. The Jesuit annalists wrote first about them from the Huron territory, and we find “Andasta” defined “perche a faire la voute de la cabane,” “pole to make the roof of lodge,” in other words, a bow bent to half an ellipse. The name Andastoe in Huron corresponds to the Andastogue of the Iroquois, the “i “subscript of the Huron being replaced in the Iroquois dialect by a “g” as Potier notices in his Huron grammar.

The name frequently ends with “ronon” in Huron and “ronon” or “hage” in Iroquois, both terminations meaning “people” so that the full Huron name is Andastoeronon and the full Mohawk Gandastogueronon or Gandastoguehage. Language – The relations of the Jesuits and Bressani in his “Breve Relatione” mention them as a nation speaking a Huron dialect and as the writers had frequent opportunities of meeting men of the tribe, there can be no doubt on the point. See Huron Relations 1635, Rel. 1639, Rel. 1647, Rel.1672. Country – The territory of the Andastes lay according to Bressani, and the Relation of 1647 – 8 (p50) near the Swedish colony, one hundred and fifty miles S.E. by S. of the Hurons, inclining a little to the east; but the road from the one to the other was actually 200 leagues. Gallatin erroneously placed them on the headwaters of the Ohio, and having been unsuspectingly followed by Bancroft, has misled many (see Hist of the U.S. iii 245 and the map.) According to the Relation of 1662-3, a larger river rising near Lake Ontario led to their town. The earlier Relations mention that they lay near the Swedes, with whom they were on friendly terms. A Huron ambassador to the Andaste town in 1647

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THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND CONTESTOGAS cont. visited the Swedish fort, and there heard of the death of Father Jogues.

guage; thus on the forst page of Potier’s Huron Grammar we read “D alquindo pronoutiatur ut n, en vicissim n ut d.”

THE MINQUAS OR MENGWE

Language – The language of the Contestogues was an Iroquois dialect, as Coldens assures us in his “History of the Five nations” ii 58, and is evident from the names of the chiefs who appears in various treaties.

From the preceding data, furnished by the French accounts, it is evident that that the Andastes were 1.)Huron – Iroquois ; 2.) on the Susquehanna ; 3.) Near Fort Christina. We have now to see what Dutch and Swedish accounts say of any tribe answering these conditions. It will be seen that the Miqua or Mengwe alone do. Name – The name Minqua or Mengwe is Algonquin, and is given by the Delawares, who lay nearest the Swedes, just as the Maquuas (Mohawk) was given to the tribe who styled themselves Ganniegue. Language – The language of the Minquas is a dialect of the Huron, as is evidenced by the vocabulary in the “Nya Swerige” of Campanius (p. 172, rectius 182, and translated in Pennsylvania Historical Collections, “ iii 158) Country – The creek, called Minqua kill, was the road leading to their town. (Hazard p. 77.) Campanius thus describes their town - we quote form an English translation. “the Minques or Mickus lived at a distance of 12 (Swedish, i.e. 54 English) miles from new Sweden, where they daily come to trade with us. The way to their land was very bad…They live on a high mountain, very steep and difficult to climb; there they have a fort or square building, in which they reside…they have guns and small iron cannon, with which they shoot and defend themselves, and take with them when they go to war. They are strong and vigorous both young and old…they are tall people, and are not frightful in appearance. When they are fighting, they do not attempt to fly, but all stand like a wall as long as there is one remaining. They made the other Indians subject to them, so that they dare not stir, much less go to war against them; but their numbers are present greatly reduced by war and sickness.” From this it is evident that Andastes and Minquas coincide in race, language, location and relations with the Swedes; and in total absence of anything to show two dominant tribes with the same characteristics, we must consider them as the same tribe unless historical notices of one are not predicable of the other, which as we shall see, is not the case. THE CONTESTOGUES Name – The name Contestogues is an English form, and corresponds to the early French Gandastogues, just as the Caughnawaga do with the early French form Gandawague. The disappearance of the “d” is usual in the lan-

Locality – Contestoga is near the Susquehanna in the South of Pennsylvania, not far from Lancaster. These points coincide exactly with what we have seen of Andaste and Miqua, and are corroborated by the letter of Father Lamberville in (NY Documentary History, I 400; New York Colonial Documents, ix. 227); and by Penn’s treaty of 1701 (Penn. Hist. Coll., iii. P. 2, 169), where Minquas, Susquehannas, and Contestogues are spoken of as one tribe. As will be seen in the historical sketch, the subjugation of the Contestogues by the Iroquois, and the overthrow of the Andastes date from the same period. THE SUSQUEHANNAS Name – The name was given by Virgininan and Maryland tribes whose languages have totally disappeared. Language – Their language according to Smith, almost our only authority for the Virginia tribes, different from that after Powhatans and Tockwogh; the latter at least of whom seem to have been Algonquin. Father White’s Maryland Grammar and Dictionary, of which a copy is promised me, may throw some light on the point. As to the family of the language, it is a significant fact that Lederer in his “North Carolina explorations took a Susquehanna interpreter on his vist to the Tuscaroras. Country – They lay on the Susquehanna and were a warlike race, friends of the Swedes and Dutch ( M c S h e r r y ’ s “Maryland” p. 59) According to Smith, “The Susquehannocks inhabit upon

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THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND CONTESTOGAS cont. (Continued from page 11)

the chief spring of these four branches of the barges head (i.e. the Susquehanna) two days higher than our barge could pass for rocks.” On his map, as Bozman remarks, he locates their town on the east side of the Susquehanna, about 20 miles up. He elsewhere says “They can make near 200 able men, and are palisaded in their towns to defend them from the Massawomekes, their mortal enemies.” He describes and depicts a chief, whose garb, arms, and especially the mode of wearing the hair, wore peculiarly Huron. See Bozman, i. 128, 142. “The Swedes,” says a writer in 1648, “hiring out three of these soldiers to the Susquehannocks have taught those the use of our arms and fights, “ See citation in “Proud’s Pennsylvania, i . 111; Bozman’s Maryland, ii. 273. The meager accounts furnished us of the Susquehannas give us therefore only the locality and the connection with the Swedes to justify us in identifying the dominant Susquehannas with the dominant Minquas. The Treaty made by Penn in 1701 is here also an authority, as Conodagtoh is styled “King of the Susquehannas, Minquays, or Contestogo Indians.” HISTORY OF THE TRIBE – J. Gilmary Shea Before the year 1600 - the Andastogues had in a ten years war almost exterminated the Mohawks – Rel. 1659 – 60, p. 28. 1608 – Susquehannas at war with Messawomekes (Mohawks) – Smith 1614-1616 – “Minquas called by Mohawks Ogehage” at war with Mohawks – Map in NY Colonial Documents, vol. i., and map in O’Callaghan’s New Netherlands. 1633 – Minquas at war with Timber Creek Indians – De Vries. Swedes purchase lands and friendship of them. – Hazard, 48; Campanius. 1634 – Susquehannas at war with Yoamaeoes. 1639-1644 – Susquehannas make war on the Piscataways and Patuxents – Bozman’s Maryland, ii. 161. 1647 – The Andastes numbering 1,300 warriors, sent an embassy to Hurons, and offer them aid against the Iroquois. – Rel 1647 – 8, p. 50. 1652 – Sawahegeh, Auroghtaregh, Scarhuhadigh, Ruthchogah and Nathhelddianeh, Susquehannas chiefs in presence of a Swedish deouty cede to Maryland from Patuxent River to Palmer’s Island and from the Choptank to the N. E. branch, North of Elk River. Bozman, ii. 683. 1656 – Andaste hunters robbed by Onnondagason lake Ontario, and war expected – Rel. 1656 – 7 ch. 4-5. 1660 – Swedes makes presents to Minquas 1661 – Three Cayugas killed by Andastes. Rel . 1660-1, last chapter. 1661-1662 – Some Minquas killed near Swedish post by Senecas. Hazard, 341-6-7, citing Albany Records xvii. 142, 156. 1662-1663 – Western cantons defeated by Andastes and anxious for French aid. Rel. 1662-3, ch. 4. 1663 – May. As an army of 1,600 Senecas besieges 100 Minquas in a little fort, but were compelled to raise the siege, and being pursued by Minquas, lost ten warriors and ten prisoners. Hazard’s Ann. Pennsyl., 346. 1663 – 4 - Senecas wish French aid against the Andastes. – Rel. 1663 – 4, ch. 8; Charlevoiz, ii. 134. 1667 – A part of Cayugas harassed by Andastes cross Lake Ontario and settle on the north side. – Rel. 1667 – 8, ch. 5. 1668 – 73 – Andaste prisoners burnt at Onondaga and Oneidas. (Continued on page 13)

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THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND CONTESTOGAS cont. (Continued from page 12)

1669-1670 – Andastes attack Cayugas, but offer peace; Cayugas however, after a time pput their ambassadors to death. Rel. 1669-70. Senecas take prisoners. 1670-1671 – A Cayuga medicine man ordered his body to be interred on the road to Andastes, promising to prevent their inroads. Promises that they will take a Hochitagete, a great Andaste chief. 1671-1672 – A Seneca war party takes the field against the Andastes, intending to join a Cayuga party, but before they can effect a junction, are routed by 60 Andaste youth who then pursue Cayugas – Rel. 1671-2 p. 81. “God help them,” says the writer, “They have only 300 warriors.” 1672 – Andastes burnt at Onondaga. 1675 – The total defeat of the Andastes mentioned in the “Etat Present” of 1675. 1676 – The Relations of this year says, “Andastoguets exterminated by the Iroquois after having made head against them for more than 20 years. P. 2. 1675 – Contestogues said to have been subdued about this time by the Five Nations. 1675 – Susquehannas retreating before Senecas attacked by Marylanders and Virginians under Traceman and Washington, and their chiefs put to death. 1675-1676 – Governor of Maryland in a commission to Col. Cousey, dated April 30, 1677, says that the Susquehannas had lately desired to make peace with Lord Baltimore, and after these overtures had submitted to put themselves under the protection of the Cinnigos. See Dr. O’Callaghan’snote in NY Colonial Documents, ix, 227. 1683 – Iroquois claimed to have annexed the Susquehanna Territory – Colden, i. 54 1701 – Contestogues make a treaty with Penn. 1749 – Teorhassery (Day Dawn) and other Contestoga chiefs at treaty of Philadelphia. 1763 – Contestogues massacred by Paxton Boys. See account Parkman’s Pontiac, p. 414.

RECENT CONTRIBUTORS TO SRAC Special thanks to the following for their support: • Dandy Mini Marts • Triple Cities NYS Archaeological Assoc. • Janet Andrus • Guthrie Health • Stan Vanderlaan • Beryl Cleary • John & Dee Margetanski

• • • • • •

Ann Riley Frank Patterson Waverly Police Dept. Peter Pratt Dan Caister Athens Rotary

Would you like to be a volunteer in our gift shop? Volunteers who work at least 7 hours a month get to attend all SRAC events each month for free! Call the Center at (607)5657960 during hours of operation for more information.

Contact Us!

Our Headquarters Mail: SRAC PO Box 12 Sayre, PA 18840 Phone: 607607-727727-3111 Email: info@SRACenter.org Our Center Location: 345 Broad St. Waverly, NY Phone: 607607-565565-7960 Website: SRACenter.org Online Giftshop: SRACenter.org/store Online Membership: SRACenter.org/join SRAC Blog: SRACenter.blogspot.com Online Donations: SRACenter.org/donations Mobile Website: SRACenter.org/mobile

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 2

R E C E NT E V E N T S AT S R AC There’s always something happening at SRAC! Our events draw more and more people. In fact, we recently had to turn people away when it became clear we were at risk of exceeding safe building capacity. We love to share pictures captured at these events. Thanks, as always, to John Margetanski for his generosity in taking pictures and sharing his photography!

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 2

R E C E NT E V E N T S AT S R AC

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org


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THE SRAC JOURNAL

Volume 5, Issue 2

W O O L L Y M A M M O T H … . I N W AV E R L Y ! The Andaste Chapter of PA Archaeology is one of the oldest chapters in Pennsylvania, and the United States. Silvia Wilson and Ted Keir are now, to my knowledge, the oldest living members of the club at this time. Early on, as SRAC was being formed, I also joined the Andaste Chapter, and the close ties between the two organizations have become even closer over the years.

Anyone interested in financially supporting this new and exciting exhibit are asked to send donations to: SRAC WOOLLY MAMMOTH FUND PO Box 12 Sayre, PA 18840

Thank you in advance for your support of this wonderful addition to our community!

Since SRAC bought the Center in Waverly, we have hosted many of the Andaste Chapter monthly meetings at SRAC as a joint meeting and have invited the TriCities Chapter of NY Archaeology to also join in to make it a “border” meeting whenever possible. Today the Andaste Chapter and TriCities Chapter have become great supporters and friends to our fledgling organization, and to me, we have all become a little better together because of the friendships we have made. Early in September we were notified that the Andaste Chapter of PA Archaeology had received a grant that would facilitate getting reproductions of the woolly mammoth 10 foot tusk, jaw and teeth that were excavated at Spring Lake near Wyalusing in Bradford County, PA. Ted Keir, Tom Vallilee, Mark Madill and many others from the Andaste Chapter assisted the Carnegie Museum in the excavation that summer in 1987. This is a huge honor for SRAC, and we have already been working with our friend Brian Denlinger of Denlinger Design to help us create and exhibit that will span thousands of years and incorporate the woolly mammoth pieces into an exhibit that will be viewed for generations to come. This is a rendering of the basic layout, placement and design that Brian has created. As you will note, the exhibit will fill the whole back area of the exhibit hall and include our mural, a new TV/DVD area, two murals, the birch bark canoe on a river and even a waterfall and rock ledges created. The final phase of the exhibit will then house an “excavation site” where the replicas will be placed with life size standups of Ted and some of the Andaste Chapter at the 1987 wooly mammoth dig. The whole exhibit will speak of the ability of archaeology to be the medium that can allow us to see the past while paying tribute to the Andaste Chapter’s efforts at the archaeological dig in 1987.

Thank you to the Mildred Faulkner Truman Foundation for the $5,000 grant to upgrade the fire/smoke detectors and security system at SRAC! Your philanthropy in our region is awe inspiring! With this grant, SRAC will be able to more safely and securely accommodate the many collections we currently house. The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org


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Volume 5, Issue 2

THE SRAC JOURNAL

The Valley Digs Culture! One of the Valley's oldest organizations will join with one of its newest to present "The Valley Digs Culture" on Sunday, Nov. 8 here at the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center on Broad Street, Waverly. The unique "infotainment" event will benefit both the Polyhymnia Music Club, part of the Valley's cultural scene since 1897, and SRAC, which dates from 2005. The afternoon (from 2-5 p.m.) will include entertainment by a lineup of outstanding musicians (including some of the winners of the club's recent auditions), great food, and a chance to learn more about the amazing collections housed here at SRAC. The exhibit hall will be open with SRAC directors on hand to answer questions and explain the significance of the many items on display -- all of which are much older even than Polyhymnia Club! Raffles and games will also be featured during this event designed to entertain and inform the whole family. Tickets -- they're $10, with no charge for those under 12 -- are available at the Center and from members of the Polyhymnia Club.

SRAC operates with 100% volunteer staffing. The people listed below donate hundreds of hours every month to make SRAC a success. Thank you for all that you do! We survive because of your efforts!

S R AC B OA R D • • • • •

Deb Twigg Dick Cowles Ted Keir Susan Fogel Tom Vallilee

OF • • •

DIRECTORS Janet Andrus Mary Ann Taylor Mark Madill

S RAC V OLUNTE ERS • • • • •

Mary Keene Bev Beryl Cleary Sam Ayers Ben Borko

• • • • •

Pat Miran Nellie Brewster Ann Carrigan Don Taylor Marilyn and Derek Weber

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THE SRAC JOURNAL

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Volume 5, Issue 2  

THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION, THE KASSLY TABLET, Tom Jack-Native American Friend, Identity of the Andaste, Minquas..

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