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In this issue: Page 2, ‘Square & Compasses, Symbol or Emblem?’ Looking at or most recognised symbol. Page 3, ‘The Craft at Sea.’ A Poem. Page 4, ‘Victor McLaglen.’ Another Famous Freemason. Page 5, ‘Lodge Plantation No.581.’ Another History of one of our old Scottish Lodges. Page 10, ‘Rays of Masonry’, “The Decision”, our Regular monthly feature. Page 11, ‘The Old Tiler Talks’. “On Investigation a Petitioner”, the twenty fifth in the series from Carl Claudy. Page 14, ‘The Society of the Horseman’s Word’ Fraternal Societies throughout the World. Page 16, ‘The Origin of Masonry’. Part Two – The House Erected to God. Page 19, ‘Is Publications Injurious to Freemasonry?’ An article from 1888. Page 20, ‘Square and Compasses’ The thoughts of Bro. Rabbi Raymond Apple. Page 21, ‘In Masonry be Blest’ A Poem Page 22, ‘The Masonic Dictionary’ Beehive

In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘The Mason’s Mark’. Fair Work, Square Work and Sound Work! [link] The front cover picture was designed by the editor.


The Square & Compasses Symbol or Emblem? When you place the Square and Compasses on your lapel, are you putting on an emblem or a symbol? Many of our brethren today have forgotten the symbolism and are only reflecting to the outer world the emblem of an organization they belong too. To each of us the Square & Compasses symbolizes something that cannot always be put into words. To Masons of days gone by, it meant a Lodge room and brethren where they could meet and discuss their daily trials and tribulations without fear of treachery, to others it was a post office or a news stand where they could get the latest news from home. To many, it was a respite from the turmoil of the world which would never be the same after past Wars. Our World History is replete with stories of how the Square and Compasses have saved the lives of brethren either through the Sign of Distress or the recognition of the Symbol itself. Some men have just enjoyed meeting with other men and the fellowship that ensued while just sharing a common meal. To the majority of men it means a way of life. We know the meaning of the inner spiritual temple of man and must show that to our uninitiated friends. We must always chose to serve rather than to be served. We feel we are

privileged to belong to the Craft and search for the deeper meaning which has held it together, some say for thousands of years. Is the vast organization of Masonry merely ordained to the grown up men of the World the symbolic meaning of a few simple builders tools, or to impress upon us such elementary virtues as temperance and justice? The children of every school are taught these. Or just to enforce such simple principles or morals such as brotherly love, which every church and religion teaches; or of truth, which every infant learns upon his mother's knee. The Craft whose work we are taught to honour with the name of a "science" a royal art," has surely some larger end in view than merely inculcating the practice of social virtues common to all the world and by no means the monopoly of Freemasons. Of Course, but how do we communicate it? By living the ritual that we know so well. We all came seeking spiritual rebirth. The first degree is the comprehensive portrayal of that entrance of all men into, first, physical life, and second, spiritual life; or more eminently the degree of self discipline and purification. For he who is not pure in body and mind and who is enslaved by passions and desires of this world, is by the very fact of his uncleanliness, prevented from passing on. After purification comes contemplation and enlightenment, which are the special subjects of the second degree. Here he is taught to persist with fortitude and with prudence, to develop the highest within him with "Fervency and Zeal." The third degree symbolically passes him through a great


and striking change: A re-birth a regeneration of his whole nature. He has been "sown a corruptible body"; and in virtue of self-discipline and selfdevelopment he has undergone, there has been raised in him "an incorruptible body" and death has been swallowed up in the victory, he has attained over himself. How can you feel this meaning of the Craft? By learning the meaning behind the words of the rituals. Take part, live the part, get taken up into the very nature of it and then you will begin to feel the light. No one can communicate the deeper things in Masonry to another. Every man must discover and learn them for himself, although a friend or brother may be able to conduct him on the right path of understanding. Only when we begin to feel the symbolism of Masonry can we truly say "I wear the symbol and not the emblem of our Craft." Article sourced from the Dormer Masonic Study Group.

THE CRAFT AT SEA ‘Twas in the troopship Silver Cloud We sailed across the sea, Among a ranting, warring crowd, A little company. Down on the orlop deck we met, Athwart the after hold; The ancient landmarks all were set As in the days of old. The lodge walls were with canvas hung, A screen served for the door, A chequered flag at length outflung The tessellated floor. We had no pillared fancy porch, No light with dazzling gleams,


The star was an electric torch Hung up atween the beams. The furnishings our poverty Showed nakedly and bare, A storm-stressed flag the canopy Above the Master’s chair. An empty box, another flag And th’ altar stood upright, The Sacred Volume on the rag Gave us the needed light. The tools were from the engine-room, A compass and a square, Some wood, the handle of a Broom, Made up our outfit there. But though the tools were rough and rude We held to plumb and line, No workmanship was passed if crude To mar the grand design. The grim old skipper took his place, Right worthy of the blue, The mate too at the North-East base The stone laid plumb and true. The captains working in the dark Of that degree sublime, Proved very devils at their work, There was no marking time. The subs, in turn filled every parts, And from the Sacred Page Would lecture as with all the art Of PM’S old and sage. And all the Craftsmen from their ways Instruction duly learned, The Master Workmen getting praise And wages duly earned. The bulkhead dulled the throb and clank Of our steam-driven slaves, And either side uprose or sank Upon the troubled waves. But ne’er a lodge have I sat in As that so full and free, Amid the engine’s clanking din The rolling of the sea. by W.M.W. Watt From “Anzac’s Moods.”

Famous Freemasons Victor McLaglen

home to enlist in the British Army to fight in the Boer War. Once it was discovered he lied about his age, he was dismissed from the Army and four years later he moved to Canada, where he became a professional wrestler and heavyweight boxer. Probably him most famous fight was a 6 round exhibition bout against the Heavyweight Champion of the World, Jack Johnson. This was Johnson’s first bout since winning the title. In a touring circus he became a bare-knuckled fighter offering a box of cigars to anyone who could last three rounds with him. When World War I Broke out, he served in the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment as an acting Captain and later the Irish Fusiliers. In 1918 he won the Heavyweight Championship of the British Army.

Film fans throughout the World naturally assume the Victor McLaglen is Irish given that he is probably best known for playing Irish characters, such as Squire 'Red' Will Danaher in the Quiet Man, Sgt. Maj. Timothy Quincannon in Rio Grande, Top Sgt. Quincannon in She Wore A Yellow Ribbon and Sgt. Festus Mulcahy in Fort Apache, all opposite the legendary John Wayne. However, Victor McLaglen was an Englishman born in Tungridge Wells, Kent in 1883. The son of a Bishop, the family moved to South Africa when McLaglen was a child and at the age of fourteen he left

After the war. Mclaglen had some roles in the British silent films industry and soon he was offered parts in Hollywood playing mainly Irish character parts. One such role was his part in the film ‘The Informer’ in 1935, a story of the Irish Rebellion that cast McLaglen as dull-witted turncoat Gypo Nolan. He won the Best Actor Oscar for his portrayal of the part. One legend has it that John Ford the Director encouraged him to drink before filming his scenes, to get into character. John Ford frequently used McLaglen in his films and was nominated as Best Supporting Actor for his role opposite John Wayne in “The Quiet Man (1952)”, Ford had previously used Victor in his Calvary trilogy, and although it does not seem like it, Victor McLaglen and John Wayne only


appeared together in the four films already mentioned, although Wayne may have appeared in some early films in bit parts. One memorable line is from “She wore a yellow Ribbon” when McLaglen calls Wayne, “Captain Darling,” All told, McLaglen has credits in over 135 films, many of the typecast as the archetypal Irishman. Victor McLaglen was married three times. His first marriage was to Enid Lamont in 1919. The couple had one daughter, Sheila, and one son, Andrew. Andrew V. McLaglen was a television and film director. His third and final marriage was to Margaret a Seattle socialite, until his death of a heart attack in 1959. He had by that time become a naturalized U.S. citizen. He is buried in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. He was a member of the Los Angeles No.42, Los Angeles, California, and in 1930 he received the 32nd Scottish Rite degree. Brethren, I’m always on the look out for famous freemasons for the Newsletter. If you have come across one you would like see included, get in touch, give me his name and Lodge and leave the rest to me.

Treasurer's Note Forget the hasty, unkind word: Forget the slander you have heard; Forget the quarrel and the cause; Forget the whole affair, because, Forgetting is the only way. Forget the storm of yesterday; Forget the knocker, and the squeak; Forget the bad day of the week. Forget you're not a millionaire; Forget the grey streaks in your hair; Forget to even get the blues But don’t forget to pay your Dues!


Lodge Plantation Glasgow No.581. A lot has happened since 22 brethren met on 26th January 1876 in the premises of Bro. Alex gow, Camden place, Govan road, Glasgow to discuss the formation of a lodge. A meeting was held in the choral hall, Lambkill Street on 1st February 1876 with Bro. William Ferguson (a family which has spanned the full 125 years of the lodge) in the chair. The decision was taken to call the lodge 'plantation'. Initiation fees, affiliation fee 10/6 and the founding office bearers chosen with Bro Thomas Stobo of 3bis elected charter master. The first meeting of the lodge was held on 6th February 1876 (the charter date) with Bro William Ferguson d.m. in the chair. Bro Stobo who was a factor had offered the hall, which he owned in Craigiehall Street and this was secured at a rent of £10 per annum rent. The opening ceremony was fixed for 13th march 1876 in the Masonic hall Craigiehall Street and was carried out by Bro A McTaggart M.A., provincial grand secretary of Glasgow representing the grand lodge of Scotland who handed over the charter of constitution to Bro Thomas Stobo RWM The lodge continued to meet regularly in Craigiehall Street until 1885 when it removed to more suitable premises at 465 Paisley Road. The first meeting in the new hall was held on 21st December 1885. In the early days as well as the social meetings the lodge embarked on what was described as the annual excursion and among the places visited were

Drummond castle and gardens, Roslyn, falls of Clyde, lochearnhead, crieff and comrie, kyles of Bute, lake of menteith etc. The lodge continued to meet in the hall in paisley road, but finding the accommodation was not sufficient to meet the requirements a committee was formed on 9th October 1893 to look for suitable premises. On 23rd October the committee reported that suitable premises could be obtained at 7 Rutland crescent on favourable terms and it was unanimously agreed to lease the premises. It was agreed to hold a bazaar to defray the cost of the alterations etc to the hall. The first meeting in the new halls at 7 Rutland crescent was held on 21st may 1894. Bro John Graham J.P. of Broadstone, right worshipful provincial grand master of Glasgow city province, and provincial grand office bearers consecrated the lodge premises on 10th September 1894. The lodge continued to meet in Rutland crescent until 1983. The bazaar referred to above was held in the fine art institute (now McClellan galleries) sauchiehall street, Glasgow on 3rd, 4th and 5th January 1895 and the gross proceeds amounted to ÂŁ2,162 15s 11d. In March 1901 the semi-jubilee of the lodge was celebrated by a well-attended and brilliant function in the Masonic rooms 100 west regent street. Bro John Wallace RWM presided and was supported by most of the past masters and office bearers of the lodge. During 1901 and 1902 a number of Sunday evening sacred concerts were held in the hall, 7 Rutland crescent, also a grand concert in the Grand National

halls, presided over by Bro sir Samuel Chisholm, Bart., lord provost of Glasgow. The object of the scheme was to secure for the lodge permanent connection with, and interest in, the Victoria and western infirmaries. The lodge was enabled to subscribe fifty guineas to the Victoria infirmary and fifty pounds to the western infirmary. By these subscriptions the lodge secured the right to recommend two patients annually for treatment in each of these useful institutions. In 1903 Bro Rev Thomas Angus Morrison was elected RWM and occupied the chair with great acceptance. Since then he has held very important positions in masonry among others that of provincial grand chaplain of Glasgow and grand chaplain. During the years of the Great War, the lodge held many fund raising concerts and made grants to the Prince of Wales national relief fund, Belgian refugee fund, Scottish hospital for limbless sailors and soldiers. ÂŁ100 was donated to the British Red Cross society and in recognition of this two beds in the bellahouston hospital were named 'lodge plantation no 581'. In 1918 the lodge held an active service members dinner and a roll of honour on which was inscribed the names of 138 brethren who had served was handed to the lodge. In 1923 Bro John Clark PM retired as treasurer having held the post for some 25 years. Bro Clark also served as master for 3 years. It is interesting to note that in December 1924 the total assets of the lodge amounted to ÂŁ6,712


and of this £5,000 was held by the annuity fund.

organisation of the John Adam whist tournament in provincial grand lodge.

In 1936 Bro George s Ferguson became RWM, son of Bro William Ferguson who was a founder member of the lodge. In the same year, his son Bro James Taylor Ferguson was initiated.

A proposal was put to the lodge that on the occasion of the provincial grand lodge visitation on 17th march 1947 that the lodge have a 'dry night'- the proposal was heavily defeated.

It is very unfortunate that the lodge minute books to 1945 are missing but, in the intervening period the lodge continued to prosper and as the Second World War approached the brethren of lodge plantation joined the armed services in great numbers in defence of the nation. The lodge formed the war comfort committee to assist the absent brethren’s wives, children and indeed mothers through the war years. On 1st October 1945, the benevolent committee of the lodge agreed that a grant of £2 ios be made to each annuitant of the lodge as a’ victory grant'. The war comfort committee was dissolved on 17th December 1945 and thankfully has never had to be reformed.

A roll of honour was purchased at a cost of £11 and on Sunday 2nd November 1947 a memorial service was held in the lodge. The service was conducted by Bro rev g Kerr McKay T.D., M.A. substitute provincial grand master. Bro James McGregor Murray delivered the address.

The annual report of the lodge of 1945 revealed that the average attendance had increased to 89 and that 41 intrants had been received into the lodge. As 1945 came to a close the lodge organised a burns supper and 70th anniversary dinner for the following year in the marlbourgh at a cost of 12/6. They also organised a concert in the Kingston halls in aid of the provincial war hospital fund with the star turn' being Sir Harry lauder. Balcony seats 2/6d other areas 2/- and children half price. This was a busy time in the social calendar of the lodge with a victory dance being held. Bro James McGregor Murray became very active in the


The first past master's dinner was held on 12th September 1947 in the Beresford hotel. In June 1948 Bro Charles Leggat received a 50-year diploma. 1949 saw Bro James Taylor Ferguson installed as rw.m. The third generation of his family to occupy the chair of the lodge. Bro James went on to become the senior warden on the provincial grand lodge of Glasgow and was commissioned as a substitute provincial grand master. He has since celebrated 60 years in the craft and 50 years as a past master. Bro James also holds the distinguished service diploma from the grand lodge of Scotland. In September 1956 the new lodge furniture, now on permanent loan to lodge Robert burns no 440, of wardens chairs and dais, and alter was dedicated for use in the lodge. 1958 the lodge saw fit to honour Bro E Nokes d p g m - who went on to become provincial grand master - with honorary membership of the lodge.

The kiddies treat to Busby started and the lodge received a certificate to run a lottery where the prizes included a three-piece suite, cocktail cabinet and also an electric razor. Bro James McGregor Murray won the singles bowling cup. In 1960 Bro H B Weir PM, then junior deacon, presented the lodge with two deacons rods with the dove of peace on the head. The lodge won the John Adam whist cup. The rangers’ supporters association arranged a long lease on the property at no 5 Rutland crescent. The lodge bus run went to dunoon and the instruction class was started and well supported. Through the sixties the lodge continued to prosper. The monthly dances continued, the kiddies treat became an annual event, as did the Xmas party. In 1970 the lodge saw the visitation of the Robertson fellow craft team of Cleveland Ohio in the USA. Bro James McGregor Murray announced that at the end of 1971 he was resigning as chairman of the John Adam whist cup after 25 years in the job. In 1973 it was agreed that a lottery be started to raise funds for the centenary celebrations and Bro Robert Gibson was placed in charge. Through the seventies the lodge continued with the various fund raisers jumble sales, lotteries. The social events, dances and kiddies treats continued. Everything was geared towards the centenary of the lodge in 1976.

The year soon approached and the rededication ceremony arranged for Saturday 13th march 1976. The deputation was honoured by a deputation from the provincial grand lodge of Glasgow headed by the provincial grand master Bro Brian g Brown (Bro James T Ferguson was also in the deputation as a substitute provincial grand master) and a large deputation. The lodge was further graced by a deputation from the grand lodge of Scotland and this was headed by the grand master mason Bro Capt. Robert Wolrige Gordon of esslemont. Bro J Hunter I p m assumed the chair as the RWM Bro James McFarlane had suffered a family bereavement and was unable to attend. The act of rededication was carried out by the grand chaplain Bro rev John m Stewart under the direction of the grand director of ceremonies Douglas a Aitkin. At the conclusion of the ceremony the grand master mason was offered honorary membership of the lodge which he stated he was delighted to accept. Grand chaplain was also made an honorary member of the lodge. The lodge was then closed and the brethren adjourned to the Govan town hall for the official banquet. Donations of £100 were made to the benevolent funds of both the grand lodge of Scotland and provincial grand lodge of Glasgow to mark the event. Bro j b hunter IPM further presented the grand master mason and grand chaplain with commemorative jewels to mark the occasion. The brethren who had attended the events had all in all a wonderful day. The total funds raised by Bro Gibson’s lottery that started in 1973 were some £1265.


In 1979 Bro Brian g Brown provincial grand master of Glasgow attended the lodge for the purpose of presenting Bro James McGregor Murray with the distinguished service diploma from the grand lodge of Scotland. Bro Murray had joined the lodge on 24th June 1918, became master in 1940-41 he was now the senior past senior provincial grand warden of the province of Glasgow, past chairman of the halls and buildings committee of grand lodge, honorary grand jeweller of the grand lodge of Scotland, proxy master of lodge oranje no 1603. On the same evening Bro David McFarlane Whitlock was also presented with the distinguished service diploma having completed 28 years as Tyler of the lodge. Bro j p Brisbane who had joined the lodge in 1919 becoming master in 1930-31,completed 11 years as treasurer and Bro Henry m bell who joined the lodge in 1942 becoming master in 1947-48 and completed 25 years as benevolent fund treasurer were also presented with the same honour. For his part, Bro James Strachan presented the provincial grand master with a special wooden triangle containing a lodge mark token. 1981 saw Bro George morrow, a past benevolent fund treasurer presented with a 50 year diploma. Bro morrow in turn presented the lodge with a first issue of first man on the moon Apollo ii in which Bro Edwin Aldrin jnr mm is depicted. The James turner trophy for pool and darts was presented to the lodge. In May Bro William Fleming, provincial grand master of Glasgow was made an honorary member of the lodge. Tote double cards were introduced as fund raisers. And in memoriam service was held on 20th September 1982


following the death of Bro John p Brisbane PM When Bro Douglas was master in 1983, a decision had to be made as regards the lodge premises as a bulge and crack had appeared in the rear wall of the property and the council described the property as dangerous. As there were no funds available to meet the substantial cost of repairs it was reluctantly agreed that the premises be sold to the council. The lodge then moved to the Masonic temple in Govan town hall with the first meeting being held on 3rd September 1984. In 1986 Bro James t Ferguson PM was presented with his 50 year diploma by the provincial grand master Bro William c shepherdson who in turn was made an honorary member of the lodge. The lodge held a race night which raised ÂŁ740 of much needed funds. The prize draw raised a further ÂŁ225. In December 1987 Bro William Gilmour jnr was installed as RWM he also was master in 1995 and became the 125th master of the lodge on 2nd December 2000. Bro Gilmour was commissioned as a substitute provincial grand master of Glasgow on 4th august 1992 by the then provincial grand master the late Bro Henry Jeffrey. He has since been commissioned by Bro George a l McEwen and also serves our present provincial grand master Bro Robert r best as a substitute provincial grand master. The lodge continued through the eighties and early nineties in Govan town hall. In 1993 the lodge's second affiliate master was installed in the person of Bro Richard m Allan. Richard

served the lodge in the capacity of master for a period of two years. He also serves the province of Glasgow and is in his second year of office as provincial grand treasurer. Glasgow district council decided that they would close their public halls and the lodge became homeless. It moved for a short while to the disabled drivers’ association hall in Aboukir Street and we would thank them for affording us shelter. We then moved to the rangers’ supporters’ association social club where we stayed for two years, the lodge is now domiciled in the Clifford street Masonic centre. The millennium master of the lodge was Bro James McIntosh who attained the chair after some 30 years a member of 581. Bro Robert r best provincial grand master of Glasgow was made an honorary member of the lodge. 2001 a presentation of a 50-year diploma was made to Bro William Aitkin and in 2005 William Gilmour jnr PM is installed as the provincial grand master of the province of Glasgow, with Richard m. Allan, pm, installed as a substitute provincial grand master. The editor and the newsletter acknowledge Lodge 581 as the copyright owner of this history. If your Lodge has a history that it might like our readers to read, contact the editor.

Do you know that when a woman wears a leather dress, a man's heart beats quicker, his throat gets dry, he gets weak in the knees, and he begins to think irrationally. Ever wondered why? It’s because she smells like a new Golf Bag!

Rays of Masonry “The Decision” We must always keep the vision clear and maintain a crystal clear view of our objectives, purposes, our principles and ideals. The Mason's zeal can never be in the interest of an institution except to the extent that such an institution teaches a moral science based upon Divine Laws. The zeal for a name or for a banner that represents and perpetuates a name, is a form of fanaticism. Throughout the centuries Masonry has gone its silent and forceful way of stressing the wisdom of the ages in terms of the Fatherhood of God, the Brotherhood of Man. Stubbornly it has maintained the nobility of man based upon the moral responsibility of the individual, while the world has struggled over insignificant differences. Masonry proclaims the truth that all men are Brothers. Now Science, horrible and destructive, comes forth with a new weapon so terrifying that it frightens equally those who have it and those who do not possess the secret. Man is driven by this monster to a great decision. Shall it be the survival of man through Understanding, Love and Brotherhood, the principles of Freemasonry, based upon Divine Laws, or shall it be destruction because man refuses to surrender his old, old hate? Masonry is a Moral Science. The weight of our Institution will now become the deciding factor in the history of mankind. It may not be the name, "Freemasonry," but it must be


Freemasonry in principle if man is to become the victor over the science of destruction. It is important, important beyond the imagination, for every Mason to add his individual strength on the side of Right and Brotherhood in this crisis of civilization. Dewey Wollstein 1953. Rays of Masonry are the musings of Dewey Wollstein, and make for very good reading, these appear as a monthly regular feature in the newsletter.

Masonic Humour On Investigation a Petitioner. A ragged tramp stopped a Mason on his way home from the lodge and asked him for money for food. “I’ll do better than that!” said the Mason. “Come into the pub, and I’ll buy you a drink!” “Thank you!” said the beggar. “But I’ve never drunk and I never will!” “Well, let me buy you some cigarettes then!” said the Mason. “No, thanks!” said the tramp, “I’ve never smoked and I never will!” “Okay”, said the Mason. “Come back to the lodge with me and I’ll see you get a meal!” “No, thanks”, said the man. “I’ve never entered a masonic lodge and I never will!” “Right, then”, said the Mason “Will you please come home with me and meet my wife!” “Why?” asked the tramp. “Well”, said the Mason. “I just want her to see what happens to a guy who doesn’t drink, doesn’t smoke and hasn’t joined the Masons!”


"An odd question was asked of me today," began the New Brother to the Old Tiler. "Chap who just received his Master Mason degree was assigned to his first committee on a petition. He asked me, 'What do you try to find out about this fellow?' Wasn't that a bird of a question?" "I should like to hear what sort of animal your reply was," answered the Old Tiler. "So I ask you the same question. What do you try to find out about a petitioner when you are on his committee?" "Oh, I take the duty very seriously, I assure you," answered the New Brother. "I go to see him and find out if he has all his arms and legs; no maimed man is going to get in if I know it! I size him up, and see what sort of a chap he is,

and if I think he's all right I report so. If I have any cause to doubt anything, I talk to his employer." "I thought so!" answered the Old Tiler. "You regard him as perfectly innocent until he is proved guilty, and satisfy yourself that he has two legs and arms. If he looks like a good fellow, you tell the lodge he is one, and I dare say if he has a dirty face and frayed pair of trousers you say he isn't ready to be a Master Mason!" "Well, what's the matter with that? Isn't that what we are supposed to do?" "Only partly," answered the Old Tiler. "Do you know Gus, of this lodge?" "Everyone knows Gus! Chap who limps!" "Do you think he is a good Mason?" "As far as I can see, why?" "Gus only has one leg, you know. He lost it after he became a Master Mason." "Yes, I know. What's that got to do with it?" "It seems to indicate that the least important part of your duties is to find out whether a man has the correct number of members! I know it's law; we do not admit the one-footed or the onehanded. Sometimes I think it is a cruel law. But when the law is stretched to say that a man with a finger or a toe missing, or one eye, or one ear, or a humped back, or a clubfoot, cannot

become a Mason, then I think there should be a higher law than this one! "It seems to me that your method of looking into the merits of an applicant leaves something to be desired. You say, 'If I think he's all right.' You have no business to think he's all right. You can't tell him from a criminal by sizing him up. You may be a remarkable judge of appearances, but the lodge doesn't appoint you on a petitioner's committee for your ability to 'size someone up.' It appoints you to go out and dig. "You 'size a man up' by his appearance and his speech. Many a good Mason has been made out of a man whose clothing was not fashionable and whose speech was rough. It is not the outward appearance which counts; it's the man under the coat. You can't discover the man under the coat by looking at the coat. "It's good American doctrine that a man is innocent until he is proved guilty, but that doctrine presupposes that some power has accused the man. The applicant for Masonic degrees is not accused of anything. He is asking a favor. When a man asks a favor he should prove that he is worthy of having it granted. You regard him as unfit for the favor until he is proved fit. You have the same right to regard an applicant as unfit for the degrees of Masonry until he shows you that he is. "When I investigate a petitioner I see him in his home. If he is married I want to see him with his wife. If he has a child or children, I want to know whether they hang around Daddy's neck


or cower away from him. I once went to see a man and waited for him, talking to his wife and children. They were a gay little pair and she a nice woman. All three looked often out the window, anxiously. After a while Mother saw the man coming. 'Hush, babies,' she said, 'be very quiet now, here comes Daddy.' They hushed. The man didn't speak to them when he came in, and just nodded to his wife. "I didn't stop there. I gave him every chance. I talked with his employers, and his fellow employees. I discovered an egotist, a self-seeker, a selfish and hard man. I turned him down with joy; he wasn't of Masonic calibre. "No man can pass me who cannot explain why he wants to be a Mason. He has to argue that question with me at length. If I find it's because he thinks it will help him in business or he thinks the lodge will care for him or his if he loses his job, or because he is curious, he doesn't get in. "I want to know of a man, does he pay his debts? If he is married, is he insured? If not, why not? If it's because he can't afford to be, he can't afford to be a Mason. I would not willing allow an uninsured married man to join my lodge, because he has not the conception of the protection of dependent loved ones which marks a man as a man. I won't let a man pass who isn't trusted by his fellows. I have reported favorably on men who couldn't get in a business man's club or a fashionable church." "I better hunt up the Brother who asked me what I thought an odd question and


give him a better answer!" said the New Brother. "You just didn't think!" answered the Old Tiler. "No, I didn't. But I'm right pleased with the conversation," added the New Brother. "How so?" asked the Old Tiler. "Because I remember you were on my committee!" This is the twenty fifth article in this regular feature, ‘The Old Tiler Talks,’ each month we publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy

DID YOU KNOW? The Rev. William Dodd, first Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of England, was hanged for forgery on June 2nd, 1777 despite a prolonged public campaign for a Royal pardon supported by a 37 page petition with over 23,000 signatures. One of his last published works was (appropriately enough) "The Convicts Address to his Unhappy Brethren". Angelo Soliman, was born in Africa in 1721 and brought to Europe as a slave at the age of ten. He was educated, married, and became a favourite in the royal court in Vienna. Somewhere before 1771 he became a Freemason. When he died 1776, the Emperor had his body stuffed and mounted in the natural history museum, becoming not only the first black of African birth to become a mason, but the also the first mason to be stuffed, mounted, and displayed.

Fraternal Societies Of the World ‘The Society of the Horseman’s Word’ The Society of the Horseman's Word was a fraternal secret society that operated in Scotland from the eighteenth through to the twentieth century. Its members were drawn from those who worked with horses, including horse trainers, blacksmiths and ploughmen, and involved the teaching of magical rituals designed to provide the practitioner with the ability to control both horses and women. It also acted as a form of trade union, aiming to gain better rights for its members. The initiation rituals into the society incorporated a number of elements such as reading passages from the Bible backwards, and the secrets included Masonic-style oaths, gestures, passwords and handshakes. Like the similar societies of the Miller's Word and the Toadsmen, they were believed to have practiced witchcraft. In East Anglia, horsemen with these powers were sometimes called Horse Witches. The formation of the Horseman's Word in the late eighteenth century coincided with the draft horse becoming the primary working animal in the farming areas of Northern Scotland, replacing oxen in the hinterland of Aberdeen and the Moray Firth and ponies in Caithness and Orkney. As a result, the ability to raise and control these animals became

a valued skill and people possessing this ability were in high demand. This created a desirable form of well paid and respectable work. It was in this context that the Horseman's Word was founded as a trade union whose goal was to protect these horse trainers and ploughmen, along with their trade knowledge, from the threat of an encroaching economic system in which the resources for production were becoming privately owned and wages and prices for goods and services were being taken out of the skilled laborers control and put into the hands of large farm owners. The Society, aside from protecting trade knowledge, wanted to ensure that the men engaged in this profession were efficiently trained and that the quality of their work was consistently good and that the remunerations for that work were appropriate. "The ploughmen did not own the land, the horses, the harness, the ploughs or their homes but they took control of the new technology, the horses, and ensured that only a Brother of the Society of the Horseman’s Word might work them." "Unmarried ploughmen lived hard lives, drank hard, played rough and chased women." The Horseman's Word took much influence from Freemasonry, another fraternal organisation to have developed in Scotland, albeit two centuries before. It was also influenced by a similar magical secret society, the Miller's Word, which was primarily for those in the milling profession. The Horseman's Word borrowed much from the Miller's Word initiation ceremony where bread and whisky were given as pseudo sacraments and the


inductee was blindfolded. Like the Miller's Word, throughout the society's meetings they imbibed alcohol, sang songs, and told jokes that mocked traditional morality and Christianity. The members of The Horseman’s Word did however add their own designs in the form of passwords and oaths as well as rites of initiation. It has been speculated that these initiation rituals could have been influenced by the witches sabbat, absorbed directly from Scottish folklore or from published accounts of witches and their ceremonies. The witch trials had ended not long before so many of the details of these trials would have been known to them. Prior to the initiation ceremony the candidate, often a ploughboy, was told to come to the barn where the ceremonial procedures were to take place, normally held between 11pm and 1am. Once at the door he was blindfolded and taken before the master of ceremonies, who was often an elder ploughman. As in Masonic rituals there was then a prearranged and established exchange of questions and answers that was to be given. In the case of the Horseman's Word and the Miller's Word this exchange was often a parody of catechism. After this was completed the inductee was then asked to seal the pact and shake hands with the devil, which would often be a branch or pole covered in animal fur. After the candidate completed the initiation ceremony he was then given a word that was supposed to give him power over horses. So aside from being a secret society "The Horseman’s Word" was actually a spoken word. This


secret word, which varied by location, was said to have magical and mystical qualities which would allow the keeper of the word to possess the ability by merely whispering it to bring horses under their complete control. Apart from gaining knowledge of the secret word more practical information and techniques about controlling and training horses was also passed on to members of the society. These methods were kept secret and done in such a way that the horseman maintained their reputation as having unique and even magical power over horses. Until the initiation ceremony and induction into the society and the receiving of the word, the horseman who were not members of the society but potential candidates would have trouble with horses. This would often be caused by older ploughmen who were members of the society tampering with their horses. They would put things like tacks under the horse's collar to cause it to behave irrationally. This would be unknown to the potential candidate as the techniques for training and controlling the horses were not yet given to him. Most of these techniques were based on the horse's sharp sense of smell. Foul substances placed in front of the horse or on the animal itself would cause it to refuse to move forward. This technique is known as jading and is still used by horse trainers today. There were also pleasant smelling things that were used to make a horse move forward or calm down. If the substance was an oil it could be wiped on the trainer's forehead, they would then stand in front of the animal and the smell would draw it towards them. This practice was often used in taming unruly horses. There

were also pleasant smelling and inviting materials, such as sweets, that the horseman could keep in their pocket in order to calm, attract, and subdue a crazed horse. Keeping these techniques secret, along with the myth that there was a word that only the horseman knew that gave them and them alone power over horses helped guarantee their reputation, prestige, job security, and pay. The same type of logic and protection of trade secrets can be seen among modern magicians who keep their tricks secret and only share them with other members of their trade. One critic of the Society, a ploughman who later became a grocer and published a book entitled Eleven Years at Farm Work; being a true tale of farm servant life (1879), claimed that "Without betraying any secret, it may be said the real philosophy of the horseman's word, consists in the thorough, careful, and kind treatment of the animals, combined with a reasonable amount of knowledge of their anatomical and physiological structure." In 2009, The Society of Esoteric Endeavour published a compilation of nineteenth and early twentieth century texts about the Society in a volume entitled The Society of the Horseman's Word. Limited to an edition of one thousand copies, the first hundred copies contained an envelope inside within which was contained a piece of horse hair knotted in exactly the same manner as that which was originally used to invite prospective members into the Society. These fraternal societies which are featured in the newsletter do really exist; there are virtually hundreds of them throughout the World.

The Origin of Masonry PART 2 – THE HOUSE ERECTED TO GOD. The House, which it was decreed in the wisdom and counsels of Deity aforetime should be built, was the Tabernacle of Moses, and not the Temple of Solomon. The Tabernacle was the vehicle used by Moses to bring the word of God to the people he had led out of Egypt. It was the shrine around which these Israelites gathered after they had migrated into Palestine. It served that purpose for something like 200 years, but had fallen into disuse by the time David came into power. Realizing the importance of the Tabernacle, David planned to replace it with the structure now known to history as Solomon's Temple. In this replacement an attempt was made to copy the Tabernacle's design, the secrets of which had been lost ever since the death of Moses. The secrets of this design were concealed by Moses in the Pentateuch, or the first five books of the Bible. Therein lies the key to Masonry, for the Temple was merely an imperfect copy of the Tabernacle. There are two sets of specifications covering the building of the Tabernacle in the Book of Exodus. Those in Chapter 26 represent the command of God that the House should be built. Those set forth in Chapter 36 are the specifications for the actual building of the House. Exodus 36:8 is the starting point, and states that every wise hearted man that wrought the work of the Tabernacle made ten curtains of Fine Twined Linen. These curtains were 4 cubits wide and 28 cubits long. Five of


them were coupled together, and the other 5 were coupled together. The result was a pair of curtains, each half of which contained 5 strips. The total width of each set of 5 strips was 20 cubits, for the individual strips were 4 cubits wide. These 20 cubits coincided with the width of the House. When assembled, they were raised over the House to form a gable roof. As there were 10 strips in all, they represented the digits of a pair of hands raised in supplication. From this symbolic meaning it will be seen why Moses placed these curtains as the first item in his list of specifications. It was his admonition to us that no man should ever enter upon any great or important undertaking without first invoking the blessing of God. There were several thousand people engaged in the building of the House, and, obviously, only a small percentage were actually engaged in the fabrication of these curtains. And yet the language is clear, for it says "every wise hearted man that wrought the work of the tabernacle made ten curtains." Those who chose to engage in the work were first prepared in their hearts, or became "wise hearted." They all "made" ten curtains, for this was the sign of a pair of hands raised in supplication. The second item in the specifications was the curtains of Goats' Hair. They were superimposed above those of Fine Twined Linen, and were 4 cubits wide by 30 cubits long. There were 11 of these curtains, and this fact has stumped the experts for centuries. Ten of them may be arranged to match the 10 curtains of Fine Twined Linen. Being above the first set of curtains, those of


Goats' Hair represented a pair of hands stretched forth in benediction. That this is so is gleaned from the fact that this is the only specification in Chapter 36 that needs to be filled in from the supplemental information contained in Chapter 26 of Exodus. This Chapter 26 contains the command of God, and this second pair of curtains symbolized His hands stretched forth in benediction. Exodus 26:9 and 26:12 dispose of the 11th curtain of Goats' Hair by stating that it shall be doubled over in the forefront of the Tabernacle, and the remnant that remaineth, the half curtain that remaineth, shall hang over the backside of the Tabernacle. In other words, the 11th curtain of Goats' Hair was cut into 4 strips, each 1 cubit wide, to form the drip for the gable part of the roof. Exodus 26:13 explains how the eaves were formed on the ends, for it states that the length of these curtains shall hang over a cubit on the one side and a cubit on the other side. The length of these Goats' Hair curtains was 30 cubits, which was symbolic of the 30 days of the solar month. The length of the curtains of Fine Twined Linen, which were protected from the sun by the upper curtains, was 28 cubits. They were symbolic of the 28 days of the lunar month. The gable roof arrangement of the curtains of Goats' Hair formed an isosceles triangle, each leg of which was 30 cubits long. The length of its base is obtained from Exodus 26:13, which states that the curtains shall hang over a cubit on the one side and a cubit on the other side. This called for a base of 52 cubits, for the Court which

encompassed the Tabernacle was exactly 50 cubits wide. The actual length of the Tabernacle was 48 cubits, which left a space of 1 cubit between each of its ends and the adjacent wall of the court. This space was approximately 24 inches wide and, no doubt, sheltered the original eavesdroppers. No such arrangement was possible in the Temple, for it was encompassed by 3 banks of chambers, which were set into the walls of the main structure. These triangular spaces formed in the east and west walls of the Tabernacle were called pediments. They were covered with the Rams' Skins dyed red specified in Exodus 36:19. Like the roof curtains, they also were 4 cubits in width, and 12 of them exactly fitted into the 48 cubits width of the base of the pediments. There were 12 of these curtains in the east pediment, and 12 in the west pediment - together they symbolized the 24 hours of the day. This Rams' Skins dyed red was a translucent material, and as the sun rose in the east the interior was filled with a soft, red glow. The sun at meridian height came down through an aperture in the roof, but only on occasion. As the sun was in the west at the close of the day, the soft tones which filtered through the Rams' Skins dyed red again permeated the interior. Above them were placed the Badgers' Skins, which were opaque, and were manipulated like window shades to control the lighting effects. There was no such arrangement in the Temple, for neither roof curtains nor rams' skins were employed in its construction. The lower part of the Tabernacle was sheathed with boards, 20 of them being

specified for the south wall, and a like number for the north wall. According to Exodus 36:21, these particular boards were each 10 cubits long and 1 1/2 cubits wide. Two of them, placed end to end, matched the 20 cubits width of the House, which makes it obvious that the 20 boards in both north and south walls were arranged in two stacks of 10 boards each. This height of 10 boards in each panel was symbolic of the "Ten Commandments. Exodus 36:27 specifies 6 boards for the west wall of the Tabernacle. These 6 boards were laid out end to end, and formed the bottom course for the 6 panels into which the west wall was divided. Each board was 8 cubits long, and the total length of the wall was 48 cubits. Each panel was 10 boards high, or 15 cubits, for each board was 1 1/2 cubits wide. Actually, the 6 panels of the west wall were laid out by means of a mathematical formula, which Moses designated as Jacob's ladder. This fact was unknown to the builders of the Temple, for they made the west wall of their structure 60 cubits long. The interior of the Temple was sheathed with boards, and obviously the 6 boards they used were each 10 cubits long. The height of the Tabernacle at the apex of its roof was 30 cubits; its depth, or width, was 20 cubits; and its length, which was across the breadth of the Court, was 48 cubits. The first two dimensions were faithfully copied into the design of the Temple, for it was 30 cubits high by 20 cubits deep. But the length of the Temple, as given in I Kings 6:2, was 60 cubits. This discrepancy over the 48 cubits length of the Tabernacle is prima facie evidence that the builders of the Temple did not


possess the secrets of the design of the original House. In other words "that which was lost" was the secret design of the Tabernacle, which had not been discovered at the time Solomon built his Temple.

upon us on our entry into Freemasonry has been misunderstood. It has distinct reference to the "signs, words and tokens," but not to the moral teachings and invaluable precepts which are contained in its ritual and ceremonial.

The book, The Origin of Masonry, is in 5 parts, part 3 will appear in the next issue.

We declare, and rightly so, that if those precepts and the principles of the Order were carried out in practice, the whole human family would be benefited thereby. By what right, then, should we arrogate to ourselves alone the benefits of their influence? To be true to our principles we should extend our endeavours to fight and afford instruction to all our fellow creatures, and so praise in our works the Great architect of the Universe, whose power and goodness to ourselves we never cease to gratefully acknowledge.

Is Publications Injurious to Freemasonry? “WE THINK NOT” The secrets of Freemasonry are her signs, words and tokens; and no more! This is the dictum of a Masonic writer of many years gone by, and with which we entirely agree. It is almost intolerable to reflect on the fact that there exists a narrow minded objection, to permit mankind generally to share in the possession of the beautiful precepts of the Craft, from fear that the exact nature of the obligations which bind together its several members should become universally known. Such mistaken reticence has done more harm than good to Freemasonry; and has induced a curiosity which could only be satisfied, and then but partly, by the production of presumed revelations alike untrustworthy and disingenuous. The condemnation of Freemasonry in the past as a Secret Society would probably have never been experienced had it been made patent to objectors that whatever secrecy there may be is limited solely to the means whereby we can make ourselves known to each other, and so distinguished from the rest of the world. The SILENCE enjoined


"He's true to God who's true to Man! Wherever wrong is done. To the humblest or the weakest 'neath the all beholding sun. That wrong is also done to us, and they are slaves most base Whose love of Right is for themselves, and not for all their race” The secrecy which surrounds our signs, words and tokens should certainly be held most sacred, as sacred as the obligations of councils, committees, corporation; or the details of family life, but results should not be withheld. If they are, doubt and distrust at once induce depreciatory comment, not infrequently followed by injurious action. On the other hand, what we expound to one another as Freemasons, distinct from all that is affected by our obligation, may beneficially be known to what we are pleased to term "the

outer world." The treasures we as Freemasons possess in our beautiful rituals and ceremonials are precious jewels which we have no right to lock away from universal gaze. They have been bequeathed to us by master minds, and the influence they have for good should be comprehensive. We are led to these remarks by finding, even in this enlightened era, still some amongst us who seem to think "there is too much publicity about Masonry and Masons, and would, if they could, put a stop to it." Now, what does this mean if it does not evidence a somewhat selfish desire to keep that which is of universal good within the narrowest possible limits? Is Freemasonry so weak in principles and practice that it cannot stand the scrutiny of inquiring minds? Certainly not! Then why seek to relegate its mysteries (which, after all said and done, are not much of mysteries now a days), and, what is more important, its moral philosophy to the darkness of absolute ignorance. We are pleased to think that these would be withholders of Masonic teachings from universal knowledge and adoption are in a considerable minority in relation to the aggregate body of the Craft; and it will be our earnest endeavour; prudently and with all due regard to the preservation of what are our real secrets, to lessen their number by proving that the tenets of the order can be communicated by publication without any injury to Freemasonry in any sense. What you have just read is an exact copy of an article in THE MASONIC STAR cost one penny, DATE THURSDAY SEPTEMBER 13TH 1888 Article sourced from Bro. Tom Stirling, Australia.

Square and Compasses It is the characteristic logo of Freemasonry. Masonic letterheads, notice papers, literature, textiles, buildings… even watch dials, tie pins and cuff links, all bear the square and compasses. Middle-aged and elderly adults all remember how important their set-square and compasses were as geometrical instruments in their school days; Masons value these two working tools not only for their prosaic but for their poetical significance. The general explanation that comes across from the ritual is that the square teaches us to be just and upright, to square our actions: the compasses tell us to keep our passions and desires within bounds. Whatever the precise terminology which the ritual employs, the message is the same – the square and compasses remind us how to think, act and live as fair and decent human beings. The moralistic explanations are, however, not the end of the story. Daniel Beresniak, in his “Symbols of Freemasonry”, 1997, gives the two instruments a still broader significance. Pointing out that they are crucial to geometry, which in its turn represents man’s concern to understand his world by measuring things, he argues that the square and compasses are symbols of man’s capacity for objective thinking.

“In the Middle Ages,” Beresniak writes, “the teaching of geometry cleared the way for objective thought. Until that time, all knowledge had been handed down from an authority… (which) meant to put a stop to any debate and eliminate doubt or the


need for proof. Only one kind of knowledge could not be taught in this way: geometry. A theory about the properties of a shape can only be accepted when it has been verified using reason, and a square and compasses.

“The teaching of geometry implies therefore the recognition of students as people who are able to think rationally and find meaning on their own… The geometrician-builder measures words with the yard-stick of meaning and not according to the social status of the speaker.

“The square and compasses, therefore, are the tools of a free man. They are the tools of a way of thinking which recognises the possibility of making statements about reality, understanding its laws and modifying it in order to better the human condition.”

The Enlightenment thinking of the period when Freemasonry moved from an operative to an intellectual-ethical movement was made possible only because human beings were thinking for themselves, measuring, analysing, reasoning and debating. In other words, the square and compasses that had once done duty simply as utilitarian instruments of a craft or trade now assumed a higher significance as symbols of a movement which changed everything in the history of human society and civilisation. Descartes said, “I think, therefore I am”: in Freemasonry it is summed up by the square and compasses logo. By Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory.


IN MASONRY BE BLEST Grant us, kind Heaven! what we request, In masonry let us be blest; Direct us to that happy place Where Friendship smiles in every face: Where Freedom and sweet Innocence Enlarge the mind and cheer the sense.

Where sceptre Reason, from her throne, Surveys, the Lodge, and makes us one; And Harmony's delightful sway For ever sheds ambrosial day: Where we blest Eden's pleasures taste, While balmy joys are our repast.

No prying eye can view us here; No fool or knave disturb our cheer: Our well-formed laws set mankind free, And give relief to misery: The poor, oppressed with woe and grief, Gain form our bounteous hands relief.

Our Lodges the social Virtues grace, And Wisdom's rules we fondly trace; Whole Nature opens to our view, Points out the paths we should pursue Let us subsist in lasting peace, And may our happiness increase William Preston’s Illustrations of Masonry – 1796


In the Twentieth Century, the word "industry" denotes manufacturing and factories classified as heavy industry and light industry; and connote machines and factory workers. When the Beehive is said to be an emblem of industry the word is not used in that sense, indeed, is used with an almost opposite meaning-for it is used in the sense of centuries ago, which was the true sense. Industry was the employment of a very large number of men, tens of thousands in many instances, on one undertaking at one place and at the same time, and they might or might not use machinery. It was the method by which in the ages before heavy machinery vast building enterprises were accomplished, some of which have so long mystified modern men, the building of the pyramids, of the ancient Egyptian canals, of the hanging gardens of Babylon, of the Ziggurats, of vast Hindu temples, of the Chinese Great Wall and Grand canal of the Mayas' City of Chichen-Itza, etc. the same method by which in World War II the Burma and Ledo roads were constructed as well as great airfields in the remote hills of China; and the method by which from Caesar's time until modern times the Dutch have built their hundreds of miles of dykes. The Beehive is the perfect emblem, or typical instance of the power of industry, because what no one bee'or succession of separate bees could accomplish is easy where hundreds of them work together at one task at one time. The Medieval Freemasons did not study and think about ¨he same subjects that architects and builders now except in fundamentals, did not secure the elements of a building readymade from factories, had no steam or electric or magnetic tools to use; chemistry and physics were forbidden sciences, and could be studied by the initiate only in secret or under a heavy camouflage of symbolism. They had two great subjects: materials and men. A modern architect knows far more about materials than the Medieval builder because he


has universities, literature, laboratories, and factories to draw on; but he knows far less about men, indeed, he knows almost nothing about men. Where a modern builder looks to machines as the means to accomplish his results, the Medieval builder who had no power-driven machines had to look to men. For this reason the Medieval builder knew far more about work than his modern counterpart because work is nothing other than a man making use of himself as a means to get something made or produced or accomplished. Where a modern foreman thinks of himself as a supervisor of a building full of machines the Medieval foreman thought of himself as a Master of workmen. By the same token a workman had to know himself, instead of a machine, because he was his own machine. Skill is the expert use of one's self. It was for such reasons that Medieval Freemasons thought much about and had a wide knowledge of the forms of work. There are some fifty-two of these. Industry itself is one of them, the most massive and most dramatic, but not the most important. Where a man makes everything by himself from the raw materials to the finished product, is another. Where a number of men work in a line at the same bench and where the first does one thing to the "job, " the second does another, and so on until the "job" is completed by the last man, so that it is the job and not the men who move, is another form of work. Where one man completes one thing, another, perhaps in another place, completes another, and so on, and where finally a man combines a number of completed things to make one thing, is another form of work; etc., etc. The general organization of a Lodge is based on the principle of forms of work; so are the stations and places of officers. Though as an emblem of the form of work called industry the Beehive symbolizes only one in Particular it at the same time represents the system of forms of work, is, as it were, an ensemble of them; and from it a sufficiently wellinformed thinker could think out the system of Masonic Philosophy. In our Craft the whole of fraternalism is nothing other than the fellowship required by the forms of work, because the majority of them require men to work together in association, in stations and places, and therefore in co-operation. It is strange that in its present-day stage of development the so-called science of economics should concern itself solely with such subjects as wages, machines, money, transportation because these are but incidentals and accidentals. Work is the topic proper to economics; and the forms of work are its proper subject-matter. Any scholar or thinker who chances to be a Mason could find in his own Fraternity a starting point for a new economics, as fresh and revolutionary and revealing as was the work of Copernicus in astronomy, of Newton in physics, of Darwin in biology. A beehive itself is a trifle, and scarcely worth ten minutes of thought; what it stands for is one of the largest and most important subjects in the world, and up until now one of the least understood.

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