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SRA 76 Monthly Newsletter

Cover Story, Magic Numbers Did You Know? The North-East Angle and it’s Importance Famous Freemason – Tom Mix The Daughters of Tsion The Haughfoot Lodge Rays of Masonry Did You Know? Old Tiler Talks It Doesn’t have to be like this! The Symbolism of Numbers My Argument with Freemasonry The Emblems of Freemasonry Main Website – Mathematics and Freemasonry

Volume 12 Issue 2 No. 92 February 2016

In this issue: Page 2, ‘Magic Numbers’ An nice article about numbers used in Freemasonry. Page 4, ‘Did You Know?’ Why do the Wardens test at the Winding Stairs? Page 5, ‘The North-East Angle. An excellent article on it’s symbolism . Page 8, ‘Tom Mix.’ A Famous Freemason. Page 10, ‘The Daughters of Tsion.’ Fraternal Societies throughout the World. Page 12, ‘The Haughfoot Lodge.’ A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 17, ‘Rays of Masonry.’ “Masonry is it’s own Reward”, our Regular feature. Page 18, ‘Did You Know?’ Is Apprentice and Entered Apprentice the same Page 19, ‘The Old Tiler Talks.’ “Beautiful Adventure”, the Forty-ninth in the series from Carl Claudy. Page 21, ‘It Doesn’t have to be like This.’ Improving our self-knowledge. Page 23, ‘The Symbolism of Numbers.’ More symbolic meanings to numbers. Page 26 ‘My Argument with Freemasonry! The thoughts of Bro. Rabbi Raymond Apple. Page 27‘ The Emblems of Freemasonry.’ Emblems of freemasonry in the first Degree.

In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘Mathematics and Freemasonry.’[link] 1

The front cover artwork is a numbered cube which was photoshopped by the editor with numbers for the article.

Magic Numbers

numerical relationship which is derived from nature.


This gives us two of the numbers often used in Freemasonry, 3 and 5, but what of the number 7? This is definitely a Masonic number and has a deeper significance than the other two. 7 is the sum of 3 and 4, or the sides of a triangle and the sides of a square.

Numbers appear in every single degree ceremony, whether we realise their significance or not, we use them as a natural progression. The candidate at his initiation is taught to advance with the first regular step in Freemasonry, then the second and finally as a Master Mason with the third regular step. We do this without knowing, and unless this is explained to the candidate, he is probably unaware of this progression either. We point out the symbolic nature of the position of the Square & Compasses after each obligation, and give detailed accounts of the images on our Tracing Boards, but sadly we neglect to give our numbers the same merit. So tonight after this little talk I hope you will look at numbers in a new light. The earliest methods of counting were in 3's and 5's, the former relating to the sacred number of the Ancients and the latter to the ideal system of counting that is the decimal one we use today. Long ago Pythagoras made his whole system of philosophy rest on the conception of numbers as regulating the relation of all things. His theory of the triangle with sides of 3, 4 and five units proved nine and sixteen equal twenty-five, the square root of which is 5; he then expanded this theory into his philosophical teachings, believing all things have a

We refer to the "triune essence of the Deity" the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and Freemasonry as being "spread over the 4 quarters of the Globe" taken together, the GAOTU with worldly man, showing 3 and 4 together making 7, as described in ritual the 7 stars denoting perfection in all things. So let us look at Masonic ritual and see where the numbers 3. 5 and 7 appear, and explore what they refer to. Our beloved Craft stands on 3 great principles, Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. There are 3 degrees, each with 3 secrets - a sign, a token and a word. There are 3 regular steps to mark a candidate's progress through each degree. There are 3 positions as Trustees of the Lodge, the RWM and the 2 wardens. In one of the Charges given to a candidate, we explain we have 3 main lines of duty to God, to our neighbour and to ourselves. There are 3 sacred dictates of Truth, Honour and Virtue. We have 3 excellences of character we encourage - of secrecy, of fidelity and obedience. The qualities of an entered apprentice are described as the attentive ear, the silent tongue and the obedient heart. The furniture of a Lodge is the VSL, the square and the compasses, and atop the VSL is Jacob's ladder rising to the heavens, 2

with the 3 lower staves of Grace, namely, Faith, Hope and Charity. Each degree has a set of working tools, 3 in each degree. In the Master Mason's degree the tracing board shows the Porch, the Dormer and the square pavement as 3 of the symbols. The 3 pillars that support a Lodge are the RWM and the 2 wardens representing wisdom, strength and beauty. Again in the 3rd degree, the 15 FC's formed themselves into three lodges, our Master was slain by 3 blows to 3 different parts of the head with 3 different tools. This last example leads nicely on to the Masonic importance of 5, the 15 FC's divided into 3 lodges of 5, 3 rule a Lodge but 5 hold it. The FC is taught to advance to the altar or pedestal by 5 steps as if ascending a winding staircase. The tracing board of the 2nd degree acknowledges the 5 noble orders of architecture - Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. In the three practised degrees there are 5 secret words, one for each degree and 2 passwords. The signs of a Master Mason are 5 in number, The Master Mason's word is exchanged after Brethren meet on the 5 points of fellowship. The chapiters on the 2 pillars at the entrance to King Solomon’s temple were 5 cubits high. The 3rd Degree tracing board has 3 fives on it in allusion to the 3 FC lodges. In explaining the number 5 it must also be mentioned this number refers to the 5 human senses of touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste: three of which are vital in Masonry, to feel the grip, see the sign and hear the word. 3

The number 7 denotes perfection in all things, 5 hold a Lodge but 7 (or more) make it perfect. There are 7 Offices key to running a Lodge - RWM, 2 Wardens, 2 Deacons, Inner Guard and Tyler. The 1" degree tracing board has 7 stars on it, as does the RWM's apron. King Solomon was 7 years and upwards in building the temple. At that point in the 2nd degree tracing board we explain the link to the 7 liberal arts, namely Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy. A candidate entering a Lodge for the first time is asked if he is of mature age ie, 21 or 3 times 7. He is also asked if he fits the 7 qualifications - is he just, upright, free, a man, of mature age, sound judgement and strict morals. The relationship between these 3 numbers is also worth looking at, if you add 3 and 5 and 7, you get 15, which is also 3 times 5. Similarly if you multiply 5 and 7 you get 35, three and five. We open our Lodge with three knocks, but it would be equally true to say 15, as the 3 knocks are repeated from the RWM, WSW, WJW, IG and Tyler, 3 knocks given 5 times totalling 15. The number 15 is comprised of two of the most important numbers in modern arithmetic, ten and five. This has been acknowledged to be the most perfect system of accounting and can trace its origins back to counting by the 5 fingers on a human hand, long before the abacus, calculators or computers were invented. The ritual of the 3'c' degree urges us to contemplate the closing hour of our

existence, where that to the just and virtuous man death has no terrors equal to the stain of falsehood and dishonour. My old Past Master closed his talk with a reference to this subject and I feel it is appropriate to use his words to end on. The length of the grave was 6 feet, by 3 feet wide, and 5 feet deep, a total capacity of 90 cubic feet, which is the number of the square, an angle of 90 degrees. So having ordered our life according to the square, we take that sign into the grave, and we may rest assured that when we finally rise from that earthly resting place, that same old sign will procure our admission into the Grand Lodge above, where the world's Great Architect lives and reigns forever.

Brethren, I think the time has come to say that my number is up. An adaptation of the talk given by a PM of Lodge Kelso and Tweed No. 651.

Did You Know? Q. In the explanation of the Second Degree Tracing Board we are told that the ascent of our ancient Brethren `was opposed by the J.W. who demanded of them the p.g. and p.w. leading from the First to the Second Degree,' whereas in the actual ceremony of passing it is the S.W. to whom the p.g. and p.w. are communicated. How do you explain this difference? A. Let us be clear about the nature of the question you have posed. The tests on the

`Winding Stairs' are a piece of pure legend relating to the builders of Solomon's Temple. The tests conducted in the Lodge are a part of the actual ceremony of `Passing' and, when the J.W. asks for the E.A. test, and the S.W. asks for the p.g. and p.w., they are examining the E.A. Candidate to ensure that he is qualified to receive the Second Degree. In the Lecture on the Second T.B. (at the point which gives rise to your query) we are dealing with qualified F.C.s who went to receive their wages in the `Middle chamber' (or treasury?) where, so our story goes, they were paid in specie. (Elsewhere, the T.B. Lecture states that the E.A.s received their wages in corn, wine and oil, implying that they received those items in some other place and had no cause to go to the `Middle chamber). Thus, the tests in the Second Degree (prior to the Obligation) are concerned with the E.A., whereas the T.B. tests deal with F.C.s only, and those two procedures cannot be reconciled (nor, indeed, do they need to be). The compilers of the ritual were clearly at great pains to divide parts of the ceremonial work in lodge between J.W. and S.W. and so they each get a part of the test in the pre-Obligation portion of the Second Degree. Later, towards the end of the Ceremony (after the Cand. has been entrusted) he is somewhat similarly examined by the J.W. and S.W. This division of the work between the Wardens is reflected in the legend of the ascent of the winding stairs; but now, because they are dealing with acknowledged F.C.s, the tests are rearranged for that purpose. Presumably it 4

would have been enough to have had the S.W. test alone, i.e., the F.C.s Sn. Tn. and Wd. but, in order to share the work, the J.W. is brought in first for the test on the p.g. and p.w. To sum up: (1) The designers of the Tracing Boards were not at all concerned with the veracity of our legend about the place in which the craftsmen received their wages. (2) The compilers of the T.B. Lecture were trying to construct a clear simple story. (3) The revisers of the Ritual, c. 1813 and later, were not overmuch concerned with the need to reconcile their ceremonial procedures with the details contained in the legend, which could have been done quite easily had they so desired, but they were concerned to divide the work in the Lodge between the J.W. and S.W. at the point on which your query is raised and so they gave one part of the test to the J.W., with the main test to the S.W. This kind of difficulty arises regularly out of a misguided desire to treat particular items in our legendary materials as though they are established facts. In the present instance you are comparing fact with fiction, i.e., the actual procedure in conferring the Degree with the legendary procedure in the ascent of the Winding Stair. They do not match, probably because nobody really tried to make them match. It would be simple enough to organize this but, needless to say, I am not suggesting this change. The above answer was given by W. Bro. Harry Carr, a former Secretary of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076.


The North East Angle and it’s importance.

It is customary at the erection of all large buildings to place the foundation stone at the north-east corner of the intended structure. Actually, this foundation or corner-stone of the building is as important to that building as a keystone to an arch. Its ultimate task is to bind together at that point two walls of the building, and in due time it not only serves as a link or binding post, but also as a foundation and is built upon. The newly admitted E.A. is placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge figuratively to represent that stone, and in the years that come after he will have risen to a position of greater influence in the Craft, and will be responsible for the future success of the Lodge. If he be weak, then the section that he forms in the edifice will be weak also. In by-gone times it was customary for human beings to be buried alive beneath the corner-stone and in the walls, as an

offering or sacrifice to appease the gods. The soul of those who so sacrificed themselves was considered to derive rich reward in the hereafter. It was also regarded as a sacrifice to propitiate Mother Earth to induce her to bear the weight of the building, thereby ensuring the stability of the structure. Baring-Gould wrote “When the primeval savage began to build he considered himself engaged on a serious undertaking,. He was disturbing the face of Mother Earth, he was securing to himself in permanency a portion of that surface which had been given by her to all her children in common. Partly with the notion of offering a propitiatory sacrifice to the earth, and partly also with the idea of securing to himself a portion of soil by some sacramental act, the old pagan laid the foundation stone of his house and fortress in blood.” It was even thought at one period that the pinkish colour of old Roman walls was due to the use of blood in constructing them. In [Q.C. Pamphlet No. 1.] “Builders’ Rites and Ceremonies: The Folk Lore of Masonry,” by that erudite Mason, C. W. Speth, first secretary of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge 2076, will be found many accounts showing how widespread was this sacrificial rite, a rite practiced, as he says, “by all men at all times and in all places.” In course of time, and in the process of enlightenment as each race became more cultured, human sacrifices were replaced by animal sacrifices, and then by symbolical ceremony or token. To-day it is customary to place coins of the realm beneath the foundation stone of an important building, while Freemasons perform ceremonies possessing much beautiful symbolism, corn, wine and oil being poured over it.

As Speth wrote in the latter part of the last century, “Our fathers, ages ago, buried a living human sacrifice in the same place to ensure the stability of the structure ; their sons substituted an animal ; their sons again a mere effigy, or other symbol; and we, their children, still immure a substitute, coins bearing the effigy, impressed upon the noblest of metals, the pure red gold, of the one person to whom we are all most loyal, and whom we all most love, our Gracious Queen.” Though connected directly with the building, but not with the corner-stone, it is of interest in passing to note that it was also often customary to have a completion sacrifice. A story or legend told of many sacred edifices recalls how the architect on completion of the work was killed by command of those who ordered it, or alternatively was deprived of his eyesight – the architect being chosen as the victim so that he might become the guardian spirit of his own creation. Speth, in his “Builders’ Rites and Ceremonies,” quotes eight instances of the builder or the architect himself being the “ Completion Sacrifice,” or narrowly escaping that fate. These are the Castle of Henneburg, Remus at the Foundations of Rome, Manoli and his Masons, The Apprentice of Rosslin Castle, The Apprentice of the Abbey of St. Ouen, The Architect of St. Basil, Moscow, King Olaf and Eastern Snare, and the Devil Builder Tales, and lastly TolleshuntKnights Church. In our ceremonies, the E.A. is taught a symbolical lesson regarding the north-east corner of the Lodge, which is figuratively representative of the corner-stone. He can be considered to represent a building stone, to be used in uniting together the walls of the spiritual Temple which the members of Lodge endeavour to form to the glory of the G.A.O.T.U. and the benefit of all 6

mankind. It can also be inferred that he exemplifies the need of divesting oneself of the tendency to yield to the temptations of mammon, in case greed and lust crush down the finer and more aesthetic points of a man’s character. In Revelation ii. 17 we read: “To him that overcometh I will give him a White Stone, and upon the stone a new name written which no man knoweth but he that receiveth it.” From the earliest times men have erected stones to represent their gods, or as offerings to their gods. We find that this practice started from single unhewn stones, and progressed to hewn pillars, then these pillars were adorned with sculpture, and as the years went by particular parts of a building deemed of importance were given special names and we got Corner-stone, Key Stone, Cope Stone, etc. The Corner-stone which the E.A. represents is generally of cubical shape, its squareness depicting morality, its six sides facing in all directions represent Truth. Its situation in the north-east symbolically between the points of darkness and light, portrays that our newly admitted member has left behind him that period of darkness caused by ignorance, and is passing into the “light” of a new aim and a new world which is now in process of being revealed to him. Ruskin said: “Fine art is that in which the hand, the head, and the heart go together,” and we in Freemasonry make extensive use for symbolic purposes of stones of simple but beautiful form, and deduce there from useful lessons in which the hand, the head and the heart are brought into unison to act together. We have our rough and perfect ashlar, our corner- stone, our lodge in the form of an oblong square representing a 7

cubic stone, in the mark a Keystone, and in the R.A. a double cube. Our E.A. learns the first lesson of Masonic line and rule while representing a corner-stone, and be it remembered that the ten Commandments of Jehovah were written upon two Tables of Stone (Exodus xxxii. and xxxiv.). Our E.A. standing in the north-east corner of the Lodge may be considered to be the corner-stone of Freemasonry; he is from that time onwards a builder with his fellow-members of the Order, but as in course of time his seniors will by the laws of nature “pass on,” he ultimately takes their place, becoming not only a builder but one who is subsequently built upon, an important unit contributing to the ultimate strength of the structure. To each and all in the Craft has been given the sacred task of guarding the bases, of seeing that those whom we permit to follow are worthy apprentices of a Craft of world-wide good repute. Our future living cornerstones must be worthy of those who so ably laid the original foundations, otherwise the walls of Freemasonry will go down despite the living sacrifices that have been made. Let the wonderful record that has been achieved serve as a reminder to all of us, therefore, to guard our portals with due care. From A Masonic Short Talk Bulletin from October, 1927. These fascinating articles are still written, and are published by the Masonic Service Association of North America.

Famous Freemasons Tom Mix

A name that many film buffs recognize, cowboys idolize, and at least for a time, the man that everyone wanted to be. Tom Mix was a circus performer, champion horseback rider, radio personality, beloved Freemason, and perhaps most known for his roles in Western films as the clean cut cowboy who always saved the day. Mix appeared in nearly 300 films, the majority of which were silent, and at one point in time was the #1 box office star in America. Thomas Hezikiah Mix was born in Mix Run, Pennsylvania, on January 6th, 1880. He spent the majority of his young life working on a local farm, and was instilled by his father with a love and passion for horses. Upon the onset of the SpanishAmerican War, like many others his age, Tom decided to enlist. Although never seeing any real war action, he moved

through the ranks, and served his country well. Before being honourably discharged, Tom went on furlough where he met Grace I. Allen. On his next furlough, he decided to marry her. For a short period of time he returned to active duty, but ultimately was forced to choose between the military and his wife. This resulted in never returning to active duty from his last leave, and being declared AWOL. In the 15 years that followed, he had married and divorced three times. Though his marriages were unstable, his professional life and career was developing rapidly. He found work at the Miller Brothers 101 Ranch, which boasted its own touring Wild West show. This gave Mix his first introduction to acting and performing, and went on to earn numerous riding and roping contests. His acting career flourished, scoring roles with various talent agencies and film companies. Throughout the 1920’s, he made over 160 cowboy films, and even built his famous set known as Mixville located today in what would become the Edendale district of Los Angeles unremarkably refereed to today as the Glendale Boulevard Corridor in the Silverlake area. Over 150 movies were shot in Mixville, which was considered to be its own Western town. It was complete with all of the props and locations you might find in a frontier town, such as a dusty street, hitching rails, a saloon, jail, bank, doctor’s office, and surveyor’s office. It even boasted a simulated desert, large corral, period homes, and an Indian village of lodges near the back lot. Mix’s career was inspirational for future movie stars such as John Wayne and Ronald Reagan, both of which were very vocal about the influence which Mix’s career had on their lives. 8

Throughout his acting career, Tom Mix was also a devoted freemason. He was raised on February 21, 1925, at Utopia Lodge No. 537, in Los Angeles California. He joined both the Scottish Rite and The Royal Arch, and participated in the famed 233 club. The 233 was an entertainment industry social club which claimed over 1,700 Masons as members from the motion picture and theatrical industries. Members of 233 included: Douglas Fairbanks, Harold and Frank Lloyd, Wallace Berry and Louis B. Mayer. One of the outstanding patriotic activities of the Club was a gigantic “Pageant of Liberty” in the Los Angeles Coliseum on July 5, 1926 before an audience of 65,000 and employing over 2,500 actors and a chorus of 1,200. Mix, the star that he was, rode into the spectacle astride his horse Tony portraying Paul Revere beside Hoot Gibson who rode as a Pony Express rider. With the 233, Mix is said to have participated in travelling Craft degree team composed of actors.

silver screen. His impact changed lives and history as we know it. You can visit the Tom Mix Museum in Dewey, Oklahoma, and for more on Tom Mix, the blog of a Western fan has great things to say about The greatest cowboy of the silver screen. Sourced from website, Freemason Information

Tom Mix Trivia; This is a little piece of Tom Mix trivia that you might just not know about, Brother Tom Mix appears on the sleeve of the Beatles, “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” album. (as does a number of other famous freemasons, he is standing next to Brother Oscar Wilde.) ed.

Tragically, Mix died in a fatal automobile accident on October 12, 1940. His memorial service was held at Little Church of Flowers at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, CA, not far from Mixville. A memorial of a sorrowing horse marks the location of Mix’s passing in Arizona highway. At his memorial service Mix’s close friend, Monte Blue, read a Masonic ritual in his honour. Mix was truly a man from another era, a mythical era when celebrity and fame created legends… even if for just a little while. Tom Mix left a legacy for many, and is still regarded today as one of the most influential actors in the history of film-making. Without his influence, countless actors may have never graced the 9

Google the cover, and see how many Masons you can spot! You’ll be surprised!

Fraternal Societies Of the World The Daughters of Tsion The Ladies Templar

groups are really the Knights Templar; the sub-title of the Daughters of Tsion is "The Ladies Templar." Both groups take the same lessons, meet astrally each day or each week to perform the same powerprayers, contemplation exercises, or to recite a certain powerful affirmation or mantram. We all come together for sorties (combat missions), which are often at odd times of the day or week. *Rightwork and right-workers are terms that are supposed to convey the biblical concept of "doing righteous works." The differences between the Daughters of Tsion and the Knights of the Temple are purely gender oriented, although there are female combatants in our Order called Dames or Knightresses, and males in the Daughters of Tsion, called Clerics of Tsion. The Mystery School tries not to be too sexist about it, but the fact is that warrior knights going into bloody battle on horseback are indeed different from the ladies who stay on the battlefield's edge (or in the safety of a fortress) and support the combatants with their "feminine" magiks. The women (and clerics) provide this crucial support through prayer-songs, combat-prayer, blessing the weapons, wine and armour of the Knights, and by spiritually shielding their chosen warrior. DAUGHTERS OF TSION

What are the Daughters of Tsion? Who were they a thousand years ago and who are they today? They are the ladies and clerics who share in the exact mission of the Knight's Templar complementing the Knights, bringing crucial gender balance to that famous army of rightworkers*. Both

Historically, the Daughters of Tsion (besides being a very well kept secret) were made up of the following kinds of women: sisters, mothers and spouses--even daughters of the Knights, and sometimes girlfriends or just a female friend with whom they had a purely platonic relationship. During most of their public history the Knights were forbidden 10

to marry and celibacy was required, the latter never seriously enforced. As the Order grew in the mid 1100's the Knights went along with the semblance of celibacy in order to appease the Catholic Church whose endorsement they needed to survive in dark age politics. If the all-powerful church didn't approve of your work, you were a heretical order and were burned at the stake. And besides, you couldn't survive economically, either! They were ostensibly a monastic order and did indeed live in preceptories (monasteries) all over Europe. Yet according to historians and Templar experts the first Grand Master, Hugh de Payens was married to a mysterious and beautiful heiress of the Saint Clair (Scottish Sinclair) family. See Dafoe and Butler's book, The Knights Templar Revealed, formerly titled the Templar Continuum, and required reading for our advanced Templar initiates. The existence of "Templar nuns" was an historical fact, one is pictured left. All of the rituals, practices and even daily services of the Knights Templar were performed in secret. This was highly unusual for monastic orders and is the source for all the mystery surrounding the Knights Templar as well as the source for their condemnation. Because of all the secrecy, they were easily accused of heresy. They no doubt were heretical, especially in their belief in the Sacred Feminine and reverence for God-theMother. The Knights had to keep such teachings secret because they knew it could get them arrested, tortured and burned at the stake. This of course was the eventual fate of the Templar Knights. On Friday the 13th, 1307 those French Templars that hadn't slipped thru the net were arrested because the 11

French King Philip IV and his hand-picked Pope decided to seize the Templar wealth. Templars were tortured, "tried" and 54 who refused to admit to the lies of demonworship and spitting on the cross, were eventually burned alive. Friday the 13th has since been considered a horrid day, unlucky in the extreme, to all people of European descent. What is little known is that the Knights took on female partners to help balance their work, to assist in their secret esoteric practices which included revering the Goddess. Whether these women were girlfriends, secret wives, or in some cases hired prostitutes, they were an integral part of the Templar mission, providing a necessary complement to the efforts of each male initiate. Interestingly, they didn't always become lovers with their partner. Many Knights had been married before joining the Order and some therefore had daughters suitable for this task. There is one legend of a 13-year old maiden, daughter of a Knight, who knew every one of the combat-prayer songs sung by the Daughters of Tsion while their men were in battle. When her father sadly fell in combat, her expertise was not wasted because a young Templar (perhaps in shining armour?) asked her to make the special alliance with him. The Daughters of Tsion were a secret order of women who supported the work of the supposedly celibate all-male Knight's Templar. These men and women were ahead of their time. They knew that gender balance is important and makes for powerful rightworkings (righteous works). The Knights would go out of their fortresses and fight to the death in skirmishes and battles, putting their very lives at risk almost daily. Yet they seemed

invincible, Templars seemed never to die or even get wounded. Wounds back then usually meant death, even simple wounds, because of infection. You got a scratch, you could die. It was quite expected for everyone who lived by the sword to die by it. As for the Templar secret invincibility, you can guess the cause. It was due, of course, to the fact that they had this army of women, the Daughters of Tsion, backing them up, supporting them spiritually and yes, physically. The physical work of the Tsion women (and clerics) consisted of feeding the Knights and themselves, making and mending all garments and medicines. Spiritual duties consisted of praying over the Knights' food and wine, making special amulets and talismans for them to wear into battle, praying and singing powerful hex-songs whenever the men were engaged in combat. These societies which are featured in the newsletter do really exist; there are virtually hundreds of them throughout the World

The Plumb Build up your life like the temple of old With stones that are polished and true; Cement it with love, and adorn it with gold As all Master builders should do: Upon a foundation, well chosen and strong, Build now for the ages to come: Make use of the good, while rejecting the wrongAnd test all your work with the plumb. By BRO. NEAL A. McCauley (From The Builder, Anamosa, Iowa, August, 1915)

The Haughfoot Lodge In the two years of 1869 and 1870, Bro. R. Sanderson contributed a number of articles to the Freemasons’ Magazine which are of great value in estimating the position of Scottish Masonry. These Minutes extend from 1702 to 1763, during which period the Lodge met at Haughfoot, Galashiels, and Selkirk, without any Charter. It differed altogether in its organisation from other Scottish Lodges, of which we have any knowledge, inasmuch as all intention of regulating operative Masonry was foreign to it, and was rather what we should suppose the 17th century Lodges of Chester, Warrington, and those scattered over the country according to Plot, to have been; and it seems to have anticipated by fifteen years the views of the London Grand Lodge as to Masonic needs. There is nothing in the Minutes to indicate how the system entered the minds of the founders; it is said that a Lodge at Wark established the Haddington St. John Lodge in 1599; but in 1701 the Lodge at Alnwick was operative Masonic, and so was the Swalwell Lodge 1690-1725. Possibly the Haughfoot Lodge may have resembled some neighbouring Lodge, but the Gateshead Lodge of 1671 was of an operative regulation also, and the Bishop's Charter may have been the unique whim of his Librarian, Miles Stapylton, urged thereto by the two Trollops who were operative and speculative Masons of the city of York, and we know that the Durham ritual was also York Masonry. A similar non-operative Lodge existed at the city of Durham 1738 to 1763 when it accepted a charter from Grand Lodge, for particulars of which see Bro. Wm. Logan's 12

History of Granby Lodge, 124. The Haughfoot Lodge had neither Charges nor Bye-laws. It assembled annually on St. John's Day at Christmas when it passed such regulations as were necessary for the year. Its officers were the Master Mason, who is annually designated “Preses” in the Minutes; a Box-Master or Treasurer; a Clerk or Secretary ; and the youngest apprentice was messenger or officer; changes gradually took place which will be noticed in their places. The degrees conferred in “common form” were apprentice, and fellow-craft, sometimes at one sitting, and then with a year's interval. For this purpose a “commission of five” was appointed every year to admit “intrants;” and these so entered do not seem to appear always in the annual Minutes. This peculiarity perhaps arose from the distance the brethren had to travel, as we read of admissions seven, thirteen, and even twenty-eight miles away. The founders of the Lodge were the neighbouring gentry, their “servants,” a word which might then mean anything from day-labourer to manor steward—with a sprinkling of lawyers, or writers, surgeons, masons, wrights, etc. The Minutes designate the Lairds by their lands, and not by family names, as Torsonce, Gala (Sir James Scott), Middleton, Ashistiel, Fallahill, Torwoodlie, etc. The meetings seem to have been well conducted, faults were censured and fined, the object being to promote goodfellowship, and relieve the wants of the necessitous. Thus we read yearly of assistance in oatmeal to relicts of two of their deceased members, and later of 13

money grants to members. There was no fixed fee for Initiation, and as a “pund scots” is only Is. 8d. members were admitted at Is. 8d. each, 5s. each, 10s. each, and credit was even given for such sums. It is impossible to read either politics, or esoteric symbolism, into the Minutes, and in these things they are but on a par with our own modem Lodges. The income of the “Box” was derived from fines for nonattendance, generally about 6d., but these were not always paid. Later a contribution of a similar amount “to strengthen the box” was agreed to, and Gala was to be spoken as to what he would give. Initiation was sought “by Petition.” The first Minutes of the Lodge begin on the 22nd December, 1702, but ten pages have been torn out, leaving a fragment on page “11,” to show the nature of the missing part. It was a Ritual of the two degrees of Apprentice and Fellowcraft, probably similar to the Dundee ceremony of 1727, and the Sloane MS. printed by the Rev. Bro. Woodford. It is difficult to understand what this small fragment means, no doubt the word “Judge” is a pen slip for Ludge which was then a common way of spelling Lodge. It might be read thus:—“leaving out The Lodge is as ordinary,” and “grips his hand in the ordinary way . . . . of a Fellowcraft.” It is thus entered : “of entrie as the apprentice did leaving out (the common Judge). They then whisper the word as before, and the Master Mason grips his hand in the ordinary way.” “Haughfoot, 14 Janry 1704, Mett John Hoppringle of yt ilk, James Pringle his brother, Andrew Thomson in Galashiels, David Murray in Philiphaugh, John Pringle, wright, Robert Lowrie in Stow,

and James Pringle in Haughfoot, conform to the appointment made by the said John Hoppringle for yt end.” “William Cairncross Mason in Stockbridge gave in his petition desiring liberty to associate himself with this lodge, which being considered and he being examined before the meeting they were fully satisfied of his being a true entered apprentice and Fellowcraft, and therefore admitted him into their Society as a member thereof in all tymecoming, upon his solemn promise in the terms of the Society anent which he accordingly gave.” “The meeting also continued John Hoppringle, of yt ilk. Master Mason, till St. John's day next, and elected Andrew Thomson, Box-Master till that tyme.” “They also gave power to any five of their members to admit and enter such qualified persons as should apply to them, into the society of this Lodge either as apprentice or fellowcraft, and this commission to continue till St. John's day.” At the same meeting James Frier was admitted to the two degrees for one pund Scots (1s. 8d.) and George Cairncross, Junr., gratis, because of his father being formerly a Mason, and now a member of the Lodge. On the 27th December, 1706, we read :— “John Scott, brother to Sir James Scott, of Gala, was orderly admitted to the Society of Apprentice and Fellowcraft.” Other entries of like nature occur, the “commission to five for intrants” being annually renewed down to 1763. A fresh regulation is dated 27th December, 1707.

“Therefore the meeting came to a generall resolution that in tyme coming they would not, except on special considerations, admitt to the Society both of apprentice and fellowcraft, at the same tyme, but that one year at least should intervene betwixt any being admitted apprentice and his being entered fellowcraft.” 27th December, 1708, “James Frier was publicly reproved for some rash expressions he had made in relation to admission to the Society.” Every year a new Preses and Box-master was elected, and we read 27th December, 1709 :—“William Cairncross, junr., and James Brysone gave in their petition to be admitted to the Society which was agreed to as apprentices only, and they were admitted accordingly, and each of them were appointed to pay in to the Box Master, for their entry, one pund scots.” Here it is to be noted that at the same meeting James Pringle, of Torwoodlie, had the two degrees and paid 6 punds (10/-), We read at the meeting on the 27th December, 1714, of a brother again disciplined :— “The Preses for last year reports that he and o'yr four convened Thomas Frier before yem, and reprimanded him for his fault, and administered the oath of new to him, and left the consideration of his fyne to the meeting.” “The meeting because the committee reports he was very sorry for his fault, passes from every fyne.” The Lodge was equally strict with the " commission of five," for we learn 27th 14

December, 1716, “The sd. day reported by Adam Claperton, John Young, John Fountain, and James Peacock that they had admitted Alexr Methven, Chyr. . upon 21 Novr., 1716, as ane apprentice, who subjected himself as to his entry money to the determination of the Lodge, which being considered by the meeting they appoint him to pay four punds scots, and ordain them to be surety for the immediate payment yrof to the Box Master. And in regard they have transgressed the act of the meeting, giving commission to any five to receive intrants; the meeting fynes each of them 12 sh. scots, and ordain them to be publicly reprimanded by the Preses.” This matter of the four over zealous members had not been adjusted in 1717, as they stated that “Torsonce took the power out of their hands,, they were content to pay their respective fynes.” Up to 1717 the Laird of Torsonce seems to have acted as Clerk or Secretary, and everything went on well, the Minutes now began to be taken in a rough book, and there was a difficulty in finding a Clerk and fixing a salary to write up the “register.” Another trouble began to arise, the Box-master and others had the loan of their spare funds “on rent,” i.e. interest, and it was difficult to get them to account, and some of their bills were burnt as " desperate," in the end. We read 27th December, 1718:— “The Preses, with consent of the Lodge, recommends to the commission of five for entering, to consider as to the entry money, the distinctions following (viz.), that a tradesman pay at least five shillings sterling, and any other person whatsoever ten shillings sterling.” 15

A Clerk had been appointed in 1726, who had the register to write up for ten years, at which time the Lodge met occasionally at Galashiels, and on the 28th December, 1730, Jeams Claperton, John Young, and Robert Frier, were appointed to compare the Minutes with the Register, “and, upon finding that they agree, to destroy the minutes.” On the 27th February, 1731, we are told “According to the appointment of last meeting we, Jeams Claperton, Robt. Frier, John Young, Wm. Caimcross, John Donaldson, George Cairncross, and Willm. Murray, have compaired the minutes of Sedurents with the register, and found that they perfectly agree, wherefore as desired we have destroyed the sd. minutes.” On the 20th January, 1742, the Lodge had removed itself permanently to Galashiels with occasional meetings at Stow. We have no Minutes of the passing of members to the degree of Fellowcraft, after one year; no doubt such took place amongst the “Commission of five,” and are not minuted. From this time also changes began to be made in consonance to customs of the operative Lodges. On the 27th December, 1745, the Lodge began the custom, followed by other Scottish Lodges, of admitting apprentices and appointing them “two intenders.” Various minutes follow of this description, generally apprentices to Masons, and in 1747 we find the term “brethren” first used. On December 27th, 1749, it is thus expressed :—" The sd. day George Dine was admitted in common form, and gave bill for one pound ten shillings Scots money as his entry, payable next St. John's

day. The sd. day John Dobson and Hugh Cairncross were ordered to instruct George Dine in all the points of an apprentice and fellowcraft.” On the 8th January, 1753, the Lodge resolves to meet alternately at Selkirk, and accordingly they met there 27th December, 1754, and also three days later, when it was resolved :—“The said day it was enacted a law that none can enter here in time coming without a pair of gloves to each member of the sd. Lodge.” On the 27th December 1759 the Lodge met at Selkirk when they began, for the first time, to appoint Wardens :- “Carried by plurality of votes, the continuance of George Dun, Preses, and George Hunter, Box-master, and John and George Dobson, Wardens.” After this Wardens were annually appointed, whether meeting at Selkirk or Galashiels; and the last Minute of a meeting at Selkirk shows that they appoint as officers,—“Master, Wardens, Treasurer, Secretary, four Stewards, and an Officer.” Thus terminates these interesting Minutes of which I have given sufficient to show the nature of the work; the eras of 1717 (England) and 1736 (Scotland), made no changes in the working of the Lodge, but with their advent at Selkirk the members began to fashion their proceedings on those of the neighbouring Lodges. Thus some would be dissatisfied with the changes, whilst others would attach themselves to Lodges held of Grand Lodge of Scotland. However loosely some of the Lodges may have performed their work, these Minutes prove beyond a doubt what was expected of a Scottish Lodge as to ceremonies, and as such they are of the greatest value to the

history of Masonry in that part of the United Kingdom. The original intent of this paper was to prove that Scottish Masonry possessed two ceremonial degrees, and not one, and that the Master Mason was the (Speculative) Chair Master: the Melrose documents are of like effect. Since it was written, Bro. R. P. Gould has examined the matter fully, and has pronounced for two degrees, both in England and Scotland, with this distinction, that whilst the Second Degree of Scotland was Passed Fellow of Craft, in England it was Fellow—or—and Master, and, though he doubts the verbal antiquity of our old Catechisms, he can refer further to the 1623 records of the Lodge held under the Masons' Company of London. May not the distinction arise by the grant of brevet Chair rank, in the conferment of certain formulae, alleged to have been transferred to the Royal Arch about 1740? Sourced from John Yarker - 1903 - Ars Quatuor Coronatorum : Being the Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 2076, London – Vol. XVI Page 177.

The original Haughfoot Lodge is a unique piece of Scottish Masonic History. Founded in the year 1702 it was the World's first Lodge of purely speculative Masons and although The Grand Lodge of Scotland was founded in 1736 the Haughfoot Lodge remained independent during it's whole existence from 1702 1763 The Haughfoot Lodge No. 1842 was founded in August 2002 for Masonic educational purposes and to be a continuation of the Historical fact of the original Lodge's existence 16

There are a number of Research Lodges within Freemasonry these provide an added level of interest to Masonic Students - most deal with Masonic history by presenting papers etc. The Haughfoot Lodge No 1824 was set up as a new Masonic Lodge to examine, study and to exemplify the actual degree workings carried out in the original Haughfoot Lodge (and other Lodges of Freemasons working before 1700). These were the rituals being used before the formation of a Grand Lodge - (England 1717 - Ireland 1725 - Scotland 1736 ) The Lodge has now visited a number of other Lodges to demonstrate the type of working performed by our forebears The Haughfoot Lodge has a website which the reader can visit to learn more of this old Lodge and its meeting dates. This can be viewed at, Our thanks go to the Lodge No .1842 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owners.

The Haughfoot Lodge Mark Token

Rays of Masonry “Masonry is it’s own Reward” The matter of attendance is perhaps the most frequently discussed subject with Masonic groups. "How can our lodge increase attendance," is the question that is invariably propounded. It is perfectly natural for officers of the lodge to give some thought to ways and means to interest more members. However, there is always the danger of becoming too engrossed in the matter of attendance, and thereby losing something that is vastly more important. Why do we come to a Masonic meeting? To learn. Is a large attendance always indicative of the fact that more members are eager to learn, or does it mean that a promised feature on the program has attracted a greater number? Masonry is a study that offers the greatest opportunity for self-improvement. It has within it the glamour of romance, the magic of history, and the comfort of philosophy. It is the refreshing inspiration that we carry with us to "Foreign Countries." You have witnessed the degrees, and with each portrayal there has unfolded a new thought. You have taken part in the business of the lodge. And, whenever the lodge gives to the poor, sustains the widow in her hour of need, gives shelter and food to children, you have the satisfaction that goes with being a benefactor. You can disguise Masonry for the moment, but you cannot change it. We should attend lodge, but always with the knowledge that "Masonry is its own reward." Dewey Wollstein 1953


Did You Know? Q. As used in Freemasonry today, are the terms Apprentice and Entered Apprentice interchangeable? A. Under Art. ii of the Articles of Union, it was `... declared and pronounced that pure Ancient Masonry consists of three degrees, and no more; Vizt. those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft . . .', etc. Strictly speaking, therefore, the only title for the first grade in the Craft nowadays is Entered Apprentice, and the title Apprentice could only stand as an abbreviation. It is necessary to go back to early operative practice to explain the real difference between the two terms. Apprentices were usually indentured to their Masters for seven years, and in Scotland there is evidence that the Masters undertook to `enter their apprentices' in the Lodge during that period. (1) In Edinburgh, it was the rule that all apprentices had to be `booked' in the town's Register of Apprentices, at the beginning of their indentures. The Register survives from 1583 and shows that the `bookings' recorded the names of the apprentice and his father, the father's trade and place of residence, the name, trade and residence of the master, the date of the `booking' and (rarely) the actual date of the indentures - if there had been any delay in the `booking'. (1) See `Apprenticeship in England and Scotland up to 1700', by H. Carr, AQC 69, pp. 57/8, 67/8); also `The Mason and the Burgh', AQC 67.

These carefully detailed municipal records become valuable indeed when, from 1599 onwards, there are minutes for the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel), in which it

is possible to identify more than a hundred apprentices and to check the dates when they were admitted into the Lodge as `entered apprentice'. This usually happened some two to three years after the beginning of their indentures, and that marked the beginning of their career within the Lodge. They would normally pass F.C. about seven years after they were made E.A., or roughly ten years from the commencement of their training. If for any reason they failed to pass F.C., they retained their Lodge status as E.A., even after their term of service had finished and they were already working as journeymen. The Edinburgh system of introducing the apprentice into the Lodge during his apprenticeship did not exist in 1475, when the Masons and Wrights Incorporation [= Gild] was founded, but it was already fully established in 1598 when the earliest surviving Lodge minutes begin. The two to three-year time lag between `booking' and E.A. may have been longer in other places. Unfortunately, it is only Edinburgh that still possesses the dual town-and-Lodge records, that enable us to verify their practice. It is curious that the term `entered apprentice' does not appear in English documents until the 1720’s. The above answer was given by W. Bro. Harry Carr.

Masonic Thoughts! One thing and only one thing a Masonic Lodge can give its members which they can get nowhere else in the world. That one thing is Masonry. Carl H. Claudy 18

''Well, no one is going to hog-tie you and throw you into a study club," answered the Old Tiler. "It's not only a free country, but a free lodge." "I am properly thankful for it," answered the New Brother. "But I can't understand the complex these fellows have." ''Suppose you change the subject and give me a definition of the philosophy of Masonry," suggested the Old Tiler. "Why, the philosophy of Masonry is . . . it's er . . . why, I suppose it's . . . I don't know what it is." "Well, tell me then, what the religion of Freemasonry is?"

Beautiful Adventure They are forming a study club in there!'' announced the New Brother, disgustedly, to the Old Tiler. "Get all I want of study in school. Can't see why men in lodge want to make a job out of Masonry!" "Maybe they want to learn something about it," suggested the Old Tiler. "Some people do like to know something about the religion they practice, the organization they belong to, the truths they embrace." "Is that a dirty dig?" demanded the New Brother. "It isn't deserved. I am not one of those careless Masons who wear the pin and pay dues and end their activity. I attend regularly. I do what I am called upon to do. I learned the work and learned it well. I even learned all the third degree, although it wasn't demanded of me. But to get together evenings in a study club and go all over it again and learn it some morenot for mine!'' 19

"That's easy," laughed the New Brother. "Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man." "Brotherhood of man cannot be a religion," answered the Old Tiler, "because a religion is a system of belief and worship of Deity. And the Fatherhood of God is taught in a dozen different religions, including the Christian religion, the Jewish, the Mohammedan and most of the pagan religions. You'll have to dig deeper than that for the religion of Freemasonry. "As that sticks you, you might explain to me the real origin of the letter 'G' in Freemasonry; I don't mean the ritualistic reference to it, but its connection with the symbols of the first and second degrees.'' "I didn't know it had any other origin than what we give it in the Fellowcraft degree," answered the New Brother.

''Seems to me there are several things you don't know about this craft the work of which you are so self-sufficiently proud to have learned," scoffed the Old Tiler. "Can you give a history of Freemasonry? Do you know anything about the first Grand Lodge?''

with which to unlock doors behind which lie other secrets of untold value. They cannot be told to you. You wouldn't know how to understand them if you had them told to you. The only way a Mason can learn these, the inner, esoteric secrets of Freemasonry, is to use the keys we give him and unlock the doors and enter the holy of holies for himself.

"You mean the one at Jerusalem?" ''No, I mean London!" was the sharp answer. "Can you tell me anything about Ars Quatuor Cororiatorum? Do you know the story of Price and Coxe and Freemasonry in the United States? Who Morgan was? What Freemasonry had to do with Mormonism? What other patriots besides Washington, Warren, Lafayette and Paul Revere went to a Masonic lodge for help in the Revolutionary war? "Do you know anything of the Egyptian and Syriac origins of any of our ceremonies and symbols? Do you understand the connection of the myth of Isis and Osiris with our lion's paw and Lion of the Tribe of Judah? Do you know why clandestinism is mentioned in our ritual or anything about Cerneauism and other spurious Masonry? "I know you do not! And therefore, it seems to me that you are among the many to whom attendance in a study club would be of the greatest value. "Freemasonry is much more than a system of lodges. It is a system of living. It has many secrets to give you . . . you have learned only, the exoteric secrets; the secrets which all initiates are taught. You have nothing more from your Freemasonry than any of the rest. Yet the simple and few secrets given you in our degrees are keys

''A man can do this alone. Many men have. A man may study medicine or engineering or stenography or house building or anything else alone, if he has the wit and the determination so to do. But it's easier to study such things in the company of others and with a teacher. Teaching is an art and so is study. Not all of us know these arts. Hence, we have schools and colleges to help those who want to learn but don't know how. "A study club is a Masonic school. It makes Masonic study easier. Unfortunately, there are many to whom the word 'study' is anathema; it is connected in their minds with tiresome days in School, when some teacher taught an uninteresting subject uninterestingly. If I should form a club, I'd call it the Beautiful Adventure Club. I'd try to make its members feel that instead of hard, laborious hours studying something, they were setting out on a beautiful adventure to find the end of the Masonic rainbow, to look for the pot of hidden gold, to learn the secrets which may not be told, to get the knowledge that each man must find for himself. That's what the right kind of a study club is; a means of having ail adventure which the casualminded man can never have. But, of course, it's only for the Masons who like adventure and who want to see behind the locked door to which they hold the keys where are you going?" 20

"You know perfectly well where I'm going!'' retorted the New Brother scornfully. ''I am going inside to join that club before they close the list of members! If there are any adventures to have in Freemasonry I want them, and if there are any locked doors I want to open them!" The Old Tiler smiled. He had been an Old Tiler for a long, long time. This is the Forty-ninth article in this regular feature, ‘The Old Tiler Talks,’ each month we publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.

It Doesn’t Have to be like This! "...Freemasonry in the eighteenth century was a radical movement, often standing against abuses of power on the part of the Establishment. Its development and growth were a vital part of the Age of Enlightenment." Try this and see how it fits. Freemasons belong to an organisation which ought to be dedicated to self-knowledge, the nature of being, love, tolerance, the brotherhood of man, liberty of conscience and, yes, perhaps a brush with the Deity on the way. But we have become bogged down in systems resembling officialdom, obsession with promotion to higher rank, discussions about precedence, confused notions about God, the relative merits of this or that dining venue and the parrotting, without meaning, of what is in itself a very meaningful ritual. 21

Perhaps worst of all we call ourselves a charitable organization, when what we are is, primarily, an organisation with all the attributes I have mentioned plus, in addition, some philanthropic ones. "Where is the spirituality, the attempt at self-improvement, the journeys into symbolism,... into the unexplained?" On the evening I was initiated, one of the Past Masters shook my hand with the words "Well, boy, from now on you won't need any other hobbies!" I instantly found that offensive, sensing (correctly) that freemasonry is a profession or a vocation, not a hobby. My impression, so early formed, was shortly after substantiated by visits to lodges in Germany where they takes these things very much more seriously than we do in England. Where is the spirituality, the attempt at self-improvement, the journeys into symbolism, the journeys, come to that, into the unexplained, both without and within? If we examine where freemasonry in England is at the moment, to put it bluntly, we are engaged in initiating ever more men into the craft and conferring second and third degrees on them, so that they shall in their turn be Appointed To Office In The Lodge, In Due Time Becoming Worshipful Master. To what end? The end, unfortunately, is so that they can then confer initiation on more men, so that those men can then do the same to other men, usque ad infinitum. We seem to do this under the justification of "a daily advancement in masonic knowledge." Is it too much to ask what advancement? What has happened to them? How has

freemasonry shaped their lives, if at all? Have they grown, and if so, in what way? What have they learned? These are not rhetorical questions, because to some of these brethren something has happened; freemasonry has shaped their lives, even if only in a small way; they may indeed have grown, without knowing it; they have almost certainly learned something, even if it is only some ritual learned by default. But for many of us, I suspect, the eternal conferring of degrees very soon becomes an end in itself. It's easy to forget that freemasonry in the eighteenth century was a radical movement, often standing against abuses of power on the part of the Establishment. Its development and growth were a vital part of the Age of Enlightenment. It was, for many, the route to knowledge denied to them by an oppressive religious or political system. Yet after a recent talk on education in freemasonry, when I asked the speaker whether it would be possible to include talks on historical or philosophical matters as a regular feature of lodge proceedings (such as are commonplace in many continental lodges), the reply was that "this would not suit the majority --- after all, people enjoy their freemasonry on many different levels", a knife-and-fork mason's charter if ever I heard one. The good news is, it doesn't have to be like this. As Colin Dyer points out, the proper means of instructing young masons is not by repetition of degree ceremonies, but by the various systems of masonic lectures. In the late 18th. and early 19th centuries lodges of instruction did not teach degree

ceremonies, so much more engaged were they in moral and philosophical debate. Masons were often `made' outside the lodge altogether, and then brought to the lodge where their real work started, in moral, intellectual and spiritual pursuits. Degree ceremonies, by contrast, are only the means (however ornate) of making masons and advancing them to other degrees once they have learned something. Degrees of what? To attain to a higher degree, surely you have first to study, to learn, to gain proficiency. This is the principle of any academic pursuit, and the time-honoured method employed by any institute worth the name; why should the requirements of freemasonry be any less? The perfunctory questions we require nowadays of our candidates for advancement are merely the rump of an intricate system of morality lectures which, in the 18th. century, had to be imparted verbally (since nothing was written down) and learned by heart before a candidate could advance to a higher degree. Nowadays even the small amount left over from these does not constitute a real test at all, since any amount of prompting by the Deacon at his side is allowable. Compare this with the practice in a German lodge I visited, where at each meeting the Master delegated one of the junior brethren to prepare and then deliver at the next meeting a lecture on a philosophical subject of his choosing, and then be prepared to answer questions on it. Or the French lodge I visited, where a candidate for initiation was not admitted 22

until after months of searching questions about his moral and philosophical attitude. When I first wrote this, I had in mind the experiences of one or two of our younger brethren, whose second and third degrees came quite a while after their initiation. They expressed surprise that they were not expected to make a more taxing advancement in masonic knowledge, and seemed bored by the lack of activity; in short, they felt abandoned. I have a keen sense that they were right to feel this way. So how about it? What is our daily advancement in masonic knowledge, and how to we go about this business of selfknowledge, inner growth, or is it all just empty words. This article was written by Julian Rees who was deputy editor of Freemasonry Today from 2003 2007, Britain's leading Masonic magazine, and sourced from MSA.

THE SYMBOLISM OF NUMBERS THAT metaphorical road along which the Mason travels in his progress through the degrees of the Blue Lodge is flanked upon each side by many, many road signs directing his attention to various by-paths leading to interesting fields of investigation and study. A large number of these signs have been at least partially obliterated by the destroying hands of the Prestons and the Webbs but, however it may be with those directing the student's attention to Sun Worship, Persian Mysteries, Egyptian Mysteries, Symbolism of Geometrical Figures, Symbolism of the Bible, and so forth, there is one series of signs the units 23

of which have not had their legends even partially obliterated, and which all still plainly bear the same direction to the traveler--"To the Study of the Symbolism of Numbers." Yet, in spite of the frequent repetitions of this direction, many Masons hurry along, not even realizing that there are any such signs and totally neglecting a field of study that, as even the below-given short excursion along one of these paths ought to show, is well worthy of cultivation. Only the numbers one to ten inclusive will be here considered and, of those, only the most important-- Three and Seven--will be at all expanded upon, as to treat each of the ten at all fully would convert what is intended as little more than a brief synopsis into a lengthy treatise. That all of the numbers from one to ten are respectively referred to in Masonry, and presented for contemplation, can be shown by many examples, and the discovery of them furnishes an interesting and instructive occupation for the student. To take one set of references only--one of the sets brought forward by the Lodge itself-the briefest consideration calls to mind that:-There is one Master; there are two Wardens; three supporting Pillars; four sides to the Lodge, marking the Four Cardinal Points; five elected primary officers; six Jewels; seven operative working tools necessary to the symbolic building of a proper Lodge, i. e., the six usual Working Tools plus the Compasses; when the Lodge is in the form of the Double Square (as it should be) the two Squares present eight right-angles; there are nine primary officers, excluding the Tyler, and ten primary officers in all.

First, to review most briefly certain phases of the significances of these various numbers except Three and Seven, and, then, to take up Three and Seven for somewhat detailed consideration:-One, the Monad, is the symbol of the Male Principle in Nature. Two, the Duad, is the symbol of the Female Principle in Nature. It is also the symbol of Antagonism, of Good and Evil, Light and Darkness, Osiris and Typhoon. Four is the number of the Tetragrammaton or Four-Lettered Name which, in the original Hebrew, consists of four letters. Scriptural references to this number are very frequent. Out of the Garden of Eden flowed four rivers. Zechariah saw four chariots coming from between the mountains of brass. Ezekiel saw four living creatures each with four faces and four wings. And St. John saw four beasts. Five, made up, as it is, of the first odd number, rejecting unity, and the first even number, is the symbol of that mixed condition of order and disorder existing in the world. Six is the number of the angles of the SixPointed Star formed by the two interlaced Equilateral Triangles and, so, calls attention to that ancient talisman, the Seal of Solomon or Shield of David. Eight, the cube of the first even number, was held by the Pythagoreans to signify Friendship, Prudence, Counsel, and Justice. Christian symboligists consider it the symbol of Resurrection because Christ rose on the eighth day, that is to say, the day (Sunday) after the seventh day (Saturday).

Nine is the number of the angles in that Triple Triangle formed by placing three equal Equilateral Triangles with their apices meeting in a common point and the Triangles radiating from that point with the angle separating each Triangle from the next equal to sixty degrees--the jewel of the Prelate of the Templars. As the Equilateral Triangle is the symbol of Deity so the Triple Triangle composed of three Equilateral Triangles is the symbol of the Triple Essence of Deity or, to the Christian, the Mystery of the Trinity. Ten, being the number of the dots in the Tetractys, calls the attention of the student to that great Pythagorean symbol. This number is the symbol of Perfection, and for this reason--it is the sum of the numbers Three and Seven. THE NUMBER THREE To cite more than a few of the very large number of references in Masonry to the number Three could serve no useful purpose, as it is far better that the student investigate the matter for himself. But, for a few of the more obvious examples, it will be noted that there are three occurrences of each of the following: degrees in Craft Masonry; Great Lights; Lesser Lights; Fellowcraft's Working Tools; Movable Jewels; Immovable Jewels; Supporting Pillars, and lighted Cardinal Points. Also there are all the various incidents of Three that follow directly from the fact that there are three degrees, as three positions of the Square and Compasses, and so forth. Three, among practically all the ancient peoples, was considered the most significant of all the numbers and was, in many of the ancient religions, the number of certain of the attributes of many of the 24

gods. For example, Jove's thunder bolt was three-forked, and Cerebus, the dog of Hades, had three heads. The Druids' ceremonies contained many references to it. And in the rites of Mithras and in those of Hindustan are many important references to it. Three, as the sum of the Monad and the Duad, is, symbolically, the result of the addition of the Male Principle, symbolized by the Monad, and the Female Principle, symbolized by the Duad, and, thus, plainly becomes the symbol of the Creative Power. It is also the symbol of the three-fold nature of Deity--He who comprises the Generative Power, the Productive Capacity, and the Result, and who is the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer. THE NUMBER SEVEN As stated by Mackey, "the symbolic Seven is to be found in a hundred ways over the whole Masonic system." This statement is so true and the discovery of those many references is so interesting and profitable to the student that no attempt is made here to gather them together. But no student who neglects to make an effort to discover them can get out of Masonry all that it has to offer him. Seven is referred to in practically all of the ancient religions. There were seven altars before the god Mithras. In the Persian Mysteries there were seven caverns. The Goths had seven Deities and in the Gothic Mysteries the candidate met with seven obstructions. References in the Scriptures to Seven are almost innumerable. To cite but a very few:-Noah had seven days notice of the commencement of the Deluge. The clean 25

beasts were taken into the ark by sevens. The ark came to rest on Mt. Ararat in the seventh month. The intervals between the dispatching of the doves from the ark were seven days each. Solomon was seven years building the Temple. And the Temple was dedicated in the seventh month, the feast lasting seven days. The few examples given above of the occurrences of references to the number Seven indicate the peculiar veneration in which that number has been held from the most ancient times. Its different symbolical meanings are nearly as numerous as the different systems of religious philosophy in which it occurs. But, to the Mason, following the teachings of "our ancient friend and brother, the great Pythagoras," it may well be the symbol of Perfection, this significance being plainly derivable from the fact that Seven is the sum of the numbers Three and Four, the numbers of the two perfect figures--the Triangle and the Square. In concluding it is emphasized that the above statements of the significances of the various numbers are but a very small proportion of the many that might be made. There are many symbolic meanings assigned to each of the numbers and, by investigation, each student can find, among that large number of interpretations, at least one meaning for each number that will appeal to him and which will imbue Masonry with new life and new interest and will help to convert what has, perhaps, become (through no fault of Masonry) a "dry as dust" series of actions and words into a living system of instruction in morals, philosophy, ancient history, and symbolism. BY BRO. H.A. KINGSBURY, - Sourced from the Builder Magazine August 1917

My Argument with Freemasonry Because I am going to say some critical things, let me first set out my credentials. I am an insider, fully committed to Freemasonry and what it stands for. I have been a freemason for over 40 years, in Britain, Australia and now Israel. I am past master of Lodge Mark Owen, Past Grand Chaplain and Past Junior Grand Warden. I spent some years as a Grand Lodge lecturer. I am quite well known as a Masonic speaker, writer and advocate. I have had a long, constructive career in the craft. Not just because of the good fellowship, the dramatising of ethical principles and the opportunities for service to the community, but because it is an ideology which appeals to my mind. True, I once wrote a booklet called “Objections to Freemasonry” – not about personal objections to Freemasonry but common misconceptions that needed a reasoned response. I took up arms because I saw something I believed in come under attack. But I fear that many freemasons are distorting that belief and turning it into an idolatry. In ancient Israel there was a danger that people would make an icon out of the Temple and constantly proclaim “The Sanctuary of the Lord! The Sanctuary of the Lord!” They loved the Temple: they adored every appurtenance. We do likewise. It is not politically correct to call Masonic meeting places temples, but we suffer the same syndrome. Further, though I am a stickler for punctuality and punctiliousness in ritual – in religion too – our meetings are a hymn of glory and an end in themselves.

We tell ourselves, we tell new members, we tell the world, that Freemasonry is magnificent. It is, but that’s not the point. The real question is why. Because of the outward emblems? But they are no more than symbols of a message. My worry is that the message is becoming obscured. We have magnificent values – harmony, brotherhood, justice, charity. But where is the analysis and exploration, the discourse and discussion? Our Masonic lectures are monologues, our ritual regurgitates learnt mantras, our writings skirt around the edges of what ought to be on-going passionate debate. We dramatise brotherhood but have no forum to discuss it. We speak of charity, but in generalities without interpretation. We avoid research and debate. We sit back passively when someone delivers a monologue in quaint 18th century English but we’re too genteel to argue with them. Personally I do not greatly enjoy delivering a charge in lodge because I so often want to interrupt the flow and ask what I am saying and what it all means. I am not advocating that we constantly interrupt whatever is happening in the lodge room. The most exciting moment of my Mark Owen career was when that beloved Masonic identity, Charles Aaron, shouted, “Rubbish, Worshipful Master!” (it was not I who was Master; I know who was and have no intention of telling.) I am not advocating that anyone shout out, “Rubbish!” Nor do I want lodge meetings to deteriorate into chaos with chit-chat across the room. But I would like to see our meetings take on a new dimension, with every mason stirred and stimulated to think for himself, to speak up and to engage in clarifying our ideals and how to apply them for the good of society.

By Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory. Click the name to go to his website.


THE EMBLEMS OF FREEMASONRY The First Degree Apron. The Apron is the badge of Innocence, and the bond of Friendship. It is made of lambskin, and, as in all ages the Lamb has been acknowledged as the emblem of Innocence and Purity, it is intended to remind the Freemason of that purity of life which should at all times characterise members of the Brotherhood. It is worn by the operative mason to preserve his garments from spot or stain, and by the Speculative Freemason as a symbol that his aim throughout life should be so to conduct himself as to be able to appear before the Great Architect of the Universe, unstained by sin and unsullied by vice. Foundation Stone. As it is customary at the erection of all stately and superb edifices to lay the foundation stone at the north-east corner of the building, the newly initiated Brother is placed in that position figuratively to represent that stone, so that he may receive an exhortation on the chief virtue of Freemasonry, and the real foundation on which the Order rests. And the Member of the Fraternity who is true to his faith will never forget his first lecture on Moral Architecture. Charity, we must ever remember, is the principal of all social virtues, and the distinguishing characteristic of Freemasons. The Working Tools. The Working Tools of an Entered Apprentice are three in number - the twenty-four inch Gauge, the Mallet, and the Chisel, and each is rich in symbolism for the thoughtful Mason. They are the first tools presented to him in the Lodge, and it is by making diligent and careful use of them that he will best justify his admission and prepare himself for advancement in the Craft. The Gauge. The 24-inch gauge is used by the Operative Mason to measure and lay out his work so as to compute the time and labour it will cost. Applied in a moral sense, it teaches the Speculative Mason a daily lesson of admonition and instruction for, as it is divided into 24 equal parts, it reminds him of the 24 hours of the day, and directs him to apply them in a fair division to their proper objects, which are prayer, labour, refreshment and sleep. This monthly feature is taken from William Harvey’s book, “The Emblems of Freemasonry” 1918.

Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor. 27