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Volume 13 Issue 8 No. 106 December 2017

Monthly Magazine

Cover Story, The Festival of St. John the Evangelist Did You Know? The Perfect Cubit – Masonic Legend of Fable Lodge St.John (Operative) No.193. Famous Freemasons – John McDouall Stuart What, No Plumbers? Rays of Masonry Old Tiler Talks How to Memorize in 4 Easy Steps. Templo and the Temple Will the Temple be Re-built? Pillars and Globes, Columns and Candlesticks The Kirkwall Scroll – Parts 8&9 The Emblems of Freemasonry Main Website – Our Ritual – A Study in its Development

In this issue: Cover Story ‘The Festival of St. John the Evangelist’ An article from 1866 looks at the Festival of St.John the Evangelist on December 27th, and what it means to Freemasons all over the World.

Page 4, ‘The Masonic Mouse – A Poem Page 5, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 7, ‘The Perfect Cubit – Legend or Fable.’ Does it Exist? Page 10, ‘Lodge St.John (Operative) No. 193. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 13, ‘John McDouall Stuart’ Famous Freemasons. Page 15, ‘What, No Plumbers?’ Interested in Operatives, this might be for you! Page 18, ‘Rays of Masonry.’ “The Price of Freedom” Page 18, ‘The Old Tiler Talks.’ “Foolish Spending”, sixty-third in the series. Page 20, ‘How to memorize in 4 easy steps.’ Page 21, The thoughts of Bro. Rabbi Raymond Apple. Page 23, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 25, ‘Pillars and Globes, Columns and Candlesticks – Part 1’ Page 29, ‘The Kirkwall Scroll – Part 8&9. Page 34, ‘The Emblems of Freemasonry.’

In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘Our Ritual – A Study in its Development.’. [link] 1

Front cover – Our Christmas Card

The Festival of St. John the Evangelist All Christian nations celebrate Christmas time - the anniversary of the birth of Christ, the founder of the Christian religion and the object of its worship. Many curious ceremonies are practiced by the people of Northern Europe, on each recurrence of this festival time, the signification and origin of which are little thought of by those who partake in them. The bringing in of the great Yule Log wherewith to make the great Christmas fire. The elevation of the oak tree bough, intertwined with the slender branches of the mistletoe, in each house, forming the kissing bush, which, for the period of twelve days, reigns supreme, and requires from all who pass beneath it, whether man or maid, submission to the kissing ordeal or payment of a fine. These and many other Christmas customs of the old world, are associated very closely with the commemoration of this anniversary season, yet in themselves are so foreign to the occasion, or rather are so wanting in all suggestion of meaning as appertaining to this Christian festival, that it is not a little surprising that more do not ask whence come these strange and peculiar usages. They have no natural relation ship to the celebration of the anniversary of Christ's birth. There is but one answer to the inquiry here suggested, and that is, that these customs properly belong to the celebration

of an anniversary season celebrated in the North of Europe for as many years before the birth of Christ as that time is previous to the present. Two days after Christmas comes the anniversary of the day given to St. John the Evangelist by the Church Calendar. Anciently this was the great Masonic Festival Day, latterly much neglected for Saint John the Baptist's day, six months earlier in the year. The Evangelist's Day was observed as the great Masonic Festival time from the period of the middle ages, when the Masons in Europe, actuated by their conflict with the Moslems of the East, began to Christianize their system by the adoption of Saint John as their patron Saint. Saint John the Baptist's day, on the other hand, did not rise to any note, even among Masons, until after the year 1720. We have alluded to the Christmas customs in this connection, and for this purpose, namely, to claim that those customs belong with quite as much, if not more propriety to the Masonic anniversary of St. John the Evangelist on the 27th of December. We do not claim that these customs partake of any relationship to the Evangelist more than to his Lord and Master. The customs to which we allude are associated with this period of the year, and refer to celebrations observed by Masons long before the days of St. John or Jesus Christ. Centuries before in the oak forests of Germany or Britain, the old time Druids and Druidesses presided over similar festivals. The conquering church adopted the customs of the period, and adapting them to their new religious systems, assigned to them a Christian name, but failed to give to them a Christian signification. The Masons, finding the St. John's day of the church occurred 2

about the time when, for reasons having nothing to do with St. John the Evangelist, they had been in the habit of enjoying a festival season for ages, chose to call it St. John's day, and so observe it; until those who have inherited their Masonry, having overlooked the true Masonic reason for the celebration at this season of the year, have very generally ceased to celebrate it, even as the anniversary of one of their patron Saints. We regard it as very much to be regretted that Masons fail to celebrate the day of the Evangelist St. John. It is a loss to Masonry. It is a surrender of an opportunity to direct the minds of the Fraternity to the origin of their Institution, antedating the times of Christ and the Evangelist, antedating the times of the ancient Druids, who in celebrating the great winter festival were merely commemorating a season which had been observed by men and Masons from the beginning. "And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years." As the sun ruled the day and the moon the night, so the moon marked the week of seven days and by its quartering the month of four weeks; so the sun measured the year, and the earth by its revolution and the eccentricity of its axis, pointed out the equinoxes and the solstices. Very much in Masonry has thus an astronomical origin. The moon has always been used to indicate by its quartering’s the time for lodge meetings. And among all the nations of antiquity, the equinoxes and solstices were ever regarded as seasons of great importance. Especially in the ancient mysteries, was great stress laid upon the 3

solstices, and the winter and summer solstice, the shortest day and the longest day of the year, commemorated with great ceremony. The well-known Masonic symbol, the point within a circle bounded by the two parallels - refers to this - the point, the sun, the centre of the solar system; the circle, the earth's orbit around the sun; the parallels, where they touch the circle, the winter and summer solstice, the limit of the sun's apparent course to the Northward and Southward of the Equator; the left hand perpendicular, B*** or the Northern Pillar, the right hand perpendicular, J*****, the Southern Pillar, standing in the porch of the Temple of the Lord, which is the Universe, while the Bible, as now placed in the symbol, or more properly in our opinion the sun, as the symbol of divinity, has its place in the Orient. Just in the same manner as the Christmas celebration, and the Evangelist St. John's celebration, Masonically refer to seasons having an astronomical origin, so even do those celebrated pillars in front of Solomon's temple, although usually referred to the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire, which followed and preceded the Hebrews in the wilderness, - so even do these pillars refer to that older custom of erecting in front of temples one pillar to fire and another to the wind, in allusion to the solstices, in the one when the rays of Sol are most fiery, and in the other, when the winds of Boreas are most piercing and violent. The summer solstice occurs about the twenty-first of June, near enough to the anniversary of St. John the Baptist to lead to the ready adoption by the middle age Christianizing Masons of that day, in preference to the twenty-first. The Winter

solstice occurs about the twenty-second of December, near enough to the day given by the Church to St. John the Evangelist, to induce the Masons to surrender to it their preference for the twenty-second. A day or two either way, it was thought, no doubt, made no essential difference. But a great mistake was committed. It cast adrift the Fraternity from the reverence for days and seasons of deep Masonic significance, and led them to the adoption of anniversaries which have no essential Masonic meaning. And during the present generation the entire neglect of the anniversary of St. John the Evangelist has led to the surrender of the Christmas festivities to the Church, which more properly and only legitimately belong to the Freemasons. Can this departure from old Masonic custom have gone so far as to render it altogether hopeless to expect that the great Masonic festival of the Winter solstice may ever be revived?

At the head of the table, in his high chair sat a very old dormouse with long silver hair. He spoke to the company and thanked one and all for making the journey to Freemasons’ Hall. The evening was spent in great harmony; each mouse got a present from under the tree He had dreamt of this evening for many long years; as the last mouse left he shed tiny tears. All his thoughts and dreams had now come true — a lodge full of mouses in aprons of blue. In their tiny white gloves and stockings so bright they’d held their party by small candlelight.

The Craftsman Dec 1866

The Masonic Mouse (part 2) By Frank Bavin ’Twas the night before Christmas in Freemasons’ Hall; the first winter’s snow had just started to fall. Laid out on the table - a wonderful sight — were biscuits and cheeses, and cakes cream and white. Twenty-six mouses in aprons of blue had arrived at the Hall for their Christmas ‘do’.

Peace on Earth, and goodwill towards all men “God Bless Us, Every One!” 4

DID YOU KNOW? Question: How would you explain the symbolism of the ‘Point within a Circle’? Answer. The ideal symbolism is that which is simple and immediately obvious, so that the word or picture instantly conveys its own interpretation, e.g., the lily for purity, the lamb for innocence, the level for equality. In most cases—and especially for the ‘working tools’—the ritual itself gives an explanation, which is all the more satisfying because it is usually simple and clear. Occasionally, as in this question, the symbolism is obscure, or it may bear a wide range of meanings; often the accompanying ritual gives only a faint hint as to the interpretation. In all such cases it seems to me that the best symbolism is that which a Brother can work out for himself. When, in an incautious moment, I said this aloud in Masonic company, I was challenged with the question above and, as a penance, I must answer it now without reference to any of the numerous works on Masonic symbolism. The relevant passages, from the explanation of the First Tracing Board, may vary in different ‘workings’ but they generally run roughly as follows: The point within a circle is the centre, the point from which every part of the circumference is equidistant; it is the point from which a Master Mason cannot err… The words in the second part of this passage indicate that the ‘point’ is an ethical one. It implies the specific foundation upon which the Mason should base his standard of conduct and, so long as he adheres to it, he ‘cannot err’. To define that standard in 5

simple Masonic terms, the words that come instantly to mind are from Dr. Anderson’s First Charge, in 1723,’…. . to be good Men and true, or Men of Honour and Honesty….. The first part of the passage under discussion is more difficult to interpret. It appears to be a plain statement of geometrical fact, but we may perhaps assume that a moral or symbolical lesson is embodied in it. The Prophet Isaiah, (Chap. 40, v. 22) used the circle to symbolize the world, and it has been similarly used ever since. If we visualize the ‘point’ at the centre as the individual Mason, and the world at large the circumference, where all are equidistant from him, this might be interpreted as a Masonic lesson in equality. There are two items in the ritual which, in my view, are directly related to this ‘equidistant’ theme. First, ’... to keep in due bounds with all mankind….’; the other is more explicit: Let no eminence of situation make us forget that we are Brothers, and he who is on the lowest spoke of fortune’s wheel is equally entitled to our regard. The ‘point within a circle’ has an immediate religious significance (which parallels the point, or ‘Yod’ within the equilateral triangle) as the symbol of the Deity. The ‘point and circle’ call to mind the many illustrations, in the early Bibles, of the Creator with the Compasses, so that we see the symbol as a clear emblem of the Great Architect of the Universe. The ideas and lessons to be drawn from this starting point are unlimited but the simple themes outlined here are very satisfying. The ‘point and circle’ convey other lessons too. The point—without length or breadth— implies man’s insignificance, and his dependence on his fellow man. The circle is,

indeed, a symbol of perfection, a divine attribute; without beginning or end, it is the symbol of infinity and eternity. When we take these two ideas together, the helplessness of man in relation to the Infinite, or the Eternal, we approach a religious theme, the relation of man to God, and here we touch on mystery so obscure, or problems so difficult to answer in plain logic, that we find refuge, or understanding, in faith. I am by no means adept in the subject of symbolism, but in my experience too many of the writers in this field tend to give explanations which are so devious and farfetched that they confuse their readers instead of enlightening them. I hope to escape that accusation

Question: What does the name ‘Quatuor Coronati’ mean? Answer. The Latin words mean ‘the four crowned ones’ and allude to the Christian Church’s Festival of the Four Crowned Martyrs, which is celebrated on 8 November annually. There are numerous versions of the legend of the Sancti Quatuor Coronati, all very much alike, though they differ considerably in important details such as their nationality, their number, and even their names. The story, in brief outline, is that in A.D. 302 four stone-carvers and their apprentice were ordered by the Emperor Diocletian to carve a statue of Aesculapius, which, since they were secretly Christians, they evaded doing. For disobedience to the Emperor’s commands they were put to death on 8

November. During the year 304 Diocletian ordered that all Roman soldiers should burn incense before a statue of the same god, when four who were Christians refused to do so, for which they were beaten to death. This was also said to have been on 8 November, though two years later than the stone-carvers. Melchiades, who was Pope from A.D. 310 to 314, ordained that these two sets of four and five martyrs were to be commemorated on November 8, under the single name of Quatuor Coronati. The Sacramentary of Pope Gregory, two hundred years later, confirmed that date and Pope Honorius built a church in their honour in the seventh century. They are to be found to this day, depicted in sculpture and painting, in many mediaeval and later churches in Europe. The Saints are referred to in the earliest known version of the Old Charges, the Regius MS., which is dated c. 1390 and there is good evidence that they were venerated by English masons, notably in an ordinance of the London masons, dated 1481 and still preserved in the Guildhall archives, which prescribed that every freeman of the Craft shall attend at Christ-Church [Aldgate] on the Feast of the Quatuor Coronati, to hear Mass, under a penalty of 12 pence. The founders of our Lodge, nine in number, of whom four were soldiers, chose Quatuor Coronati as the name of the Lodge and November 8 has been the date of the annual Festival and Installation meeting since its foundation. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.


The Perfect Cubit, Masonic Legend or Fable. Masonry, the more it is examined, the more beautiful it becomes. This paper, however imperfect, is an attempt to explore the origin of the Perfect Cubit. May it induce others having more extensive means of information and time for elaborate research to accept the challenge. Admittedly, the existence of a "Perfect Cubit" has neither historical authority nor logical possibility to support it. It is commonly believed that the origin of Masonry took place at the building of Solomon's Temple and that King Solomon was the first Grand Master, and Hiram of Tyre and Hiram Abif were his Wardens .

hewers of timber, artificers of precious metals, labourers and overseers from all over the land, many speaking in strange tongues, making communication difficult. Chapter 2, Second Book of Chronicles relates how Solomon numbered all the strangers who were in the Land of Israel, after the numbering wherewith David, his father, had numbered them, and they were found an hundred and fifty thousand and three thousand of them to be bearers of burdens and fourscore thousand to be hewers in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred overseers to set the people at work. We must reflect on the monumental task that was Solomon's to meld such a huge body of workmen, sorting out their various talents and abilities, and organizing them into an effective and harmonious work force to commence building the Temple.

Moreover, Reverend George Oliver in "Antiquities of Masonry said these periods occupy a space of three thousand years. They are selected for illustration, because it is generally believed that Masonry took its rise at the building of King Solomon's Temple.

Yet, perhaps Solomon's greatest problem was the lack of a uniform measure of length by which the stones, timbers and other materials could be joined with accuracy. He spoke of the cubit, which was used as a measure of length by the Hebrews, Egyptians, and Babylonians, being the distance from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger or approximately eighteen inches. Understandably, the cubit would vary by the physical size of the workman or overseer, and thus precluding the use of an exact measure. World Book Encyclopaedia states that generally the cubit was the length of a man's forearm from his elbow to the tip of the middle finger. The cubit of the Ancient Egyptians was about 21 inches long. That of the Ancient Romans was 17.5 inches. The Jewish cubit was 22 inches.

It is said that Solomon recruited over one hundred and fifty thousand stone masons,

Coil in his Masonic Encyclopaedia says the cubit was a measure used by the Hebrews,

Dr. James Anderson accepts this legend in the second edition of his "Constitutions"' when he says that King Solomon was Grand Master of all Masons at Jerusalem; Hiram, King of Tyre, was Grand Master at Tyre, and Hiram Abif, in Solomon's absence, filled the chair as Deputy Grand Master, and, in his presence was Senior Grand Warden.


the exact length of which has been the subject of much uncertainty and dispute. The majority opinion is that it is the length of the forearm and hand from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger or approximately 18 inches. The Egyptian Royal cubit was 20.67 inches; and the Roman Attic cubit was 17.57 inches. Marsengill, Editor (The Philalethes Society) said, "According to Bishop Cumberland, the Hebrew cubit was 21 inches but according to all other authorities, it was approximately 18 in-ches. Two kinds of cubits were known: the Sacred (36 inches) and the Profane (18 inches). The measurements given in the Bible about Solomon's Temple are all based on the Profane or common cubit." Mackey's Revised Encyclopaedia refers to Hastings Dictionary of The Bible (page 967), "We have at present no means of ascertaining the exact dimensions of the Hebrews' ordinary and Royal cubits. The balance of evidence is certainly in favour of a fairly close approximation to the Egyptian system." The Maryland Master Mason Handbook declares that it is of great interest that archaeological research has revealed that in Solomon's day there were three different cubits: a Land cubit which was used for plot-ting the layout of the Temple's courts and the surrounding terrace, which had a length of about 17.6 inches; a Building cubit used in the erection of buildings was about 14.4 inches; and a Gold cubit used in the construction of the gold and silver vessels and decorative work which was equal to about 10.8 inches. All these three are found to be multiples of the basic palm breadth of 3.6 inches which was used by the Babylonians and also the Hebrews.

Amid all of this confusion about a unit of measure, especially finding one which was uniform and dependable, it is claimed the Ancient workmen of the Temple fashioned a rope of human hair which was knotted at three, five, and seven cubits. The human hair was chosen because it was unaffected by heat or cold, and thus maintained a constant length. He called this, "The Perfect Cubit," which enabled the workmen to join the stones, timbers and other materials with accuracy. Worshipful Brother Lawrence J. Chisholm, Worshipful Master of Joppa Lodge No. 35 in The District of Columbia, authored a weights and measure section of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1976, in which he included these historical comments regarding the cubit. "Although there is evidence that many early civilizations devised standards of measurements and some tools for measuring, the Egyptian cubit is generally recognized as having been the most ubiquitous standard of linear measurement in the very ancient world. Devised about 3000 B. C., it was based on the length of the arm from the elbow to the extended finger tips and was standardized by a royal master cubit of black granite, against which all the cubit sticks in use in Egypt were measured at regular intervals. The royal cubit (20.62 inches, 524 millimetres) was subdivided in an extraordinarily complicated way. The basic subunit was the digit, doubtlessly a finger's breadth, of which there were 28 in the royal cubit. Four digits, equalled a palm, five a hand. Twelve digits, or three palms, equalled one small span. Fourteen digits, or one-half a cubit, equalled a large span. Sixteen digits or four palms, made one t'ser. 8

Twenty digits, or five palms, were a small cubit. The digit was in turn subdivided. The 141h digit on a cubit stick was marked off into 16 equal parts. The next digit was divided into 15 parts, and so on, to the 28th digit which was divided into two equal parts. Thus, measurement could be made to digit fractions with any denominator from 2 through 16. The smallest division, 1/16 of a digit, was equal to 1/148 part of a royal cubit. The accuracy of the cubit stick is attested by the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh; although thousands were employed in building it, its sides vary no more than 0.05 percent from the mean length of 9,069.45 inches (230.364 meters) - about 4 ½ inches in 755 feet" In Oliver's Antiquities he said: "The structure thus begun, according to a plan given to Solomon by David, his father, upon the Arc of Alliance, every energy was used to render it a perfect specimen of art. Every stone, every piece of timber, was carved, marked, and numbered in the quarry and the forest; and nothing remained for the workmen at Jerusalem but to join the materials with precision, on a reference to the marks and numbers, This was effected without the use of' either axe, hammer, or metal tool; so that nothing was heard at Zion, save harmony and peace." It is a real testimonial to the Ancient Craftsmen that the parts could be so shaped at great distance and fit as they were intended. It is assumed this was due in part to the use of the perfect cubit. Upon the significance of the three knots in the perfect Cubit . . . three, five and seven. Mackey in his history (Volume l) referred to 9

the symbolic character of those sacred numbers in the teaching of the Ancient Art and Science . . . three, five, and seven. In the same spirit of symbolic reference, the steps of the winding stairs leading to the middle chamber were divided into a series of three, five, and seven. At the onset of this paper, it was stated that the existence of a "Perfect Cubit" has no historical authority. Again, Mackey in Volume One (p. 9) states for a faithful and thorough inquiry of the history of Freemasonry, carefully separate the two periods into which it may by naturally divided, The Historic, and The Prehistoric. The Historic is the period within which we have genuine documents in reference to the existence of the Order. The Prehistoric is the period within which we have no such records and where we have to depend wholly upon legends and traditions. In the preface of Mackey's History (Page Vll) Robert Ingham Clegg reflected that Brother Mackey . . . pointed out that the very age of the Masonic institution had tended to confuse mere traditions or legends with the authentic truths of history, and he welcomed light from all directions but carefully applied critical standards to the source and standing of the information that came his way. By no means was he ready to reject a Masonic legend as fable. It is left to the Masonic scholars and prominent historians to determine whether "The Perfect Cubit" is a Masonic legend or fable. Sourced from The Masonic World Website, author, Lloyd U. Jefferson.

Prior to 27th December, 1864, the office of Master, Depute Master, Senior Warden, Treasurer, Secretary, Second Steward, and Tyler were only open to Operative Masons, the other offices could be filled by any other Master Masons in good standing. The Founding It was on the 3rd August, 1795, that the Grand Lodge of Scotland chartered “The Rothes Lodge No. 257” following the sponsorship of the Lodge by the Brethren of Lodge St. Lawrence No. 190 (now 144) Forres, and the Lodge Trinity No.196 (now 148) Elgin. From 1766, the pioneers of Freemasonry in Rothes had been engaged in converting the old tiny hamlet at the base of the castle hill into a larger and more modern village, taking stones for their extensive building programme from the heap of rubble which had adorned the hill for a century, following the destruction of the “House of Rothayes” by fire in 1662. Those operative Masons had come from the western area of the county, hence the interest shown in the erection of a Freemasons Lodge in Rothes by the Brethren in Forres. “The Rothes Lodge No. 257” on the roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, was the sixth largest Lodge to be founded in Morayshire, in 1816, it changed from “The Rothes Lodge No.257” to “The Operative Masons Lodge No. 189 Rothes”. The No.257 still remains dormant. In 1862, the name and number were again changed to “St. John’s Operative Lodge Rothes No.193”. (“189” is now held by Lodge St. John Castle Douglas).

By the Lodges’ Special Bye-Laws of 1902, we find the name “St. John’s” changed to “St. John”. The sword now used by the Tyler was presented to the Lodge in 1893, by Bro. Robert Dick (the first Provost of Rothes) Three members of the same family Tyled this Lodge for 71 years, Bro. JAMES ROY 1874 – 1897 Bro. ROBERT GRANT 1897 – 1912 Bro. ROBERT GRANT 1918 – 1951 (who was the grandson of James Roy and son of Robert Grant) Bro. Robert Grant junior was honoured by the Grand Master Mason of Scotland who conferred on him the rank of Honorary Grand Tyler of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1946. The Jewel was presented to the Lodge along with a memorial photograph of Bros. Roy, Grant and Grant junior, by the Grant family, which now proudly hangs inside the Lodge, and was dedicated to the Glory of God and to their Memory in 1952. In 1954, Bro. John R. Gray P.M. was presented with the Distinguished Service Membership Diploma. The Lodge has the unique honour, that three of their brethren held office within Provincial Grand Lodge of Moray and Nairn during 1981 – 1983 Bro. ALEXANDER COUTTS Provincial Grand Senior Warden

P.M. 10

Bro. ALEXANDER McDONALD P.M. Provincial Grand Junior Warden Bro. JOHN GARDEN P.M. Provincial Grand Treasurer. The Lodge was also honoured when Bro. John Garden P.M. was elected P.G.M. of Moray and Nairn during 1988 – 1993. Lodge Rooms Since the Lodge was consecrated on 3rd August, 1795, the Brethren of the generations which have followed the founders have assembled in a variety of meeting places. The first Masonic Hall was built by the ‘Operatives’ of “ROTHES LODGE No.257” on the west side of Old street (now 15 High Street, and was made into Eastbank Hotel), The Lodge Room and Ante-Rooms were on the top storey of the building at the rear, the entrance being gained by a stair at the rear of the building. On the ground floor were two shops, a Merchant and a Sadler. The structure was probably the result of voluntary labour on the part of the members of the Lodge. The walls and floors upstairs were deafened with heather, presumably to prevent anyone from eavesdropping during meetings. In 1850 they sold their cherished Lodge property to Mr James Younie, Merchant. The meetings were then held in the house of Bro. Alexander Simpson, Old Street, who had been Master of the Lodge from 1846 – 1850. The meetings were held in Past Master Simpson’s house until the early 1860’s when the Lodge began to meet in a room in the Grant Arms Hotel. It was agreed at the St. John’s Day Meeting, 27th December, 1864, to appoint a 11

committee to endeavour to secure a site for another hall. The site was not fixed upon, however, until 17th May 1871, when an old property was purchased from Mr William Thompson, Farmer, for the sum of £270. Renovation cost £213 / 13s. The total funds of the Lodge amounted to £72. A loan of £300 at 5% interest was offered by Mr James Sim, Hillhall, and was accepted. A further loan of £100 at the same rate of interest was accepted from the City of Glasgow Bank. The Foundation Stone of this (their Second Hall, which became known as “The Masons Hall” became the principal meeting place in the town) was laid with customary Masonic Ceremony on Wednesday,19th July, 1871, at 4pm. Among those who let the hall were: The Local Company of Volunteers The Temperance League The two Churches in the town (none having their own hall for Kirk Soires.) In the late 1890’s an Ante-Room was added to the existing building, measuring 16 feet by 14 feet, the cost being £51 / 17s / 6d. By the early 1900’s, all the groups in the town who had hired the Masons Hall as a meeting place, had built their own halls and the upkeep of the Lodge Rooms being so high, on 17th February, 1904, The Masons Hall was put up for sale by Public Roup. The Masons Hall was purchased by W. & W. Gilbey Distillers, for the sum of £476, and used as a whisky warehouse. In the 1980’s the property was sold to a private buyer by the Distillery. The Masonic symbols which were painted on the inside wall of the building by the Brethren of the Lodge over 100 years ago can still be seen to this day.

The Lodge took refuge in what was at one time the Billiard Room of the old Grant Arms Hotel, which they rented from Bro. Alexander Gordon, Draper, at £4 per annum. The Brethren met for the first time here on 7th July, 1904, and resolved that their meeting place should be designated “Masonic Lodge Rooms, 30a High Street, Rothes”. In 1941 the Brethren were forced out of their Lodge Rooms by the Military Authorities, who needed the premises for a canteen. The meetings were then held in the Public School for one year, and then from 1924 – 1945 they were held in St. Drostans Church Hall, Seafield Square. In October, 1945, the Brethren returned to 30a High Street, but decided to move to the Parish Church Hall, as the rented premises at 30a High Street lacked the necessary privacy. After some refurbishment and general improvement to the property, the Lodge once again returned to 30a High Street, owned by Mr A. McRobbie. The first meeting was held on St. John’s Day, 27th December, 1948. The Lodge remained at 30a High Street until 1957, when John R. Gray P.M. approached the owner of 4 High Street, which used to be in use as club rooms, but by then unused and in a state of despair. The owner of the building Mr R.J. Cumming who resided in Banff, very kindly donated the building in its entirety to the Lodge. These Lodge Rooms at 4 High Street were then renovated entirely by the Brethren’s own efforts.

amount to rectify, Hanover Housing then made an approach to purchase the building and were asked to submit an offer. After much discussion by the Brethren it was decided to sell the existing property and look for an alternative one. The Lodge finally decided to purchase a site in North Street, Rothes, which was formerly the Army Cadet Hall, which would require extensive rebuilding. Plans were drawn up by Bro. J.A. Roy P.M. and approved by the Brethren. Bro. G.J. Milne (IPM) an operative as well as a Speculative Mason undertook to carry out the rebuilding and organise the voluntary workforce of Brethren. The Lodge Rooms at 4 High Street were vacated in February, 1983, and the remainder of the Regular Meetings for the session were held in the Rothes Parish Church Hall while the new Lodge was being built. The Consecration and Dedication of the new Lodge Rooms, North Street, Rothes, was held on Friday, 30th September, 1983, Bro. W.F. Main R.W.M. occupying the Chair. The service was carried out by the Right Worshipful Deputy Grand Master Mason of Scotland, Bro. J.M. Marcus Humphrey and his Deputation of Grand Lodge Office Bearers. 112 Brethren were present. This History of Lodge St. John (Operative) No.193 was sourced from the Lodge website which can be viewed by clicking here. (Please visit their site) Our thanks go to the Lodge No. 193 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owner of this History.

In 1982, Hanover House bought the block of houses adjoining the Lodge Rooms at 4 High Street. They discovered during their survey hat the Lodge Rooms had extensive dry rot, which would cost a substantial 12

Famous Freemasons John McDouall Stuart The Bush Tucker Mason.

John McDouall Stuart was born in Dysart, Fife, Scotland where he trained as a civil engineer after being rejected for military service on account of his not being robust enough for that type of life — rather ironic when you see what fate had in store for him. In 1839, after finding his sweet heart in a compromising position with his best friend, he packed his bags and ran away to seek his fortune, ending up in Adelaide, South Australia. Following his trade he quickly found employment with the Government's survey department which was endeavouring to 13

extend the grazing lands into the north of the colony. In 1844 he accompanied the Father of Australian Explorers Charles Smith on his last expedition to the Murray and Darling rivers. Stuart made the first of his own expeditions in 1858 where he built up a reputation as a first rate explorer. Contemporary reports reveal that "…he has a hardihood by nature to endure thirst and hunger, a good practical knowledge of Botany, Surveying, Astronomy, Medicine and he can shoe his own horse. He has the pluck of a giant in his puny frame." In 1859 two things of interest happened to John Stuart: he was initiated into Lodge Truth No. 8 (Adelaide) S.C. and the Government of South Australia offered a £2000 prize to the discoverer of a route across the centre of the continent for the overland telegraph. This was to be an extension of the existing service from Europe and India. In February 1860 Stuart and his team set after the prize hotly pursued in March by a team headed by the legendary Burke and Wills. By the end of April Stuart's expedition had discovered the much sought-after centre of Australia now named Central Mount Stuart where they built a cairn and raised the flag, In the 24 years since the first official white settlers had arrived in South Australia six different exploring parties had endeavoured to find this point. They all failed, a point to note in view of other discoveries made later on. (Modern Satellite mapping has discovered the actual centre to be 400 kms south.) Stuart was forced to make many attempts to find the route and on the second of these he discovered watering holes for a future repeater station for the telegraph line which he named Ketwick Ponds after his secondin-command. One day, while John was standing at one of these ponds, a group of

four Aboriginal tribesmen appeared on the far bank. He gestured to them to come over to take water and to share his food. After a while he was stunned when the eldest of the party proceeded to make Masonic signs. Stuart respond to these signs whereupon the other three tribesmen slowly and deliberately continued to make further Masonic signals, they then crossed the pond and clapped him on the back, shared the water and food. Excerpt from John McDouall Stuart's journal entry of the 23rd of June, 1860, during Expedition Four to the centre of Australia, where some "natives" come to visit his camp: One was an old man, and seemed to be the father of these two fine young men. He was very talkative, but I could make nothing of him. I have endeavoured, by signs, to get information from him as to where the next water is, but we cannot understand each other. After some time, and having conferred with his two sons, he turned round, and surprised me by giving me one of the Masonic signs. I looked at him steadily; he repeated it, and so did his two sons. I then returned it, which seemed to please them much, the old man patting me on the shoulder and stroking down my beard. They then took their departure, making friendly signs until they were out of sight. A few days later when the Expedition was at another watering hole, a few miles away, they were confronted by a large band of armed tribesmen who attacked the party, however they threw their spears and boomerangs not to hit the explorers but near enough to warn them away from the precious water hole. When Brother John Stuart reported these incidents upon his

return they were generally discounted as wishful thinking on his part. Being a new mason he must have misinterpreted the tribal displays of the tribesmen which are known to be similar to Masonic signs. However on another attempt to discover the route, the explorers found wheat growing where no white men were ever supposed to have reached and at a place now called Muckaty Station the aboriginals referred to the rifles and guns of the party as 'Muckaty' taken to mean muskets, a term long out of use for these weapons. Could it be that back in the 1700s Masonic explorers or Masonic convict escapees had passed through this region? I doubt that we will ever know and the mystery remains. Brother Stuart finally discovered a way across the continent by reaching the Indian Ocean at Van Diemans Gulf on 25th July 1862. The return journey was a nightmare The sick starving expedition finally made the end of the trip on the 27th November. This last exploration nearly killed Brother Stuart who had scurvy, ulcers and arthritis. Most of the return journey he was carried on a stretcher between two horses because he was so weak. Brother John Stuart was awarded the Royal Geographical Society Patron's Gold medal for his work. In 1864, sick, almost blind, and extremely lonely he moved to London to be cared for by his sister. Within a year his eyesight and his memory had completely gone and he died at the age of 50. In 1872 the overland telegraph line from Darwin to Adelaide was completed. His birthplace in Rectory Lane, Dysart is now the John McDouall Stuart Museum. The Bush Tucker Mason The Story of Brother John McDouall Stuart 1815-1866 Australian Explorer and Mason W. Brother Bernard Williamson Strong Man Lodge No. 45.


What, No Plumbers?

In 1911 Grand Lodge (UGLE) acknowledged that ‘the ritual of freemasonry, as far as the first and second degrees are concerned, is in part no doubt derived from the ceremonies of the early operative Guilds’.

Introduction Origins The Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Pavious, Plaisterers and Bricklayers! Yes, there really is such an order (now referred to by members of the Craft as The Operatives) and it is deeply Masonic in character. Its main objective, to quote from the Society’s introductory leaflet, is ‘to perpetuate or preserve a memorial of the practices of operative Free Masons etc, existing prior to, or continuing independently of speculative Freemasonry’. (The term ‘Free Mason’ rather than ‘Freemason’ is used to reflect very early mason practice.) In this context, ‘operative’ means ‘working, guild’ mason, indentured to a master, serving a full apprenticeship and passing through a range of ‘degrees’ with appropriate ceremonial (and possibly ritual). No-one claims that there is a complete oneto-one mapping of the modern Operatives’ ritual (first developed around 1913) and that of early guilds, trade unions etc, but it is known that such trade organisations did have quite complex ritual, some of which is said to have continued into the 20th century. (An anecdotal source describes a visit not that long ago, to a building site, where the writer apparently climbed to an upper level of the site and when he got there, the bricklayers would not let him get down again until he had ‘paid a footing fee’!) 15

In the middle of the 19th century, Clement Stretton, a working guild mason, passed through all the stages of the old-style ‘Guild’ masonry and its mysteries and traditions. He later became a speculative mason, eventually rising to PPSGW in the Craft and further honours in other masonic orders. During his masonic career (operative and speculative), working with a number of masonic associates, he laboured to develop a masonic ‘system’ whose objective was to try and preserve much of the spirit of what may have been old operative, guild practices, although not necessarily representing them in exact detail.

The Degrees The qualifications for entry to the Society are to be a Mark Master Mason and Royal Arch Companion. The order involves 7 degrees, the first four of which are carried out in ‘normal’ assemblage manner while the other degrees are conferred with the assemblage opened in something like craft ‘Grand Lodge’. To progress beyond the V0, it is necessary to have served in the master’s chairs, both of Craft and Mark. There are 13 mandatory officers including a Super Intendant of Works, three Deacons and an Orator.

The ritual appears as a logical extension of the Fellowcraft and Mark degrees. In I0, the candidate is readied in a very complex, symbolic manner and having petitioned as to his suitability as an apprentice, is physically ‘examined’ by an officer referred to as the ‘Doctor’, prepared, initiated and eventually indentured to a master, submits to obey 10 charges of behaviour and provided with his document of indenture. In II0, having served his time, the indenture is returned marked as cancelled, he is recognised as a Fellow of the Craft and accepts the 26 ‘Charges of Nimrod’ (a super-set of the 10 charges given in I0), many of which come directly from the Manuscript Old Charges (see eg, the Dumfries No 4 of 1710). Degrees III0 and IV are associated with carrying out the good work of a mason and the final three degrees deal with higher levels of the profession. (VII0 involves the death of a certain grand master!) The writer has recently gone through II0 and is already fascinated with the richness of the ritual and its emphasis (in the first two degrees) of the essentially practical, workmanlike nature of the order. The Society now consists of well over 100 lodges called assemblages of which a substantial number are abroad in Australia and New Zealand and India and the US.

For example, in I0, you are taught as a ‘living stone’, to hew a rough stone to within certain physical limits, but in II0, you learn to dress the stone perfectly, both operatively and symbolically, by studying the liberal arts and sciences and gradually, to aspire to become a ‘perfect living stone, fit for erection in the most glorious of temples’! As the Operative progresses through the degrees, he is acquainted with various different types of equipment, working tools and ashlars pointing out his progress ‘through the quarries’. The equipment is all in the hands and on the desk of the Super Intendent of the Work, who runs things just like the DC of a Craft lodge

Joining Three assemblages meet in East Anglia, Castle Acre in Diss (secretary, Edmundsbury Abbey in Bury St. Edmunds (secretary and Friars Walk Chelmersforde in Southend (secretary For details of assemblages in other areas, contact the Grand Clerk of the order or the writer ( Further information is made available at the excellent web site .

The morals/ethics of the order

More on the Ritual

The general theme is that of ‘fair work and square’. As something like an extension of Craft and Mark, it illustrates by reference to building and especially stone-working, a code of behaviour which should be followed leading to as perfect a person as is possible.

In the article in a previous Ashlar (‘Working out the workings’), the writer offered his views on how Craft ritual was ‘extended and developed’ in the late 18th and 19th centuries. A similar if simplistic view is now offered as to the possible development 16

of the Operatives’ ritual. Words like ‘might have’, ‘quite possibly’ etc, make it sound that the writer is almost apologising for the vagueness of opinion offered. In fact, whatever the actual relationship is between current Operatives’ ritual and what may have been the case in the past, does not matter to this writer. What is far more important is that the ritual (as seen so far) very much reflects and in some cases, extends the moral teachings of Craft. Access to the ‘private area’ of the web site offers a wide range of highly readable and entertaining papers and lectures, many of which relate to matters outside the Operatives, such as a fascinating paper on the Graham manuscript with an analysis by M Harvey and Masonic ritual and secrets before 1717 by H Poole. Within the library of papers, there are a number that deal with operative masonry throughout the centuries or refer to ritual and ceremonies possibly carried out by members of trade unions and guilds etc, associated with building, stone working, the cloth and other trades. Some papers show detailed ritual that while not masonic (in our sense), has wording that is very reminiscent of ours. For example, a stoneworker obligation is said to contain ‘. . I will not write nor cause to be written upon paper, stone, wood, sand . . .’ We will never know whether this was adapted from early Craft ritual, or whether the stone masons’ ritual (the possible source of the Operatives’) was actually earlier than the early 1800s, when today’s Craft ritual was being finalised. It could well be that the wording like ‘. . I will not carve, mark, indite . . .’ was common to the obligation of many trades – perhaps this also applies to ‘my tca, my ttobtr, my left bmb’, etc. 17

One paper claims that at least some of the members of the original 4 lodges that met in 1717 to form the first Grand Lodge, were actually operative masons (more like in the Operatives sense). This goes even farther in hinting that one of the 4 may actually have been an operative lodge. Also, there is some evidence for the existence of a ‘Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons, Wallers. . .’ going back many years. To this writer, who is familiar with the first five degrees, it would seem that when the modern Operatives’ ritual was first developed by Stretton and his colleagues, they researched as far as they could, the trades histories such as those mentioned and with their knowledge of Craft (and probably Mark) ritual, eventually produced the set of degrees that could be claimed to be representative of much earlier trade organisations including that of the operative stonemason.

Finally In 1990, the’ Footing Corner Stone Fund’ was set up for the purpose of buying a headquarters building for the order. It was well supported and in 2009, a building in Eaton Socon in Cambs was purchased and refurbished both for administrative and ceremonial use. Support for the fund continues strongly and new or additional premises might be sought in the future. Any mason with an interest in the history of our Craft and its ritual, will be intrigued by the Operatives as has this writer, who would recommend any qualified brother to find out more. Article By Martin Gandoff, Old Strodians Lodge 7803 & Montgomerie Lodge 1741 and to whom the editor’s thanks go for allowing us to publish it.

Rays of Masonry “The Price of Freedom� Whatever may be the trend of government, particularly in a country that has know Freedom in its true meaning, the trend follows the will of the people. A change from democratic principles and ideals reveals a change in the temperament of the people. A movement toward a socialistic government proves the weakness of the people who have become wholly indifferent to the Price of Freedom. Such a move indicates the loss of faith and courage in the value of the individual. Such a move shows the moral apathy of a people who have been willing to accept privileges without assuming responsibilities, and who have walked a Primrose Path totally oblivious of the price paid by our forefathers for Precious Liberty. We trade with our eyes open when we exchange Freedom for Subsidies, whether as a group, or as an individual beneficiary of such a gift. In this way many are guilty of being five-percenters. A free government is impossible apart from a people who are willing to pay the price for Liberty. Socialism, the perfect bridge to Communism and Fascism, removes all personal responsibility from the individual and gives back a set of instructions, a questionnaire, and other "official forms." The very air is heavy with 'agents' who direct your life from morning until night. Personality is without a market. Individual Enterprise is not the possession of a slave. Life becomes as patent as a joke told and retold. Watch the trend of government. Do you see yourself in the masses who foolishly believe that government exists for the purpose of taking care of the people, or do you see yourself enjoying the carnival of "wild giving" by government of the money that cannot possibly originate with or be created by government? Or, do you see yourself as one who is thinking clearly and calmly at a time when honest thinking may save our country from destruction? Dewey Wollstein 1953.

Foolish Spending "Why do Masons spend their money so foolishly?" asked the New Brother. "A fool and his money are soon parted," answered the Old Tiler. "Do you think Masons are fools?" "Certainly not. I was just agreeing that if Masons spend money foolishly they are foolish. What variety of foolish spending is teasing you?" "Oh, a lot! We spend five dollars to send a funeral wreath to every brother's funeral, and three dollars for flowers every time one is sick, and four dollars for fruit when one goes to a hospital. We decorate the lodge room when we have an entertainment. We spend money for food for men who are well fed at home. We hire entertainers for a blowout! My idea would be to put all that 18

money in an educational fund or a charity fund or . . ." "By any chance," interrupted the Old Tiler, "are you delivering a lecture? I want to talk, too!" "I want you to talk. Tell me that I am right and that we do spend our money foolishly!'' ''I can't do that," answered the Old Tiler. "But perhaps I can show you something on our side. You object to five dollar funeral wreaths to deceased brethren, and would rather see the money put in charity. Do you think we send the wreath to the dead man? With it we offer consolation to the family! We show that his brethren care that he has died and that the world may see that we hold our deceased brother in honour. If we are careless when grief comes to the loved ones of those we love, the world will hold it against us, and our influence be lessened. ''We send flowers to the sick and fruit to the hospital, that the ill brother may have the cheering comfort of knowing that in his hour of need his brethren forget him not. Is it, then, more charitable to feed a hungry body than a hungry heart? Have you ever been ill in it hospital? Did no one remember you with a card, a flower, a basket of fruit? If you were unremembered, you passed a sad hour in the thought that no one cared. If friends brought their friendship to you when you needed it you were helped to recover. If we do not cheer a worthy brother, for what does our brotherhood stand? "Of course we decorate a lodge room for an entertainment! In your home are there but bare walls, without pictures, carpets or furniture? Do you give to the poor all you make over a bare subsistence? Do the poor spend only for food? In a poor man's home you will find a flower, a book, a picture. 19

Beauty is as much a need as bread. Cows chew cuds contentedly, but man must chew the cud of life with a spiritual as well as a physical outlook. The lodge room is our home. We decorate it for entertainment that all may remember their Masonic home as beautiful with pleasures taken together. "Refreshment, whether sandwiches and coffee or a vocal or instrumental solo, refreshes mind and body. The solo we hear alone gives us not half the pleasure which comes from listening in company. The few cents per capita we spend for refreshment is no more wasted than were the twenty cents you paid for your cigar or the fifteen cents for your shoe shine! "Suppose the world spent only for food, clothes and charity? The poor would become rich; ambition, thrift, independence arid manhood would become extinct. If there were no music, painting, love of flowers, beautiful buildings in the world, where would our hearts reach when they seek something they know is just beyond? We do not see God in the ham sandwich as in the beautiful notes of music. I'll agree He is everywhere, but if we find Him easiest through our appreciation of the lovely, rather than the mundane things of life. ''Would you cease printing Bibles that more hungry people be fed? You argue that money not spent for charity is ill spent, but charity is but a part of Masonry. Masonry teaches men to help themselves, to think-, to aid their fellows, not only by gifts, but by encouragement, cheer, help, aid, the kindly word. When we express them in the flower, the basket of fruit, the song or refreshment, we spend our money wisely. "Truly the fool and his money are soon parted, but the fool parts with his for

foolishness. We part with ours for value received, to carry Masonic cheer to the hearts of our brethren."

systematically use this repetitive process, your brain will adapt to this rhythm and you will be able to memorize quicker and easier.

"You are right, as you always are," agreed the New Brother. "By the way, you are chairman of the committee on hospitals, are you not? Stick that in your pocket and make the next bunch of flowers or basket of fruit twice as big."

3 - Break the part down into small phrases. This is the key component. Pick a relatively small part as an example, the "Closing Charge" for instance, which has 163 words. The Charge consists of 11 sentences which for our purposes we need to further break down into 24 phrases.

That with which the New Brother soothed his conscience crinkled as it was folded. This is the sixty-third article in this regular feature, ‘The Old Tiler Talks,’ each month we publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.

How to Memorize In Four Easy Steps 1 - Set aside 30-45 minutes each day for memorizing the part. Night time just before bed is best because your mind will retain the information better if you immediately sleep on it. You need to memorize lines every day, You are in fact training your brain. You will find that by the 3rd or 4th day you will memorize faster and retain the info better! 2 - Find your magic number. Each of us has a "magic number" when it comes to memorizing lines of ritual. The magic number is simply the number of times you need to repeat a phrase in order to retain it in your memory word for word. Your magic number can be 3 or it can be 10, it might even be more than ten but rest assured, you do have a magic number. Our brains are smarter than we are. After all, we are only using about ten percent of our available brain power. You will find the more you

4 - Repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat. …… First, read the entire part 3 times. Do not attempt to memorize anything. Now read the entire part 5 times while interpreting what the lines really mean. USE A DICTIONARY IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT A WORD MEANS. Once you understand what the line means you will be able to put the proper voice inflection into the line. Start by saying the first phrase as many times as needed to retain it. Remember, this will be your magic number. Once you have found your magic number working on the first phrase, repeat the 2nd phrase that many times. Next add the 1st phrase to the 2nd phrase and repeat them together your magic number of times. When repeating, use appropriate voice inflections and pauses. Say the lines out loud if possible so you can hear how they sounds Simply repeat this process, adding phrases, over and over again until you have the entire part commit ted to memory. Now repeat the entire part at least 3 times per day over the next 4 weeks again using proper voice inflections every time you say it. Check yourself against the Ritual at least twice a week to make sure you are not dropping or flipping words. Sourced from the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire, Free & Accepted Masons, the Grand Master's Quarterly Newsletter - Fall 2012


Templo and the Temple Critics from the churches think Freemasonry is a rival religion. “Look,” they say, “their meeting places are called temples – they’re obviously setting themselves up as a system of worship”. The critics presumably have problems with our use of “temple” as a metaphor, though I have not noticed them attacking the fitness clubs that call themselves temples of the body or the beauty parlours that are called temples of beauty. Masonic interest in the word “temple” is partly due to a Jewish scholar-artist, Judah Leon Templo (c. 1603-75). At a time when printed Bibles were becoming more widely available, and Speculative Freemasonry was philosophising about an ideal structure for the world and the human being, London society was talking about the Dutch rabbi who published an illustrated book in Spanish about the Jerusalem Temple with copper engravings made by himself. Translations appeared in Hebrew, French, Dutch and Latin, and he also produced detailed works on various parts of the Temple such as the Ark of the Covenant and the cherubim. He was possibly the first Jew to make models of the Temple and its predecessor, the Tabernacle, and in 1671, armed with a letter of introduction to Sir Christopher Wren, he took a Temple model with him to England where, it is said, he joined Freemasonry and designed the coat of arms of the Masonic Grand Lodge. Because of his concern for the Temple he became known as Templo (surnames were not yet compulsory for Jews). His Temple model may have influenced the design of 21

the Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam in the 1670s, and derivatively, the Bevis Marks Synagogue in London, 1701. Temple models attracted the crowds in London and helped to evoke Masonic interest in the Temple. Freemasons, seeking a shape for their meeting places, could not ignore the precedent of the Temple, which, over the centuries, had influenced the two main designs of houses of worship, Jewish, Christian and Islamic. The one form was rectangular, the other square or circular. The rectangular shape with its longitudinal direction was closer to the original Temple; the square or circular shape followed the octagonal mosque, the Dome of the Rock, which became a Templars’ church. Masonic buildings are found in both patterns, though the orientation differs from the original Temple in that the latter, the Holy of Holies was in the west whilst Masonry places the Master in the east. Other features of the Temple which influenced Masonic buildings were the pillars at the entrance which are replicated internally in Lodge room furnishings, the designation of a solemn feature as an altar (now often called a pedestal, again to forestall criticism from church sources), and the restriction of certain parts of the room to installed Masters. The Masonic use of the name “temple” was complicated by the fact that the same word is commonly used for a European Protestant church: in Hungarian a church is “templom”. Some synagogues also called themselves temples, especially in the Reform tradition. Where Jewish orthodoxy continued to pray for the restoration of the Jerusalem Temple, Jewish Reform said that the only temple it was interested in was the local place of worship.

Using “temple” allegorically as “a building regarded as the focus of an activity, interest or practice”, Freemasonry used the name akin to temples of the arts, culture, music or sculpture; “speculative” Enlightenment thinking had clubs, societies or Lodges which functioned as temples of philosophy.

Will the Temple be Re-built? Biblical scholars have investigated almost every aspect of Solomon’s Temple. The literature on the subject is enormous. The fact that we refer to Solomon’s Temple in our ritual should, however, not blind us to the fact that that sanctuary stood for only 410 years, Zerubbavel’s on the same site for 420 years, and Herod’s reconstruction of the Temple for 90 years. The structure was destroyed, except for part of the surrounding wall, in 70 CE. The destruction was perpetrated by the Romans, though Jewish tradition blames the people themselves for allowing internal conditions to make it easier for the enemy – they said the first Temple was menaced from within by immorality, idolatry and bloodshed, and the second by causeless hatred, one Jew against another. The wall that survived is the Western (“Wailing”) Wall, now a major place of worship and assembly. Its survival was explained as due to the Holy of Holies being in relative proximity, as well as the fact that this wall was the result of the loving effort of the poorer sections of the community.

The people’s memory of the Temple remained evergreen. JH Hertz wrote, “The people loved the Temple, its pomp and ceremony, the music and song of the Levites and the ministrations of the priests, the high priest as he stood and blessed the prostrate worshippers amid profound silence on the Atonement Day.” Yet some feared that the sanctuary was becoming a “curtain of iron” between Israel and their Maker because the pomp and ceremony were in danger of developing into an end in themselves. Nonetheless countless religious rituals arose to keep the memory alive. Services were held at times that recalled the Temple offerings, synagogues replicated aspects of the Temple, religious appurtenances bore decorative features such as the twin pillars and the lions of Judah, and the loss of the Temple was recalled by leaving part of one’s house unplastered and the groom breaking a glass at the end of his wedding ceremony. Jewish liturgy made constant reference to the hope of the Temple being rebuilt and the descendants of the priesthood schooled themselves in the duties they would need top perform in the reconstructed sanctuary. One of those priestly descendants thought that as the Temple had been destroyed because of groundless hate, its rebuilding would require a mood of boundless love. Since the reunification of Jerusalem many have suggested that the rebuilding should move out of the realm of mere theory. In line with rabbinic teachings that the third Temple would not be built by human hands but by God Himself, there are strong views that the rebuilding will require an express Divine revelation. Conditions on the ground require not only agreement about access to 22

the site, which entails entering only in a state of ritual purity, but a universal Jewish spiritual revival and desire for a sanctuary, conditions of peace, and scrupulous adherence to the Biblical proportions, measurements and specifications of the Temple. Even in pre-messianic times various interim proposals merit consideration. In 1965 Masonic sources urged the erection of a Temple of Peace somewhere in Jerusalem. After the Six-Day War in 1967 a similar suggestion was advanced by a leading rabbi, who said that even if a new Temple cannot yet be erected on the traditional site, perhaps Jerusalem could have a different kind of sanctuary on a suitable site – “a Temple of peace and worship in which a believing humanity could commune with their Heavenly Father… a place where His Divine presence could rest, which would become the rendezvous of all those who have immortal longings” (SM Lehrman). Even such a spiritual centre is a difficult proposition, but it would be a wonderful step towards the day foretold by the Biblical prophet when “The mountain of the Lord’s House shall be established as the top of the mountains and exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow towards it, and many peoples shall go and say, ‘Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the House of the God of Jacob’” (Isaiah 2:2-3). By Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory. Click the name to go to his website.


DID YOU KNOW? Question: At a Lodge that I visited recently, the Chaplain—during the most solemn moment in the Third Degree— read verses from Ecclesiastes. Can you furnish a simple interpretation which would also explain their relationship to the ceremony?

Answer: Verses 1—7 of Ecclesiastes XII are used in many Lodges during the Third Degree, and some of them certainly need interpretation. Personally I greatly admire the revised version as given in The Bible to be Read as Literature (Heinemann, p. 769). Only a few words have been altered in it as compared, say, with the Authorized Version, but with excellent results. As regards interpretation, we are much indebted to V.W. Bro. The Rev. Canon Richard Tydeman, M.A., P.G. Chaplain, for the following notes which he very kindly compiled in response to our request: The Book called Ecclesiastes, popularly attributed to King Solomon, was probably written some five hundred years later, i.e., 200—300 B.C. The outlook of the Book is fatalistic rather than pessimistic. All is vanity, because what is to be will be and nothing man can do will change it. The author has much in common with Omar Khayam. Chapter XII, verses 1—7, sometimes read in lodges during the Third Degree, gives a picture of old age, the helplessness of senility, and death. It is written in highly picturesque and poetic language, the pictures mixing into one another with bewildering rapidity. Just as Omar Khayam speaks at one moment of

flinging the stone of morning into the bowl of night, and the next minute catching the Sultan’s turret in a noose of light, so in Ecclesiastes, as one commentator has said, ‘the metaphors change and intermingle in accord with the richness of an oriental imagination’. The passage could be roughly paraphrased thus: Make the most of youth while the sun still shines, for as life advances there is less to look forward to. Arms (‘keepers’) and legs (‘strong men’) grow weak and weary; teeth (‘grinders’) are few and cease to work, eyes (‘windows’) grow dim. One by one the senses fail (‘doors shut’); sleep is difficult and the old man wakes at the first sound of the dawn chorus (‘voice of the bird’) though he is deaf to other music. He becomes scared of heights and open places; his hair is white as almond-blossom, the lightest of insects would weigh him down, and he has lost all desires and interests . Man’s departure to the grave (‘his long home’) is like the breaking of the golden lamp-bowl (see Zechariah ch. 4, v. 2) when the silver chain snaps and the flame is put out; it is like the spilling of water when the pitcher breaks, like the stillness that follows the breaking of a water-wheel. Body and soul thus part; for the body, dust to dust; for the spirit, a return to God who gave it. The value of this passage to Masons, at that particular part of the Third Degree ceremony, is that it adds point and emphasis to the Charge which follows. The opening of the passage—’Let me now beg you to observe . . . in effect, is saying ‘Be careful to perform your allotted task while it is yet day’ and it continues by expressing ‘that gloom which rests on the

prospect of futurity . . . unless assisted by that Light which is from above’.

Question: In dictating the Obligations the Master uses the words ‘do hereby and hereon’ and at the same time he places his hand(s) on the hand(s) of the Candidate and on the V.S.L. Should the Master’s hand be placed first on the V.S.L. or on that of the Candidate? Answer: I would suggest—as a preliminary to the answer—that the ‘hereby’ is a direct allusion to the pledge which the Candidate makes with his r.h. on the V.S.L.; the ‘hereon’ refers, of course, to the V.S.L. itself (or whichever Sacred Writ is being used for that particular Candidate). I have seen many Masters who obviously agree with this view, and first press the Candidate’s hand(s) for the ‘hereby’, but touch the V.S.L with their own hand for the ‘hereon’. That would seem to be perfectly satisfactory procedure for the Obligations in the Second and Third Degrees, when the Candidate is able to observe the action. During an Initiation, however, the Candidate would not easily appreciate the significance of the ‘hereon’ movement. As a Preceptor of many years’ standing, I have always taught that the W.M. during the Initiation Ob. should rest his hand on the back of the Candidate’s hand for the ‘hereby’ and press again for the ‘hereon’, thereby indicating that the Candidate is avowing the solemnity of his Obligation ‘by’ and ‘on’ the V.S.L. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.


PILLARS AND GLOBES, COLUMNS AND CANDLESTICKS Part 1 In the Quatuor Coronati Lodge summons, dated 22 December 1961, there was a brief note relating to the Wardens’ Columns which attracted considerable attention and comment. As author of the note, and Secretary of the Lodge, I had to answer a number of letters on that subject and on several other topics closely allied to it. During the course of this work it became obvious that there is much confusion on the subject of Pillars, Globes, Columns and Candlesticks, on the dates and stages of their introduction into Craft usage, and most of all, perhaps, on the curious way in which some of these items (which originally had places in the ritual, or furnishings, in their own right) are now made to serve a dual purpose, thereby adding to the confusion as to their origins. There are, apparently, two main reasons for these difficulties. First, we have grown so accustomed to seeing our present day Lodges all more or less uniformly furnished that we accept the furnishings and their symbolism without question. Secondly, the Lectures on the Tracing Boards are given rarely nowadays so that Brethren are unfamiliar with the subject, or with the problems that are involved. This essay was compiled, therefore, not with the intention of answering all the questions that arise, if indeed that were possible, but in order to separate the various threads which are now so badly entangled. As these various items appear in our modern procedure, there is an extraordinary mixture of ritual-references with odd items of 25

furniture, some of which had a purely practical origin, while others were purely symbolical. I have tried to deal with each of these features separately, showing, as far as possible, their first introduction into the Craft, and tracing the various stages through which they passed into our present usage. THE PILLARS Extract from the Lecture on the Second Tracing Board: “… the two great pillars which were placed in the porchway entrance on the south side . . . they were formed hollow, the better to serve as archives to Freemasonry, for therein were deposited the constitutional Rolls . . .These pillars were adorned with two chapiters . . . [and] … with two spheres on which were delineated maps of the celestial and terrestrial globes, pointing out ‘Masonry universal’.” THE FIRST TWO PILLARS IN CRAFT TRADITION The two earliest pillars in the literature of the Craft are those described in the legendary history which forms part of the Cooke MS c1410, and many later versions of the Old Charges. The story goes that they were made by the four children of Lamech, in readiness for the feared destruction of the world by fire or flood. One of the pillars was made of marble, the other of lacerus (ie lateres or burnt brick) because the first ‘would not burn’ and the other ‘would not drown’. They were intended as a means of preserving ‘all the sciences that they had found’, which they had carved or engraved on the two pillars. This legend dates back to the early apocryphal writings, and in the course of

centuries a number of variations arose in which the story of the indestructible pillars remained fairly constant, although their erection was attributed to different heroes. Thus, Josephus ascribed them to Seth, while another apocryphal version says they were built by Enoch. For some reason, not readily explained, the early MS Constitutions favour the children of Lamech as the principals in this ancient legend, which was embodied in the texts to show how all the then known sciences were preserved for mankind by this early piece of practical mason work. The Old Charges were designed primarily to display the antiquity and high importance of the Craft, and it is highly significant that Solomon’s two pillars do not appear in the early versions. David and Solomon are named among a long list of biblical and historical characters who ‘. . . loved masons well . . .’, and gave or confirmed ‘their charges’, but Solomon’s Temple receives only a casual mention, and the pillars are not mentioned at all. It seems fairly certain, therefore, that in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries Solomon’s two pillars had no special significance for the mason craft. For an excellent survey of pre-Christian and other early versions and variations of this legend, see Knoop, Jones and Hamer, The Two Earliest Masonic MSS, pp 39-44 and 162-63. SOLOMON’S PILLARS IN THE RITUAL The first appearance of Solomon’s pillars in the Craft ritual is in the Edinburgh Register House MS, 1696, in a catechism associated with the ‘Mason Word’ ceremonies. The earliest-known reference to the ‘Mason Word’ appears in 1637, in a diary-entry

made by the Earl of Rothes, and although no kind of ceremony is described in that record, it is reasonable to assume that the ‘Mason Word’ ceremonies were already known and practised at that date. The Edinburgh Register House MS is the oldest surviving document which describes the actual procedure of the ceremonies. The text is in two parts. One section, headed ‘The Forme of Giveing the Mason Word’, describes the rather rough and ready procedure for the admission of an entered apprentice, including ceremonies to frighten the candidate, an oath, a form of ‘greeting’, and certain verbal and physical modes of recognition. There is also a separate and similar procedure for the ‘master mason or fellow craft’. (Only two degrees were known at that time.) The second part of this text is a catechism of some seventeen questions and answers, fifteen for the EA and a further two for the master or FC. It is probable that these questions, with the obligation, entrusting and greeting, represent the whole of the ‘spoken-work’ of the ceremonies at that time. The questions are of two kinds: (a) Test questions for the purpose of recognition. (b) Informative questions for the purpose of instruction and explanation. Among these we find the first faint hints of the beginning of Masonic symbolism. A question in the catechism of 1696, and in six of the texts that followed soon after, runs: Where was the first lodge? In the porch of Solomon’s Temple. Now, the Edinburgh Register House MS is a complete text; no part of it has been lost or 26

obliterated during the 290 years or so since it was written, in 1696. In fact, there are several related texts belonging to the next twenty years, which amply demonstrate its completeness. It is therefore noteworthy that in this whole group of texts the two earlier pillars, built by the children of Lamech, have virtually disappeared. Barely a hint of them remains in any of the ritual documents from 1696 onwards. The Dumfries No 4 MS c1710, is a version of the Old Charges which has been greatly enlarged by a collection of ritual questions and answers, with many items of religious interpretation. In its first part, it has the expected reference to the four children of Lamech and their two pillars, but towards the end of the catechism the pillars are mentioned again: Where [was] the noble art or science found when it was lost? It was found in two pillars of stone the one would not sink the other would not burn. This is followed by a long passage of religious interpretation saying that Solomon named his own two pillars in reference to ‘ye two churches of ye Jews & gentiles . . .’ That need not concern us here, but Solomon’s pillars are not normally mentioned in the Old Charges, and the appearance of both sets of pillars in the two parts of the Dumfries MS, suggests that when the ceremonies were shaped to contain Solomon’s J and B, the earlier `indestructible’ pair were abandoned. There is, in fact, no evidence that they had ever formed any part of the admission ceremonies, but we know very little about the ceremonies in their earliest forms. It 27

seems fairly certain, however, that Solomon’s pillars had achieved a really important place in the Craft ritual in the early 1600s. Soon after their first mention in the early ritual-texts these two pillars became a regular part of the ‘furnishings’ of the lodge, and it is possible to trace them from their earliest introduction up to their present place in the lodge-room, as follows: (1) Their first appearance as part of a question in the catechism, with much additional evidence that they then had some esoteric significance. The early catechisms are particularly interesting in this respect, because they indicate that both of Solomon’s Pillar names belonged at one time to the EA ceremony. (2) They were drawn on the floor of the lodge in chalk and charcoal, forming part of the earliest versions of our modern ‘Tracing Boards’. In December, 1733, the minutes of the Old King’s Arms Lodge, No 28, record the first step towards the purchase of a ‘Floor Cloth’. (A QC, vol lxii, p 236.) ‘Drawings’ on the floor of the lodge are recorded in the minutes of the Old Dundee Lodge, No 18, from 1748 onwards. The Herault Letter of 1737 describes the ‘Drawing’, and the later French exposures, from 1744 onwards, contain excellent engravings showing both pillars (marked J and B) on the combined EA and FC floordrawing. (3) Between c1760 and 1765 several English exposures of the period indicate that the Wardens each had a column representing one of the Pillars, as part of his personal equipment in the lodge. The following extract is typical: ‘The senior and junior Warden have each of them a Column in their Hand, about Twenty Inches long,

which represents the two Columns of the Porch at Solomon’s Temple, Boaz and Jachin. The Senior is Boaz, or Strength. The Junior is Jachin, or to establish.’ (From Three Distinct Knocks, 1760) (4) Finally, the two pillars appear as handsome pieces of furniture, perhaps four to eight feet high, standing usually at the western end of the lodge room. The earliest descriptions of the lay-out of the lodge in the 1700s show both Wardens in the west, facing the Master. The two pillars were generally placed near them, forming a kind of portal, so that the candidates passed between them on their admission, a custom which exists in many lodges to this day. This was perhaps the last development of all, though some of the wealthier lodges may have possessed such pillars at a comparatively early date. When we consider how many lodge rooms (especially in the provinces) still use pairs of large pillars, it is surprising that the eighteenth and nineteenth-century inventories make no mention of them. Probably this was because they were part of the equipment of Masonic Halls, so that they belonged to the landlords and not to the various lodges that used the rooms. So we trace the two pillars from their first appearance as part of a question in the ritual through various stages of development until they became a prominent feature of lodge furniture. But modern practices are not uniform in regard to the pillars; in London, for example, there are very few lodges which have the tall pillars, but they are always depicted on the second Tracing Board, and they appear in miniature on the Wardens’ pedestals. Written By Harry Carr and sourced from the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, UGLE vol lxiv (1962), available on the internet.

The Deacons Lament Oh! I wish I’d looked after me ritual I wish I had studied the book I might have got through a few meetings Without having to take a sly look At the words printed all neat and tidy With capital letters and dots And inverted commas and rows of small hammers To remind you about all the knocks If I’d attended a lodge of instruction And followed the preceptors plan My signs might be more like a mason And less like an old tic tac man For a past master once said with sarcasm As he doffed his apron of blue You lay five to one, when the lodge has begun And evens the field when its through Time was when I was a deacon I was proud of me wand and me dove Initiation was due, I was in a right stew So I wrote all the words on the glove Now some candidates are cool and collected But not mine he was nervous and hot I don’t mean to boast but his hand was like toast Left me palm an illegible blot As I thumped the wardens shoulder The ink stained his coat a bright blue He said who have you there I just stood in despair He could see I hadn’t a clue I gazed at me glove for the answer At those five tickled fingers of fate Then the blots rolled away, left the words plain as day St Michael — All cotton — Size eight. 28


I am inclined to think it was intended for Halleluiah.

Part Eight

To the left of this is a something which

The Rev. Bro. J.B.Craven. P.M. wrote in the transitions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge about this part of the Scroll:

might be a Highlander's feather bonnet, or a fountain, or even a tree, with a scroll beneath. On the ribbon is a word thrice repeated, which if written in the same cypher would read. Jugee Jugee Jugee! If not the same cypher, then it is almost impossible to guess what it means, as there is not enough of it to furnish a clue. The words could possibly be Three Three Three and it may be an allusion to the 3 X 3 so well known in Masonry.

The next panel (picture above) shows a cryptogram on the face of the altar, which I have partially solved, the chief difficulty consisting in the fact that many of the characters are incorrectly depicted. But making the needful it reads; I am hath sent me unto you. I am that I am; I am the Rose of Sharon and the Lilly of the vally. Hegee as her hejah, I am that I am or I will bee that I will bee. Jaldadaiah. I have italicised 4 words in the body of the inscription, because I cannot make sense of them, or even suggest any corrections in the writing which would make sense. I have merely transliterated them as they stand. With the last word I have the same problem. 29

So here we can see that everything on this Scroll is a question mark as we don’t know the actual fact of the meaning or what the artist has in mind when he painted it. But here again we see symbols from the Royal Arch Chapter. On the tessellated floor of black and white, half looks like it has been dug up. On the left we also find a wand what is used to form an arch in the R.A.C., The rod that become a serpent, a flaming sword, a tau cross, in the top the burning bush, under the burning bush three names; this may be the three principals or the three lodges in Freemasonry; 1st the Holy Lodge, 2nd the Sacred Lodge and 3rd the Grand and Royal Lodge.

When we look to the right side we see at the bottom something that looks like a vault, some jewels; the triple cross and Senior and Junior Warden jewels. The hands out the clouds; in early medieval art, the Supreme Being was always represented by a hand extended from a cloud. Hands signify power, strength, providence, blessing, and the hands of God is divine power and transmission of spirit it also pushes away evil and trouble. On top of the altar, may be a symbol of the Most Excellent Master degree, see below picture.

We are now looking on the bottom picture, here we see, like our Tracing Board symbols of the first three degrees. We have the altar standing on the black & white pavement, the three lesser lights (Candles), the square and compasses in the form of the three degrees (on the pavement the M.M’s, on the altar the E.A. & F.C.) and with the lesser lights form the Star of David. The candlesticks are placed in the position of the Master and Wardens in the Scottish Lodge. On top of the two pillars are figures possibly representing the two St Johns; jewels of the Officers of the Lodge; sun and moon beside the All-Seeing Eye. On the bottom right, the perfect cube, and left the beehive and Broached Thurnel. The cups with the F.C. sign can be seen in the same orders as the chain of brotherhood; drinking out of a cup as a bond of friendship. Was this Scroll, like our Tracing Boards, used for teaching in the Lodges? I think,

Again we cannot be sure; the pictures on the Scroll are not sharp and we tend to look on the symbols as those we now have in Freemasonry.

yes, in spite of the many different degrees showed on the pictures. But you also find that problem on today’s Tracing Boards. 30

Here we have a Tracing Board where the symbols of the first and second are together.

pavement, and the letter G is placed between the square & compasses. In the 3rd degree we find the lost word on a triangle as see on the Tracing Board above. I still wonder if during the time (1400 – 1500) a system was worked using the same Tracing Board for different Orders as seen in the pictures, (as we have today) or that it was based on going up the degrees, like the York Rite and Swedish Rite? And let us not forget that between 1717 and 1813 we had two Grand lodges working in England, the Ancients and the Moderns, so to which one does this Floor Cloth belong? We will see that in final part of this paper.

KIRKWALL SCROLL Also in the Dutch we have the same Tracing Board for all the degrees, only different objects are placed on it in working the degrees. Similarly in the 2nd degree we find the working tools on the black & white

Part Nine – the conclusion. In part two we read that William Graham lived in London, and joined a local Lodge No 128 of the Atholl or Ancient Constitution of England. Now when we look up “Atholl or Ancient Constitution” in Mackey’s encyclopaedia, we find; The Ancient Freemasons are sometimes called” Atholl Freemasons, because they were presided over by the Third Duke of Atholl. Now when we look to the “Ancients”, we find; In 1751 some Irish freemasons in London established a body which they called the “Grand Lodge of England according to the Old Institutions”, and they styled


themselves Antient, and the members of the Regular Grand lodge, Moderns. The ceremonies between the two Grand lodges differ exceedingly in the ritual, knowledge, Masonic language, and installations; they were two distinct societies, totally independent of each other. The Grand Lodge of the Antients were using a book of constitutions under the title of “Ahiman Rezon”; this became their code of Masonic law. When the Moderns were governed by the regulations contained in “Anderson’s Constitutions” first published in 1723. Dr. Dalcho, who was acquainted with both systems, says; That the Antient Freemasons were in possession of marks of recognition, know only to themselves. His language on this subject is positive. “The Ancient York Masons” he says, were certainly in possession of the original, universal Marks, as they were know and given in the Lodges they had left, and which had descended through the Lodge of York, and that of England, down to their day. Besides these, we find they had peculiar marks of their own, which were unknown to the body from which they had separated, and were unknown to the rest of the Masonic world. We have then, the evidence that they had two sets of marks: those which they had brought with them from the original body, and those which they had, we must suppose themselves devised. Dermott, in his Ahiman Rezon, confirms this statement of Dalcho, if, indeed, it needs

confirmation. He says that “a Modern Mason may with safety communicate all his secrets to an Ancient Mason, but that an Ancient Mason can’t, communicate all his secrets to a Modern Mason without further ceremony. Now, what were these” other things” known by the Ancients, and not known by the Moderns? What were these distinctive marks, which precluded the latter from visiting the Lodges of the former? Written history is of course silent as to these esoteric matters. But tradition, confirmed by, and at the same time explaining, the hints and casual intimations by writers that leads us to, that they were to be found in the different constructions of the Third, or Masters Degree, and the introduction into the Royal Arch element. We can see this in the Dutch 3rd Degree were the Candidate finds the lost word on the Tracing Board, when a English Mason finds this in the Royal Arch degree. Another is the 1st & 2nd degree Words, and the names on the pillars, which are transposed to those used on the continent. But the differences in the Rituals of the Ancients and the Moderns, is now perhaps impossible to discover, as from their esoteric nature they were only orally communicated. What can be the conclusion? In my personal view, I think it is impossible to find out what the real intent was from the symbols painted on the Kirkwall Scroll and how they were used in the ceremonies. We can only, suppose as I have done, and use 32

the modern symbols in Freemasonry to help us walk through these seven steps. Surely it doesn’t belong to the “Moderns”, but is it from the “Ancients”, or the Scottish Masonry, in the time of St Clair and the Rosslyn Chapel? Maybe there was some influence, from there as it was painted in that era. It could also be influence by the York Rite, The legend that connects the origin of English Masonry at York in 926 which is sometimes called the “York Legend”, and sometimes the “Athelstan Legend” or also the “Edwin Legend”. Prince Edwin was supposed to be the head of the Craft, and have convoked them together to form a Constitution. The earliest extant of the old manuscript of the Constitutions is the ancient poem knowing as the Halliwell MS, and the date was about the year 1390. So this is also close to the painting of the Scroll! The York Rite has seven degrees, and in the beginning the Knights Templar was part of their work. This could be the reasons that William Graham, when he got the painting from his father knew that it was something special and saw many images of the Ancients in it. We can safety say that it was like our Tracing Boards, an aid to telling the stories and the lessons of Freemasonry.

A Very Merry Christmas to all our readers all over the World. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those Brethren who receive and read my little magazine, and those that pass it on all around the World. This year in February, saw the 100th edition of SRA76 produced since we began all those years ago, and some of our readers have been with us since the first issue, and I’m truly grateful for that. However, the readership took a bit of a dip this year, and I lost over 80 Brethren who received the magazine directly from me. It really is important that you let me know if you change your email address, if you still want the post.

Thanks once again to W.Bro. Fred Vandenberg of lodge Kring Niew Holland in Melbourne Australia, the Masonic Study Circle.

So to you and yours, I wish you a Merry Christmas, see you in the New Year. Thanks for the support

This interesting article by Bro. Fred is his personal opinion, and in no way shape or form reflects the view of the Editor and or the custodians of the Scroll and should not be taken as such. The Editor.

All the best, Stewart.


THE EMBLEMS OF FREEMASONRY The Second Degree Five Noble Orders of Architecture By Order, in architecture, is meant a system of the members, proportions, and ornaments of columns and pilasters, or a regular arrangement of the projecting parts of a building which, united with those of a column, form a beautiful, perfect and complete whole. Order in Architecture may be traced from the earliest formation of society,. When the rigour of the winter compelled men to contrive some sort of shelter from the elements, it is stated that they set trees on end and laid others across to support a covering. The bands which connected these trees are said to have suggested the idea of bases and capitals; and that from this simple hint proceeded the more improved art of architecture. The five orders are named Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. One authority expresses their character in these significant terms: he describes the Tuscan as the Gigantic; the Doric as the Herculean; the Ionic as the Matronal; the Corinthian as the Virginal; and the Composite as the Heroic. Tuscan. The Tuscan is the most simple and solid of the five orders. It admits of no ornaments and the columns are never fluted. The simplicity of the column—which is seven diameters high—renders it suitable where solidity is the chief object. It differs so little from the Doric that it is generally regarded as being only a variety of the latter. Doric The Doric is the oldest, strongest and simplest of the three Grecian orders. Its column is distinguished by the want of a base (in the more ancient examples at least), by the small number of its flutings and by its massive proportions, the true Grecian Doric having the height of its pillars six times that of the diameter. The capital was small and simple, and the architrave, frieze and cornice plain and massive. The Freemason looks upon it as the Column of Strength, and its symbolic position is in the W... Ionic. The Ionic bears a kind of mean proportion between the more solid and delicate orders. Its column is nine diameters high; its capital is adorned with volutes, and its 34

cornice has denticles. There is both delicacy and ingenuity displayed in this pillar, the invention of which is attributed to the Ionians, as the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus was of this order. It is said to have been formed after the model of an agreeable young woman, of an elegant shape, dressed in her hair, in contrast to the Doric order which was formed after that of a strong, robust man. The Freemason regards it as typical of the Column of Wisdom, and it is therefore understood as being situated in the E... Corinthian. The Corinthian is the richest of the five orders and is deemed a masterpiece of art. Its most characteristic feature is the capital which is adorned with beautifully carved acanthus leaves. The column, which is ten diameters high, is generally fluted, with a fillet between the flutings, and stands upon a base. The entablature is variously decorated, especially the cornice; the frieze may be quite plain or sculptured with foliage and animals. It is regarded by the Freemasons as the Column of Beauty, and he assigns it a position in the S... Composite. The Composite is the last of the five orders, and is so called because the capital belonged to it is composed out of those of the other orders. It borrows a quarterround from the Tuscan and Doric, a row of leaves from the Corinthian, and volutes from the Ionic. Its cornice has simple modillions or dentils. It is generally found in buildings in which strength, elegance and beauty are united.

This monthly feature is taken from William Harvey’s book, “The Emblems of Freemasonry� 1918.

Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor

Merry Christmas from all at SRA76. 35