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SRA 76

Volume 14 Issue 7 No. 113 November 2018

Monthly Magazine

Cover Story, The Cable The Cornucopia Did You Know? Highlighting the Mythological Myths in Freemasonry Masonic Light Lodge St. Fergus No. 466 Famous Freemasons – John MacGregor His Just Due Rays of Masonry Old Tiler Talks Working it Out Did You Know? Repaying the Debt Hints to Younger Masons

Main Website – The Bunch of Keys

In this issue: Cover Story ‘The Cable.’ Do you know what is meant by the term a cable’s tow length from the sea shore? This article explains how it came about and what it has to do with Freemasonry. Page 6, ‘The Cornucopia.’ Page 8, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 9, ‘Highlighting the Mythological Myths in Freemasonry’ A look at the symbolism of jewels in the Lodge. Page 12, ‘Masonic Light’ Defining the very fabric of Freemasonry. Page 14, ‘Lodge St. Fergus No. 466’. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 17, ‘John MacGregor’ Famous Freemasons. Page 20, ‘Is Your Freemasonry in Jars?’ Page 20, ‘His Just Due.’ What is meant by these words? Page 22, ‘Rays of Masonry.’ “The Study of Self” Page 22, ‘The Old Tiler Talks.’ “In Men’s Hearts”, 70th in the series. Page 24, ‘The thoughts of Bro. Rabbi Raymond Apple. Page 26, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 30, ‘Repaying the Debt’ Page 32, ‘The Back Page – Hints to Younger Masons!

In the Lectures website; The article for this month is ‘The Bunch of Keys’ [link]


Front cover – The Picture was sourced from Pinterest

The Cable

In the Entered Apprentice Degree we are given a burial as being: “In the sands of the sea, and a cables length from shore” I will attempt to explain why such a burial is a cable's length from shore, and to further explore the analogy of the cable in Masonic allegory. Our Freemasonry started in Britain, and I think it important to bear that in mind when we are researching questions such as this. What are the traditions there and at that time that would affect the development of the Craft? Clearly, the naval tradition which made Britain a major power from the time of Elizabeth I would have been paramount. In fact, the concepts of cable and the burial in our first degree penalty come directly from that naval tradition. To explain, first what is a cable? We start with fibers, which are just a jumbled mess of short pieces or oakum or tarred hemp, without direction or form. If we twist these fibers together, we can make them into a yarn. We twist several yarns together to make a strand. A number of strands, usually three, are "laid-up" to form a rope. Three such ropes “laid up” together make a cable. Now, all the cables on board a given ship are all the same length. That's because of

the length of the rope-walk where they are made. Some are 100 fathoms, some could be as long as 130 fathoms. In the British Navy, the standard length of a cable is one hundred fathoms, or six hundred feet. That was chosen because it is one-tenth of a nautical mile. Thus, the cable is also used as a measure of distance. Now we come to the burial. Life in the British Navy from the time of Elizabeth I to this century was governed by the Articles of War. Each Sunday these Articles were read to the men so that they were constantly reminded of their duty and of the penalties for shirking it. Included in these articles is the penalty for treason. A man found guilty of treason would be hanged from the yardarm and, after being left there for a suitable period of time, would be taken down and buried. To ensure there is no honour to the traitor, the Articles of War specified that burial will be a cable's length or 600 feet from shore on the tidal flats, which is the area of ground between low and high tide. Burial on the tidal flats is neither an honourable burial at sea nor on land. This is where the garbage of both land and sea is thrown together to rot. So when burying a traitor, the navy looked for a large tidal flat and dumped the body a cable's length from shore. In fact, both main anchorages at the time of sail - Spithead and the Nore at the mouth of the Thames and at Portsmouth - had such extensive tidal flats. They were also the only places where enough Captains could be brought together to hold a Court Martial. That covers the cable, and the burial. But what about the cable-tow. I mentioned that a cable was a rope of 600 feet. But when a tug is towing a ship, they are almost always more than six hundred feet apart. That's because a cable and a cable-tow aren't the 2

same thing. The cable is a rope of a specific length. When we make up a tow, we might tie or "bend" several cables together. The number of cables needed to make up a tow depend on several factors. First, how heavy is the tow? A light object isn't hard to move, but a heavy one is. A short rope has very little give in it, very little stretch. If you attach it to a light object, it will pull it. (Hold a short rope up between both hands and give a couple of light tugs.) But if you tie it to something heavy (give a, sharp tug and let go of one end) it will break before it starts to move the tow through the water. (Give one end of a longer rope to a Brother sitting on the side and walk across the Lodge allowing the rope to loop down towards but not touching the floor. Give a couple of pulls on the rope to demonstrate the ability of the rope to absorb the force of the pull.) As you can see, a longer rope has more stretch and give in it. So, too, with the cable-tow. The tug's force is applied more slowly, giving enough time to overcome the inertia of the disabled ship and get it moving before the cable snaps. In the Entered Apprentice Degree we are given a burial as being: “In the sands of the sea, and a cables length from shore” I will attempt to explain why such a burial is a cable's length from shore, and to further explore the analogy of the cable in Masonic allegory. Our Freemasonry started in Britain, and I think it important to bear that in mind when we are researching questions such as this. What are the traditions there and at that time that would affect the development of the Craft? Clearly, the naval tradition which made Britain a major power from the time of Elizabeth I would have 3

been paramount. In fact, the concepts of cable and the burial in our first degree penalty come directly from that naval tradition. To explain, first what is a cable? We start with fibers, which are just a jumbled mess of short pieces or oakum or tarred hemp, without direction or form. If we twist these fibers together, we can make them into a yarn. We twist several yarns together to make a strand. A number of strands, usually three, are "laid-up" to form a rope. Three such ropes “laid up” together make a cable. Now, all the cables on board a given ship are all the same length. That's because of the length of the rope-walk where they are made. Some are 100 fathoms, some could be as long as 130 fathoms. In the British Navy, the standard length of a cable is one hundred fathoms, or six hundred feet. That was chosen because it is one-tenth of a nautical mile. Thus, the cable is also used as a measure of distance. Now we come to the burial. Life in the British Navy from the time of Elizabeth I to this century was governed by the Articles of War. Each Sunday these Articles were read to the men so that they were constantly reminded of their duty and of the penalties for shirking it. Included in these articles is the penalty for treason. A man found guilty of treason would be hanged from the yardarm and, after being left there for a suitable period of time, would be taken down and buried. To ensure there is no honour to the traitor, the Articles of War specified that burial will be a cable's length or 600 feet from shore on the tidal flats, which is the area of ground between low and high tide. Burial on the tidal flats is neither an honourable burial at sea nor on land. This is where the garbage of both land and sea is thrown together to rot. So when

burying a traitor, the navy looked for a large tidal flat and dumped the body a cable's length from shore. In fact, both main anchorages at the time of sail - Spithead and the Nore at the mouth of the Thames and at Portsmouth - had such extensive tidal flats. They were also the only places where enough Captains could be brought together to hold a Court Martial. That covers the cable, and the burial. But what about the cable-tow. I mentioned that a cable was a rope of 600 feet. But when a tug is towing a ship, they are almost always more than six hundred feet apart. That's because a cable and a cable-tow aren't the same thing. The cable is a rope of a specific length. When we make up a tow, we might tie or "bend" several cables together. The number of cables needed to make up a tow depend on several factors. First, how heavy is the tow? A light object isn't hard to move, but a heavy one is. A short rope has very little give in it, very little stretch. If you attach it to a light object, it will pull it. (Hold a short rope up between both hands and give a couple of light tugs.) But if you tie it to something heavy (give a, sharp tug and let go of one end) it will break before it starts to move the tow through the water. (Give one end of a longer rope to a Brother sitting on the side and walk across the Lodge allowing the rope to loop down towards but not touching the floor. Give a couple of pulls on the rope to demonstrate the ability of the rope to absorb the force of the pull.) As you can see, a longer rope has more stretch and give in it. So, too, with the cable-tow. The tug's force is applied more slowly, giving enough time to overcome the inertia of the disabled ship and get it moving before the cable snaps. The burden of the ship is not the only factor that determines the length of the tow. The

condition of the sea is also important. If the sea is calm, a shorter cable-tow is enough. Once you get the tow moving, it will follow smoothly. However, if the sea is rough, then a longer cable is needed. The tow may be trying to climb the back of one wave while the tug is surging down the front of another. If the tow is too short, then there isn't enough give in it to allow the tug and the tow to de-send apart. The rope will snap. So the heavier the burden, and/or the rougher the conditions, the longer the cable-tow. The point is that the terms we use in Masonry today have their basis in real terms and in real penalties. That gives them both a strength and a sense of purpose to anyone who comes to understand their origins. Brethren, I have now explained the construction of a cable and how it may be used as both a unit of length and as a cabletow. But what, you might ask, what has this to do with Freemasonry? The second thing to understand is the depth of meaning available to us in the use of a cable as a metaphor in Masonry. As the cable is made of many parts put together for a common purpose, so might we look at Freemasonry. The cable consists of individual fibers, worked together to form strands. These strands are laid together to make up ropes and the ropes to form a cable. As separate entities, the fibers have little strength. However, when organized into a cable, as we have shown, their strength is immense. So it is with Freemasonry. A Masonic Cable is made from individuals who form a Lodge. Lodges organize into Districts. Districts unite in a Grand Lodge. And as three ropes entwined produce the strong cable, so too does Virtue, Morality 4

and Brotherly Love give strength to Masonry. Further, a cable gains its strength from three equal ropes, laid together. Each rope is as important to the whole as the other. So it is with the three degrees of Freemasonry. One should not be tempted to forget the lessons of the Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft just because he has been raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason. As a strong cable is made of three ropes entwined, the strength of a Lodge comes from the Three Great Lights, the Three Lesser Lights, the three principal officers and the three pillars denoting Wisdom, Strength and Beauty. A cable's great strength is only apparent when it is put to use. So it is with Freemasonry. The strength of our craft remains hidden until it is put to use. We can also think of the cable-tow as the bond connecting the individual Brother to his Lodge and to Grand Lodge, those venerable institutions that give direction to a Brother in his journey through life. Consider what we have just learned. The cable-tow, which connects the tug to the barge at sea, is not of a specific length. In fact, the amount of cable let out by the tug as it attempts to direct the course and speed of the barge depends on the condition of the sea and the burden of the tow. The heavier the burden and the rougher the sea, the longer the cable-tow that is necessary. Strange as it may seem, in stormy seas, a tug actually gives more secure guidance and direction with the longer cable- tow. So, 5

too, with our Masonic cable-tow: that bond that binds a Brother to his Lodge and to the Craft. What about the Brother who finds himself encountering stormy seas or who finds the burdens of his responsibilities bear heavily on him? Undue pressure from the Lodge or from his Brothers to attend meetings, participate in degree work or to "be a good Mason" may cause his cable-tow to snap and sever his bond to the craft. Finally, once the nautical cable-tow is severed, the state of the seas or the poor condition of the disabled ship may make recovery of the tow impossible. The ship is therefore lost while the tug stands by - helpless. So might a brother be lost to the craft. And Masonry would be thus impoverished. Brethren, Remember your obligations and ask yourself,- how long is my cable-tow and am I fulfilling my obligations. Address by R.W. Bro. Terry P.A. Taylor, D.D.G.M. District of Nipissing Muskoka on his Official Visit to Algonquin Lodge No. 434 G.R.C.- March 3, 2015.

If you want to know where the future of Freemasonry will grow and prosper it’s simple; In your heart, and in my heart, and in the hearts of those that follow it. Conrad Hahn

The Cornucopia

The Ancients depicted the Sun as being driven along the arch of the Heavens by a team of fiery horses and once descended in the West, She was transported in a golden cup, up the river Okeanos, back to the East to re- enter her chariot and preside over the opening of a new day. This is but one of the legends of the Ancient Thessalians and Helladics who were so named after their ruins in Thessaly and the rest of 'Hellas' or Greece. Contrary to popular belief these ancients were far from solemn or dull, but rather down to earth and very lively. From their legends we may gather a good deal of man's earliest philosophy and gain some insight in his perception of a God or Gods. According to Hesiod (800 B.C.) and before him implicit in Homer, the following story of Creation emerges, 'In the Beginning', there was Chaos or Void, from which

sprang forth Gaia or Earth, who all by Herself, produced Uranos or 'Heaven' personified. This Mother-Earth and FatherSky couple had numerous offspring, such as Night, who became mother of Day, of Pontos, sea-personified etc. To Earth and her Husband Heaven were also born a group of seven Deities, collectively known as Titans, whose Cheif was Kronos. These Titans, instigated by Mother-Earth, rebelled against Father Uranos, for as long as Earth and Heaven were in embrace, there was no room in between them and their children had to be hidden in caves and hollows. Kronos, Lord of the Universe, took precautions against being overthrown by his own offspring, and while not afraid of his daughters, thought it prudent to swallow his sons, Hades, ruler of the underworld, Poseidon, who with his trident was in command of the waves, and Father-Kronos almost swallowed Zeus, but almost, as his sister Rhea substituted a huge stone for the baby. Baby-Zeus, himself, was hidden on the Island of Crete where Melissus gave him to be suckled by the Goat Amalthea. We note that in the myths and legends, associated with the Gods of the Olympos, little, if any, attention is paid to the mortals inhabiting the earth. The relationship of the ancients to their gods was like a spectator and a narrator. The inter-relationship of Man to God appears virtually lacking. It would take Judaism and later of course Christianity to develop the philosophy of one-caring God and Father. Our Order, of course, recognized this relationship it also accentuates the relationship man-to-man and assigns it to its proper place, no longer is man portrayed as 6

either a ruler (such as in Abbot or King) or as a mere serf (as in slave). As Masonry moved from the Operative Craft into the Speculative Art, it was inevitable that it would pick up symbols well out-of-reach of the tools of the operative stone-mason. We will shortly find just such a symbol. A great Feast, in Masonry, has always been that of St. John the Evangelist, the Seer of Patmos and the apostle of brotherly love. Traditionally it was celebrated on June 24th, the time of the summer-solstice. Our wardens, back in the early seventeenhundreds had similar problems arranging banquets as our Junior Wardens today. They solved it by appointing 'Stewards', a derivative from perhaps STY (as in pigs) and WARD (as in warden or keeper). Volunteers were sought for this onerous office as one became personally responsible for the banquet-bill, and the raising of prices for tickets met with a similar howling as it does today. By 1735 we find the Stewards twelve in number (as in the sign of the Zodiac) and witness the formation of the Stewards Lodge. It's original number on the register of Grand Lodge was 117. It never engaged in Initiations. The painter William Hogarth, himself a Grand-Steward designed a jewel for this Lodge. The jewel was to last for a century and consisted of a deft combination of the square, the level and the plumb rule set in a circle. The importance of the Stewards and the Stewards- Lodge to the craft, was exemplified by subtle concessions. The 7

number of the Lodge was advanced form 117 to 115, then to 70, then to 60 to be followed by 47, and finally in 1792 the honorary number 0 was assigned to this Lodge, which it retains to this date. To celebrate it's centennial in 1835 the Stewards-Lodge sought further concessions. The then M.W. the Grand Master informed the Stewards that their jewel was inappropriate for members of Grand Lodge, and thus a new jewel was created. (At some other time I may speculate on 'who' might have designed it.) For the moment, suffice it to note that the Hogarth Jewel was replaced by a Cornucopia set between the legs of a pair of compasses. (The Hogarth Jewel is still worn by the Wor. Master of the Stewards Lodge No.0.) We left Baby-Zeus on the island of Crete, in care of Melissus and nourished by the goat Amalthea. When Zeus grew up to his formidable status as ruler of the Olympian Pantheon, he acted swiftly. He made his father Kronos, literally bring up the swallowed sons Hades and Poseidon, and, of course the huge stone. He then took a horn of the goat Amalthea and gave it to her keeper Melissus, with the promise that it would pour out whatsoever his heart desired. The Goat herself was promoted to the heavens where it shines as a constellation, such as Capricorn. The Cornucopia, the 'Horn-of Plenty' the Legendary horn of the goat now adorns the stewards wands and collars in our Lodges in this jurisdiction.

DID YOU KNOW? Question: Why is a Past Master's compass, in his jewel, open at 60 degrees on a quadrant instead of on a square? Answer. The compass open sixty degrees is in easy position to construct a square. The Master has worn the square while he presided; now, as Past Master, he is supposed to be in possession of the knowledge necessary to make a square, hence the position of the compass and the quadrant. There are many geometric methods of erecting a square; the Past Master's jewel hints at one of the simplest and most used methods as best for the Past Master to employ in instructing his successor. (For further information, see Short Talk Bulletin Vol XXIII, No. 4, April 1945, "Past Master's Jewel")

Masonicly, means "not a Mason"- -it comes from the Latin "pro" meaning before and "fanum," a temple; Masonicly, a profane is one "outside the temple," uninitiated. The word has no reference to "profanity" in the modern sense of taking the name of God in vain. Question: Whence comes the due guard? Answer. It is a symbol of obligation; a reminder by him who uses it to all who see him do so that he remembers his promises. Masonic authorities are not in complete agreement as to the derivation of the words. Although they unite as to what the words signify. Mackey thinks the words mean, "to duly guard against." Lesser authorities are convinced the phrase has a French derivation coming from "Dieu Garde"--God guard (me or you). It is universally used as a salute to the Master before the altar and to the Wardens during the conferring of a degree.

Question: Masonicly, what are fool, dotage, libertine, profane?

Question: Duly and truly prepared?

Answer: Masonicly, a "fool" is a mature man without good common sense. Legally he is of age; mentally, he is retarded. "Dotage" begins at no special year; it is that time in a man's life when his mental powers deteriorate. The fool never has much mental power; the greatest mentality may decline in dotage to complete lack of responsibility and judgment. Some men enter dotage in early life; others never enter it at all. "Libertine," Masonicly, refers to a freethinker, a nonconformist, one who subscribes to no higher authority in his thinking. It does not denote what is meant by the word in modern days--a man who is promiscuous sexually. "Profane,"

Answer. A candidate is said to be duly and truly prepared when he is properly garbed and shod for the particular degree he is entering. But here, as throughout Masonry, to interpret literally is to miss Masonry's message. The phrase refers directly to his outward appearance--he is clad in the manner prescribed for that degree. But this is only a superficial rendering, for here the ritual is saying to us? "This man, after painstaking examination, has been found to be a man of integrity, who has accepted all his responsibilities in a manner befitting one who knocks at our door for admission. He understands and appreciates spiritual values. He has shown his love for God by his regard for his fellow man He is not only duly clad 8

in accord with our customs--he is truly prepared in his heart for fellowship with us."

Question: What is the significance of the northeast corner? Answer. Cornerstones are laid in the Northeast corner--Entered Apprentices stand in the Northeast corner of the Lodge. The point midway between the darkness of the North and the brilliance of the East was chosen by ancient builders as the point of beginning, a spot to mark a birth, the commencement of a new structure. Obviously, he who stands in the darkness has no light; as obviously, he on whom falls the whole light of the brilliant East and its rising sun is not in darkness the point halfway between! Then, is a symbol of a beginning--the traveller has left the darkness and moved toward the light Those who build have left the "darkness" in which is no building, and progressed far enough towards the "light" to lay a foundation stone--a place which by its position symbolizes movement away from blackness into the day. The symbolism of the Northeast corner in the Entered Apprentice degree is taken from this ancient practice of laying the cornerstone in the Northeast corner. He who stands there in the Lodge, as "a just and upright Mason," is himself a cornerstone of the Lodge, which will be. A Lodge is erected not only by, but upon her sons. The Entered Apprentice of today is the veteran Mason and Lodge member of tomorrow The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.


Highlighting the Mythological Myths in Freemasonry When one examines Masonic ritual & symbolism through the interpretive lens of Classical Mythology, the correspondences immediately begin to present themselves and become, at times, strikingly obvious. These inferences and allusions are present to such a degree within the Craft – in the Officer’s Jewels, the Furniture of the Lodge Room, the Deacon’s Rods, even in the rituals themselves – that almost everywhere one cares to look can be found some vestige of the great mythological systems of the world. Considering the fact that it would be nearly impossible to exhaustively catalog every instance of possible mythological import within Freemasonry, the following will be limited to a few of the more glaring examples. The Orders of Architecture, as described in Vitruvius’ On Architecture, are present in the Masonic Fellowcraft Degree lecture. Several allusions to these orders are also found in the Lodge room and furniture therein. The Doric order is said to denote strength and was held sacred to Ares, the god of war. In ancient building practices, the Doric order was used in the construction of structures which served a martial purpose, such as those devoted to warfare or defense. This style is especially notable for its relative simplicity. It is the least ornamental of the original Greek orders of architecture,

thereby evoking a martial atmosphere through its clean, unembellished lines. The Three Principal Supports of the Masonic Lodge are Wisdom, Strength and Beauty. In Freemasonry, the Doric column is associated with Strength – the Senior Warden’s station. The Ionian order of architecture denotes wisdom and was held sacred to Athena. Being between the Doric and Corinthian in overall complexity, it is moderate and tempered in appearance. This style was most frequently employed in houses of learning, such as academies and libraries. In the Masonic Lodge, the Ionian column is attributed to Principal Support of Wisdom, which is further associated with the Worshipful Master’s station. The Corinthian order of architecture was employed when a structure was to be designated for an artistic or aesthetic purpose, such as a museum. This order was considered sacred to Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty. The Corinthian style was the most ornate of the three original, ancient Greek orders of architecture. In Freemasonry, this Corinthian column is fittingly associated with Beauty and the office of Junior Warden, which is in the South. The Senior and Junior Stewards’ rods are ornately capped with a cornucopia within a square and compasses. The cornucopia comes to us directly from Classical Mythology, where it is considered to be the horn of Amalthea, the she-goat that suckled Zeus in his infancy. The cornucopia also appears as a symbol of Demeter, the grain mother. The Roman counterpart of Demeter is Ceres, the etymological namesake of our word “cereal”.

The crossed keys of the Treasurer’s jewel is also a notable mythological motif, as they have been associated with the Greek goddess Hecate, and also with the Leontocephaline, a lesser figure present in the iconography of Roman Mithraism. Hecate, a lunar crone-goddess, was associated with crossroads, silver and currency – which is pertinent to the office of Treasurer. The Leontocephaline, or “lionheaded”, is sometimes depicted with crossed keys held over the chest and a set of hammer and tongs, the working tools of Hephaestus, at his feet. This gains significance, Masonically, when we consider that Tubal-cain inhabits the same archetypal role in the Abrahamic canon (i.e. metallurgical artificer) as Hephaestus does in the Hellenic. The jewel of the Lodge Organist is the lyre and, therefore, has some of the most developed mythological significance. The lyre is most commonly associated with Orpheus, to whom it was given by PhoebusApollo (Apollo in his most solar aspect). Orpheus is said to have charmed man and beast with the instrument and to have used it to gain access to Hades in order to fetch Eurydice, his ill-fated bride. This he accomplished by enchanting both Charon, the Stygian boatman, and Cerberus, the three-headed dog, with his music. The myth of his chthonic descent/ascent is conjectured to have formed the basis of the Orphic Mysteries. One may readily find depictions of the lyre in statuary and/or bas-relief adorning the many Orpheums and Lyric Halls across the Western World – these are, of course, in reference to Orpheus and his lyre, respectively. The Blazing Star, a five-pointed star within a circle, is often depicted in the center of the Checkered Pavement. This symbol is 10

alternately said to represent the Sun, Sirius (A & B combined, as seen by the naked eye) and Venus. The Solar interpretation is obvious, in terms of the Sun’s Masonic significance as being the “glory and beauty of the day”, etcetera, but the theory of the Blazing Star as a representation of Sirius provides us with much more symbolic substance for our contemplation.

her hands folded as in prayer, leaning over a broken column as an old man, holding a scythe, undoes the braids in her hair. The old, male figure bears a likeness to Cronus, the Titanic father of Zeus, present here in his popular personification as Father Time. The weeping virgin, in this context, could be construed as a representation of Persephone, the Kore.

Sirius, which is actually a binary system composed of the stars Sirius A and Sirius B, is the brightest star in the sky, apart from the Sun. This star resides in the constellation of Canis Major, hence the name “the Dog Star” (a name from whence we get the phrase, “the dog days of summer”, or the Latin dies caniculares, denoting the heliacal rising and setting of Sirius during the summer months in that region). Sirius was later personified as the Egyptian Iachen, the Minoan I Wa Ko and thereby the Greek Iakchos, the torchbearing son of Persephone.

In this interpretation, we are reminded of an incident in Greek Mythology known as the Rape of Persephone. There are both astrological and agricultural keys to the allegory of this event and these, when used in conjunction, provide us with an interesting narrative. If we consider the figure of Father Time as representing Saturn then, through common and established astrological correspondences, we arrive at the Winter Solstice via the zodiacal house of Capricornus, which is ruled by Cronus. In the myth, Persephone was abducted by Hades while she was collecting wild flowers – an obvious sign of Spring or the Vernal Equinox. He then carried her to his kingdom in the Underworld, which is also symbolic of the Winter Solstice – a place almost universally regarded as the abode of death. The whole scene can easily be read as a wonderful symbolic depiction of certain known aspects of the Eleusinian Mysteries.

The Blazing Star’s relationship to Venus (also anciently known as the Morning and/or Evening Star) may best be illustrated by the fact that it is represented in the form of a pentagram. This significance comes primarily from the fact that Venus traces a five-petalled rosette at the completion of its synodic period, which is 583.9211 days – the amount of time it takes for the planet to return its originally observed position, relative to that of the Sun, as seen from the perspective of Earth – thus itself alluding to the pentagram. The pentagram is commonly found in Freemasonry, likely due to its prevalence in Pythagoreanism. The Weeping Virgin of the Third Degree is a statue made reference to in the Master Mason Lecture in Blue Lodge Freemasonry. The work consists of the figure of a virgin, 11

In Classical Mythology, we find yet another lens through which to view and interpret the symbolism of Freemasonry. Though, it seems that no matter which lens we apply, Freemasonry stands up to the most intense scrutiny as being more than just, “a peculiar system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols.” Bro. Jaime Paul Lamb is a Master Mason in Phoenix AZ, who has published articles in the Connecticut Freemason and Indiana

Freemason magazines. Bro. Lamb is currently finishing a new book titled, "Myth, Magick, and Masonry", which should be released in Summer 2018. Article by Jaime Paul Lamb and sourced from the website The Laudable Pursuit, with thanks. Jaime Paul Lamb is a Master Mason in Phoenix AZ, who has published articles in the Connecticut Freemason and Indiana Freemason magazines. Bro. Lamb is currently finishing a new book titled, "Myth, Magick, and Masonry", which should be released in Summer 2018.

A Prayer for Remembrance Day November 11th Every year we think of those who fell for us to live. We know not names or faces, only what they had to give. They all laid down their lives for us, strangers from the past Their sacrifices changed the world and will forever last. Many would be brothers from a host of different parts Strangers to each other, but fraternal in their hearts. They fought for what was righteous, their absolute belief Then gave their lives for us to live, the ultimate Relief. Let not their sacrifices go unmarked; remember every year That these brave men enabled us to have what we hold dear. May they all be with the Mighty High, there in Heaven above. They showed the real Truth of living life with Brotherly Love. A Prayer for Remembrance Day - November 11, By Bro. Bob Webber Millenium Lodge # 2000

Masonic Light The concept of light or the word itself has always, from time immemorial, occupied a dominant position in the philosophies of all ancient religions and mystic orders. In ordinary language the word is given several definitions, which on reflection tend to lead to a realization of deeper meanings, which have adorned the philosophies of ancient mystic orders including Freemasonry. Some of the most common definitions are as follows: 1. It is the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible. 2. It is also defined as the amount of illumination in a place or a person’s share of it. 3. It is described as the object from which light emanates such as sun, a lamp, a candle, fire, etc. 4. It can be defined as the quality of brightening with animation. All of those definitions relate to sight, which is the faculty of seeing by response of the brain to the actions of light on the eyes in all things that relate to the material world limited to time and space in accordance with the capacity of the brain, which governs the intellect. In all ancient philosophies man has always contended with the doctrine of the two antagonistic principles of light and darkness, wisdom and ignorance, good and evil. Indeed there is hardly any ancient system that did not possess the basic recognition of light with the reverence as being emblematically representative of the eternal principles of goodness and wisdom as against evil and ignorance. These ancient systems of religion and esoteric sciences 12

went further to exhibit prominently an emblematic relation between material light and mental illumination, primordial knowledge or the ever active primordial energy. Examples of these philosophies can be found in the Jewish Kabbalistic doctrine, those of the Egyptians, Persians, the dogma of Zoroaster and Brahmans, to name a few. It is a reflection of these doctrines that leads us also to a conscious contemplation of the true meaning of the great phrase “Let there be light, and there was light.” It is significant to note even man in his material existence in reacting to his own surroundings is filled with sentiments of fear when he is face to face with darkness while his reaction to light is that of joy and happiness. All Freemasons know or ought to know that “light” is one of the cardinal words that form the main fabric of Speculative Freemasonry. It is not only the first symbol that is ceremonially introduced to the initiate, but continues all through his progress in the Craft. Truth and Wisdom constitute part of light, which pervades the whole basis of Freemasonry to the extent that Freemasons are even called the Sons of Light. In the First Degree alone the word is introduced to the candidate in three different perspectives. Those perspectives being, the material light, or the lesser lights, the emblematic light or the Volume of the Sacred Law, and the spiritual light or the creative will of the Supreme Being. These concepts and others that follow after the First Degree are amply enshrouded in illuminating phraseology remembered by every Freemason. Their full import may not be perceived by all but they are constantly there in the rituals of our ceremonies. There are other references to light that are still worthy of note. “To bring to light” or “to see the light” technically means initiation. 13

From the foregoing it is obvious that to the Mason light has a deeper meaning which is darkness to the uninitiated or possibly even the newly made Mason, but visible to the taught Mason. What therefore is the light that is darkness visible? The first and most important qualification for becoming a mason is a “belief in a Supreme Being”. From this belief arises a second belief that all things were made at the creative spark, or will of the SUPREME BEING. What therefore is the creative spark at which all things were first made? The Volume of Sacred Law bears testimony that in the beginning God created Heaven and earth, and the earth was without form and void. Then came the great spark of creation, and God said, “Let there be light and there was light”. From this record in the Volume of Sacred Law, the transformation of voids into forms such as the the sea, land and all living creatures, etc. took place after the creation or issuing forth light which was the animating force. Indeed it was not until the fourth day that the sun to rule the day and give light to the earth, and the moon to govern the night and the stars were created. What was therefore the first light created on the first day? This light has been described as the unsubstantiated primordial light, the driving force throughout creation, the primordial seed, and the ever active primordial energy. What light does the Freemason seek to see? The light given in the great creative spark can therefore be equated with the will of God, the creative will of GOD, from which all forms emanate in perfection and from which also the spirit core of man emanates in subsequent creation. This is the beginning of creation and the understanding of the place of man in creation, which Masonic science strives to teach. Source: Lodge Washington No. 46 website.

Lodge St. Fergus No. 466

AN EARLY HISTORY In the old days when masons were about to begin a building, they erected Lodges to work in and hold meetings. They thatched them, and latterly tiled them, and they were then spoken of as “properly tiled”, words now used to designate a Lodge as closed and secure, so as to prevent intrusion. This particular Lodge has been in existence for over 133 years, but it was not the first Lodge in Wick. There was an older Lodge, which first met in 1795 - the minutes of which are available from that date to 1836. Between 1836 and 1867 there was another Lodge in existence, but there are no minutes available. There was also a Lodge in Thurso which first met in 1820, and a previous Thurso Lodge was formed in 1741, which was still in existence when St. Fergus opened in 1795. St. Fergus has had “four” meeting places since coming into existence. They first met in Brim’s Buildings (now the Riverside Nursing Home) in which they

rented two rooms from 1868 to 1872. They then found better accommodation in Union Street, also rented and held meetings there until 1890. During these periods there were only two halls available in the town - the Temperance Hall and the Artillery Hall. From the minutes of that time it states that these venues were on a “to let” basis, and were used by other organisations It can be safely assumed that Brims Buildings was the venue for the Lodge as from the first minutes consultation had to take place with a Mr Brims as to the charges for the use of the rooms. On 14 February 1870 it appeared that the premises were no longer suitable, discussion then took place to find more suitable premises. At the meeting of 13 November 1871 it was unanimously agreed to look for premises of their own. On 9 December 1872 it was agreed to rent a hall in Lower Pulteney, for 3 years, at a rent of £16 per annum. The current lease on Brims Buildings had expired. The R.W.M. reported that on examination they found it and the other apartment everything to be desired. The first meeting in this hail appears to have been on 25 December 1872 (Christmas Day). The Brethren continued to meet there until 1890. At a meeting on 3 October 1887, the P.G.M. Bro. Sheriff Thoms reported that he along with the R.W.M., had looked over the plans for the New Rifle Hall, where he hoped rooms may be had. A committee was set up on 6 January 1880 to look for suitable premises. It reported back on 10 March 1880, that suitable accommodation had been found in the Drill Hall. St. Fergus moved to Dempster Street (probably the lower part of the Rifle Hall) this is borne out from a quote from the minutes of 10th September 1890:“After laying the Foundation Stone of the new Drill Hall they went to their own rooms 14

in the same building.” The site of the Foundation Stone is shown in the Entrance Hall by the mark of the R.W.M of Lodge St. Fergus, Bro. J H Henderson. At a meeting on 5 June 1894, the members agreed to adopt the Breadalbane Feu for a Lodge. On 5 November 1894 agreement was made to secure the site in Breadalbane Crescent, and at a meeting on 4 June 1895, the plans were submitted to the Lodge. It was agreed at the meeting of 2 April 1895, that the architect should proceed with the plans and specification for the new hall, and to solicit Sister and PG. Lodge for funds. On 7 May 1895, after discussing the work done, to raise money, Bro. D.P. Henderson stated that he would be very glad to give personal security, along with a few other Brethren to allow the building to get under way at once. The Lodge was always closely connected to the Church. The first recorded connection being with the Church of St. John in 1893, when the Rev. James Connon was Chaplain. The longest connection with any individual church was with that of Pulteneytown Parish Church (now St. Andrews). The Rev. Alexander Ross was Chaplain of the Lodge from 1905 to 1936. Later, the Lodge had a connection with the Old Parish Church, Wick, when the Rev.Gordon More was Chaplain. This connection with the Old Parish Church still exists today!! The Lodge took a prominent part in the social side of the towns of Wick and Pulteney, and were closely allied with organisations such as the Lifeboat Association, Mercantile Debating Society, etc. Before the days of the Welfare State they regularly gave donations to nearly all organisations which depended on such help. 15

The Lodge played an important part in raising funds to assist the relatives of those lost at sea around the Caithness coasts. Many of its members were engaged in the fishing industry. An example of this took place in 1876 when there were two tragedies, one at Mid Clyth, and the other at Ackergill, and a further one in 1881 at Lybster. On each occasion by concerts and other means the Lodge raised funds to assist the relatives of those who were lost. THE EXISTING BUILDING The Foundation Stone of the existing building was laid on 12 September 1895. The stone being laid by the Provincial, Grand Master of that time, Bro. Sheriff G.H.M. Thorns. The stone was laid in the N.E. corner of the building about 10 ft from the ground, in such a position that it would be visible in the Lodge room at all times. In the cavity were deposited sealed jars containing current coins of the realm, the latest papers of the day, a plan of the building and a minute of the, proceedings leading up to the erection of the hall, with the names of the Architect and Contractors. A large deputation, from St. Peter’s Lodge of Operative Masons No.284, Thurso, as well as a number of Brethren from other Lodges in the Province and elsewhere, took part in this ceremony. The building was completed on 5 October 1896, at a total cost of £683. The building was never let to outside bodies, and the Lodge gradually built up its furniture and equipment. A Past Master of the Lodge gifted a beautiful Volume of the Sacred Law (Holy Bible) in 1901, and in 1904 a brother presented ~ beautifully carved Benevolent Box, to which an inscription was fitted later, in silver. This box is still in use today you may have already put a donation into it!! Over the

years many gifts have been given by Brethren of the Lodge, the majority of which are still in use today. The first minuted meeting of this Lodge (466) was held in Wick on 14th January 1868. The Charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland was read out, and the Lodge was constituted. Business was conducted, which included a ballot. The meeting, was then closed. It is of some note that in the year 1905 the “glass roof’ was found to be leaking. In 1917 an attempt to finish the glazing work, by procuring panels with Masonic emblems failed - as these panels were unavailable. The “glass roof’ and ceiling were damaged by a German bomb on 1 July 1940, which fell in Union Street/Bank Row. Temporary corrugated sheeting was fitted, and the glass roof was replaced in 1948 by slates. Brother Harbourmaster, was consulted in 1951 as to the positioning of the “heavenly bodies.” In 1919 the Lodge rejected a motion to build recreation rooms by one vote? This was disappointing, but democratic!! The Lodge Title Deeds appear to have been lost in 1921, and the Secretary was tasked to trace there whereabouts. It would appear from the minutes that they were found on 27 December 1922. During the last century there have been three memorial tablets erected in the Lodge. In 1913 it was agreed that instead of a Past Masters jewel being presented to the relatives of the late Bro. George Sinclair a memorial tablet be placed in the Lodge and this was erected in 1914. A white marble War Memorial Tablet was erected in 1922, in memory of brethren who fell in the First World War and a further Tablet was erected in 1954, in memory of those who fell in the Second World War.

In the old days St. Fergus held torchlight processions, and are worth mentioning. On 14 November 1870 it was agreed to hold a Torchlight Procession Ball & Supper on St. John’s day. Bro. Bryson offered to defray the expense of carriages to convey the ladies to the Ball. On St. John’s night the Brethren held their meeting in the Lodge, installed their Office-Bearers, then set off on their torchlight procession about 6 p.m. Permission had to be obtained from Wick Town Council and Pulteneytown Commissioners to carry lighted torches, but it was not until 21st December 1874 that an indication of the route taken is given “from the Hall to Harbour Quay, Harbour Road, Wellington Street and Kinnaird Street, part of Huddart Street, Grant Street, Argyle Square, Dempster Street and Francis Street, then Louisburgh Street, Shore Lane and back to the Hall as the Marshall may direct.” There were to be 40 torches. These processions were held regularly until 1879. On 24 October 1887, to show Masonic loyalty in the Jubilee year, it was decided to revive the torchlight procession; the Tyler reported that 29 torches remained out of the original 40. These processions continued until 1890 and in 1891 the procession had to be cancelled. The St. John’s celebrations have altered drastically over the years, banquets have changed to suppers, and eventually the suppers ceased. The Ball changed to private dances, and even they ceased. St. Fergus holds a dance every now and then, but it would appear to be a dying event, as times change. This Abridged History St. Fergus Masonic Lodge (Wick) No. 466 was sourced from this website which can be viewed by clicking here. Our thanks go to the Lodge No. 466 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owner of this History.


Famous Freemasons John MacGregor ‘Canada’s most highly decorated Soldier’

John (Jock) MacGregor was born at Cawdor near Nairn in Scottish highlands on 11th February 1889. John was raised in the family croft and attended the local school, later attending Nairn Academy until 1907, when he left to be an apprentice Master Carpenter and Stone Mason. Reports say he was at that time, “strong in body and mind, big of build, a man of character and a blunt speaking man”, some would call him a typical Highlander. John MacGregor’s father died in 1908, his older brother inherited the farm and John made the decision to immigrate to Canada, 17

and so in 1909 he booked a passed from Liverpool to Montreal, and then onwards to the wide open spaces and the land of opportunity. Jock worked his way across Canada as a carpenter, most on the railroads building trestle bridges, and as the railway moved west so did Jock. At point Jock worked as a cowboy, and one day he came across a Cree Indian out on the prairie with a broken leg. He looked after him and took the Indian back to his village, where they gave him geranium seeds as a gift. Jock then crossed the Rockies, went America and eventually ended up in Vancouver working at the building of the University of British Columbia. It was here he looked at a map of Canada and decided that the remote region in the North West was the place for him, and so booked a passage north to Prince Rupert. Not long after his arrival, he again found employment as a carpenter where he became friends with a fellow Scotsman Archie MacPhee would had spent some time as a trapper. MacPhee’s tales of the backwoods fascinated Jock, and at weekends they would both go off fishing and setting traps. Then in 1913, the vast open spaces called out to him, and he bought trapping equipment and supplies and set off by canoe to begin his adventure. At the North East of Prince Rupert Jock built himself a log cabin and planted the geranium seeds, the leaves were an Indian cure to stop the midges from biting! During the winter of 1914-15, a ranger met him and told Jock that Britain was at war with Germany, and had been for six months. Jock pulled up his traps, packed his tools, left a note on his cabin door that he had gone to war. He put on snow shoes and set out for the nearest railway station. Jock

travelled for the next five days, making the journey over mountain and cross-country. When he arrived he found the recruitment post and tried to enlist, he was rejected as he looked like a tramp, unshaven, unwashed and dirty clothes. Undeterred, Jock travelled to Vancouver, shaved, washed and in a suit, he was accepted in the recruitment station and became Trooper John MacGregor of the 11th Canadian Mounted Rifles. The Company after training embarked for Europe and were barracked at Folkstone. John became a trooper with the 2nd Canadian Division in July and after a short visit to Cawdor to visit his family, Jock and company arrived in France on the 22nd September 1915. Four days later they were in the front line at Ypres and would continue for the next year fighting, living, eating and sleeping in mud at various battlefronts. August 1916 the troop was at the front line on the Somme, and on the 12th September they company had that many causalities they were taken out of the line. On the 25th September, Jock was promoted from Private to Sergeant. A report of him states, “Inspires men, excellent character, strong personality, tactful, resourceful and cooperative. We’d have followed him to hell if he asked us, but when the bullets flew and him men were dying, he ordered us to stay down while he went and dealt with the guns.” On 16th October the company was pulled out of the Somme area and were sent to a place that fills all Canadians with pride, Vimy Ridge. On Easter Sunday, 8th April 1917, at 05.30 the attack began. Jock MacGregor’s C Company objective was to cross 700

hundred yards of open defensive position, capture the trench there and dig in. An eyewitness reported of the attack; When the barrage started, Sgt MacGregor cried out, "What are we waiting Furr" and, climbing out of his trench, started forward roaring "Follow me boys, follow me". And follow him we did. Bullets whined, thudded and pinged through our ranks and grenades boomed splattering mud and shrapnel. Lucky for us the blowing snow hindered the snipers. Jock led us up the slopes behind, and sometimes in the creeping barrage, zigzagging and leaping from crater to hillock to crater, but always forward. He was nearing our objective when a Hun machine gun ratatat-tatted at his platoon. Yelling at us to lie low, Jock charged the machine gun nest, killed the crew and captured the gun. He saved many of our lives that day. When we reached the Black Line he called for the enemy to surrender. The German troops dropped their weapons and raised their hands. Jock and his men had reached their objective in 30 minutes, of it’s 23 officers, there were 4 officers killed and 5 wounded, in four days the Canadians has lost 3,598 men killed and over 7,000 wounded. On May 17 1977, Jock was commissioned in the field to Temp., Lieutenant and awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. This was the highest award short of the Victoria Cross that may be made to a soldier below the rank of Warrant Officer. The citation reads; 116031 Sgt MacGregor, John 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Distinguished Conduct Medal For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. He single handed captured an enemy machine gun and shot the crew, thereby 18

undoubtedly saving his company from many casualties. On October 8, 1917, Jock was presented with his DCM, and was granted leave on 22nd October, missing out on the Battle of Passchendale which started 4 days later. Over the next few months the 2nd Battalion moved in and out of the line over a wide front and, just before Christmas 1917, they were moved into the area of Hill 70. On 28 December 1917 at Hill 70 John twice led reconnaissance patrols into No Man's Land through the snow wearing white sheets as camouflage. This was all to gain intelligence for a raid on 12 January 1918. At 1200hrs, John's group of 18 Privates, 4 Corporals and a Sergeant set out, they set out in ones and twos and made for a large shell hole to reassemble, they were discovered and came under attack from bombs and gun fire. Jock knew that existing plan would now not work so he amended his orders and changed to another part of the line. With a small party of men, went over the wire and stormed the trenches, while the rest of his group gave covering fire. The Germans were overpowered and two taken prisoner, the attack had taken the 70 minutes, John had been wounded in the hand but remained on duty. For his action this day, Jock was awarded the Military Cross and promoted to Temp, Captain. The citation reads; For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. Whilst he was assembling his men prior to a raid, the enemy bombed the trench. He, however, changing the point of attack, led his men over the wire into the enemy's trench, and successfully dealt with the garrison of the trench and three 19

concrete dug-outs, himself capturing one prisoner. He then withdrew his party and his prisoner successfully to our trenches. Before the raid he, together with a sergeant, had made several skilful and daring reconnaissance’s along the enemy wire, which materially assisted in the success of the enterprise. In September 1918, the Canadians were moved to the front near Cambrai, the end of the was fast approaching, the Canadian Divisions were in positions for the final assault on the Hindenberg Line. The fighting was fierce and the Canadians again had heavy casualties. Jock’s C Company was involved in heavy fighting but managed to clear up machine-gun nests. Jock accounted for one nest single-handedly. The advance had come to a standstill, as the troop were outflanked and some men got cold feet to go forward, Jock grabbed a rifle and ran out into the open. He reached the enemy position with minor injuries, a wound to his knee and his tunic with bullet holes. He killed four, captured eight and went back for his men. He then heard the officers a D and B Companies had all been killed, so he immediately took command of all the men and led them forward. Throughout the 29th September and the next day the battle continued, then the fighting began to subside, Jock with his Company had been on the go for 36 hours, and because of the wound to his knee had been using a shillelagh as a walking stick. The battle ebbed and flowed through 29 September and into the next day. The fighting died down for the night. John, with C Company had been on the go for 36 hours and, apart from using his shillelagh as a walking stick, he was ignoring the wound to his knee. On 30 September they were trying

to achieve their target of seizing the bridges over the canal. John was way in front of his forward troops and undertook what was recorded in the records as "a personal Reccy". He moved south and found St Remy partially vacated so moved his men in. They were not yet at the bridges. He sent out patrols, found the way relatively clear and moved forward. They reached the dock but could go no further. For three days their own artillery pounded their positions and no amount of messages sent to headquarters could get it stopped. Their advance was stopped by their own side, not by the Germans. For this action Capt John MacGregor DCM MC was awarded the Victoria Cross. The official citation reads; For most conspicuous bravery, leadership, and self sacrificing devotion to duty. He led his company under intense fire, and when the advance was checked by machine guns, although wounded pushed on and located the enemy guns. He then ran forward in broad daylight, in the face of enemy fire from all directions, and with rifle and bayonet, single handed, put the enemy crews out of action, killing four and taking eight prisoners. His prompt action saved many casualties and enabled the advance to continue. After reorganising his command under heavy fire he rendered most useful support to neighbouring troops. When the enemy were showing stubborn resistance, he went along the line regardless of danger, organised the platoons, took command of the leading waves, and continued the advance. Later, after a personal daylight reconnaissance under heavy fire he established his company in Neuville St

Remy, thereby greatly assisting the advance into Tilloy. Throughout the operations Captain MacGregor displayed magnificent bravery and heroic leadership. In the final days of the war the allied troops chased and harried the German retreat. Near Crespin on the Belgian border three rivers have to be crossed. the Rhonnelle, the Aunelle and the Honnelle. John's unit was then given the order to attempt to secure a bridgehead over the CondÊ Canal. John took two companies and reached the banks. The enemy blew the bridges and then withdrew in the night. The following morning they crossed the canal and then, with the remainder of the CMR, facing no major opposition, went on to liberate Mons. The war diary of the 3rd Canadian Division described his reconnaissance work as "An outstanding piece of work". John was awarded a bar for his Military Cross. The medal citation reads:5th to 8th November 1918, Quievrain and Quievrechain. Through his personal reconnaissances and initiative the bridges over The Honnelle River were secured. His prompt action in seizing the crossings did much towards the final rout of the enemy. At Buckingham Palace on February 26th 1919 His Majesty the King decorated Captain John MacGregor with the Victoria Cross and also a bar to his Military Cross. Following the end of the War, Jock and his Company returned home to Canada, he was demobilised in 1919, he had left Canada a Private and returned a Captain, and he then became a Major in the Canadian Militia. He arrived back at Prince Rupert on 16th April, went back to his log cabin, the door was off its hinges but his carpenter’s tools were still there, and thus began the next part of his 20

extraordinary life, but as they say, that’s another story.’ Getting back into civilian life after the War for most ex-soldiers was difficult, a vast number missed the comradeship and looking for something to fill that void, so, many ex-soldiers joined Freemasonry, Jock MacGregor was one of the band of men who joined the brotherhood. He was initiated in Tyee Lodge No.66, British Columbia Constitution, being passed in September and raised in March 1921. He remained a member of the Lodge until 1940 when he left to enlist in a Scottish Regiment during WW2. Jock then joined Westview Lodge No. 133, Powell River in May 1950. John MacGregor died at Powell River Hospital, British Columbia, on the 9th June 1952 after a long illness, having suffered from cancer for six years. He was buried in Cranberry Lake Cemetery, Powell River, three holders of the Victoria Cross attending his funeral - Major General George Pearkes, VC, CB, DSO, MC; Colonel Cyrus Peck VC, DSO; Sergeant Charles Train VC. This article has been assembled by the editor from various sources the principle of which were, nternet, tales, stories and books on VC holders. – Victoria Cross Freemasons by Granville Angell – Western Front Assosiation - Victoria and Wikipedia, to who go my grateful thanks to all.

Is Your Freemasonry in Jars?

Not often do I find a Masonic lesson in a funny story, but there's one that seems to me to give the opportunity for developing one. At a gathering of women the conversation turned `to a discussion of Masons. Some of the women seemed to be rather well informed on the subject, and discussed it at some length, but one woman was bored and finally remarked, "Well, I don't know much about Masons, but I think their fruit jars are very nice." If we analyze that, we may find she said a mouthful without intending to point a moral of any kind. Don't many of us Masons have a lot of fruit jars into which we put our Masonry, then seal the jars and set them away in a dark corner? Even when Masonic


friends visit us, we don't get out some of the jars and treat our friends to the contents. We might at least take a jar along every time we go to a Masonic meeting and pass around what the jar contains. Freemasonry put away in jars doesn't improve with age, and the contents are likely to be forgotten. Freemasonry improves by dissemination. Brethren, keep your Freemasonry out of fruit jars; but, if you do put some away now and then, bring it out at the first opportunity and let the Brethren partake with you. Sourced from STB Vol., 42 – 1964.

His Just Due On a Meeting night when the Lodge was opened, we heard these words spoken by the Senior Warden, 'To see that every brother has had his just due.' How many of us have given any thought to what is meant by these words? Perhaps for a few moments you might think upon these words while I offer what might be an explanation. For a brother to advance in Masonry, whether it is to the next degree or to the Chair of King Solomon, he must have instruction, not only in the working of the Lodge and its ritual, but instructions which will enable him to understand Freemasonry. What it is that makes a real Mason! What it is to playa part in promoting the welfare of the Craft! What it is to put his best into Masonry and get his best out of it! When a candidate enters into Masonry he is poor and penniless in material matters as

well as in his knowledge of the Craft, its traditions, history, objects and principles. A Mason's due is what he owes to himself and what we owe to him, that will bring into the richness of knowledge and understanding of our noble fraternity, not merely the ritual but of the history of Freemasonry, its origin, development, objects, tenets and principles; its symbolism as well as some acquaintance with the men who have helped build our fraternity and bring it to the degree of importance which it now enjoys. At his initiation a candidate is charged to 'study more especially such of the liberal arts and sciences as may lie within the compass of your attainment'. Unfortunately, through lack of subsequent instruction it is only a form of words. If the apprentices of operative days had neglected their studies of the liberal arts and sciences many of the magnificent cathedrals of England and Europe would have remained unfinished. The candidate and his sponsors have the opportunity to visit the Masonic Library and with the assistance of the librarian to select the right material to complete the candidate’s spiritual and moral temple as is his due. Six hundred years ago one of the earliest of the old charges defines the duty of the Warden in his Master's absence, if it befell him to be a Warden under his Master that he be a true mediator between his Master and fellows. This was the origin of the words we now use, to see that every brother has had his just due. Times have changed and we need to put a new interpretation on these words. With the rising standard of education it is evident that our new members will look for an understanding of our ritual and a true insight into the symbolism, tenets and principles of the Craft. All these are his just due. 22

Rays of Masonry

A great step in this direction will be to induce these new members to read our history and study our manuals, but this encouragement must come from those who know and love the Craft.

“The Study of Self�

By ancient usage the V.S.L. is always open in the Lodge when at labour. To close it would intercept the rays of divine light which emanates from it. The lodge is under its influence and it teaches us that its contents are to be studied as the rule and guide to our conduct.

Masonry, blessed with wisdom of the ages, points to the greatest of all lessons, the study of self. There is a distinction between thinking too much of self and knowing self.

The V.S.L., square and compasses are significant symbols in Freemasonry. They show that within Masonry, religion is not enough. If Masonry is to be enjoyed to the full by the brethren there is much to learn, so much in the Craft that belongs to him if he will only take the trouble to look, and his masonry will take on a new life. You can add vast pleasure to your Masonic career, in particular, and your life, in general, by using the facilities of the Library as I have already mentioned, by regular attendance at your lodge and by ceaseless interest in the Masonic education of new members, so that every member can have his just due. Our younger brethren are seeking knowledge in their formative Masonic years, but many are uncertain where and how to find it. It is the duty of the Lodge to provide the facilities that will ensure that every brother has had his just due. Sourced from a speech by R.W. Bro. John A. Box, PDDGM of Toronto District 5.

A great teacher was asked if he could tell all the Law in as little a time as a man could stand on one foot. To which he answered: "What is hateful to thyself do not do to others." the sting of unkindness, the sharp blade of unfairness, the brutality of intolerance, are weapons that have been used against us. Have we used these weapons against others in our individual lives? Masonry tells us to consider well this question. We must study self more and more in order to understand that unkindness is not of a lesser degree when we use it against others than when others use it against us. Tolerance begets Tolerance. Understanding begets Understanding. What comes back to us is in some strange way the very thing that we send out. Masons, students of self and the science of Morality, will forever cry out against the enemies of mankind, Intolerance, Injustice and Greed. To become victors over these destroyers of life, we must know that we have looked upon them within or own being, and have removed them from self.

Dewey Wollstein 1953.


"No, I am simply trying to oblige," laughed the Old Tiler. "I know three temples which impressed me more than any of these." "I asked because I am taking a winter vacation. I'd like to see the wonderful temples Masonry has erected. Tell me where your three are located!"

In Men’s Hearts "Where is the most beautiful Masonic temple in the world?" asked the New Brother of the Old Tiler. "Wouldn't the answer depend on one's conception of beauty? retorted the Old Tiler. "I might think, and you another, while an architect or an artist might choose still another." "Well, which one do you choose?" persisted the New Brother. "I don't!" answered the Old Tiler. "The House of the Temple in Washington is impressive; Detroit has a wonderful temple; Philadelphia's temple is massive and beautiful, the Albert Pike memorial in Little Rock is considered fine. I cannot choose." "You think it is one of these?"

"One temple that to me is great in beauty is in a town of about 2,000 people in the Middle West. The lodge room is over a country store. The floor is bare of carpet. The chairs are plain wood. The heating plant is one large stove; it is the Junior Deacons' business to feed it during the meetings. The walls are stained, the lamps are kerosene, there is no organ or piano and the ribbons in the lodge jewels are frayed. Not very up-to-date, the members of this lodge. "But this lodge made a boy of twenty-two a Master Mason just before he went to France in the first world war. After Soissons he lay all night on the field with a shattered leg and an arm so badly mangled that later they cut it off. While he lay there he heard familiar words from the familiar burial service of a Mason; 'this evergreen, which once marked the temporary resting place of the illustrious dead is an emblem of our faith in the immortality of the soul.' "The wounded boy called for help. Came crawling to him was a man slightly wounded, who had said the service over the remains of a comrade. At the risk of his life he hauled the wounded boy to safety. That wounded boy came back to this little country lodge to tell his brethren of what Masonry means in men's hearts when they carry it into the battlefield. As I listened the plain board walls fell away, the deal floor became tessellated marble, the low stained 24

ceiling became a vaulted archway and the Great Architect Himself entered the East Gate. "Another beautiful temple I only heard of. Civil engineers were building a railroad in the Andes. One of their labourers, a Mason, had fever and had to be sent home. This party of five sat out under the trees and the stars and talked on the square. Each of them gave a month's salary to the sick labourer. He had a wife and two babies in Denver, the wife trying to live in spite of the dread disease Denver's high altitude cures. Our ancient brethren met under the stars, where their 'covering was no less than the clouded canopy or starry-decked heaven.' But none of these ever held a more beautiful lodge than those five young men, filled with Masonic charity, giving each more than he could afford for a day labourer in hard luck, because he was a Mason. "My third most beautiful temple was made of many little tents. There were children in them; children large and small, and there was no distinction between them of race, creed, colour. All a child had to be was poor to have two weeks in the open. Nor was this a lodge charity; it was the work of a Masonic club, and run by individual contributions. As I looked I heard the organ peal as I have never heard it in many temples of stone. "As a teacher said, 'for where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.' Where three, five, seven or more Master Masons gather in the name of Masonry, there is the temple. It is right and wise that we build great temples of stone and carving; which give testimony to all the world that here men gather in brotherhood. Masonic structures play a great part and we could spare them ill. But 25

the greatest Masonic temples are built in men's hearts. "If you would visit beautiful temples in your travels. seek less for mighty building and more for a house not made with hands. 'Masonry builds her temples in the hearts of men' and in men's hearts shall you seek for, and find, those most beautiful." The Old Tiler ceased and looked off into space as if he saw a vision. The New Brother looked at the Old Tiler. "I do not need to travel far to see one of the most beautiful temples," he said.

Footnote Readers, this is the Seventieth and final article from Carl Claudy’s ‘Old Tiler Talks.’ The SRA76 magazine first started this regular feature in the November 2009 issue, with the first Tiler Talk in the series; in fact it was used as the cover story. Then in October 2015, we featured Carl Claudy in our ‘Famous Freemason’s’ regular feature, and for those who have not read it, I would recommend you look it up and find out more about this remarkable Man and Mason! As from next Month, December 2018, the magazine will run a new regular feature series called, ”The Old Past Master” also written by Carl Claudy. There are 24 essay’s in this series, which will see us through the next three years, Enjoy !!!!!!!!

Working it Out Many Jews are Masons, as are many Christians and members of other faiths. Masonic gatherings in some countries, and Israel is a fascinating example, bring together adherents of a range of religious traditions, united in peace, love and harmony in ways which we would all dearly love to see emulated in a wider context. Yet from time to time Masonry is criticised – because it is too religious, or because it is not religious enough. Those who accuse it of being too religious point the finger of criticism at the fact that our ritual and terminology frequently reflect Biblical phrases and events and our meetings include prayers and readings. Well, if it is a crime to insist that there is a God whose ethical dictates each creature must seek to obey, then we plead guilty. For if there is no God, there are also no absolute standards of right and wrong, and good and evil become simply matters of opinion and no man, group or nation is safe any more. Those who accuse Masonry of not being religious enough find it wrong that Masonic belief in God has no specific theological tenets: in other words, it is religious but not a religion. Mackey’s Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry puts it quite clearly: “Freemasons now, like Freemasons for eight centuries, do not believe that religion ever is or can be a monopoly owned by any church or even by any one of the organised world religions. They believe that religion belongs to man as man, and therefore to

each man everywhere, belongs to him as does breathing or eating, or sleeping, that he is free to use it when or how he needs to… If a man desires to worship he is free to do so where he stands; if he is in want of prayer he can pray. If workmen wish to pray and worship there is nobody to forbid them: they have as much right to turn the Lodge into an altar as they have to sit or stand or speak” (1946 ed., vol. 3, p. 1212). What is Masonry? – A fellowship in which each man is a brother. A philosophy which draws its symbolism from the builder’s craft and ponders on the principles upon which man can build a Utopia. And a faith – in the widest sense of the word – that echoes the Psalmist’s words, “Unless the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it” (Psalm 127:1). In Masonry, the agenda that is dealt with at a meeting is called the Lodge work. And a good Mason takes a pride in the manner in which he carries out his work, believing that an edifice that is put up shoddily is a danger in itself and reflects no credit on the builder. The Mason realises, however, that how you do your work, the work ethic you espouse, is a question that applies far beyond the confines of the Lodge room. Indeed, today it is one of the major issues that ought to be properly thought through by every responsible citizen everywhere. Have I a right to seek more pay or a shorter working week, unless there is evidence that I will use my working hours (however long or short they may be) fully, honestly, and with good grace? In answer to that question there are certain things which as a Mason and a responsible citizen I must in conscience be able to say. 26

One: I cannot expect a reward unless I have earned it. In Masonic parlance, only when I have honestly earned my dues can I claim them without scruple or diffidence. Or as the ancient sages would have said, “Six days shalt thou labour and do all thy work” is a condition precedent to the seventh day being “a Sabbath unto the Lord thy God”. Two: I take a pride in my work. A passer-by asked workmen on a building site what they were doing. “I’m stone cutting,” said one. “I’m putting in time until a better job comes along,” said the second. The third thought a moment and said, “I’m building a cathedral!” Whatever my particular task may be, however lowly, without me there would be no cathedral. I’m proud of what I do. Three: If I cheat by giving less than my best, it is not only my employer who suffers; it is not only the public who lose: I harm myself too. I compromise my character, I give my children a bad example, and my own self-respect will inevitably decline. Yes, how I work is a matter of major moment. There is an additional problem – not merely the ethic of work, but the ethic of leisure. What do 1 do with my spare time? It has been said that “leisure is gradually replacing work as the basis of culture” (Norman Lamm, “Faith and Doubt”, 1971, p. 187). One result is what might be called Sunday Neurosis – the problem of having a Sunday, a weekend, a holiday with no idea of what to do with it. Norman Lamm has written that in Hebrew there are three terms for leisure, each with quite a different sense of significance. The 27

first is sechok, or play. This is the use of leisure for pleasure which is nothing short of debilitating. It’s not that pleasure is wrong in itself, but pleasure as a means of killing time – that is a problem. The second Hebrew term is shevitah, or rest. This denotes the use of leisure time in order to disengage from the punishing pace at which many people live their working lives. And in a mood of relaxation, shevitah allows a person to rediscover himself and other people and to see unsuspected things in both. Nofesh is the third term. It denotes recreation – stretching one’s mind through intellectual and cultural pursuits, stimulating one’s heart through the exhilarating experience of finding an exciting cause and serving it with energy and enthusiasm. Nofesh is the ideal way of using one’s leisure, says Norman Lamm (“Faith and Doubt”, pp. 195 etc). And just as Masonry endorses and exemplifies the highest kind of work ethic, so does it insist that a man use his leisure as usefully and enthusiastically as he possibly can. To my wife and the wives of my brother Masons, let me said that for all that going to Lodge gives your husband relaxation and fellowship, it also helps to mould him as a person and a citizen. It provides him with a context in which to use leisure time to turn his mind to noble thoughts and his heart to high ideals. It daily advances him in the knowledge of how to work – for his own dignity, for the well-being of his family, and for the benefit of society at large. By Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory. Click the name to go to his website.

DID YOU KNOW? Question: Why does the ritual use so many repetitions, as in "duly and truly", "worthy and well qualified," etc.? Answer: Several "word-pairs" in Masonic ritual make interesting studies; "duly and truly," "worthy and well-qualified," "free will and accord," "parts and points," "hele and conceal." At first glance it may seem that these are so arranged only for emphasis. In Middle English writing, especially in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, when Freemasonry was in the process of formation, England had two languages. One was Norman-French, the other AngloSaxon. To make sure of understanding, word pairs were much in use, a word of similar meaning being taken from each language. The apparent redundancy of expression in a number of places in Masonic ritual may be traced back to these Middle Ages. The perpetuation of such usage now, when clarity of thought and understanding might be served as well with one word, is one of many proofs that Freemasonry delights to cling to the ancient and venerated because it is venerated and ancient.

this was not mentioned in the text.] In Masonry Dissected, 1730, the "Three Lights" are still situated "East South and West" and they represent Sun, Moon, and Mason, and the same text says that both Wardens stand in the West, In operative times, when the masons worked with hammer and chisel, there was only one Warden in charge of the craftsmen; he was "progress-chaser" and it was his duty to ensure that nothing disturbed the progress of the work. In non-operative Lodges certainly before 1730 there were two Wardens and sometime between 1730 and 1760, when for ritual purposes it was deemed advisable to allocate specific duties to each, the Senior Warden remained in charge of the Lodge at labour, and the Junior Warden was placed in charge of the Lodge at Refreshment. The earliest ritual text that describes this is Three Distinct Knocks, 1760, where the Worshipful Master is in the East, and for the first time the Junior Warden is in the South and the Senior Warden in the West. In the Opening ceremony the Junior Warden's duty is: The better to observe the Sun, at high Meridian to call the Men off from Work to Refreshment and to see that they come on in due time. Notice the Junior Warden, only called the Lodge to Refreshment at the midday break and it seems to me that the points raised by the question are not incompatible.

Question: Why is the Sun over the Junior Warden's chair and the Moon over the Senior Warden's if the Senior Warden is in charge during the work of the Lodge and the Junior Warden is in charge during Refreshment or not at work?

In the course of this lengthy answer I have tired to show:

Answer: An exposure of 1724 said that they stood "Right, East, South and West", [clearly implying the course of the sun at sunrise, at meridian and at sunset, though

[2] How the Junior Warden and Senior Warden arrived at the South and West, and acquired the Sun and Moon emblems on their Chairs.

[1] How the three lights, East, South and West come to represent the daily course of the Sun.


[3] How the Junior Warden's duties came to be allocated. The real problem is how to reconcile the East, South and West with the "Sun, Moon and Master," the traditional reply which still appears in our modern ritual. After much study, I am convinced that if we said "South, West and East," that the problem would disappear as well. Question: What are the "Old Charges?" Answer: The first book of Freemasonry, printed in 1723, is known as Anderson's Constitutions. In it appear six "Old Charges" which are a statement of the old laws of operative Freemasonry concerning a Mason and his conduct. These six Old Charges are titled: Of God and Religion, Of the Civil Magistrate Supreme and Subordinate; Of Lodges; Of Masters, Wardens, Fellows and Apprentices; Of the Management of the Craft in Working; Of Behaviour. The last, sixth, Old Charge is concerned with behaviour: "in the Lodge while constituted; after Lodge is over and the Brethren not gone; when Brethren meet without Strangers, but not in a Lodge; in presence of Strangers not Masons; at Home and in the Neighbourhood; towards a strange Brother."

Dec. 1st, 1735, the Lodge resolved….that the Foot Cloth made use of at the initiation of new members should be defaced. The Lodge was ten years old in 1735, and the Foot Cloth must have been worn out. The Tracing Board, or "Floor Cloth" evolved from the early custom of drawing on the floor of the Lodge, a collection of symbols relevant to particular degrees. Originally, it was the Tyler's duty to draw the designs in Chalk and Charcoal, and the Candidates duty at the end of the ceremony to wash out the design with "mop and pail." Later the designs were drawn or painted on "Floor Cloths" for more permanent use, and the collected symbols became the basis for the speculative interpretation of the ceremonies, which were eventually standardized as the Lectures on the Tracing Boards. As to the significance of the Tracing Board's; in the course of time the "Lodge Board" became "the Lodge" and acquired a quality of sanctity. "The Lodge stands on Holy Ground" and none were allowed to stand or walk on it. Finally, when the Consecration ceremony came into use, the essential elements of consecration, Corn, Wine, Oil and Salt were poured on "the Lodge", i.e. on the Tracing Board. Question: What entrance?





Many "Books of the Law--Constitution, Codes, etc.--of Grand Lodges print these Old Charges. They can also be found in Mackey's Encyclopedia and in the Little Masonic Library..

Answer: Of, At and On.

Question: What is the significance of the tracing Board?

On what? - On the pint of a sharp instrument presented to my N. L. B.

Answer: The earliest reference I have been able to find, is in the minutes of the Old King's Arms Lodge, No. 28, London. On

The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and, or his Lodge or Mother Constitution


Of what? - Of my own free will and accord. At what? - At the door of the Lodge.

Repaying the Debt All of us can look back on our lives and recall some of the choices that we have had to make. Some have turned out well and some not so well. All of us made the choice at one time to join Freemasonry. We each had our own reasons. It may have been the influence of family, or friends or just some Mason we looked up to and wanted to be like. In any event, we joined Masonry and became instantly acquainted with its teachings and fundamental principles and somewhat like a great influential magnet we have been drawn back to it time and time again. And what a difference it has made in our lives! By selecting to join of our own free will and accord we made a choice that has made all the difference to otherwise what might have been. Yes, masonry has made a significant, meaningful, worthwhile difference in our lives and for this difference we are obviously indebted. We came into the world as helpless babies. We needed lots of care and attention and we got it. We came into masonry in a similar manner: neither naked nor clothed, barefoot nor shod and we stood helpless needing lots of care and attention and we got it. We were told that we represented the foundation stone and great things were expected of us: "and from the foundation laid this evening, may you raise a superstructure, perfect in its parts and honourable to the builder." The care and attention that we received from our own parents most of us have had the opportunity in some measure to repay, maybe in looking after our own parents in later years or in raising children of our own and passing on that natural love to future generations. But the question then arises how do we repay those who nurtured and cared for us when we first experienced the new light of Masonry? Is there not some way that those who gave time and talents to help us when we joined Masonry may be repaid?

In answering this question, it seems to me that the answer may be different for each of us, and we may try to pay our debt in a variety of ways. But in the broadest sense, it appears to me, that each of us has talents to contribute which will help to uphold, support and maintain our gentle Craft so that it may be passed unsullied to future generations in order that the abiding principles of brotherly love, relief and truth may never vanish from our society. We can do this by giving of ourselves as best we can with the talents we possess to make whatever lodge we belong to the best that it can hope to be. We can remain true to the promises we made when we joined masonry. When we joined we were asked if we would give if it were in our power and we replied that we would. We promised to obey all lawful signs and summonses if within the length of our cable tow pleading thereto no excuse save sickness or the pressing emergencies of our public or private avocations. Pretty heady stuff and great promises which most of us find difficult to keep, but at least it is an ideal for which we can strive. The Riving of our time to support our Master will go a long way in making each lodge a pleasant place to be. Time is a precious commodity. The tick-tock of the clock never ceases, it is unforgiving and it's up to each of us to make the most of the allotted time that we have. Rudyard Kipling, a renowned poet and mason, wrote about time in his poem "If". In the last verse of that poem he wrote: "If you can fill each unforgiving minute With sixty seconds worth of distance run, Yours is the earth and everything that's in it; And what's more, you'll be a man my son."

May each of you have the opportunity to use the time that you have left in the wav that will make our cup-of-life runneth over and may the loving arms of the G.A.O.T.U. enfold you and protect you all the days of your life. Sourced from the Committee on Masonic Education GRAND LODGE, A.F.&A.M. OF CANADA Jan 1985.


Bro. Thomas Austin is not a person that instantly springs to mind, in fact, I would hazard a guess that probably not many people outside Australia would have even heard of him. But Bro. Austin has a place in the history of that vast continent, and it’s not one that he would like to have been remembered for. You see, Bro., Thomas Austin of Geelong Lodge of Unity and Prudence in Victoria, Australia, is best known for being the man who is held responsible for introducing wild rabbits to the vast continent of Australia. Rabbits are not indigenous to the Continent of Australia, they first arrived in the late 18th century onboard the early convict ships that brought them along to be kept and bred as food. These were domestic rabbits, and not too well suited for the Australian harsh climate, and were only kept in small numbers to supplement the eating habits. In 1859, wealthy landowner Thomas Austin wanted to make his estate more like a little piece of rural England decided to import birds and game from the old country and release them into the wild in order to hunt and have shooting parties on his land. Austin had been an avid hunter when he lived in England, and when he moved to Australia, he was disappointed that he didn’t have anything to kill for sport. So he asked 31

his English nephew to send 24 wild rabbits, five hares, 72 partridges and some sparrows in hopes of creating a local population. It was a great idea at the time, with hares, blackbirds, partridges, sparrows and breeding pairs of rabbits let loose on his expansive estate; what could possibly go wrong! Austin is quoted as saying, "The introduction of a few rabbits could do little harm and might provide a touch of home, in addition to a spot of hunting". Reports say what went wrong was the mixing of the two breeds. Austin topped up his wild English rabbits with some local domesticated rabbits, resulting in the breeding of a hybrid that was much more suited to Australian conditions. This stronger hybrid rabbit very quickly adapted to the land and soon began to breed like rabbits do. Within ten years of their release the wild rabbits were in their millions, and there are estimates of 10 billion by 1920 on an eating and erosion spree across Australia. These days, with so called rabbit proof fences and culls, the rabbit population in Australia is still a huge problem and a constant battle to keep under control. The best estimate is that there are presently 200 million wild rabbits roaming the land. All thanks to Brother Thomas Austin.

THE BACK PAGE HINTS TO THE YOUNGER MASON The Young Mason who desires to study the working of the various degrees should bear in mind the following points; 1.

Proficiency comes by diligent study.


Fluency is the result of constant practice.


Clear utterance is desirable at all times. The beautiful phraseology of a charge is frequently marred by indistinctness and a mumbling form of speech.

4. . 5.

Study the best Masters. Note their emphasis and follow them at all times Cultivate deliberation in speech. There is no need for hurray. Have confidence in yourself and you will impress the person you are addressing.


Begin with a small part and make yourself master of it. Then proceed to a larger part, frequently revising as you progress. Only in this way will ease and proficiency be attained.


Tell the Master you would like to be permitted to have a share in the working of a Degree. If the Master knows his business he will at once grant your request and encourage you to be interested.


Be ready at all times to assist the Master. The most successful Lodges are those in which every Member is ready and willing to take a share in the work.


Be punctual in your attendance. Recognise that the success of the Lodge is in your hands, and that it is your duty to give your Mother your best service.


Be ready to take the place of an office-bearer who may be absent. He is a happy R.W.M. who knows that he may call upon any Brother to assist at any time.


Never forget that your Mother has a reputation to maintain.


Be a Mason always – not only when the Lodge is Tyled. Sourced from the Complete Manual of Freemasonry – William Harvey

Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor 32