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SRA 76 Monthly Magazine

Cover Story, The Universal Mason Universal Freemasonry Deliverance Offered From The Darts Did You Know? Lodge St. John Falkirk No. 16. Famous Freemasons – Simón Bolívar The Cardinal Vistues Rays of Masonry The Old Past Master Reflections – All you need is Love Did You Know? The First Regular Step in Masonry Masonic Degrees and Life What’s your grandmother’s age?

Main Website – Truth and Honesty

Volume 15 Issue 6 No. 120 October 2019

In this issue: Cover Story ‘The Universal Mason’ “All mankind should be viewed as a universal brotherhood.” Why are you a Mason? The 2016 prize winning Masonic essay from Canada. Page 4, ‘Universal Freemasonry.’ The magnetic forces of Freemasonry. Page 6, ‘Deliverance offered from the Darts’ The Musings of Julian Rees Page 7, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 10, ‘Lodge St. John Falkirk No. 16. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 14, ‘Simón Bolívar’ Famous Freemasons. Page 17, ‘The Cardinal Virtues.’ A study of the four virtues in Masonry Page 20, ‘Rays of Masonry.’ “We must make the Future” Page 21, ‘The Old Past Master.’ “Order of De Molay”, seventh in the series. Page 23, ‘Reflections.’ “All you need is Love” Page 25, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 27, ‘The First Regular Step in Masonry’ Page 28, ‘Masonic Degrees and Life’ Page 29, ‘How Old’s Your Granny?’

In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘Truth and Honesty?’ [link] 1

Front cover – Flag Atlas adapted by the Editor.

THE UNIVERSAL MASON (Why are you a Mason?) I love being a Freemason for many reasons. Freemasonry has been the conduit through which I have received many of my life’s great experiences. One of the superficial benefits of being a member of the Craft is that it tends to cloak you with a certain amount of mystery and intrigue in the eyes of some non-Masons. It feels good when someone on the street or at the bar, or wherever, notices your ring and asks, “Are you a Mason?” All Masons have at one time or another been in this situation and have tried to appear as humble as possible as they answer, “Yes I am,” all while desperately ignoring that internal voice that yells, “I’m special, I’m special.” That feeling of pride, however, will quickly abandon you if the non-Mason is inclined to continue his line of questioning beyond the realm of curiosity and into the sphere of general interest. That feeling of pride may even briefly turn into panic if the non-Mason asks you, “Why are you a Mason?” At this point, for a terrifying moment, the Mason must rack his brain for an answer that can somehow summarize the experiences of his life that lead him to the door of the Lodge and also an answer that can somehow express the many intellectual, emotional and even possible spiritual experiences he has received since becoming initiated, passed and raised. This is no small task indeed.

driven by curiosity. I believe my experience has been shared by many other Masons when they first joined

the Craft. The reasons I joined and the reasons I stayed are very different. When I joined Freemasonry I was driven by curiosity, some vague preconceptions of the Order and a desire to be part of something bigger than myself. It appears as though my life had led me in the direction of the Lodge without much conscious input from myself, almost as if somehow through my general interest and curiosity I just happened to find myself outside the doors of the Lodge, nervously awaiting my initiation. From this fact, I suppose, the argument can be made that sometimes in life your path chooses you, or at least steers you in the direction that would most benefit you, if you are only smart enough to see it. Whether or not your destiny is predetermined or entirely left up to chance, circumstance and blind luck cannot be known for sure, but what is a concrete fact is that it is up to the individual to accept and to passionately pursue the opportunities that life presents.

an intense desire to learn. I found this to be the case with my Masonic journey. Once a member for a short time my heart was filled with an intense desire to learn all I could from the Craft’s beautiful system of symbols and rituals. I studied with feverish interest the philosophy and doctrines of all the great thinkers, reformers, mystics and visionaries who proudly called themselves Brother Freemasons. The depth of knowledge, wisdom, understanding and insight displayed by what I lovingly call the Prophets of the Craft can have a sincerely profound and life changing effect on the Mason who not only studies but also applies them to his life. Freemasonry is a perfect system of not only social moral virtue, but also enough of the ancient mystery tradition woven into it as to 2

keep not only the intellectual but also the spiritual appetite of man full.

all mankind should be viewed as a universal brotherhood…. Still, there is one special function that Freemasonry performs which should be the pride of all who call themselves Masons. That function is its constant promotion of the idealistic teaching that states that all mankind should be viewed as a universal brotherhood. It was the great mystic Mason, Manly P. Hall, whose words resounded in my soul when he wrote, “The true Mason is not creed-bound. He realizes with the divine illumination of his Lodge that as a Mason his religion must be universal. Christ, Buddha or Mohammed, the name means little, for he recognizes only the light and not the bearer. He worships at every shrine, bows before every altar, whether in temple, mosque or cathedral, realizing with his truer understanding the oneness of all spiritual truth.” This magnificent quote is meant to inspire the idea within all Masons that all creeds, religions and traditions carry a portion of truth and are all different expressions of the same, shared goal. This goal is the attempt to understand the nature of God, and all nations throughout time have sought in some form or another to answer this mystery. How can one philosophy be considered greater or lesser than another when they all work towards knowing what is unknowable?

their higher spiritual pursuits I believe the essence of Manly P. Hall’s beautiful statement can be taken further still. 3

Not only is mankind united in its desire to worship and understand the Divine, for all societies have formed systems to express their higher spiritual pursuits, but more commonly mankind is united in its daily, civil and common desires. No matter what position a man holds in society he yearns to be free and he desires Liberty for his loved ones and for himself — Liberty in the form of freedom to do what he pleases, worship as he pleases and associate with whom he pleases. No matter what culture or traditional background a man comes from he wishes to be treated fairly and he desires Equality — Equality in the form of the protection of his right to exist as others exist. No matter what religion a man practices or associates with he wants to feel as though he is a member of the broader accepted community and he desires Fraternity — Fraternity in the form of support and brotherly love from his neighbours and fellow men. There exists a universal desire that spans the entire globe. This desire is man’s want and need to be safe, protected, free and prosperous. The Lodge is a place that aims to magnify the similarities of men, as opposed to the all too common practice in society of amplifying their differences. It is a place where those who would have remained strangers otherwise meet not only as equals but as Brothers. It is a place that teaches its students the lessons of universal brotherhood. When our time here is over we will then see for ourselves that all mankind truly are brothers of the dust.

it is a force for good in this world The question still remains, “Why am I a Freemason?” I am a Freemason because I believe in its lessons and I believe in its philosophy. I am a Freemason because I

believe it is a force for good in this world and that it has the power to make society better, one man at a time. I am a Freemason because I believe that the ultimate goal of universal brotherhood is possible. However, if I was asked by a non-Mason, “Why are you a Mason?” I would most likely respond by saying, “Because it is a great organization and I’ve gained much through my involvement with it.”

“The true Mason is not creedbound. He realizes with the divine illumination of his Lodge that as a Mason his religion must be universal: Christ, Buddha or Mohammed, the name means little, for he recognizes only the light and not the bearer. He worships at every shrine, bows before every altar, whether in temple, mosque or cathedral, realizing with his truer understanding the oneness of all spiritual truth.” Bibliography Hall, Manly P. The Lost Keys of Freemasonry. Richmond, VA: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., 1976, p 65. The Universal Mason (Why are you a Mason?) Bro Edward Hartman, Ashlar Lodge No. 610 G.R.C. (London, Ontario); The Ontario Mason Magazine, Spring 2016 Winner of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario’s first Masonic Essay Contest. This excellent essay by Bro. Harman really is very good, and I’m delighted to have been able to reproduce the essay in its fullness. It was sourced from the Spring 2016 Ontario Masonic Magazine, and recognize them and Bro. Harmen as the copyright holders.

Universal Freemasonry From Pole to Pole

I heard an interesting discussion among some Masons some time ago about the way Masonry "works," about how Masonic authority and structure function. Some suggested Masonry works from the top down, others that it works from the bottom up. I believe it works differently. Masonry is like a magnet, it works from pole to pole. A magnet cannot exist without both a north and South Pole—the electromagnetic lines of force have to be complementary. And like a magnet, the form and structure of our Craft organize the force of individuals and of Masonic Bodies to make Masonry work. Whether we are speaking of a local Blue Lodge, a Grand Lodge, a Scottish Rite Valley or Jurisdiction, it takes leadership and fellowship, interacting dynamically, to make Masonry work. Without both— leadership as one pole and membership as the other—nothing happens. Masonry is like a magnet in other ways, too. Magnets make other magnets. Grand Lodges charter local Lodges and constitute other Grand Lodges. Supreme Councils assist in the creation of other Supreme Councils. And, like magnets, the Lodges and Grand Lodges and Supreme Councils, once properly constituted, have an independent life of their own. A defining landmark of a Grand Lodge or Supreme Council is its absolute independence and sovereignty. Just as an adult son is independent, yet respectful, of his father, a 4

Supreme Council is independent, yet respectful, of all regular Supreme Councils. There is no reason for us to believe that these independent magnetic forces do not work together. Consider the compass by which we determine direction. Regardless of where one finds himself on this vast globe, the needle on his compass may be said to point in a different direction and yet, unalterably, the needle on each individual compass is pointing North. In like fashion, while each individual Sovereign Masonic Body is independent of the other, the magnificent force of brotherly love points us in the direction of universal truth, the hallmark and foundation of our Fraternity. It is the same with nations. I have heard it said that "Europe was born of history, America of freedom." History, no doubt, influenced the founding of our nation in 1776. American patriots, many of them Masons, declared our nation’s independence and cut ties with England. Clearly, the idea of liberty, more than the weight of history, formed America and led us to total sovereignty and greater maturity as a people. What was true for America then is true today, not only for peoples around the world but also for Masonic Bodies wherever dispersed. The genius of Universal Freemasonry is that it allows this full, independent participation of members and leaders, Lodges and Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils and other Sovereign Masonic Bodies. It is a landmark, for example, that when a Mason is visiting a jurisdiction other than his home jurisdiction, he follows the rules and requirements of that Jurisdiction. He is, so to speak, an active part of that "magnet," that jurisdiction. Each Jurisdiction is independent, each is sovereign, but each interacts with others to 5

strengthen Masonry and benefit the individual Mason. Independent magnets, working together, create the dynamos which make the electricity that powers our great cities and isolated farmhouses. Independent Masonic units are "magnets" working together through the bonds of our Craft creating a fraternal "dynamo" which can empower Lodges and Valleys around the world. Why is this whole topic so important? Because the underlying message is that you, as a Mason, a member of your Blue Lodge, of your Grand Lodge, and of your Scottish Rite, are an essential yet independent part of Masonry. Masonry isn’t just a matter of the highly titled few or of one Body imposing its will on another. Rather, Universal Masonry is a dynamic interaction among all Brethren working together in a common cause. Thus, in a global sense, from North to South and East to West, the universal family of Freemasonry has, as a landmark and vital theme today, the principle of absolute sovereignty. Be proud of your role as a Mason. You are a part of the oldest, largest, most prestigious fraternity in the world, just as much a part of it as the kings and presidents who have been members. There is no invidious distinction, no servility of one Brother to another. Every day, I see the importance of individual Masons and the difference they make in the world. As Master Masons and members of sovereign Masonic Bodies, we can all take an intense pride in the concepts of independence and integrity which are so central to our Craft. May Brethren everywhere, from pole to pole, share in this pride and participate, fully and independently, in Freemasonry. Sourced from the SRJ archives 1998.

DELIVERANCE OFFERED FROM THE DARTS Experience is never limited, and it is never complete; it is an immense sensibility, a kind of huge spider-web of the finest silken threads suspended in the chamber of consciousness, and catching every air-borne particle in its tissue. Henry James, 1843-1916 It has always puzzled me why, when two aircraft just miss each other, it is called a ‘near-miss’. Surely it would be more correct to call it a ‘near-hit’, and we have recently had a tragic demonstration of what happens when a near-hit becomes a direct-hit. As I write this I am sitting in the garden surrounded by evidence of life. I can see a butterfly fluttering round a bush. I can hear a bird showing off his vocal range. I can feel my own heart beating. I am not a fatalist, but I do recognise that at any moment the butterfly may stop, the bird fall silent and my heart seize up for ever. Some of us, without flying in aircraft, have had first-hand experience of near-hits, either for ourselves or for those close to us. I am thinking of a heart attack caught in the nick of time, of a stroke which, mercifully, leaves no pronounced long-lasting effects, of an apparently fatal disease cured against the odds, of a near-hit on the motorway, of other near-terminal situations . If you can, you may want to go somewhere quiet now to read this, in calm and

tranquillity, to relate fully to it. I want to look at what happens to us in these situations. A person who has been involved in a near-hit very often knows that it can be followed by something wonderful. He has been granted a reprieve. Previously, he may have been always busy with the everyday things of life, the seemingly important matters, his job, his house, his car, his material well-being and advancement, even affairs in his lodge. But after such a near-hit he sees life with a cleared vision, a different level of consciousness. The relative importance of different aspects in his life undergoes a seismic change. His job – there’s nothing so important that he can’t afford to walk away from it. His house – now he comes to look at it, it’s far nicer than he thought.. At the same time, the value assigned to other things becomes hugely significant. He finds he is driving too fast on the motorway – no need for that. He finds time to take some physical exercise, time he never had before. He manages his working hours much better, paces himself. It is as though a veil has been lifted. For myself, whether or not I finish this article is not a life-threatening matter. Sitting here in the garden, I can relate to so much that really matters anyway. And my friend in the example above is reborn. In addition to his new view of himself and his place in the scheme of things, his relationship to those around him also is thrown into sharper focus. He may instantly recall those moments in his life or in the life of a loved-one which had real value, moments which in themselves seemed insignificant before. A morning spent sitting looking at the sea in bright sunshine, during which he and his loved-one were in perfect harmony; some silly object they laughed at together in a junk shop. In themselves meaningless episodes, until invested with 6

the richness of a personal relationship of depth and value, greater depth and greater value than perhaps he would have suspected before the near-hit. I submit that such a man, at such a level of conscious awareness, is at the centre. For those of us who have been spared the trauma of a near-hit, and even for those of us who have not, a few minutes with the third degree every morning can be very rewarding. Remember Edward Elgar’s device for freeing himself from chaos? He went out into the country to be with himself and to find his own song, in other words to be at the centre. Liberated in this way, he could die to his material self, to be re-born to a different awareness, able to perceive greater richness and beauty than before, able to own his Corinthian column, in his case the beauty of music, but in our case perhaps to perceive the beauty of existence, reprieved from the fate that so short a time before stared us in the face. Freeing ourselves from the constraints of materialism, bringing our real nature to the fore and validating the goodness and the beauty in each one of us, thereby reaching a different level of consciousness, has to be the most richly rewarding masonic experience that can ever touch us. It’s worth the effort. Article by W. Bro. Julian Rees whom SRA76 acknowledges to be the author. Our grateful thanks go to him. This article is copyright and should not be copied unless permission is given by the author. Julian's website can be accessed at this link.


DID YOU KNOW? Question: In what manner is receiving your wages without scruple or diffidence'? Answer: One of the oldest rules in the Old Charges, from c. 1390 onwards, ordered that the masons should do an honest day's work, so that he would truly deserve his pay 'as he ought to have it'. I quote the rule from a fairly late version, c. 1680, only because the wording is very clear and simple: And also ye shall every Mason serve truely the workes and truely make an End of your worke, be it taske or be it Journey Worke, if you may have your pay as you ought to have. (The Embleton MS., c. 1680) The general idea was obvious. If a mason did an honest day's work he could take his wages with full confidence and without hesitation, i.e.‘without scruple or diffidence, well knowing he was justly entitled to them’; but those words were of late introduction, probably in the early 1800s.

Question: When, for the first time, was the Chaplain brought into Masonry? When did the office of Chaplain appear in our ritual and work? Answer: Two questions, both difficult to answer because our early records are so scarce. The Old Charges, our earliest Masonic documents with some 130 versions running from c. 1390 up to the rnid-18th century, all begin with an opening prayer, but there is never the least hint of a Chaplain. Our earliest group of ritual documents (Catechisms and exposures) runs

from 1696 to 1730, seventeen texts in all. Only one of them contains a Prayer, copied from the Old Charges, and still no mention of a Chaplain. The more ample versions which begin in 1760 are similarly unhelpful. The Rev. James Anderson, D.D. was Minister of a Presbyterian Church in London. He served as Junior Grand Warden in 1722 and compiled and published the first Book of Constitutions of the first Grand Lodge in 1723; but he never served the Grand Lodge or his own Lodge as Chaplain. Dr. John T. Desaguliers, D.C.L. (Oxon.)., F.R.S., was admitted to clerical orders and was Chaplain to the Duke of Chandos. He was also a scientist, and he served as Grand Master in 1719, Deputy Grand Master in 1722, 1723 and 1726; but he never held office as Chaplain. A London newspaper, Read's Joumal, reported in 1733 that the Rev. Mr. Orator Henley had been 'chosen by the Freemasons as their Chaplain', implying that this was a Grand Lodge appointment, but there is no confirmation of this in Grand Lodge records. The premier Grand Lodge appointed the Rev. William Dodd, LL.D. as Grand Chaplain in 1775, its first recorded appointment to that office. It was a bad choice. In 1777, Dodd, brought to ruin by his own extravagance, forged his patron's signature (Lord Chesterfield's) to a bond of some 4,000 English pounds. He was arrested and tried at the Old Bailey and hanged on 27 June 1777. The Antients' Grand Lodge appointed their first Grand Chaplain in 1772 and continuously thereafter, up to the union of the Grand Lodges in 1813.

The earliest records I have been able to trace of the appointment of Chaplains in a private Lodge are in the minutes of the Alfred Lodge in the University of Oxford. That Lodge was erected and warranted on 13th December 1769 and it had five Reverend gentlemen among its founders. On that same day, the Rev. John Willis, M.A. was appointed Chaplain, and Chaplains were continuously appointed until 1783 when the Lodge ceased to function. The Lodge was erased in 1790. There is also a record of the appointment of a famous Welsh poet, the Rev. Goronwy Owen as Chaplain to the St. George and Dragon Lodge at Liverpool in 1775. A search in the histories of a large number of our oldest Lodges shows that even in the late 18th century they did not trouble to appoint Chaplains, although they had qualified Ministers among their members. Around the 1780's there are several records of the appointment of a Chaplain in one year, followed by a number of years when the Office remained vacant. The minutes of the Lodge of Antiquity (original NO. 1, now NO. 2) may be a typical example. A Chaplain was appointed in 1779; an other, after a gap of several years, in 1787 after which the Office remained vacant until 1809. It must be emphasized that under English Constitution, Masters are not obliged to appoint a Chaplain. That Office was always optional and the option was made official in 1815 when the first Book of Constitution of the United Grand Lodge listed the 'chaplain, treasurer, secretary' as Officers who might be added to the compulsory list of Master, two Wardens, two Deacons, Inner Guard and Tyler. That permission did not create too much of a stir and I quote only two examples: 8

The Lodge of Probity, No. 61, Halifax, Yorkshire, was founded in 1738. Its first Chaplain was appointed in 1853. The Globe Lodge, No. 23, was constituted in London in 1723 and its first Chaplain was appointed 200 years later, in 1923! As to your question on 'the Chaplain's appearance in our ritual work', I cannot speak for Masonic jurisdictions overseas. In England, I do not know of a single 'working' that prescribes that particular parts of the ritual must be recited by the Chaplain. I would quote the 'Bristol Working' which contains several readings from the Bible during the course of the ceremonies (in addition to the usual prayers). The instructions usually say that they are to be read by 'The W.M. (or Chaplain)'!

Question: During the Master Mason Degree the Chaplain recited “Or ever the silver cord be loosed...” What is meant by the "silver cord"? Answer: The words are from Ecclesiastes XII which describes, in great detail, the decline of man in old age, and the failure of his senses, limbs and faculties. I would quote from my annotated Geneva Bible, which says that the "silver cord" is "the marrow of the backbone and sinews". It may be pure coincidence, but I am forcibly reminded of a passage in the Graham MS., 1726, which, after describing the earliest raising within a Masonic context, contains the word "Here is yet marrow in this bone". The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution, and is for information only.


I Would Like to Propose Have you ever been approached by a person wishing to join Freemasonry? Have you ever been asked to propose or second someone? What are your reactions? Did you feel honoured or important or did you feel nonchalant about it? Think about it carefully because it is a very important and responsible position to be in, and the Freemason who considers proposing someone into the craft should take thought on two separate scores. The first is whether he is confident that in general terms the candidate is a good man who will ultimately reflect credit on his choice and equally important is whether he will fit easily and happily into the Lodge or Chapter. It was Doctor Oliver who said: "be very cautious whom you recommend as a candidate for membership. If you have a good Lodge, keep it select, great numbers are not always beneficial" It is far better for us to reject a good man in error than to have a bad one admitted who could bring shame and disgrace to our great order. The strength of the chain is in the weakest link.

We have heard these words many times about introducing someone for the outside World, if you allow him into your home will he make a good candidate? What about, could he represent you in your absence? Freemasonry does not fail men, men fail Freemasonry.

Lodge St. John Falkirk No. 16 This abridged history is taken from the book,

the Old Masonic Lodge of Falkirk, now known as Lodge St John No 16. 1739-1741 It is believed that the Old Masonic Lodge of Falkirk originally worked under a charter granted by ''Mother Kilwinning, and was known then as Falkirk Kilwinning Lodge.'' How long in its then form it existed before 1736 we are not in a position to say; but it is certain that it was represented at the conferences which, in that year, resulted in the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Our senior local Lodge can thus rightly claim a respectable ascertained antiquity. Unfortunately the earliest records are altogether missing. An entire book of the set from 1739 to 1838 seems also to have gone astray, and many passages in the volumes that remain are rather obscure, while at various periods the entries are meagre and irregular The Lodge was dormant from 1883 till 1864, when, on being resuscitated it adopted the title of ''St John'' as its distinctive title and was ranked as (16) on the roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, its old number (14) having in the interval been otherwise bestowed. In early days however it was simply called the Lodge of Falkirk. The first minutes that are extant bears the date 8th October 1739, and is signed ''James Logan D.M.'' At that meeting it refers to several applications from candidates for admission are considered, and the brethren

instruct ''Mr George Dennistoun'' to send in the level ( being wrong made) to Edinburgh to be rectified. This ''Mr George Dennistoun'' appears to have been a surgeon in Falkirk and he was evidently a most enthusiastic and devoted Mason. At another meeting the same month a communication is submitted from the ''Worshipful Lodge of Stirling'' proposing the appointment of ''reciprocal correspondent members'' for the observance of St Andrews Day in the two towns. The request was cordially received, the Falkirk fraternity deputing two of their number to repair to the county capital and ''join in solemn assembly to commemorate that worthy patron of this antient kingdom'' and all and sundry are earnestly recommended ''to cultivate to the utmost of their power mutual harmony, concord, unanimity, brotherly love and affection with the said Lodge''. Then a committee is chosen ''to assist the Treasurer in righting the Jewels belonging to this Lodge and in preparing ''proper clothing for the Master and two Wardens''. The Master of the Lodge at this period was James Livingston. An early meeting place was the house of James Livingston, as the Lodge at that time had no fixed abode. (The Master James Livingston who later bore arms against the reigning dynasty at the Battle of Falkirk, and was specially excluded from the pardon conferred by Act of Parliament 1746.) The next meetings were held on Nov' 30th, Dec 14th, and Dec 27th 1739. At the last (on St Johns Day) Sir Michael Bruce of Stenhouse is unanimously elected Master, the other office-bearers appointed are a Senior Warden, Junior Warden, Treasurer, Secretary, Clerk and a Key-Keeper and a Key-Keeper(two). It is agreed to give an annual contribution of half a guinea towards the maintenance of Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. The Brethren 10

march in procession through the town and afterwards dine together. Jan, 29th 1740.- The Lodge being duly mett, there was a petition presented by the Right Honble. Earl of Kilmarnock' present Master of the Kilmarnock Lodge and the British Coffee House Lodge, London, craving to be admitted a member of the Lodge of Falkirk, which was received and unanimously granted. The Right Honble. Earl of Kilmarnock payed in ten shillings to the box, half a crown to be enrolled at Edinburgh, and other dues. The nobleman mentioned in the above extract was the husband of Lady Anne Livingston, the only daughter of Falkirk's quondam feudal superior, the attained and exiled Earl of Linlithgow and Callendar. This high born couple were tenants of Callendar, where indeed they chiefly resided, in such style as their extremely limited means permitted. Lord Kilmarnock, unable to purchase popular applause by lavish display or profuse liberality was nevertheless, owing to his own amiable and engaging qualities a great favourite in the district, and by none was he more heartily welcomed than by the Masonic community. In the absence of Sir Michael Bruce the Earl is called upon to preside at a meeting of the Lodge held on March 5th 1740. At that meeting Sir Archibald Primrose of Dunipace is admitted as a member. A curious and striking coincidence when the circumstance is regarded in the light of what followed. The same fate, the traitor's doom, is hovering over both of them even as they become brothers in the Old Masonic Lodge of Falkirk. The minute of May 7th 1740, reads ''as we observe by publick news, notified there by 11

order and authority of the Grand Master Mason of Scotland, that a communication is to be held at St.Mary's Chapel, the fourteenth instant, and as we never, as yet, have acknowledged said Lodge, either br enrolling such members as have been admitted since the year 1736 or pay'd up the annual quota agreed to carry on the Royal Infirmary, we therefore grant proxie to our worshipful brother George Dennistoun, Senoir Warden, empowering him to appear for us at said communication and act for us in whatever way he shall think most convenient, and particulary to pay in the half-guinea towards promoting the Infirmary, as formerly enacted, and also to enrol such members in the Grand Lodge books as have paid their half-crowns for that end. The Lodge dues at that time were-- five shillings to the box, half-crown to the Grand Lodge, half-crown for ''clothing the brethren present'' a shilling to the Clerk and sixpence to the Tyler. Here is a rather curious entry, dated 1st December 1740, ''It being proposed that our stock should be immediately raised and lay'd out in a meal, in order to supply our brethren at prime cost, to prevent their being imposed on, it is unanimously agreed upon,'' and a committee, the members of which are ''recommended'' to be ''diligent and active in making it effectual,'' is appointed to carry out this resolution. The same committee is desired ''to consider upon the most proper method to address the Grand Lodge in order to obtain a confirmation of our Charter.'' On St John's Day, 27th Dec' 1740 '' the Right Honorable my Lord Kilmarnock was unanimously chosen Master.'' Then follows a minute of March 9th 1741 ''The worshipfull members of the Lodge of

Falkirk being met, a letter from our Right Worshipful Master, the Earl of Kilmarnock was read, dated at Kilmarnock 12th January 1741, wherein he expresses himself most affectionately towards this Lodge, and resolves to the utmost of his endeavours to promote the advantage of it and at the same time appoints our worthy brother George Dennistoun, Esq, surgeon in Falkirk, Deputy Master, with full power to act in his absence. On October 2nd 1741, Lord Kilmarnock attends the Lodge for the first time as Master. At that meeting the subject of arrears of dues is discussed, and the prosecution of defaulters is gravely spoken of. In the records of the Lodge there are many indications of such threats, which however have a good deal of the brutum fulmen about them, as in such cases the ''bark'' is generally worse than the ''bite'' At that meeting regular stewards are appointed for the first time, the brethren selected were James Livingston and James Easton. In 1741 the celebration of St.John's took place on the 28th December, when Lord Kilmarnock is re-elected to the chair and it is resolved '' that all fines due for absence should be excused (thus day included), and that the Act relating thereto should be put in execution in future without favour''.


Grand Master Mason Lord Kilmarnock was at the meeting and signs the minute 6th Feb' 1742, and on St Andrews Day ''in brother Livingstone's house'' the Lodge had a feast which concluded with the drinking to the health, success, and prosperity of the Right

Honourable the Earl of Kilmarnock, our present Master who this day was unanimously nominated Most Worthy Grand Master of Scotland for the ensuing year. March 6th 1742 - This day the DeputeMaster of this Lodge, at the desire of the brethren, gave an invitation to the Most Worshipful and Right Honourable Earl of Kilmarnock, Grand Master of Scotland, begging he would honour this Lodge with a visit, to which he graciously condescended. When the Grand Master entered the Lodge, the Master resigned his jewel and seat. He appointed two Grand Wardens pro tempore who took their seats betwixt the two Wardens of the Lodge. The Lodge was closed by the Grand Master. At this meeting Lord Kilmarnock was ''most graciously pleased to give five shillings into the box towards the relief of indigent brothers. it was the unanimous consent of the Lodge to give of the above donation half-a-crown to the Tyler.'' The minute of 15th January 1743 has this entry:- The Society, taking into their consideration and thinking it their duty to put some mark of favour and regaurd on their deceast brethren, do therefore enact that, upon the proper application of any one of such deceast brother's sons, he being duly found qualified, that shall be entered an Apprentice, and afterward Fellowcraft or Master, in due form, free of all charges, and orders the Clerk to engross this Act among our by-laws. The St John's day business meeting of 1743 took place at Gartcows, where the Earl of Kilmarnock was elected Master; and his Lordship presided over a communication which was held in the town the same day. 12

From that date till early 1747 there are no entries whatever in the minute book. In the interval the sanguinary drama of the Jacobite rebellion which, having run its course, ended in disaster ''when the the clans of Culloden were scattered in flight'' had been enacted. Among those who joined the insurgents was Lord Kilmarnock. Falling into the hands of George the Second's relentless government, he was tried, convicted, condemned and beheaded in London in the summer of 1746. Thus it was that the Freemasons of Falkirk of two hundred and seventyone years ago lost their noble and well-beloved Master, whose tragic death was deeply deplored even by those who had no sympathy with the cause in which he suffered. Nor was the Earl of Kilmarnock the only distinguished man belonging to the Lodge who sacrificed his life in that rash and unhappy enterprise. Brother Sir Archibald Primrose of Dunipace also cast his lot with Prince Charlie, and like many others was hanged at Carlisle for his mistaken loyalty.

called together again till the 9th February 1747, the following minute of that date states.

It has been shown that, during the progress of the Jacobite rebellion, and, indeed, for some time previous to and after that memorable event, no meetings of the Lodge were held- at least no record of any such meetings is discoverable. Probably from the fact that the Master, the Earl of Kilmarnock had so prominently identified himself with the cause of the insurgents, the brethren felt there was a danger of their own loyalty being called unto question if they continued to assemble; so that they prudently resolved to keep themselves safe by suspending the practice of their labours and mysteries till the advent of quieter and less perilous days.

On St John's Day 1748, it was agreed to remit all fines and outstanding dues- a measure which it is declared,'' will be great encouragement to members who have been long absent to attend punctually for the future, and thereby considerably augment the stock by their after payments.'' This act, however is carefully described as '' no infringement of the laws, as we find ourseves under the necessity of passing it on account of the late commotions in the country.''

Lord Kilmarnock was executed for high treason on the 18th August 1746, and then Lodge does not appear to have regularly 13

''The annuall communication of St John's Day for the two bypast years being ommitted , by reason of the late commotions in the country and other accidents, a solemn communication was this day appointed, by legal order, for electing office-bearers for the current year for the Lodge. After such a long interruption, as it will require some time to regulate the affairs of the Lodge, the Tayleur is hereby ordered to summon all the brethren of the Lodge to meet at the house of James Logan against Saturday next, the fourteenth instant, at four o'clock afternoon, in order to examine the state of the box, and other affairs of the Lodge.'' That examination seems to have proved much more satisfactory than had been expected, as we find it recorded that ''notwithstanding of the interval, nothing has occurred that is confused, but all plain and easy.''

1749-1757 On the 27th December 1749, Lord Boyd was elected Master, the Hon. Charles Boyd Senior Warden, Hon' William Boyd Junior Warden. They were the sons of the

unfortunate Earl of Kilmarnock. Lord Boyd, who about ten years afterwards, succeeded to the ancient Earldom of Errol, became a tenant of Callendar on the death of his mother, and spent much of his time there. He was an officer in the army of King George, and was present at the battle of Culloden, fighting against the insurgents, in whose ranks his father held a high command. Charles Boyd joined the rebels along with Lord Kilmarnock, and on the defeat of the Young Pretender, he with great difficulty managed to effect his escape. Taking refuge in the island of Arran, the greater portion of which in former days, belonged to his family, he remained in hiding there for many months and having some slight knowledge of medicine, he exercised his skill in treating the aliments of the inhabitants. He ultimately got himself smuggled over to France staying there until the resentment of the Government cooling down. He was enabled to return home with safety. His younger brother, William bore a commission in the Navy. Lord Boyd was several times re-elected to the Mastership of the Lodge, although there is no evidence that he ever condescended to attend any of its meetings. William Boyd was admitted a member on the 27th Dec' 1750, a year after his appointment as Junior Warden. No doubt he was already a member of some other Lodge.

This History of Lodge St. John Falkirk No. 16 was sourced from their website which can be viewed by clicking here. The Complete History can be read. (Please visit their site) Our thanks go to the Lodge No. 16 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owner of this History. The Lodge History was adapted and condensed by the editor for inclusion in the SRA76 Magazine.

Famous Freemasons Simón Bolívar

Latin American Liberator and Freemason. Simon Bolivar (full name Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco)., was born in Caracas, the capitol of Venezuela, on July 24, 1783. Bolivar lost his parents at a young age, his father at the age of three and his mother at the age of nine. Due to his family’s wealth in copper and other metals, sugar plantations and family estates, he was taken care of by his family’s 14

slaves including Hipolita his nurse and several renowned professors in Venezuela. One of these professors, who became Bolivar’s father figure, was Don Simon Rodriguez. He taught him not only about manhood, but also about subjects which would inspire his future such as liberty, human rights, politics, history and sociology. After the sudden death of his wife from yellow fever and looking to ease his mind, he travelled to Europe where he met once more with his long-time professor Don Rodriguez. At the age of 20 he was initiated to the degree of Entered Apprentice, in Cadiz, Spain 1803. The lodge had a direct connection with Francisco de Miranda and in Lautaro Lodge also known as the Lodge of Rational Knights. Miranda had founded the Great American Reunion Lodge of London. This lodge was the bonding ingredient of the Masonic enlightenment and played a significant influence of independence in the minds of prominent Latin American leaders in the early 1800s. The motto for the Lautaro Lodge was Union, Strength and Virtue. In their cause of Latin American independence, they pledged their property and their lives. He passed to the degree of Fellow Craft November 1805 and raised to the degree of Master Mason in May 1806 at Mother of St. Alexander of Scotland Lodge in Paris, France. Bolivar is said to have received his Scottish Rite degrees in Paris in 1807 and became a knight of the Knights Templar in France in 1807. It is documented that in April 1824, Simón Bolívar was given the 33rd degree, Honorary Inspector General. He founded and served as Master of Protectora de las Vertudes Lodge No. 1 in Venezuela and founded the Order and Liberty Lodge No. 2 in Peru. 15

At around 1810-11 the Supreme Junta of Caracas was in power in Venezuela. This was the organization that governed Venezuela after the removal of the Captain General Vicente Emparan in April of 1810. Francisco de Miranda was received in his native land excitedly by the members of the Supreme Junta of Caracas and their president, young Simon Bolivar who had returned to his native land and now had Masonic enlightenment just as Emparan. It was during his return to Venezuela that he formed along with other like-minded men, what came to be known as the Patriotic Society. This was founded on the model of French Revolutionary clubs. The First Republic of Venezuela and Congress was established on March 2, 1811. Venezuela was the first colony of Spain to declare its official independence, an event which took place July 5, 1811. However, In the span of a year, Venezuela officially declared its independence and became a republic. Venezuela held formal elections for their Congress. Francisco de Miranda became the First president of the First Republic of Venezuela and was one of the founding fathers of Venezuela along with Simon Bolivar. Unfortunately, the newly formed Republic of Venezuela would fall back into disarray due to political and economic factors that persisted throughout its first year as well as a devasting earthquake that rattled the country figuratively and literally. On July 25, 1812 Miranda signed an armistice with the Spanish Royalist. This action was claimed treasonous by Bolivar and his followers. Bolivar sentenced Miranda to life in prison for this armistice. Bolivar would gain control again of the Republic of Venezuela not only once, but twice, as he served as the President. of The Second Republic of Venezuela dated August 1813-

July 1814 and the Third Republic 18171819. Simon Bolivar did not just stop in Venezuela, his journey continued through Latin America. In 1830 he liberated and took territory away from the Spanish Colonial Empire. The conglomeration of Latin American countries included what is known today as the countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama and portions of Peru, Guyana, and northwestern Brazil. The name of this united republic was Gran Colombia. Bolivar was its First President 1819-1830 and the new republic expanded from 1819-1831. It was recognized by Austria, France, and Russia. Further-more it met with disapproval from other European powers. During his time as the President of the Gran Colombia, Bolivar also served as president to Bolivia 1825 when they achieved their independence and consequently named the country after him. He was also the 6th President of Peru in 1824-27. Bolivar led a final campaign to officially declare independence against Spain and the Royalist which continued resistance throughout South America. In December 1830, Simon Bolivar died of tuberculosis. Intrepid, hopeful, farsighted, indomitable, and profound in his thinking for the welfare of mankind, Bolivar proclaimed, to those who had the vision to see, the following Masonic principles as his life ebbed to the shores beyond: "all of you must work for the inestimable good of the Union; the people obeying the government in order to avoid anarchy; the ministers praying to heaven for guidance; and the military using its sword in defense of social guaranties. If my death contributes to the end of partisanship and the consolidation of the Union, I shall be lowered in peace into my grave." His remains rest alongside the

remains of his parents, his wife as well as his late in life love, Manuela Saenz, in the National Pantheon of Venezuela. There are monuments dedicated to Simon Bolivar all around the world; Colombia, France, Bulgaria, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and even one in in Washington DC. The author of this article is Bro. Melvin E. Silverio W.M. of Club Masonico Libertad. This article was published in The Freemason Magazine, March 2019 and the Editor of SRA76 gives thanks to both the author and the magazine. The article was slightly adapted for the SRA76 magazine.

If You Believe You Can, You Can! If you think you are beaten – you are. If you think you dare not – you don’t. If you want to win but think you can’t, It is almost a cinch you won’t. If you think you’ll lose – you’ve lost. For out of the world we find That success begins with a fellow’s will, It’s all in the state of mind. Life’s battles don’t always go To the stronger or the faster man; But sooner or later the man that wins Is the one who thinks he can. 16

The Cardinal Virtues

whole which the first degree amplifies in that Light which the candidate sees as he begins his journey from the Dark.

The Cardinal Virtues of Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice have been recognized since ancient times and were also discussed by Plato with his students.

The following considers each of the virtues individually, but also in the end portrays a man, a Mason, in possession of these virtues.

It is also worthy to note that Plato had been impressed by the work of Pythagoras, who is an important part of Masonry.


The word cardinal comes from the Latin word, "cardo", meaning "hinge" recognizing all other virtues hinge or depend on these four virtues. The Cardinal Virtues are depicted in our lodges by four tassels suspended from the four corners of the lodge room. In the Junior Warden's lecture, the tassels are named, but not indicated in any particular order implying that no virtue takes precedence over the other, such that while they may be considered alone, together they form the 17

Temperance comes from the word, "temper", or the Latin word, "tempero" having the meaning of composure or calmness among its many possible meanings. In more recent times we apply the term to such things as eating and drinking. To Masons, it was a moderate deism that evolved from the strictness of religion during the dark ages. Temperance to-day means self control to a mason so that as society changes, as attitudes change and as morality and ethics change we can maintain our Masonic principles and philosophies by

exercising self control over ourselves and our lives. In the Charge to a newly made mason in the first degree, he is admonished to let Temperance chasten him. We apply this statement to subdue us in difficult situations such that we have an inner discipline which allows us to live with self control. Thus my Brethren, we now have a picture of a Mason having learned and in possession of the cardinal virtue, "Temperance", and will now examine the Mason will add Fortitude to this virtue of self-control.

FORTITUDE Fortitude comes from the Latin word, "fortes", which means strong. It also means courage in pain or facing adversity, therefore equating with bravery. In the Junior Warden's lecture, we talk about the strength of Hiram, the King of Tyre, in supporting the building of King Solomon's Temple. The speculative nature of this strength in his wisdom in supporting the building of this edifice attests to his strength of character. Thus when we add Fortitude to a mason we emphasize his strength of character. In the face of adversity, do we have the strength of character to maintain our Masonic principles and philosophies? Thus my brethren, the masons who are in possession of this cardinal virtue will have the strength to face up to the challenges of an ever evolving world and lifestyles. The other question we ask is do we have the fortitude to allow us to think for ourselves and make lifestyle decisions of our own? As

a mason learns and lives the Masonic principles and philosophies, these characteristics become part of our everyday living and do give us the fortitude to think for ourselves and make our own decisions. Thus my brethren, as we are now in possession of Temperance and Fortitude, we are masons who exhibit self-control and strength of character and now we will examine Prudence to add to the mix.

PRUDENCE In the First Degree charge to the candidate, the Worshipful Master recommends that in private and public life that he is to practise the cardinal virtues “let Prudence direct you�. This charge has virtually remained unchanged since 1735. Its longevity is an indicator of how important the practice of this virtue is to Masons. In the first degree lecture "a Mason‘s charity should know no bounds save those of prudence" indicates the importance that we attribute to this virtue. In an examination of the Theological Virtues, a Mason is considered to have arrived at the summit of Masonry when he is in possession of the theological virtue of Charity. From the junior warden's lecture, we learn that the only limitation on charity is prudence. If Charity is to be limited, it must be wisely and thoughtfully done because when we examine Charity we note that: First:- Charity refers to benevolence to our fellow masons and charity towards the public at large. The wise and thoughtful decisions enabling us to direct our efforts 18

and resources in a prudent and beneficial way emphasizes a mason's attainment of this virtue. Second:- In 1 Corinthians 13, the King James version of the Volume of the Sacred Law it refers to charity, but in the revised edition it changes to love. As we consider love in relation to prudence, it can cause masons to begin considering a wider range within the virtue of charity such as the love of man, country, spouse, brotherly love, etc. As a mason begins to think of these variables, he requires a great wisdom in discerning the correct path to address these issues. Thus, my brethren, the mason who is thoughtful and who exhibits wisdom may be considered to have attained the Cardinal Virtue of Prudence. And thus my brethren, we now have a mason in possession of Temperance, Fortitude and Prudence who exhibits selfcontrol, strength of character as well as thoughtfulness and wisdom. As we begin to think about the last of the cardinal virtues, Justice, we begin to see those characteristics which are a mason.

JUSTICE Justice tends to be an action word and to turn it into a virtue requires thought and a reliance on the teachings exhibited in the work of masonry. Our study of Justice is not about the Rule of Law as we know it today. If we consider charity in the broad Masonic sense of tolerance and equality in all aspects of race, creed, religion and colour, we will live and demonstrate the true meaning of Brotherly Love. 19

Let us refer back to the junior warden's lecture: - “tomorrow we totter on the uneven paths of weakness, temptation, and adversity.”:- “let our ideas recur to the original which we copy.” :- “practice charity and live in peace with all men.” It is difficult to relate Justice to an answer, so we must let our ideas recur to the original which we copy. Again from the junior warden's lecture: “The sun, the glory of Lord, rises in the east and sets in the west. Learning originated in the east and thence spread its benign influence to the west”. Learning originated in the east and the junior warden‘s lecture encourages us to let our ideas recur to the original. As we think about this let us remember that in our lodges, Solomon sits in the east. If we remember the story of King Solomon when he had to rule on the true mother to settle the dispute between two women we will note that he exhibited self-control, strength of character and wisdom when he ordered the baby severed in two knowing the true mother would give up her baby rather than see it harmed. Thus he was able to come to a fair resolution to the problem and returned the baby to the rightful mother. By being fair, King Solomon demonstrated the true meaning of Justice. Thus my brethren, the mason who is in possession and practices the Cardinal Virtues is a person who exhibits selfcontrol, strength of character, wisdom and fairness; What a man; What a mason! THE CARDINAL VIRTUES Bro. John Hodder.

Rays of Masonry “We must make the Future” A great deal is being written of Masonry's part in the future. It seems that we often travel a circuitous route to arrive at some conclusion that should be found very close to home. There are two points to consider. The influence of Masonry- its value to society- and the efforts that we as individual Masons are willing to extend in order to continue to make Masonry a vital, living power. Let us no longer dwell on what is going to happen to Masonry in the future. Let us dwell on how we will make a world which will naturally seek an institution that has been throughout the ages the stronghold of Brotherhood. Masonry, through Masons, doing, living, and expounding the principles of our Institution will create a decent future. Masonry with the courage to carry the Banner of Freedom, of Tolerance, of Justice, will march forward into the future that it made for the benefit of all people. The challenge is here. Masonry is not caught in the grip of conflicting economic theories. Our Institution has espoused the cause of Man, not of groups. Masonry has taught a Universal Religion, not a narrow dogma. Masonry has made the plane upon which all men may meet on the level of equality. Unless Masonry's place be secure in the future, there is no future. The future is being made today. If a world is being made in which there are only dollar and machine values, a world in which culture and dignity are no longer factors, a world in which sound morality has no market, then we must bestir ourselves in

order to bring about a future that will insure Masonry's place. We must not be content to see what the future will bring. We must create it today. Dewey Wollstein 1953.

Be A Little Kind Of all good things in Masonry, The one great virtue, you'll agree, From First degree to Thirty-three, Is this, just being kind. The Working Tools we nightly use, This virtue in us all infuse, And thus we others do enthuse To be a little kind. The Five Great Points of Fellowship, Alone, or in relationship, Bound together by one strong Grip, Teach us to be kind. The lib’ral Arts teach us each day, The Sciences our minds do sway, We learn from them the perfect way, The Art of being kind. It isn't asking you too much, To give this little friendly touch, But oh, the joy it gives to such Of whom you're being kind. God this intended in His Plan, When first He made His image, man, Your fellow men then gently scan And be a little kind. Poem by Charles Fotheringham


lodge anymore; I believe in letting the line officers run the lodge and in keeping old Past Masters where they belong on the side line. But now and then I get the urge to get up and talk, and this is one of those times." "I am glad you are going to object to the appropriation," said the Young Mason. "That's the way I feel about it." "I am not going to object," answered the Old Past Master, sharply. "I am going to urge the appropriation with all the force I have. I am going to puncture the feeble arguments of those who refer to DeMolay as 'Juvenile Masonry' and I am going to annihilate that brother who says he doesn't want lodge money spent for such Orders because he has daughters instead of sons."

Order of De Molay "It is going to be a very interesting meeting," said the Young Mason, sitting down in the ante-room beside the Old Past Master. "I am glad you look forward with pleasure to it," came the ready answer, "but what especial feature intrigues you tonight?" "Why, Brother Smith is going to ask for an appropriation from the lodge to help the Scottish Rite start a chapter of DeMolay. And there are a lot of the brethren who are going to object. You know, Sir, there are many of us who think that Masonry doesn't need any juvenile branches. And there are others who say the lodge should not give to a boy's organization, because many of the members have no boys but do have girls. So I expect there will be a warm discussion." "I am glad you told me," said the Old Past Master. "It isn't often I get on my feet in the 21

"Why... why, you surprise me," cried the Young Mason. "Has it been drawn to your attention the DeMolay degrees are highly elaborate, spectacular and beautiful? Don't you think that a young man who sees such work will, when he becomes a Mason, be disappointed?" "My young friend," answered the Old Past Master, "most of us live in small houses, in small towns, or bigger houses in big cities. Most of us do not live beneath the thunder of Niagara, or in site of the Grand Canyon, or in the shadow of Pike's Peak. Few of us live in or near Yellowstone, or the Yosemite, or Crater Lake. The larger part of the population of this country does not live in sight of the mighty ocean. Do you think it makes us dissatisfied with our lives and our homes that we go sight-seeing among the beauties of this wonderful land of ours? "I have seen the DeMolay degrees. They are much better put on by the boys, than our Masonic degrees are put on by the men. Is

that the fault of the boys, their Order, their degrees, or is it our fault? Their degrees are beautiful and solemn; but that they even touch the skirts of the inner beauty of the Masonic degree, no real student of Masonry would admit for a moment.

am speaking true words when I say it is the God in Masonry which has held it together. The Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man as taught in Masonry, are the inner cements which we spread with our trowels of degrees and lodges and ritual.

It may, indeed, be true that some young man, having taken the DeMolay degrees, will be disappointed when he gets his Third Degree in Masonry, that it is not more wrapped up in costumes, trappings, stage work. But such a young man would be disappointed in any event.

"The Order for the boys is but a new way of making ready the stones for our building. Before there was such an Order, we took young men as we found them. We still so take them. But in addition, we have now an Order which, while it speaks no word which can be construed as an invitation, which say nothing to any boy which would make him think Masonry wanted anything of him, yet teaches him patriotism, love of country, love of public schools, love of Masonry, because of its unity, its charity, its brotherhood, and teaches him too, the lessons of help to a brother, of broadminded tolerance and of sincere worship of a Supreme Being. No boy who has been a DeMolay will ever join a Masonic lodge without being better prepared to become a good Mason than the same boy would have been had he not been a DeMolay.

"I believe that most boys, when they grow up to be men, will turn from the elaborate and spectacular degrees of the DeMolay Order to the more quiet, thoughtful and deeper degrees of Masonry with relief, and will throw themselves in them with greater enthusiasm, because of their training in lodge room etiquette, their experience of fraternalism, their education in ritual and brotherhood. "There are Masons in this lodge who will, I know, object to our spending money from the lodge treasury. They will say 'why, I have no son to enter such an order, why should I help support it?' But they may have daughters. Then they are interested in having the young men in this town grow up to be good men, true men, square men. For some one of these young men, is some day, probably to be a husband to that Mason's daughter. And the better man he is, the happier she will be. "Did you ever stop to think, my brother, what it is in Masonry which has kept it alive and made it grow, for thousands of years? What other thing can you name which has lived and grown for thousands of years? Only one, love and worship of God. Then I

"There, my brother, now you know how I feel about it, and why I am going to urge that our lodge stand not in the way obstructing, but along side and pushing, that our young men have this glorious chance to learn the elements of fraternity before they come to us to be made Master Masons. "And I am going to stand at your side and urge the same course," said the Young Brother. "I didn't understand." . This is the seventh article in this our regular feature, ‘The Old Past Master,’ each month we will publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.


All You Need is Love We have all heard our Junior Warden conclude the Entered Apprentice Lecture by stating that the tenets or fundamental principles of Ancient Freemasonry are Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth. It is not uncommon for men to consider Brotherly Love, while highly desirable, as not practicable and therefore but a vision to be dreamed of but never possessed. We must grasp and see that the principles of Freemasonry are self-evident realities, not visionary ideals. For Freemasonry does not tell us that the principles of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth ought to be true, that it would be better for us all if they were true. It tells that they are true. Our problem is not whether to believe them, but how do we implement them. I quote from Corinthians 13 which we often hear at weddings: “Love is patient, love is kind and envies no one. Love is never conceited nor rude, never selfish nor quick to take offence. Love keeps no score of wrongs, does not gloat over another’s sins, but delights in truth. There is nothing love cannot face. There is no limit to its faith, its hope, its endurance. In a word there are three things that last forever: faith hope and love, but the greatest of them all is love.” Does this love have a place in Masonry? Can we practise this or are we too wrapped up in our own worlds to do what we are taught? What is Brotherly Love? It means that we place on another man the highest possible 23

valuation as a friend, a companion, an associate, and a neighbour. By the exercise of Brotherly Love, we are taught to regard the whole human species as one family. We do not ask that from our relationship we shall achieve selfish gain. Our relationship with a Brother is its own justification, its own reward. Brotherly Love is one of the supreme values without which life is lonesome, unhappy and unfulfilled. Brotherly Love is not a hope or a dream, but a fact. Masonry builds on that fact, provides opportunities for us to have such fellowship, encourages us to understand and to practice it and to make it one of the laws of our existence, one of the tenets or fundamental principles of our Craft. True Brotherly Love is more than the congenial bond of good will and understanding that exists between close personal friends. To practise true Brotherly Love means to practise true and genuine Tolerance, Charity, Truth and Justice toward all human beings. The selfish, the unloving Mason, prefers to be self-centred, petty and small. He lets wrath, loss of reason and fair play govern his actions. He thinks in destructive terms and with resentment at others‟ good fortune, hurting himself in the process. He forgets that to soothe the unhappy, to sympathize with them in their misfortunes, to be compassionate in their miseries, and to restore peace onto their troubled minds is the great aim of every worthy Mason. Brotherly Love is one of the closest associations that could possibly exist between two people. In the Masonic sense we must be willing to overlook or forget petty grievances or peculiarities. We must strive to see the good things in our Brethren

that will make us love them. We must cast aside our passions and prejudices and remember that “all men are my Brethren.” We must remember that, “By the exercise of brotherly love we are taught to regard the whole human species, the high and the low, the rich and the poor, as one great family; and that we must aid, support and protect each other.” The concept of Love and Tolerance for all men does not mean approval or sanction of all that men say or do. Love and Tolerance represent a two-way road of mutual respect. If Freemasonry stands for anything, it stands for the practice of true Brotherly Love in all of its various aspects. If all of the people in the world could be made to understand and practice genuine Brotherly Love, could we attain the desired goal of universal peace. Toward that end, Freemasonry is truly the greatest single human force in the world. The energy of love is the endless and allpowerful source of harmonious life that produces happiness, joy, compassion, goodness and ecstasy. Whoever doesn't love at all must not be surprised that he will not be loved at all. You do not become old just because you lived a certain number of years. You become old because you turned away from your love and your high ideal. Years wrinkle your skin. Giving up your high ideal wrinkles your soul. Remember a Mason is not judged by his duration but his donation, his love. Everything that is good, beautiful and true exists through the mysterious energy of love. Nothing that is truly uplifting can exist and maintain itself without the energy of love. Where respect, communication and brotherly love are the highest priorities, so

all our human voices are united to build a better world. Ritual alone cannot make us good Masons. It is the everyday applications of its teachings that will broaden our powers of understanding. Learn well the tenets of Freemasonry and, above all, practice them constantly, particularly brotherly love within the confines of the Lodge and in your daily life. If we do this then, as a Mason, we can truly say “All you need is Love.” This is a new Regular feature of articles under the title, “Reflections.” Articles from all around the world from a variety of Constitutions and authors. 23:2

DID YOU KNOW? Question: Why are the Deacons' Jewels Doves and not Mercury as Messengers? Answer: The reason is that Grand Lodge decided to standardize equipment and regalia etc. in the 1815 Book of Constitutions and shows doves as being more appropriate for the duties of the deacons. Despite this many old lodges still use Mercury Jewels on the Deacons' Wands.

Question: In the initiation ceremony the candidate is told 'it is customary at the erection of all stately and superb edifices to lay the first or foundation stone at the N.E. corner of the building'. Is there any symbolic reason for this? Answer: I do not know of any symbolical reason for it and I am firmly convinced that 24

the N.E. corner was chosen for purely practical reasons. There is a record of the laying of the first corner stone of Crowland Abbey, Lincolnshire in 1114 “on the Eastern side facing the North�. (A.O.C. 73). Further, a note from a master builder was published in A.O.C. 75 page 241 in which he explained that for practical reasons, i.e. the position of the sun at sunrise the North East corner is the most suitable.

Question: I recently visited a lodge in Canada and was surprised to see that there was one step up to the Junior Warden's pedestal, two up to the Senior Warden's and three up to the Worshipful Master's. I have also seen arrangements such as this in old lodge rooms in England. Could you inform me please if there is any masonic significance in this or is it just a practice that has grown up during the years? Answer: I do not see symbolism in this. If there were I would have expected to find something on this point in Preston's work c. 1775- 1816 or in Carlile (1825) or in Claret (1838) or in Emulation practice in the mid19th century. In a lifelong experience of Masonry I have never seen a reference to symbolism of the steps leading to the principal officers. I must admit however that in the U.S.A. I have seen Masonic Temples in which the Junior Warden sat at the top of three steps framed in architecture (Pillars and Architrave), the Senior Warden similarly framed. The Master's steps stretched right across the eastern end of the lodge. This supported by the examples you have seen in England, suggest that somebody is trying to introduce 25

a symbolism plus distinction of rank and I do not favour the idea at all.

Question: What is meant by "regular step"? Answer: Regular, in this case, means recognized or correct. The word implies that it must be made in the manner in which the candid- ate has been instructed. Indeed, the step is actually a part of the mode of recognition that follows it; hence the emphasis on the word regular.

Question: Why does the word Boaz denote 'in strength'? Answer: It is a good Hebrew word and that is what it means. In Bible times it was customary to give names to children indicating some characteristic of the child, or the gratitude or pious wish of the parents. To quote only one example out of thousands of cases, the name 'Samuel' means 'heard of God', because his mother's fervent prayer for a son had been heard and answered by the Almighty. Similar practice applied in naming places, objects, and landmarks, especially those connected with some important event that deserved to be commemorated, for example 'Heersheba' means 'the well of the covenant '. (Abraham's covenant with God). The name Bo-az is a composite of two words; Bo equals 'in Him' or 'in it (is) strength'. Thus the name of Boaz, as a member of a wealthy and powerful family, means 'In him is strength'. The same name, applied to one of the Pillars of the Temple, means "In Him (God) is strength'. The full significance of the name is best understood

when we read the names of both Pillars together, and they imply that 'God, in His strength, will establish'. With those two names Solomon was expressing his gratitude to the Almighty, who had promised that He would establish the throne of his father's Kingdom for ever.

Question: Can you explain, in modern terms, the words 'Succoth' and 'Zeradatha'? Answer: Our Masonic version of the casting of the Pillars of King Solomon's Temple follows the Bible story precisely. We say they were 'cast' in the clay ground between Succoth and Zeradatha and these are the exact words, perfectly translated from the original Hebrew, 2 Chron. IV, v. 17. The corresponding version in 1 Kings VII, v. 46 uses the same words, but gives the second place-name as Zarthan. 'Succoth' means 'booths' or 'tents'. This was the place where Jacob built 'booths' for his cattle on his return to Canaan, after wrestling with the angel. The River Jordan flows due north and south, and the River Jabbok flows into it from the north east. 'Succoth' was a village or town about four miles east of the River Jordan, in the V between the two Rivers. 'Zeradatha', 'Zarthan', 'Zereda'. The name appears to be derived from an Arabic root meaning 'to cool' or 'cooling'. It probably marked a ford of the Jordan in the same area. The key to the choice of this territory for the work of casting the Pillars, is the clay ground in this part of the Jordan valley. The use of a clay core was one of the earliest methods of casting in bronze. If there really was some- thing in the geographical situation of Zeradatha which helped in the

cooling process, the area chosen for the casting was wholly suitable for the work.

Question: What is the origin and the symbolism of the 'Lion's Paw' or the 'Eagle's Claw'? Answer: Whenever this kind of question crops up, I always like to look at the earliest-known rituals to see how the words appeared there. We have, in fact, several early descriptions of the F.P.O.F. from 1696 onwards, also the 'story' of a raising, dated 1726 and the first description of the Third Degree in 1730. The procedure you mention does not appear in any of the earliest texts, but a form of it does appear in the 1730 version, though without any reference to lions or eagles: ... spreading the Right Hand and placing the middle Finger to Wrist, clasping the Forefinger and the Fourth to the side of the Wrist‌ . This is from Prichard's Masonry Dissected, dated 173Q the earliest description of the actual procedure of a 'Raising Ceremony'. It is not necessary for me to emphasize that our procedure is different nowadays, and even in modern practice there are numerous variations, so that one would hesitate to assert that a particular manner of executing the movement is 'correct'! I do not believe, moreover, that there is any symbolism attached to the G ...; it was made different from the others to suit a special purpose, and it is, of course, particularly suitable for the 'lifting' job. The earliest use of the word 'Claw' that I am able to trace in describing this particular grip comes from Le Catechisme des Francs26

Masons, a French exposure of 1744, which gives a particularly good account of the 3rd as it was in those days. In the description of the actual raising it says (my translation):

The First Regular Step in Masonry

Then he takes him by the wrist, applying his four fingers separated and bent claw-fashion at the joint of the wrist, above the palm of the other's hand, his thumb between the thumb and the index (finger) of the Candidate... And holding him by this clawgrip, he orders him...

(What is the First Regular Step in Masonry? To Whom does it Refer? Where does it lead?)

Note that, even here, there is no mention of Lion's Paw or Eagle's Claw, and although some modern rituals describe the grip in those terms, I have never been able to trace either of those titles in the earlier eighteenth century rituals. In London Lodges, the Lion's Paw and Eagle's Claw are virtually unknown; these curiosities of nomenclature seem to belong to particular localities, and flourish there, often far from London headquarters. After a search I found the Lion's Paw in at least one version of Scottish ritual, and both terms in use in an English Lodge, i.e., the Lodge of Friendship No. 202, Plymouth. There, at the proper moment, the W.M. says: . there yet remains a third method, known as the Lion's Paw or Eagle's law, which is by taking a ... Apparently this refers to one particular G... that has two titles. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world.


The First Regular Step in Masonry is active participation. It is through active participation that we find fulfilment in anything. What could be more interesting than to be privileged to guide a brother while he takes his first three steps? This does not mean that we must become officers in our Lodge; it merely means that we should add something, “no matter how little” to the general knowledge and structure of the Craft. Where does the First regular Step in Masonry lead? It leads to greater interest in our craft and particularly in our mother lodge. It is difficult to work with someone and not get to know him, especially if there any common interests. Can we honestly say that we get to know our brothers to the right and left, or do we perhaps say to ourselves occasionally “I know the face - but I just can’t remember the name”? Through participation and interest we can also know the name, and what is more important, the person owning it. Would it not be worth it? To what does the First Step Refer? It refers to brotherly Love. Helping each other is the essence of Brotherly Love. It refers also to friendship. Homer said “Two friends - two bodies with one sole inspired”. Joseph Roux stated “Friends are rare for the good reason that men are not common”. Let us through the teachings of Masonry learn to be better men and through that better friends. Let us

truly act as “the dictates of right reason prompt us” not only in our lodge but outside it as well.


So, to whom does it refer? It refers to all masons. We have a magnificent bank of knowledge from which we may draw. We have many that are willing to help us. Let us put something into the bank; let us help those who are willing to help us.

We cannot introduce innovations in Masonry. However, this does not mean that we cannot put something of ourselves into Masonry. It is the responsibility and duty of everyone who has a part in conferring the degrees to not only speak the words but to deliver their meaning. His own heart must reach the heart of the candidate. Together with the words there must be a feeling that the lessons are not related to life, but are life.

In summation: Our Past Master’s are in an enviable position. They practice, as much as possible, the laws and principles of our craft. One is reminded of the story of the bridge - An old gentleman walking along life’s highway with a friend, crossed over a raging river and upon reaching the other side stopped, and built a bridge to open the banks. His friend said, “Why do you build this bridge? You will never pass this way again!”. To which the old man replied, “Behind us comes a youth - he must also pass this way, I build the bridge for him.” Our Past Master’s are in a somewhat similar position, for while they did not build the bridge of Masonry, they are constantly maintaining it. Can we honestly be “true and faithful craftsmen” if we do not in some way assist them? The First Regular Step in masonry is Participation. It leads to Satisfaction.




It refers to Brotherly Love and Friendship - a more solid bond between men and especially Masons. It refers to all men and more especially Masons. Article by Philip Wilson and sourced from The Architect publication.

Moral lessons are taught men by good mothers and good fathers. Men are morally qualified before they are qualified to become Masons. The great purpose of Masonry then is to make possible a system of moral development which will widen the path of improvement. When the lessons of Masonry fail in the objective of creating a living philosophy, a philosophy that helps to make life a richer, fuller experience, then the greatest good is lost. A great poem becomes even greater when one takes the time and effort to study the state of mind of the author, and to clearly understand the thought and inspiration behind the printed words. So it is with the lessons of Masonry. We must take that which is warm, pulsating, alive, and drive it into the heart of the candidate. 28

THE BACK PAGE What’s your grandmother’s age? (How Olds’ Your Granny?)

Most of our Masonic Brethren have heard that question asked at one time or another – usually while travelling when a stranger happens to notice a Masonic ring or lapel pin. For our newer Master Masons who have not heard the question “What’s your grandmother’s age?” the questioner is actually asking for your Lodge number. The times that I’ve been asked that question my stock response has always been: “She’s two hundred twenty nine years of age and has about two hundred fifty grandsons.” Now, my point in presenting this question and answer is twofold: One, it is a good way to strike up a Masonic conversation with someone you haven’t ever met before; and two: the number of your Lodge should always be given in whole numbers. Several years ago, actually back when I was a relatively new Master Mason, the Grand Lodge of Indiana utilized a Grand Lecturer system. Each year the Grand Lecturer or his assistant would visit the Lodge and instruct the Officers and Brethren in the correct ritual usage. Quite frequently the Grand Lecturer would halt the proceedings and make “on the spot,” corrections to ritual wording, etc. During one such Grand Lecturer visit the Worshipful Brother Grand Lecturer halted the opening of our Lodge and admonished the Officers that “whole numbers, and whole numbers only,” were appropriate in Freemasonry. Our Worshipful Master of the time had started to proclaim “Whitney Lodge No. 229 (two, twenty nine,) open. “No,” said the Grand Lecturer, “there is no such number as two, twenty nine!” He went on to explain that Lodges are numbered according to their rank in Grand Lodge – the number of the Lodge indicating at what point in the existence of Grand Lodge that particular Lodge came into being. Our Lodge – number two hundred and twenty nine – was the 229th. Lodge to receive a Charter from the Grand Lodge of Indiana. “Therefore,” he explained, “it is number two hundred twenty nine, not two, twenty nine. There is no such number as two, twenty nine, but there is the number two hundred twenty nine. And it is a number to be proud of.” 29

Point taken and understood! I had majored in English in High School and had elected to minor in English while in College. The Grand Lecturer was correct. There is no such number as two, twenty nine. There IS the number two hundred and twenty nine. All these years later and still that Grand Lecturer’s words ring in my ears whenever I hear Lodge Officers opening their esteemed Lodge with a non-number. In Freemasonry your Lodge has a number. Correctly espousing that number is proper Masonic etiquette and displays an understanding of good Masonic usage. Calling the Lodge by a non-number is offensive to the ear and actually could be considered insulting to the history of the Lodge. So, the next time you hear someone phrasing the question “What’s your grandmother’s age?” you will know that she is (insert number), and that is also what the correct wording is when you are called upon to express your Lodge number. Use a whole number! Pay Freemasonry the respect it is due! Don’t fall into the sloppy habit of giving a non-number for your Lodge. Your Lodge deserves the respect being paid it by the Grand Lodge when they issued a Charter and proclaimed your Lodge as number (whatever). Editorial The author is correct in stating the Lodge should be given its full title and Number at the opening of the Lodge, it is only right that proper respect is given to the Lodge by the Master. However, I would contend that when asked the question “What’s your grandmother’s age?” outwith a Lodge, it is not being disrespectful to the Lodge or its history to respond with a shortened version or even what could be deemed by some as slang. It is not in any way offensive to the Lodge or its members. Here in Scotland, the question is usually asked, “How olds’ your Granny?” and the response is the same. But imagine how it would appear if as the author of this piece suggests the question was asked and the answer given as, one thousand three hundred and sixty one. Doesn’t have the same ring to it as thirteen sixty one, does it? We in Scotland mostly identify our Lodges by number, for example, when asked where are you off to tonight, we normally would say something like, Lodge 76 or a hundred and eleven (111), rather than the Lodge’s full title, simply because the group of Lodges we visit are mostly in our locale, and everyone knows them by their number. It is not being offensive, it’s being Scottish! How olds’ your Granny? This article under the title “What’s your Grandmother’s age?” was written by Michael Gillard and sourced by SRA76 from the website of Lodge Enterprise No. 400.

Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor 30