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SRA 76

Volume 17 Issue 5 No. 135 September 2021

Monthly Magazine

Cover Story – The Antiquity of Geometry The Square and The Cross The Transition in Scotland Did You Know? Ritual in Freemasonry – Its Importance Lodge Menzies Doric No. 890 Famous Freemason – Warner Baxter The Old Past Master Masonry’s Constant Call Egyptian Philosophers The Principal Tenets: Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth Did You Know? The Back Page – The New Villains’ Lodge

Main Website – The 47th Problem

In this Issue: Cover Story ‘The Antiquity of Geometry’ This article looks at the origins of geometry with ancient man and how they connect to the Speculative Freemasons of today.

Page 8, ‘The Square and the Cross’. One of the earliest known relics of humanity. Page 10, ‘The Transition in Scotland’ Page 12, ‘Did You Know?’ Questions about the Craft. Page 14, ‘Ritual in Freemasonry – Its Importance’ Page 17, ‘Lodge Menzies Doric No. 890. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 20, ‘Warner Leroy Baxter’ Famous Freemason. Page 22, ‘The Old Past Master.’ “Why Symbolism?”, The last in the series. Page 24, ‘Reflections.’ Masonry's Constant Call Page 26, ‘Egyptian Philosophers.’ Page 28, ‘Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth’ ”The Principle Tenets” Page 30, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 31, ‘The Back Page.’ The New Villains’ Lodge (a poem) In the Lodge website The article for this month is ‘The 47th Problem’ [link] Front cover –A stock graphic of Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man 2


specialize to some extent by developing the practical arts of agriculture, the hunt for meat, storing surpluses, etc. ), before he could allow the weak or the elderly to survive. It was probably such individuals who first had leisure to investigate, to speculate, in the simplest possible form of that activity. But when their efforts gave them knowledge by which they were able to advise and direct the activities of the tribe, they realized its power and kept it secret to preserve their status and influence. It was passed on to disciples who were sworn to secrecy. The “secret tradition” was originally a practical necessity, for selfpreservation.

In speculating about symbols, especially Masonic symbols, we are naturally led to think of geometric figures. Mindful of the frequently asserted claim that modern Speculative Freemasonry is the inheritor of “the secret tradition” or learning of the ancient priesthoods, who thereby exercised the decisive power of knowledge over their rulers and kings, we assume that these symbols were created or discovered by the learned men of the priestly class. While that is undoubtedly true of many of the more complex and theoretical figures developed by ancient geometrician's, a little more speculation should lead us to the realization that the most ancient, the most primitive geo-metrical symbols used by homo sapiens were discovered and developed by ordinary men for very practical reasons. Without knowing it, the earliest scientific investigators were the original Speculative Masons, who “curiously traced Nature to her innermost recesses” and thereby initiated the art of geometry, the one most revered by Freemasons.

Such a development probably occurred many centuries ago—long before the ancient civilizations of which we have any historical records. Nor did it come about quickly, in three or four generations. It must have taken millennia of puzzled observation and the slow accumulation of simple facts to arrive at even the crudest kind of symbol which encompassed more than an observation of shape or direction. The sun and the moon have always been the foremost luminaries of nature influencing the lives of men on this planet. Both are round or circular in shape. Even the most untutored savage probably recognized a crudely drawn circle in the sand as a pictograph of those heavenly bodies. But since the moon changed its shape regularly each month, it could be differentiated from the sun by representing it as a crescent, a shape in which it appeared much more frequently than it did as a circle.

And because they were the first discoverers of theoretical truths which had to be expressed in symbols (primitive language being completely inadequate, and the symbols being the practical techniques of their investigations), they acquired a special advantage by which they were able to achieve unusual status and power.

The circle, therefore, became a universal symbol of the sun, because it was always round when it could be observed. And because it was obviously the one great heavenly body which brought life-giving

Primitive man had to climb from a rude state of brutish survival on an individual basis to a simple state of social organization (like a group of families or clan, which could 3

light and warmth for the growing seasons, it became the first great object of wonder, cosmic fear, and adoration. In other words, it was man’s first god; and the symbol of the sun, the circle, became the first representation to denote the divinity that shapes our ends. But when the organization of human societies, even in their simplest state, made possible the survival of some of the physically weaker and elderly members of such groups, a “leisure class” came into existence, which had time to observe natural phenomena more closely, to investigate “the immutable laws of nature,”—to speculate.

And when they had amassed enough information to realize that the sun in its rising and setting always turned in the other direction at a definite time, repeated annually, they not only had knowledge which determined a be-ginning and end for certain seasons, they had “unlocked a secret of nature,” which gave them power to advise and to regulate the lives of their neighbours and tribesmen! They had learned the hard way that “Knowledge is power”; and to preserve that power, they made it a secret among those who had been chosen to search for light. The circle, therefore, became the first and oldest symbol containing “wise and serious truths” for the “initiated.”

One of the earliest observed phenomena of the sun was probably its gradual change of position on the horizon at its rising and its setting. But not until this change of position was studied and noted with something akin to exactness (the “scientific method”) did primitive man derive some useful knowledge from his observations.

Probably one of their first achievements was to predict the summer and winter solstices. Undoubtedly they made those days significant and “sacred.” They became a “priestly class.” With their secret knowledge they established the earliest religious festivals, which Masons still observe as Saints John Days.

Among the oldest relics of man’s initial science, the observation of the sun, are crude markings on stone which depict the arc of a circle formed by points of the rising or setting of the sun between the summer and the winter solstices.

If this speculation is reasonable, we conclude that the circle was the first geometric figure constructed by primitive man. It was not merely a drawing; it was literally a construction, resulting from arcs eastward and westward from a central point of observation, curved segments which resulted from joining the points which marked the sun’s daily rising and setting from one solstice to the other.

Such an ancient monument as that at Stonehenge, England, is a highly refined and sophisticated representation of such solar observations. It’s comparatively modern. While it must have taken long periods of time to develop such a simple representation of the sun’s journey from season to season, try to imagine the superstitious awe and wonder of the primitive sun-gazers when they began to realize that the circular sun was drawing a great circular arc on their earth’s surface, that the great sun-god was re-creating his shape right before them.

If the central point of observation had been fixed by a pole or solid stone pillar, the shadow cast by the pillar from hour to hour gave the primitive observers a series of straight lines by which they could construct a whole circle of dots equidistant from the central point of observation. What made the circle so sacred and mystic a symbol was the fact that it was a 4

construction, not a mere representation of a shape, as if the fiery lord of the sky had revealed himself to the children of men, and thereby unlocked other secrets for the initiated to discover and to guard.

undefined compass, it was a useful tool of knowledge, whose practical applications were veiled from the uninitiated, who were given mystical and supernatural explanations of the cross’ meaning.

The lines which connected the stone-marked points where the sun arose and set each day, as well as the lines of the shadows created by the central stele or pillar as “the sun passed over-head each day,” obviously created patterns of crossing lines which undoubtedly aroused the curiosity of those primitive “speculatives.”

It was known all over the world, in the most primitive societies, from northern Europe to India, from China to the steaming jungle civilizations of Central America. Its frequent appearance in the religious symbolism of the Toltec and Aztec Indians of Mexico frightened the Roman priests who followed Cortez to the conquest of Tenochtitlan; and one of the principal reasons why they ordered the destruction of so many of the artefacts and records of those civilizations was their fear of a pagan cross.

After generations of observers had been at work, there must have come a day when one of them recognized the symmetry of the crossing lines which created four right angles, the cross within the circle. Since that probably occurred when night and day were practically equal, the equilateral cross also became a sacred figure, fraught with special meaning and symbolism. And from that geometric construction, another “revelation from the All Highest,” probably developed its use as a religious symbol, especially in festivals linked to the vernal equinox, when the dead seed was quickened into life again.

The cross assumed a myriad of forms, many of them having a speculative or religious symbolism, from the so-called Latin cross, which is the cross on which Jesus was crucified, to the swastika (a good luck amulet), to the Lorraine cross, with double or triple traverse, a symbol familiar to Masons of the Scottish Rite. One writer has identified 385 different crosses, but the majority of them have little interest except for those engaged in the decorative arts and the science of heraldry.

But the equilateral cross, one may surmise, was the second fundamental geometric figure constructed by the primitive observers of the sun; it resulted from their representations on the earth’s surface of the lines drawn by the sun god himself, as he moved from east to west, or cast a shadow from the central point of their simple solar observatories. As a figure, it probably first suggested the concept of space—especially as a direction. An equilateral cross drawn in a circle immediately suggests the directions in which natural phenomena take place, like the sun’s passage across the sky, or the directions from which the four winds of heaven blow. As a simple but as yet

Most writers on the subject agree that the equilateral cross, like the circle, the line, the crescent and the triangle, forms so simple and natural a geometrical figure that it must have been one of the earliest geometrical constructions which primitive man “stumbled upon” as a representation of the principal directions of space—the earth, the sky, the rays of light, the wind-rose, etc. It naturally became a symbol of man with outstretched arms, of birds on the wing, of a double-headed hammer, of the bow and drill for making fire. But as a part of the esoteric 5

knowledge of the most primitive scientists, the observers of the sun, it contained more meaning than a simple pictograph. It embodied concepts of radiation or space. As a symbol of the rays of the sun, it veiled knowledge of the use of these lines in solar observations and became a symbol of “the tree of life” on which depended the death and renewal of life resulting from the annual changes of the seasons.

ability to use only the simplest, the rudimentary numbers suggested to them by the ten fingers on their hands and the ten toes on their feet. Among their chiselled records on stone, the numbers found most commonly are five, represented by five strokes attached to a stem (the hand), and a rake-like figure consisting of a bar from which depend seven short strokes, a representation of the number seven.

However, if primitive man, by simple geometric constructions, discovered the knowledge whereby he could predict the solstices (by the circle of stones of his solar observatories ), sooner or later he must have run into the problem of measuring time, i.e., how to count by using units of time. The day was undoubtedly the first unit he used, since the sun automatically measured it for him— and the sun was the object of his study and veneration. A day, moreover, was a lapse of time which he could remember in his first attempts to classify and to store information for future use.

Whence came that particular number, which in subsequent civilizations and religions was especially revered? Was its very antiquity one reason for its universal importance? Why are there seven ages of man, and seven liberal arts? Why are there seven gods of happiness in Japanese folk-lore? Why are there seven sages in the folk-lore of ancient Greece? Why did the Sioux Indians have seven council fires?

But it is extremely doubtful that he originally had either the language or the mental capacity to count quantities as large as the number of days between the summer and winter solstices, even though he had arranged a stone for each day on the solar circle which he had laid out on the ground. He had learned by generations of observations that when the rising sun touched one end of the arc, it was the first day of summer, and that when it touched the other end, the sun would turn again and seek each day a more southerly point of arising. But that he had a language of numbers by which to express that extent of the passage of days, one may seriously question.

Why did the Romans boast of the seven hills on which their “eternal city” was built? Why is the number seven so frequently used in the Bible, especially in the Old Testament?

And why does the week have seven days? The following speculation is offered with no proof whatsoever; it is sheer guess-work to suggest a possible reason why the number seven became so important in the intellectual and cultural development of mankind. It was a “Mystic” number because it was one of the earliest discoveries of the primitive scientists, the observers of the sun. It was a primordial unit to measure the passage of time which resulted from the

We know, however, that primitive man used numbers to indicate quantities; but the records they have left on stone suggest an 6

earliest discoveries that “God is always geometrizing.”


If the year was a concept involving numbers of days too large for the mind of primitive man to handle, he probably turned to observations of the other great luminary in nature, the moon, to observe the passage of time.

MASONS, generally, do not associate the square with the cross; yet essentially they are the same. The cross is composed of right angles, or squares. It is found on rocks chiselled in the prehistoric ages and in graves carved on rude pottery buried with bodies whose very bones in the course of thousands of years have crumbled into dust, and on the top of which lie the ruins of periods and of peoples of whom history has not the faintest trace. It is found thus, not in an isolated spot, but in regions scattered far apart. It is the most universal of all symbols. In the Hindu temples, in the Egyptian pyramids, in the ruined altars of America, and in the churches of Christendom, ancient and modern alike, it occupies a conspicuous position.

We can only speculate. Could the ancient geometrician's have joined the four points of the cross within the circle to form a square and discovered that each side of the square was related to one arm of the cross (the radius of the circle) in the approximate ratio of 7 to S? If so, they had made the first crude application of the Pythagorean formula, but at the same time discovered that the perimeter of the square measured 28 units, the duration of the “lunar year” in days. The square having four equal parts of 7 units, the phases of the moon divided the “lunar year” into four equal parts of 7 days, or a week.

The cross — with a circle round it — is associated with the earliest known relics of humanity, with the most ancient carvings and records of India, and with coins and medals belonging to a pre-Christian age in France and elsewhere.

By speculating on the long and agonizing process by which primitive man developed his intellect and spiritual insights, imperfect as they still are, modern Masons may increase their respect for man and his potentialities.

In all kinds the cross is formed of right angles, and the circle is implied where not shown. In the Latin and Greek forms generally the circle has disappeared, but it is still found at times, particularly in paintings, where it is shown as a halo of light behind the cross. As the craftsman in making the cross has first to form the circle and from its centre work out the limbs, the circle must always be assumed to be present, even where it does not appear. The oldest form always has the circle. In the Egyptian form, the circle is placed on the top, and the vertical limb is lengthened, evidently to

Source – The Masonic World

I have noticed that the people who are late are often so much jollier than the people who have to wait for them. 7

form a handle. To the Egyptians this circle symbolized the generative, or productive power, in nature. It is the transverse section of the egg, which was also used sometimes in its upright shape, in the form of a loop or oval. We find the Hindus representing the same idea, also by a loop, but in every case the circle, or loop, is associated with the cross. The basis of Gothic architecture is the cross, the triangle and the loop, all of which are inter-related. The cross and triangle form the base of the plan, and the loop forms the plan for the windows, doors, and sometimes the roof.

square in nature. If we work with these forces the Divine Power in them will manifest itself by working with us. If we work against them, it will manifest itself by destroying our work. They work on the square . . . and we must therefore work on the square if we are to have the Divine Power with us. The second Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Light. Darkness is infinite and expresses nothing. Light is circumscribed that it may be manifested. It comes out of darkness and is lost in darkness. The energy from the sun comes to our earth through the boundless ether: cold, silent, and in darkness. Did it come in the form of direct Light the whole heavens would be a blaze and we would see nothing else. Not until it impinges on our atmosphere does it burst into light. In the same way, electricity is unseen in the wire until it meets with the resisting carbon. Coal-gas, the common candle, and the lamp, are all enveloped in darkness until they manifest their light in almost essentially similar, although apparently, different conditions. In all these varied conditions, however, light manifests itself on the square. The energy from the sun strikes our atmosphere at right angles and bursts into light. A rope, stretched out with one end fastened and the other end shaken by the hand, appears to have waves running from end to end. In reality it is moving up and down, at right angles to the line of progress. Science tells us it is in this way light moves. It works on the square, and the circle with the square, or cross, is a fitting symbol of the manifestation of material light.

Laying aside details not helpful to our present purpose, let us turn our attention to the general ideas connected with this symbol. The ancients of Asia, Africa and Europe considered the circle as the symbol of the Divine One circumscribing Himself, so as to become manifested to us. The limitations of human nature demand this restriction, for, otherwise, we could have no knowledge of Him. Without the limiting circle we gaze on boundless space, incomprehensible and void of any idea to our minds. We must have form before we can have ideas. The blank page of a book conveys nothing. Draw on it a flower, or an animal, and an idea is presented to the mind. Thus, the Divine One circumscribed Himself in His Creation and for our sakes clothed Himself in a garment of matter, so that he might be manifested to us. The material universe is everywhere a circumscribing of the Infinite and the cross symbolizes the Divine manifestations of Power, Light, Life and Love. The first Divine manifestation symbolizedby the cross is that of Power. The two lines of the cross, intersecting at right angles in the centre and extending to the utmost limits of the circle, represent the two great central forces which dominate all matter and which we have already considered in the law of the

But this symbol is particularly representative of moral light. That only can be light morally that is true and square. Beliefs and doctrines that do not accord with the right angle of our conscientious convictions, can never give light. 8

The third Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Life. Through all nature there are two great elemental principles variously called the active and the passive, the positive and the negative, the male and the female. The various units of atoms, molecules, vegetables and animals possess one, or both, of these principles. In the inanimate kingdom, the term "polarity" and "affinity" are employed to indicate the action of these principles and the relation of the one to the other. In the animate kingdom the word "sex" is used for the same purpose. In both kingdoms everywhere we find these two elemental principles at work. The formation of a crystal and of a crystalloid, the building of a tree and of a man, all seem to proceed along the lines of two main forces working at right angles — that is, working on the square. The atoms, which form the basis of the material creation, have their positive and negative poles. According to the latest scientific discoveries, they are the product of electricity and something called protyle, the one being active and the other passive.

recognition of a Divine purpose running through all the arrangements for the propagation of life, and of the symbolic lesson therein of a spiritual regeneration, yet the broad fact remains that the multitude saw in it the reflex of their own animal passions. It brought ruin on the Greek and Roman empires. Had the glory of art, the abundance of wealth, the grandeur of philosophy, or the culture of the intellect, possessed any power of salvation, these peoples would have survived. But salvation is neither possible to the individual nor to the community that is impure. If you worship the brute, a brute you will be. If you would be divine, worship the Divine. The fourth Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Love. From the degrading associations of phallic worship this symbol had to be purged and purified by blood and sorrow. For many years it was an instrument of tyranny for the infliction of cruel and intense suffering. There can be little doubt but thousands suffered on it whose only fault was in being too good to be understood. The divine soul everywhere is at first misunderstood. His language is heavenborn and his earth-bound hearers cannot interpret it. Hence the thorny crown of derision. The good are not allowed to pursue their quiet path. They are dragged into the full blaze of fame and their pains and punishment become their glory. Love's best work is most likely to be rejected and despised.... Suffering is the perfecting process of the perfect ashlar. Insensibility is the sign of degradation. Capacity for suffering is the mark and insignia of rank in the scale of evolution. The higher the love, the deeper the sorrow. Through tribulation the higher forms of life are born.

But it is for the spiritual truths which this symbol reveals and yet conceals that it is of greatest importance to us. In the frescoes of the pyramids we see it in the hands of the god, as the symbol of regeneration. The dead one is shown lying on the ground in the form of a mummy, and the god is coming to touch his lips with it and revivify his body. Ages before Egyptian civilization dawned, it was carved on pottery, and buried with human bodies along with food and weapons, the evidence, even in that early period, of a faith in a resurrection and a life beyond the tomb. It is a somewhat saddening and peculiar fact that this sacred symbol should have been associated with, what appears to us to be, a vile and most degrading worship. While the phallic cult may have originally been the

This article THE SQUARE AND THE CROSS was adapted from A.S. MacBride’s book, "Speculative Masonry: Its Mission, Its Evolution, and Its Landmarks,"


22 regulations covering the daily life of all men in the mason trade both inside and outside the Lodge and offenders were punished by fines. However, the strictest rule, concerning the safety of scaffold and walkways, was more strictly enforced and a Master found guilty after an accident was condemned for life never to use scaffolding except under or with another principle master.


This may well explain the origin and purpose of the Five points of Fellowship. There must have been many accidents in those days and all masons learned the safety procedures in their training. It seems probable that the Points were taught and used originally as a means of raising a broken body or reviving someone who had been killed by a fall. Douglas Knoop quoted biblical examples of miraculous restoration of life which suggest, in effect, that the Points are akin to what we call nowadays, the Kiss of Life.

If Fort Knox is the place where the USA gold reserves are stored, then the little room of Lodge Sir Robert Moray No. 1641 is today the Fort Knox of Freemasonry, not only for Scotland but the whole world. The Scots saved every scrap of paper and we are indebted to them for the oldest Lodge minutes in the World, the oldest codes of official regulations of Operative Lodge and the oldest complete ritual texts with descriptions of admission ceremonies of their day. The clearest light on out beginning in Operative Masonry is drawn from these priceless relics, beginning with the Schaw Statues.

The Schaw Statues code of 1599 of 12 clauses was addresses directly to the Lodge of Kilwinning and although the oldest surviving Lodge minutes begin 1642, its reputation as early as 1599 was sufficient to earn the title of “head and second Lodge of Scotland”. The first minute book of Aitchinson’s Haven Lodge 1698-1764, now acquired by Grand Lodge, begins with the oldest lodge minute in the world. I records the admission of Robert Widderspone as Fellow Craft in 1598, but it is safe to conclude that the Lodge was older than it’s earliest minutes. It was suggested by Wallace-James in 1911 that it dated back to 1526, when the local monks at Newbattle obtained a Royal Charter to build a harbour nearby. For some years it was thought that the Lodge

If one can imagine a Grand Master who was at the time the King’s Master Mason in charge of all his works, that was William Schaw and the 1598 code addressed to Edinburgh was to be observed by all the Master Masons within the realm. There were 10

conferred only one admission ceremony, but in 1940 R.J. Meekren proved that the minutes referred to the two degree system. Nowadays, we can prove that there were four stages in the working life of the masons in those days; Booking (Indentures), Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master.

many years and we may date it from c15001525. The Lodge became very powerful and the minutes provide a splendid record of the way in which it exercised its powers. Generally, the rules were enforced by fines, for working with cowans or with “unfree men”, for not attending meetings and even for refusing to take office. The lodge funds were put to good use by lending money to members at low interest of by helping itinerant masons on their way to the next lodge. Towards the end of the 17th-century, money lending became an important part of lodge business and it flourished.

The greatest of all our treasurers are the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh (St. Mary’s Chapel) No. 1 because they cover the history of masonry from purely operative times, right through the period of transition virtually without a break, to the present day. Nowhere in the world is there a collection of early lodge records to be compared with those of No. 1 and for those who believe that freemasonry began with the founding of Grand Lodge in 1717, the minutes provide the perfect answer.

In 1634, we have minutes recording the admission of Scottish noblemen and gentry, Lord Alexander, Viscount Canada and his brother Sir Anthony Alexander (sons of the 1st Earl of Stirling and Sir Alexander Strachan, all close friends of John Mylne, the Principal Master Mason within the Castke of Edinburgh by Royal Appointment of Charles I. In 1631, Mylne was Deacon of the Incorporation and Warden, equivalent to Master, of the Lodge and his major works included churches, schools, Heriot’s Hospital, town walls, defences and had started to build the palace of Parmure House before his death. The gentlemen were all admitted Fellow Craft, receiving the two degrees in a single session and they visited the lodge regularly, but it continued as an operative trade controlling body.

Mason trade organisation in Edinburgh began in 1475 when wrights and masons combined to form an “Incorporation” or guild of these two crafts under a Seal of Clause, a kind of charter which gave them certain rights. At their head was the deacon, elected by the Freemen-Burgesses of each craft. Many incorporations were formed at this time and were greatly favoured by the Town Councils. The Seal of Clause is a lengthy document, but the word “lodge” is not mentioned and it is virtually certain that the lodge, as a trade controlling body, had not yet, come into existence. There is no hint of any admission ceremony and it is obvious that there was no ritual-based ceremony of passing Fellow Craft in 1475.

In the 1650’s there were signs of lax procedure and after the disastrous fires of 1670-80, the Town Council ordered all the rebuilding to be in stone. There was ample work for everyone and Entered Apprentices were able to earn a living without paying the fees to pass the Fellow Craft. An attempt to make the passing compulsory was not successful and barely half the Entered Apprentices took the promotion. In 1682 the Lodge began to worry about the great

The Mary’s Chapel minutes begin in 1599 and during the 125 years that had elapsed since the rise of the Incorporation, the Lodge of Edinburgh had come into existence and was officially described as the “first and principal lodge of Scotland” as of before, implying that it had enjoyed that status for 11

necessity of the poor and from 1688 onwards, the lodge was gradually becoming a benefit society. In 1677, a new Lodge had been founded in Canongate, which adjoined Edinburgh, and in 1688 the members at Leith broke away and started their own lodge so that there were two rivals. In 1708 the journeymen won the right, in a lawsuit, to form their own lodge and to “confer the mason word”.

them. In mid battle, a hail of great stones came down from heaven and slew more of the enemy than the Israelite’s had slain with the sword. At that stage, Joshua spoke to the Lord and he, Joshua, commanded the sun to stand still, or as we say, “to continue the light of day” So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.

In 1726, James Mack, the Warden, introduced the admission of creditable tradesmen as Honorary Members for one golden guinea for the use of the poor. There men were no masons by trade and there was a thundering row with the diehard operatives who walked out. Mack was then elected Master and on the same night, eight nonmasons were admitted. Soon the operative character of the lodge was completely lost and when a new code of by-laws was drawn up in 1736 it did not contain a single rule relative to the mason trade. In the principal operative lodge in Scotland, the transition was virtually complete.

All four versions and many more say; was in this position he (Joshua) prayed fervently to the almighty to continue the light of day, until he had completed....... But, nowhere in the Biblical story is there any hint of prayer, or a posture of prayer, and one cannot help wondering why so many of our rituals attribute the posture to Joshua.

Question: How many men are included in the expression “forty and two thousand”?

The Transition In Scotland By Harry Carr sourced from the Masonic Square, March 1984.

Answer: The figure in question appears in judges X11, 6, and the authorized version of the Bible translates the original Hebrew word-for-word, with every word in its proper place. It does not mean two thousand and forty, it means 42,000, and that is the correct translation.

DID YOU KNOW? Question: A posture of prayer in the F.C. degree is said to be derived from Joshua using it: to continue the light of day ...’ Was it not Moses who used it to keep Joshua victorious?

The problem arises because it is not possible in Hebrew to say “forty-two”. One must say forty and two, or two and forty, i.e. the “and” must be there.

Answer: Four out of five of our best known rituals, Emulation, Taylor’s Universal and West end, refer to Joshua as the central character in this story. Joshua, X, 61-14 tells of his battle with the Amorites after he had marched all night with his army to reach

The best proof that the figure 42,000 is correct, can be checked from the first chapter of the Book of Numbers. It describes the census taken by Moses after the exodus 12

from Egypt. He was commanded to number all the men of Israel, aged twenty and upwards, who would be allowed to bear arms in battle.

small chambers built within the hollow walls. The rooms were very small, all five cubits high. (approx. 7 ft. 6 in) Their width for the lowest row was 7 ft. 6 inches for the middle level 9 ft, and for the top row 10 ft. 6 in. Their lengths are not stated, nor do we know how many there were, so that we cannot guess at their length.

Excepting the Levites, whose services were reserved for the tabernacle, the numbers for each of the twelve tribes (including Ephraim and Manasseh ) are contained in verses 2043 and among them are several figures which would give rise to the same problem as you have posed in your question.

The “Winding Stair” was probable situated within the porch on the south side, there would hardly have been room for it if it led directly into any of those narrow rooms. The exact situation of the “Middle Chamber” is uncertain, but it was probably in the middle tier of rooms.

But verse 46 gives the grand total of all the twelve tribes, and that can only be achieved by reading ―forty and Two Thousand as 42,000.

Masonically, we have contrived a major spiritual lesson, based mainly on what we say that our ancient brethren would have seen when they entered the middle chamber, but, there is nothing in the Biblical text, 1 Kings Vs. 5 - 8 to confirm those details. Verse 8 speaks of the middle chamber, says nothing of where it was, or what it contained. Yet, the symbolism is none the less valid as a Masonic lesson, and I quote how from the Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (MacKey & McClenachan, revised by E.L. Gawkins & W.J. Hughan)…The true symbolism of the winding stairs.

Question: What is the significance of the “winding stair” in the second degree ? Answer: I shall quote two passages which are helpful to an understanding of the symbolism of the “winding stair” and the “middle chamber”. The first is by D. Albert MacKey 1807-1881; It is as a symbol and a symbol only that we must study this beautiful legend of the Winding Stair... an allegory to teach us the ascent of the mind from ignorance, through all the toils of study.... receiving here a little and there a little, adding something at each step until, in the middle chamber of life - in the final fruitation of manhood - the reward is obtained and the purified and elevated intellect is invested with the reward, in the direction how to see God and God’s truth.

They represent the progress of an inquiring mind with the toils and labours of intellectual cultivation and study, and the preparatory acquisition of all human sciences as a preliminary step to the attainment of Divine truth, which, it must be remembered, is always symbolized in Masonry by the Word.

MacKey insisted, that we treat the Winding Stair as a legend because many of the things we say on this subject are pure Masonic allegory; they are not in the Biblical text.

The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.

The main body of Solomon’s temple was surrounded on three sides by three rows of 13

explain. It is a word they use but only use in the vaguest sense. It is not confined to Freemasonry. It is part of all human experience. Indeed such a statement has to be amplified lest it is too lightly dismissed. Ritual is part of all human experience. It is probably an essential part of all human experience. Man cannot live without ritual not just Masonic man, not even just modern man - but man at all times in history, and in all societies from the most primitive to the most modern, has needed and practised rituals. What is RITUAL?

Ritual in Freemasonry It’s Importance.

You have all heard the Brother described as a good ritualist; the Brother admonished for not knowing his ritual; the Lodge which attracts visitors by virtue of its ritual work; the Lodge which is characterised by ritual books clandestinely slipped out of pockets, hurriedly glanced at, or secretly propped up for the convenience of the Brother who had not learnt his ritual before coming to the meeting. What is RITUAL?

RITUAL is the practising of RITES. That is a smug and self-satisfying definition. It is also most unhelpful. RITUAL, if we can simplify it, is the performing of certain acts in order to demonstrate some mystery. As a definition that again is no doubt very accurate, but it does not tell us what RITUAL really means. Let us rather approach the definition by examples. There are elementary rituals in social living. When we see a friend, we wave - not merely to exercise our muscles, but as an indication of friendship. When we greet a lady, we doff our hat - or at least we did when we wore hats and in the days when there were ladies. Presumably, we did not doff our hat to show off our waves or the sheen on our bald pate. The act of raising the hat conveyed our notions that somehow ladies were beings of another kind from us, who merited some show of respect. What we could only feel without expressing in words, we expressed in action. Similarly the salute exchanged between warriors shows a mutual regard and admiration for each other's skills and attributes - but you try explaining this to old soldiers and stand back. These then are three simple rites, actions of a particular kind each conveying a deeper meaning.

For most people RITUAL is something they can recognise happening but cannot really

Let us move on to deeper rituals. These rituals referred to are those practised

The word that I take up this evening is RITUAL. Here is the very basis of Freemasonry. I would not go as far as saying that RITUAL is what Freemasonry is all about, but without RITUAL we would not have Freemasonry as we know it. RITUAL has been described as the be-all and end-all of Freemasonry - it is not and never has been. Yet without RITUAL there is no such thing as Freemasonry. What is RITUAL?


between man and man and meaningful to each. There are other more significant rituals which indicate relationships not between man and man but between man and God. Those of you who are members of a Presbyterian church know that the service begins with the Beadle carrying in the Bible. This is the last remnant of ritual. The Bible is needed for the service. It could be brought into Church at any time during the week or left at the lectern from Sunday to Sunday. Instead it is brought in a dignified manner each time the service is about to commence. The simple physical act is charged with meaning. The act tells us that the service is concerned with proclaiming the Gospel as contained in the Scriptures. Because the Beadle is aware of the enormity of the message, he carries the Book with dignity and solemnity. The act of Communion likewise is a sharing of bread and wine, a simple act indeed. Yet it is treated with solemnity. It is carried out according to certain prescribed rules which in themselves have no sanction other than what those sharing in the rite give them. In the Roman Church the mere act of raising the bread or the cup of wine are charged with meaning and significance - the full force of sharing in such a Communion is not derived only from the acting out of a sequence but from how the sequence is acted out.

not undermined the significance of the entry? The ritual is weakened. When the priest holds up the bread before the congregation a bell rings to draw attention to the act. But what happens when the act and not its meaning becomes the thing? We all know the phrase "hocus-pocus". When anything is trivial or magical in a childish sense it is dismissed as so much "hocuspocus". Likewise no children's party appears to be complete without a magician who will say "abracadabra". Without "abracadabra" the spells will not work and the children will not be mystified. But how many people know that "hocus-pocus" derives from the action of the priest elevating the host, or the bread, before the people. He accompanied it with the words, "Hoc est corpus," Latin for "This is my body." When the meaning of the action was lost in the action itself, hocuspocus was the derisory comment. In an obscure religious sect, long since forgotten, it was the practice to wear badges in the form of an equilateral triangle containing the opening words of their great prayer against the powers of darkness. The words of the prayer were "abracadabra"; what came after is long forgotten and the significance of it all has been reduced to stage magician-ship. We meet this evening in a Freemasons' Lodge. We constituted ourselves according to certain practices accepted by us and inherited by us. We would normally have welcomed a new member among us according to forms practised in this room for over fifty years and introduced into this room by those who had learnt these forms elsewhere and before they came. In these ways we have practised rituals. But then there are numerous bodies of men who meet, who constitute themselves, who welcome new members. In these things we are not unique. In these things other bodies have their rituals. They seek to show by handshakes or applause their friendship one

Ritual is weakened when the manner in which it is practised is divorced from the reason for its being practised. When the old soldier throws a salute and it is acknowledged in an offhand manner by a subaltern are they always seeing their actions as an exchange of compliments between warriors? The salute soon loses significance. The ritual is weakened. When the Beadle thinks what a splendid figure he makes as he enters the church carrying the Bible has he 15

to another. The rituals of most other bodies are human rituals. They belong to the plane of man-to-man relationships. The rituals of Freemasonry have a much deeper significance.

make those who perform it better people? I believe it can do both. It will be better able to do both if we all seek to realise the significance of what we are doing. When we know that everything we do, everything we say is meaningful, and then our ritual will be worthwhile. When we believe that what we are doing is worthwhile, then we will apply ourselves to the practice of our ritual. When we apply ourselves to the ritual, we may find our own experience enriched. It may be then that on Monday at work we will all be the better for having been in the Lodge on Friday evening. If we cannot be better men through joining any organisation, it is, in my mind, not worth joining. If men can look at your actions and praise them saying, "He's a Mason!" then you have succeeded and the Craft has succeeded.

Freemasonry is nothing without man-to-man relationships. We lay stress on friendship. Indeed we push it further and refer to Brotherhood. But the rituals practised in a Masonic Lodge seek to give us an awareness of something more. There is another dimension to our thinking. Freemasonry seeks to illustrate truths which stretch beyond the here and now. The practice of Masonry is not confined within the walls of our Lodge room. Nor is it merely extended to the practice of rituals within any Lodge room or all Lodge rooms. Freemasonry seeks to demonstrate the truths of life itself. It is a man-made organisation and seeks to reveal to all who join those things which cannot be put clearly into words, those truths which underpin society. It realises the inadequacy of words and understanding. The words and actions of a Masonic Degree are both essential. Words require understanding intellectually; actions can often be appreciated more immediately. The philosopher who would hold forth and explain life, what it is about, what it means, and what is man's place in the scheme of things will use words. The Freemason searching after the same truths uses pictures and actions. He tells stories. He uses object lessons.

What is Ritual? Ritual is the performing of common acts in such a way that they show forth eternal truths and mysteries. Article by By Bro. Robert B. Reid RWM No. 1316, from a paper delivered in Lodge Dunedin No. 1316, and sourced from the Alberta Freemason Magazine.

CRAYONS We could learn a lot from crayons; some are sharp, some are pretty, some are dull, some have weird names, and all are different colours, but they all have to learn to live in the same box.

Two yardsticks can be used to measure the value of any action: will it lead to an improvement in the lot of mankind generally; will it lead to an improvement in the one who performed the act? Supposing we apply this criteria to our Masonry, does our ritual contribute to the sum of human happiness, will it lead to an improvement in the lot of mankind generally, and will it 16

Lodge Menzies Doric No. 890

suffered due to falling membership and in 1927 Menzies Lodge W.A.C. finally closed Lodge Menzies Doric managed to survive by changing its meeting night to a Saturday night and encouraged visitors to travel from other towns in the district. In the 50`s and 60`s with the mining industry revival the Lodge continued operating but in 1967 due to mine closures resulting in members leaving the area discussions took place to transfer the Charter to Kambalda. This however was not allowed to take place due to an agreement made between the two constitution in the early 1900`s concerning Scottish Lodges.

Lodge Menzies Doric No. 890 was founded in 1899 in the town of Menzies, North of Kalgoorlie in the Goldfields Among the 21 founder Members were the Worshipful Senior Warden, Worshipful Junior Warden and the Tyler of the English Lodge “Menzies” No 2639 E.C. which had been previously established there in April 1897. The first meeting of the Lodge was held in the Grand Hotel in Menzies on the 24/6/1899 at which 12 Founder Members and 11 visitors were present.

The 1908 Articles of Recognition from the Grand Lodge of Scotland recognised the Grand Lodge of Western Australia as an independent and sovereign Masonic body and agreed not to erect any further lodges in the territory; therefore no new Scottish Lodges have been formed in Western Australia since 1904. Agreement, however, between the two Constitutions, could not be reached in forming a United Grand Lodge of Western Australia, although several endeavours to do so had been attempted between 1900 and 1942.

The two Lodges shared the cost { 850 pounds } of building a Temple in the town which was consecrated at the same time as the Installation in June 1900 with 39 members and sixteen visitors present, 25 Brethren receiving their mark on the same day. During the period between June 1899 and July 1902, 61 Brethren were initiated, passed and raised, also at this time many English Lodges were changing over to the W.A. Constitution and one of these was the English Lodge “Menzies” which became No 21 W.A.C. in 1900

Today, there is little chance of an agreement being reached and it is still the opinion of our Brethren that we would not be interested in becoming part of a United Grand Lodge of Western Australia and will proudly continue our allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Scotland.

In 1905 a District Grand Lodge of the Goldfields was established but Menzies Doric refused to become a part of it, preferring to remain with the coastal districts, a decision which was possibly to prove important in the years to come. With the advent of the depression both Lodges

In November 1972 after a storm had severely damaged the Temple attempts were again made by several of the Brethren to transfer the Charter within the Goldfields, but once more this was denied and with finally no other alternative the Brethren 17

reluctantly agreed to transfer the Charter to Rockingham, in the Perth Metropolitan area.

by charitable giving, and by voluntary efforts and works as individuals.

The first meeting held in Rockingham was in September 1973 with the Charter and authority of the Lodge being entrusted to Worshipful Bro. T. Halse a member who had a long association with the Lodge since his initiation there in 1935. In November 1973 Bro. D. Smart was installed as the Right Worshipful Master and for the term of his office until installing his successor W. Bro. H. Wrigley in June 1974 commuted between Kalgoorlie and Rockingham for the meetings

Truth: Freemasons strive for truth, requiring high moral standards and aiming to achieve them in their own lives. Freemasons believe that these principles represent a way of achieving higher standards in life. In a Freemasons Lodge all are equal regardless of their position or circumstances in their personal or professional lives. This universal principle is practised throughout the world and is reflected by all Freemasons lodges regardless of where they are. Freemasons also frequently visit other lodges (locally within Australia and internationally) and are greeted as friends by other masons where ever they may be.

Lodge Menzies Doric No 890 has been making good men better since 1899, and for many years, Freemasons have followed three great principles: Brotherly Love: Every true Freemason will show tolerance and respect for the opinions of others and behave with kindness and understanding to his fellow creatures.

Being a Freemason is about a father helping his son make better decisions; a business leader striving to bring morality to the workplace; a thoughtful man learning to work through tough issues in his life and enrich the lives of others.

Relief: Freemasons are taught to practice charity, and to care, not only for their own, but also for the community as a whole, both


A Brother’s Hand

Picture 1 inscription. At this place a Masonic Hall was established for Lodge Menzies Doric No. 890 S.C. Constituted March 1899 Relocated to Rockingham 1973.

When you’re feeling all down hearted And life’s hard to understand. Say it’s good to feel the pressure Of a Brother’s friendly hand. Just to know he sympathizes Though he doesn’t say a word. How it starts your courage climbing As your heart is touched and stirred.

Picture 2 inscription. This memorial to early Goldfields Freemasonry was unveiled by the Grand Master Mason Bro. Charles Ian. R. Wolridge Gordon of Esslemont Tuesday 16th February 2016.

With an arm across your shoulders And a grip you love to find How it makes you feel the beauty Of the hearts of his mankind It is just a little token Of an ever growing band For there’s faith and hope and courage In a Brother’s friendly hand.

Sources; this brief history was forwarded for inclusion in SRA76 by Bro. Stewart Mitchell, the secretary of the Lodge. The Website of Lodge Menzies Doric No. 890 The District Grand Lodge of Western Australia website The History of Scottish Freemasonry in Western Australia 19

Famous Freemasons

Warner Baxter was born on March 29th 1889 in Columbus Ohio, to Edwin F. Baxter and Jennie (Jane) B. Barrett. Edwin Baxter owned a cigar stand in Columbus, and when Warner was not quite 5 months old his father died. Baxter and his mother would hey later moved to New York City, where he became active in dramatics at school appearing in plays. They family again moved, this time to San Francisco, where Warner graduated from High School. Warner and his mother were in San Francisco when the 1906 earthquake struck. In 1908 they returned to Columbus and Warner took his first step in show business by joining an act in the Keith Vaudeville Circuit.

Warner Leroy Baxter The ‘Original’ Cisco Kid

In 1914 he started his film career as an extra, and during the 1920’s he had appeared in 48 feature silent films, among which was ‘The Great Gatsby,’ in 1926. His film career however do a different when sound came to the films, and Warner soon became a sought after actor and became one of Hollywood’s leading actors. One author wrote of Baxter in 1970, “There was no éclat with him, no scandals, no Hollywood careering. Women liked him because he was mature and reliable. He was a good work-horse of an actor, often at the mercy of his material. When it was good, he gave positive, likeable performances. It was a long career but he is hardly remembered today.” I suppose today he would be called a ‘jobbing actor.’ Between 1914 and 1950, Warner appeared in more than 100 films.

Warner Leroy Baxter was an American film actor from the 1910s to the 1940s. Best known for his role as the Cisco Kid in the 1929 film ‘In Old Arizona.’ This was the first ‘Western’ talkie movie, for which Baxter won the Best Actor Academy Award for portraying the Cisco Kid at the 2nd Academy Awards ceremony in 1930. He would go on to frequently play Latin bandit characters in western films and played the Cisco Kid another 4 times.

Baxter's most notable starring role was as the The Cisco Kid in In Old Arizona (1929), he also starred in 42nd Street (1933), Grand Canary (1934), Broadway Bill (1934), and Kidnapped (1938). And by 1936 Warner Baxter was the highest-paid actor in Hollywood. That same year he had the starring role in the film, ‘The Prisoner of Shark Island,’ which was produced by

In the 40’s Baxter appeared in a number of ‘B’ movies, most notable of which was the ‘Crime Doctor’ series of 10 films. 20

Darryl F. Zanuck, was directed by John Ford. Many have considered this to have been his finest acting role. However, by 1943, Warner Baxter had slipped to B movie roles.

In 1947 he signed a contract with Columbia for the Crime Doctor series, and made 2 films a year for them, which took about eight weeks. The rest of the time, he relaxed, soaked up the sun, travelled and enjoyed life with his wife.

It was about this time that Baxter began to have career and personal troubles. Baxter was a contract star with Fox Picture Corporation and was being loaned out to other studios, such as MGM, and complained of having to work practically every day of the year. He desperately wanted out of his contract and the studio was not giving him the roles he thought he should have. He was ageing and working with younger actresses made him uncomfortable. However, film studios were notorious for holding actors to their contract, no matter how much they complained, and Baxter spoke of retiring when his contract with the now 20th Century Fox was completed. In 1941 newspaper columnist’s were reporting that Baxter’s retirement talk was for real, and some time later he suffered a mental breakdown. Warner would say in later years of this period in interviews, “It's like chasing a rainbow. You never see the end of it. Each part you get has to be better than the last one and before you know it you've got a nervous breakdown.”

Warner Baxter was married twice, he second wife was Winifred M. Bryson whom he married on January 29, 1918. Throughout his life, Warner credited Winifred with keeping his feet on the ground and being his rock. They lived in Beverly Hills, California from 1944 until his death in 1951, Warner had suffered from severe arthritis for several years, and in 1951, he underwent a lobotomy as a last resort to ease the chronic pain he was suffering. On May 7, 1951 at his home, Warner Leroy Baxter died of pneumonia at the age of 62 and was interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. The Los Angeles Times noted that the private funeral service was markedly reminiscent of the film capitol's earlier days. Among his pallbearers were long time close friends Ronald Colman, William Powell, and Tim McCoy. He was buried in a bronze casket with a portrait of his wife. In the Who’s Who of California in 1928. Baxter’s personal listing submitted by him, lists his address, date of birth, religion, his political affiliation and the clubs he is a member of. It also lists Warner as a Mason. Bro. Warner Leroy Baxter, Movie actor was a long time member of Cahuenga Lodge No. 513, (now Panamericna Lodge No.513) Hollywood, and well as the famous ‘233’ Masonic Club.

By the time Baxter finished his contract with Fox he was more happier than he had been for years, he is quoted as saying, "I don't need the money, and I work just to keep interested. I had a good part in a big picture about six years ago. There was tension in making it and I felt myself getting nervous again. I was glad when it was over." Describing his earlier breakdown ten years ago he said he worried and stewed and fussed. "I'd start to walk one way and discover that I was going in the opposite direction. When I thought I was carrying on a conversation, all I was doing was mumbling. I thought I was going crazy."

The subject of this article Warner Baxter is not to be confused with another actor who played The Cisco Kid shown at Saturday Morning Matinees, Duncan Renaldo. This article by the editor of the SRA76 magazine has been compiled from a Variety of sources freely available on the internet.


meanings of, the physical world of earth, air, fire and water, which is about him. He has a brain and a mind, by which he reasons and understands about the matters physical which he is surrounded. And he has a "Something Beyond"; you may call it Soul, or Heart, or Spirit, or Imagination as you will, but it is something which is allied to, rather than a part of, reason, and which is connected with the physical side of life only through its sensory contacts. "Your soul or spirit, my brother, comprehends a language which the brain does not understand. The keenest of minds have striven to make this mystic language plain to reason, without success. If you hear music which brings tears to your eyes and grief or joy to your heart, you are responding to a language your brain does not understand and cannot explain. It is not with your brain that you love your mother, your child or your wife; it is "Something Beyond"; and the language with which that love is spoken and understood is not the language of the tongue.

Why Symbolism? "I am puzzled" began the new Master Mason, "over a matter on which I have vainly sought light among my brethren. None gives me a satisfactory answer. We are taught that Masonry teaches through symbols; I want to know why. Why do we not put our truths into plain words? Why do we employ one thing to stand for another thing? Wouldn't Masonry be stronger and better if it was plain instead of 'veiling in allegory' its principles and ethics?"

"A symbol is a word in that language. Translate that symbol into words which appeal only to the mind, and the spirit of the word is lost. Words appeal to the mind; meanings not expressed in words appeal to the spirit.

"Like so many questions which can be answered regarding Masonry,' answered the Old Past Master,' this one may have several answers, all correct."

"All that there is in Freemasonry, which can be set down in words on a page, leaves out completely the spirit of the Order. If we depended on words, or ideas alone, the fraternity would not make a universal appeal to all men, since no man has it given to him to appeal to the minds of all other men. But Freemasonry expresses truths which are universal; it expresses them in a universal language, universally understood by all men without words. That language is the language of the symbol, and the symbol is

"Well, what is your answer?" demanded the new Master Mason. "You will surely admit without argument," answered the Old Past Master, "that man is a triple nature; he is physical, mental and spiritual. He has a body, and senses which bring him into contact with, and translate the 22

universally understood because it is the means of communication between spirits, souls, hearts.

misses its meaning entirely. "The symbol has many interpretations. These do not contradict each other; they amplify each other. Thus, the square is a symbol of perfection, of rectitude of conduct, of honour and honesty, of good work. These are all different, and yet allied. The square is not a symbol of wrong, or evil, or meanness or disease! Ten different men may read ten different meanings into a square, and yet each meaning fits with, and belongs to, the other meanings.

"Indeed, when we say of Masonry that it is 'universal,' we mean literally; it is of the universe, not merely of the world. If it were possible for an inhabitant of Mars to make and use a telescope which would enable him to see plainly a square mile of the surface of the earth, and if we knew it, and desired by drawing upon that square mile a symbol, to communicate with the inhabitants of Mars, we would choose, undoubtedly, one with as many meanings as possible; one which had a material, a mental and a spiritual meaning. Such a symbol would be the triangle, the square or the circle. Our supposed Martian might respond with a complementary symbol; if we showed him a triangle, he might reply with the 47th problem of Euclid; if we showed him a circle, he might set down 3.141659 (the number by which a diameter multiplied, becomes a circumference). We would find in a symbol a language with which to begin communication, even with all the universe!

"Now ten men have ten different kinds of hearts. Not all have the same power of imagination. They do not all have the same ability to comprehend. So each gets from a symbol what he can. He uses his imagination. He translates to his soul as much of the truth as he is able to make part of him. This the ten cannot do with truths expressed in words. 'Twice two is equal to four' is a truth which must be accepted all at once, as a complete exposition, or not at all. He who can understand but the 'twice' or the 'equal' or the 'four' has no conception of what is being said. But ten men can read ten progressive, different, correct and beautiful meanings into the trowel, and each be right as far as he goes. The man who sees it merely as an instrument which helps to bind, has a part of the meaning. He who finds it a link with operative Masons has another part. The man who sees it as a symbol of man's relationship to Deity, because with it he (spiritually) does the Master's work, has another meaning. All these meanings are right; when all men know all the meanings the need of Masonry will have passed away.

"Naturally then, we employ symbols here for heart to speak to heart. Call it soul, mind, spirit, what you will, imagination is its collection of senses. So we must appeal to the imagination when speaking a truth which is neither mental or physical, and the symbol is the means by which one imagination speaks to another. Nothing else will do; no words can be as effective (unless they are themselves symbols), no teachings expressed in language can be as easily taught or learned by the heart as those which come via the symbol through the imagination.

"To sum up, the reason we must use symbols is because only by them can we speak the language of the spirit, each to each, and because they form an elastic language, which each man reads for himself according to his ability. Symbolism is the

Take from Freemasonry its symbols and you have but the husk; the kernel is gone. He who hears but the words of Freemasonry 23

only language which is that elastic, and the only one by which the spirit can be touched.

he has allowed to grow and multiply within his mind, guided by his conception of the teachings of Masonry.

To suggest that Masonry use any other would be as revolutionary as to remove her Altars, meet in the public square or elect by a majority vote! In other words, Masonry without symbols would not be Masonry; it would be but dogmatic and not very erudite philosophy, of which the world is full as it is, and none of which ever satisfies the heart!"

A valuable society is that which best serves, by its interpretations, to enrich the lives of men and enable them to apprehend the fullness of living. The ultimate test of any code that has claim to usefulness for mankind must be manifested by its practical application, its material guidance and its universal helpfulness in everyday affairs. The value of Freemasonry is predicated on the willingness of individual members to live according to the principles taught in our Lodges.

This is the Twenty-second and last of the article in this our regular feature, ‘The Old Past Master,’ published each month. Next month we will begin another series of short talks by Carl Claudy called Foreign Countries.

In the words of Albert Pike, “Freemasonry is the subjugation of the human that is in man by the divine; the conquest of the appetites and passions by the moral sense and reason; a continual effort, struggle, and warfare of the spiritual against the material and sensual. The primary purposes of Masonry are to enlighten the mind, arouse the conscience, stimulate the noble and generous impulses of the human heart. It seeks to promote the best type of manhood, based upon the practice of the Golden Rule and of Brotherly Love.”

Masonry’s Constant Call Men are makers of themselves by virtue of the thoughts which they choose and encourage within their own minds. Masonry is truth learned by living. When we try a thing and see it work, we have faith in it. So when we select one of the statements from the Ritual or from the charges and analyse it carefully, we are inclined to try the principle in our own daily life. The result is sure to be gratifying, for the principles of Masonry have worth which has been proved over a long period of time. They have value because they conform to the best established teachings of philosophy and of psychology.

The most illustrious characters in all ages have been struck with the beauty and magnificence of Masonry, and have devoted much time and attention to the investigation of its admirable adaptation to the wants of the human family. There can be no question that a part of a Mason’s time and thought, devoted to the study of its wonderful work, must conduce to the improvement of his intellectual powers.

When we mentally rub shoulders with the man whom we respect as being a good Mason, we realize that a noble character is not a thing of chance, but is the natural result of continued effort in right thinking. His character is built of the thoughts which

The researchers of modern times have greatly enlarged our views of the system of Masonry. The study of its constitution, its principles and its magnetic influence over 24

the whole world has opened to our view the bright display of its wisdom, its beauty and its strength.

is the character of the men who are supposed to exemplify its teachings. The grand object of Masonry is to promote the happiness of the human race. The great need of Masonry is individual interest in interpretation of our symbols, and individual development of love for a Masonic way of living. We appeal to the good sense of mankind, and seek to improve the public conscience. We know that to improve the public we must improve the individuals who compose that public. We seek to teach ourselves how best to live and best agree. As examples of true living we extend our influence to the benefit of the family, of the community, and of the nation.

The general desire and aim of the Order is to propagate truth, thereby making its votaries better and wiser. As Freemasons are to ever search for further light they should be zealous students, thinkers and teachers. Men will die and pass away, the nations of the earth will cease, but the truths and principles contained in the Masonic institution will live and operate. Masonry, recognizing the immense value of symbolic teaching, seeks at every step of the candidate’s advancement to impress upon his mind that he is largely the architect and master workman of his own character. Taking as a pattern or symbol that superb product of ancient art, the temple of King Solomon, she shows her seekers for light that as the stones were squared in the quarries, and the timbers hewed in the forests, so must the principles of a true and noble life be made of sound and carefully prepared material.

This is from our Regular feature of articles under the title, “Reflections.” Articles from all around the world from a variety of Constitutions and authors and adapted to use in SRA76. This article originally appeared in the August Edition of ‘The Indiana Freemasons.’


The Ritual is a work of art, and like all works of art is valuable not merely for what it represents, but mainly for what it suggests the mind. The material representation may be good, and the technique beyond criticism, but if no thought or feeling is suggested little value is attached. The Ritual suggests to our minds great thoughts, in simple, homely words. To the humblest mind, a lesson that it can understand, and to the noblest of men, grander truths yet to be learned are clearly indicated. The reputation of the Fraternity, to a greater or lesser degree, is in the keeping of each member. It is within the power of every Mason to glorify or nullify the institution. The public never reads Masonic books or Masonic philosophy. Its idea of the fraternity is not well defined, and the sole basis of judgment it falls back upon

A poem inspired by a third degree.

Here we stand with brother in hand Uphold his honour in mind Teach and guide his search for answers Protect his spirit always succeed In truth and in values With great order in mind We are all equal no matter the circumstance Helping hands go farther in life Than that of misguided strife Precious time spent Rewards those who walk this path Of understanding the watchful eye Who sees all in beauty bright?


Egyptian Philosophers

until 1821 when a Frenchman called Champollian translated the Rosetta Stone. This black basalt tablet or Stela, which is in the British museum, dates back to 196 BCE and records a decree in hieroglyphic, Greek and Demotic scripts, enabling the translation to be made. Prior to 1821, archaeologists had unearthed numerous documents and had seen many hieroglyphs carved and engraved on walls and vessels but had been unable to make sense of them. Before the translation of the Rosetta Stone, the early Masons thought they were a complicated cipher used by a philosophical ruling class to communicate secrets to a priesthood of initiates. Once the translation had been made it was found the hieroglyphs formed a perfectly ordinary language. Instead of revealing black arts they yielded a fascinating picture of everyday life in ancient Egypt. According to Albert Mackey the documents consisted of ―Bills, duns, mortgages, recipes for soup, recipes for face powder, advertisements, news bulletins, birth and death notices, etc‖. There was no evidence whatever of any mysteries or secret information in the hieroglyphs.

After the union of the Antients and Moderns in 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England, the Ritual was totally revised to make it acceptable to both parties and it was adopted in 1823 as the Emulation Ritual. The new Ritual was brought to Canada in 1825 by M.W. Bro. Simon McGillivray, Provincial Grand Master in Ontario at that time, and is the Ritual we continue to use today. I don‘t know if the Lecture in the South was originally included in the Ritual, but it‘s there now and this evening I would like to have a look at the first part of it which states: -

It was immediately clear that the idea the ancient Egyptians ―concealed their tenets and principles under certain hieroglyphic signs‖ etc. was a fantasy devised for a particular reason which I will discuss.

―The usages and customs of Masonry have ever corresponded with those of the Egyptian Philosophers to which they bear a near affinity. Unwilling to expose their mysteries to vulgar eyes, they concealed their particular tenets and principles under certain hieroglyphical figures …‖ etc.

In 1904 the then Grand Historian, M.W. Bro. J. Ross Robertson, speaking on the origin of Masonry said: ―… in the light of modern research by writers of eminence, and from my own reading of much that has been printed on this point, I am satisfied that the genesis of the speculative section does not antedate the era of the building corporations of the middle ages …‖. This

It‘s interesting to note that the meaning of the hieroglyphs was not known in England 26

view has been strongly supported in a number of scholarly books published in recent years.

Let us look at the evidence of ―mysteries‖ being practised within the priesthood. Herodotus, the Greek historian, recorded that he was initiated into the mysteries of Akertet but gave no details. He did however extol the intelligence and philosophy of the priesthood, suggesting that they were in fact elite members of that society. The ―Book of the Dead‖ written over 4600 years ago refers to ―the hidden things of Re-Stau‖, an allusion to the ceremonies performed at Saqqara in the sanctuary of Sekar, the God of death No information had been recorded as to the actual ceremonies or modes of recognition used in these mysteries. We can speculate that they were similar to the better known Greek ones since the early Greeks inherited a strong cultural influence from Egypt.

How then could the usages and customs of Masonry bear an affinity etc. to those of the Egyptian philosophers? We shall try to answer that question but, first, let us look at the Egyptians themselves. The ancient Egyptian was a man very like ourselves. He built colleges and libraries, temples and fortifications. He built roads and canals, dug quarries and mines. He studied science and developed principles, many of which are still true today and form part of the basis of modern science. It is certainly true that there was a large, well educated and influential priesthood in Egypt which was independent of royal power. Over the centuries, vast land grants had been made by successive Pharaohs. In an age when a man‘s wealth was measured by the number of his cattle, the priesthood owned hundreds of thousands. Under the new kingdom the wealth of the priests of the god AMEN for example, rivalled that of the Pharaoh himself.

The ―Book of the Dead‖ describes what is probably the remains of a Neolithic cult connected with the phenomena of growth. In its pages we find password and countersign, and all the material necessary to the existence of such a secret cult. We can reasonably conclude that the Greek mysteries, and possibly also the Egyptian ones that preceded them, were also distinguished by ― password and countersign‖.

The priesthood was very large in number. In the reign of Rameses III there were 80,000 of them excluding worshippers. Every god had his own set of priests and there were many gods.

In primitive societies, most people went about the business of day to day living and spent little time speculating on the paranormal. But in any group there were always some who looked beyond everyday things and formed theories about existence, the miracle of creation, and so on. These were the witch doctors, the Shamans – later the priests and philosophers – whose job it was to explain these things to the masses.

The life of the priest was arduous. He had to adhere to an exacting code of discipline and cleanliness. His head was shaven and he wore no headdress. Only the purest white linen garment was permitted and, before he could enter the sanctum of the God, he had to perform many purifications and lustrations. He believed in a future life, and the need for a rigorous discipline to ensure happiness there.

From the earliest times, these philosophers would have developed both exoteric and esoteric information. Exoteric information 27

The Principal Tenets: Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth

could safely be communicated to the public, and esoteric was information best kept within the select group. In times when people were highly superstitious and generally ignorant, it would have been positively dangerous to reveal some of the more advanced theories and, in any event, keeping them secret was a good way to develop a mystique and establish power over others. In order to keep the esoteric information secret, it was necessary to develop two things – an initiation ceremony to ensure that only trusted men would possess it, and a means of recognizing them. Hence the password and countersign mentioned in the ―Book of the Dead‖.

The Entered Apprentice receives a monitorial explanation of these, which is both round and full, but neither round nor full enough to instruct him wholly in these three foundation stones of the Ancient Craft. Nor can he receive that roundness and fullness of explanation by words alone. He must progress through the degrees, attend his Lodge, see the Fraternity in action, fully to understand all that Freemasonry means by Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. But a word or two may clear away some possible misapprehensions.

It is highly likely that secret rites and ceremonies similar to those we know of in Greece were practised in Egypt, as indeed in other civilizations including the Incas of South America and the North American Indians; in both of which societies there were well developed rituals passed down from prehistoric times, reflecting the birth, growth and death cycles of nature.

Brotherly Love is not a sentimental phrase. It is an actuality. It means exactly what it says, the love of one brother for another. In the everyday world, brothers love one another for only one reason. Not for blood ties alone, we have all known brothers who could not get along together, not because they should, not because it is the thing to do, but simply and only because each acts like a brother. Freemasonry has magic with which to touch the hearts of men but no wizardry to make the selfish, unselfish, the brutal, gentle, the course, fine, the bad, good. Brotherly Love in Freemasonry exists only for him who acts like a brother. It is as true in Freemasonry as elsewhere that to have friends, you must be one. The freemason who sees a Square and Compasses upon a coat and thinks that there is a brother

Well before the 19th century these practices were known and the writers made sure the same protections of password and countersign were included in the Emulation Ritual. We can conclude that the reference to the hieroglyphs in the Junior Warden‘s Lecture was not based on any factual information but was deliberately used as a mean of connecting the Ritual to an ancient civilization, to give Freemasonry the pedigree it longed for and to confirm the idea that it had existed ―since time immemorial‖. This paper was written and presented in Open Lodge by V.W. Bro. Iain Bruce Mackenzie, Past Master of Georgina Lodge A.F. & A.M. No. 343 G.R.C. and Past Grand Steward of Toronto Humber Valley District


Mason, I wonder what he can do for me, is not acting like a brother. He who thinks, I wonder if there is anything I can do for him, has learned the first principle of brotherhood. ―You get from Freemasonry just what you put into it‖ has been so often said that it has become trite but it is as true now as when first uttered. One may draw cheques upon the bank only when one has deposited funds. One may draw upon Brotherly Love only if one has Brotherly Love to give.

but most happily to relieve those who are of the household of faith. Our Government considers the welfare of its own nationals before that of the nationals of other governments. The head of a family will not deny his own children to put a coat upon the back of the naked child of his neighbour. Those we know best, those closest, those united in closest bonds come first, the world over, in every form of union. Naturally then, a Mason is taught that while in theory for all, in practice charity is for a brother Mason, more especially.

The Entered Apprentice is obligated in a Lodge that wants him; all its members are predisposed in his favour. They will do all in their power to take him into the Mystic Circle. But the Brethren cannot do it all; the Entered Apprentice must do his part. Luckily for us all the Great Architect so made his children that when the heart is opened to pour out its treasures, it is also open to receive. The Entered Apprentice learns much of Relief and he will learn more if he goes farther. One small point he may muse upon with profit. These words he will often hear in connection with charity, more especially a brother Mason. St. Paul said: ―As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.”

The final design of Freemasonry is its third principal tenet — the Imperial Truth. In some aspects, truth seems relative because it is not complete. Then we see it as through a glass, darkly. But the ultimates of truth are immutable and eternal. The Fatherhood of God and the Immortality of the soul as two aspects of the same object may seem different to different observers so two aspects of truth may seem different. It is this we must remember when we ask ―What is truth in Freemasonry?‖ It is the essence of the symbolism that each man takes for himself, different, as men are different, greater as perception and intelligence are greater, less, as imagination and understanding are less. We are told, ―On this theme we contemplate‖. We think of the truths spread before us and understand and value them according to the quality of our thinking. Doubtless that is one reason for the universal appeal of Freemasonry. Freemasonry is all things to her brethren and gives to all of us her truth in proportion to our ability to receive.

Freemasonry has no teachings that a Mason should not contribute to other charities. The continually insistent teaching of charity through all the three degrees, especially the Entered Apprentice’s Degree, excludes no one from charity. Without dependence, societies, nations, families and congregations could not be formed or exist. But the very solidity of the group, predicated upon mutual dependence, also creates this idea of distinction in relief or friendship or business as between those without and those within the group. This feeling is universal. The Church gives gladly to all good works

by: R. W. Bro. Charles Fotheringham (PSGW, Australia), Grand River Lodge, No. 151 GRC, Waterloo, 1975; In his lifetime he served in the military, travelled on ocean liners for many years as a musician and taught music. He was an honorary member of the Chippewa Indian Tribe and bore the name Chief Medwayosh. He was a prolific writer of Masonic prose and poetry.


To emphasize this insistence on Master Masons as members, I quote from Reg. 46, Sec. 17 of the Laws of the Grand Lodge of West Virginia:

DID YOU KNOW? Question: Royal Arch Chapters conduct the business portion of their meetings in the Royal Arch Degree. Why do not Craft Lodges conduct the business portion of their meetings in the Third Degree?

"None but Master Masons can be members of a Lodge or vote on any subject, nor can business other than conferring the degrees be done in any other than a Master Mason's Lodge ..."

Answer: This is a question that illustrates the variations in law and custom that appear among the different Masonic jurisdictions. In the Book of Constitution of the United Grand Lodge of England, Reg. 166 begins as follows:

These regulations may be said to represent general practice, but several Grand Lodges demand a 'proficiency test' in the Third Degree before a Master Mason is permitted to exercise his vote. Sec. 198 of the B. of C. of the Grand Lodge of Colorado runs:

Except in the case of a serving Brother, every candidate becomes a subscribing member of the Lodge upon Initiation therein. (My italics. Harry Carr.)

"Every newly-made Master Mason shall be required to pass a satisfactory examination in open Lodge upon his proficiency in the Lecture of that degree within three months after the date upon which he was raised. Every Master Mason failing to do so shall thereby forfeit his right to vote or hold office in his Lodge during the continuance of such failure. "

Note: the English candidate having been initiated is a member of the Lodge in which he received the Degree, and is entitled to all the privileges of membership (except that he may not enter a Lodge opened in a superior Degree). But he has the right to vote in all business matters on which the Lodge is called to vote. For that reason, all English Lodges, and other jurisdictions that follow our usage, conduct the business portions of their agenda in the First Degree.

This explains why the U.S.A. jurisdictions conduct all business in the M.M. Degree, and they are usually allowed to open directly into that Degree, i.e. they do not have to open in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd as we must in English Lodges.

But our practice is not universal. There are many jurisdictions, especially in the U.S.A., where a Mason cannot become a member of the Lodge until he has taken the Third Degree. I quote Section 317 of the Regulations of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts:

The form in which your question has been framed prompts me to add a brief note on the Royal Arch. In England, the Royal Arch is a single ceremony leading directly from the M.M. Degree into the Royal Arch. With us there are no obligatory intermediate Degrees such as 'Mark', 'Most Excellent Master', etc. as in the Scottish and American systems.

"MEMBERS. Sec. 317. The Lodge shall admit as members such only as are Master Masons. "


THE BACK PAGE The New Villains’ Lodge Under the constitution of the United Grand Lodge of England any Brother who has a criminal record to the extent that he serves a term of imprisonment, then he risks expulsion from membership of the Craft. The following poem written by Peter Marlborough, deals with a Masonic Lodge that is founded and run by gang of local villains.

Brethren – I’ll tell you a story It could be fiction - or fact It concerns a new Lodge that was founded So I’ll tell it with the greatest of tact! Now our Grand Master has said in his wisdom And he’s said it without any doubt That if you’ve a criminal record From the Craft - you will be chucked out! And to prove to all he was serious He made a new Rule - and did say It’s now in the ‘Constitutions’ Rule ‘One Seven Nine - Part A’! So - the villains they all got together And as villains - they knew every dodge They went up to see the Grand Master And founded - the “New Villains Lodge” The Tyler was ‘Hawkeye the lookout’ Who knew about guns - and bullets of lead? And if he saw an Intruder or Cowan With his sword - he cut off his head!

The Inner Guard was ‘Fingers the Safe Man’ Who could open any Chubb lock or door And if a Cowan got past the Tyler ‘Fingers’ would poignard him - straight to the floor! The D.C. was Fred - known as Freda Who walked with a wiggle - a real ‘gem’ The Secretary said, “He’s not one of us But I think he’s ‘One of them’!” The Deacons were ‘Basher ’ and ‘Scratcher’ Two villains without any charm So have pity on all the Candidates And look out - for ‘Grievous Bodily Harm’! The Secretary was ‘Scribbler’ the forger Who made ‘fivers’ by candlelight And the Minutes were quite artistic With the Queen’s head - up on the right! 31

The Chaplain was ‘Dodger the Conman’ A smooth talker and very good thief He wore a dark suit and a dog collar In his hand - the Bible - his brief. Four times he’d sold Westminster Abbey To our cousins from over the sea But the fifth time he was caught in the act And from Parkhurst - he’d just been set free! The Treasurer was ‘Twister the Embezzler’ A smooth worker with very good looks He’d just served four years in Wormwood For trying to fiddle the books! Now Grand Lodge are getting quite worried And they’re entitled to their views ‘Cos the Sub’ were paid promptly But the members - didn’t pay any dues! The Junior Warden was ‘Drainpipe Willie the burglar’ Whose grip was the firmest in the land? And when he took the hand of the Candidate He crushed all the bones in his hand! The Senior Warden was ‘Speedy the Get-away-Driver’ As he stood in his bullet-proof vest And he answered the knocks of the Master With a loaded revolver - out there in the West! The Worshipful Master was ‘Nutcase’ from Broadmoor Who was really round the twist He’d already bumped off four wives With a knife - and a flick of the wrist! So - when you visit that Lodge in the future And you’ve signed your name in the book Then take your seat in the Temple You may sit next to a villainous crook! ‘Cos the Brother who sits by your side Has been expelled - for a crime that’s forbidden But remember - Heaven is full of our Brethren Who forgave - or were forgiven! And finally Brethren When you’re doing a hundred miles an hour on the motorway And the Police you’re trying to dodge You may get an invitation Until next month, To join - the “New Villains Lodge”. Keep the faith! The Editor 32