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SRA 76 Monthly Magazine

Cover Story, Lodge Mother Kilwinning No. 0. Did You Know? Immovable Jewels St. Thomas Kilwinning Dalmellington No. 433 The North East Corner Famous Freemasons – P. G. Wodehouse The Origins of the word, Freemason The Old Past Master A Way of Life Freemasonry and Prayer What is an Allegory? Did You Know? Free The Masonic Deck of Cards

Main Website – Working Tools

Volume 16 Issue 5 No. 127 September 2020

In this issue: Cover Story ‘Lodge Mother Kilwinning No. 0.’ A Brother of this ancient Lodge gives his personal view on the History of Lodge Mother Kilwinning from its early formation.

Page 6, ‘Did You Know?’ Questions about the Craft. Page 8, ‘Immovable Jewels.’ Describing these jewels and their usage. Page 10, ‘St. Thomas (Kil) Dalmellington No. 433. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 12, ‘The North East Corner.’ “Symbolism and the EA.” Page 15, ‘P. G. Wodehouse’ Famous Freemasons. Page 18, ‘The Origins of the word, Freemason.’ Page 20, ‘The Old Past Master.’ “Understanding”, fourteenth in the series. Page 22, ‘Reflections.’ A Way of Life Page 24, ‘Freemasonry and Prayer.’ “In Whom Do We Put Our Trust”? Page 26, ‘What is an Allegory?’ Page 27, ‘Did You Know?’ Why do the pillars have globes? Page 29, ‘Free.’ Page 30, ‘The Back Page.’ The Masonic Deck of Cards

In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘Working Tools.’ [link] 1

Front cover – Mother Kilwinning photo adapted by the editor.

Lodge Mother Kilwinning No. 0. A personal commentary on its history.

Leaving aside the probability of a Lodge being founded at Kilwinning in Ayrshire in the twelfth century, when continental stonemasons were involved in the building of its Franciscan Abbey, there’s little evidence to dispute the fact that the Kilwinning Lodge was an active Grand Lodge in the early decades of the 16th Century and had been in existence for some considerable time before that. Most Scottish Freemasons are aware that Lodges with ‘Kilwinning’ in their title were originally granted Charters by the Kilwinning Lodge and it is reported that one of its Daughter Lodges, Dumfries (Kilwinning) No 53 had a Minute dated 27th December 1815 celebrating its tri-centenary, inferring it had received its Charter from the Kilwinning Lodge in 1515. The Charter it afterwards received from Grand Lodge in 1750 declares its Charter from Mother Kilwinning had been extant for around 175 years and the Lodge now celebrates 1575 as its year of formation. So why did William Schaw, Master of Works to King James Vl create so much confusion when he issued his First Statutes in December 1598 and referred to Kilwinning as the ‘Heid and second Ludge of Scotland’? The main objective of the First Statutes was primarily to regulate the workings of Stonemasons’ Lodges. Schaw was a Roman Catholic appointed by, and

serving a Protestant King whose religious credentials and beliefs were crucial if his aspirations to inherit the English Throne on the eventual demise of Elizabeth 1 were to be realised. At one time Schaw was even suspected of being a Jesuit and there’s no evidence of him ever being married or having children. Nor is there any evidence of him ever being a member of a Stonemasons’ Lodge, although some observers have argued that until he issued his First Statutes (that among other things required that Stonemasons’ Lodges had to start keeping written records), there’s nothing to say he wasn’t a member of one of these Lodges. It’s clear from the First Schaw Statutes that he was setting out a series of rules on how business was to be conducted in Stonemasons’ Lodges. Several of the Clauses in the First Statutes appear to be based on the Old Charges** but altered and expanded to apply specifically to Scotland. It includes an instruction forbidding Masons to work with ‘cowans’ (semi-skilled men who were qualified to undertake some work in stone but not allowed to use lime mortar or cut or carve stone). It’s believed Schaw wanted Masons to be an exclusive body of men qualified as Stonemasons by training in skills, and through initiation. Schaw issued another document the following year (not unsurprisingly known as the Second Schaw Statutes!) to further clarify the procedures for workings in Lodges, and a significant amount of it is concerned with the Kilwinning Lodge. As already stated, Schaw refers to Kilwinning in the First Statutes as the ‘Heid and second Ludge of Scotland’, acknowledging that the Lodge had been in existence for some time. In the Second Statutes, Schaw indicates that Kilwinning Lodge claimed to have had 2

previous rights of jurisdiction over all masons working in an area, having general control over who could enter the trade, and control of individual Lodges. Unfortunately Schaw also refers to Edinburgh as the ‘first and principal Ludge’ at the same time (he cites Stirling as the third). These statements would have repercussions for Scottish Freemasons over the following three centuries, Copies of Schaw’s Statutes were written into what became the first Minute books of the Lodges of Aitchison’s Haven, and Edinburgh. These were then signed by Schaw and it’s understood a third copy of the Statutes signed by Schaw was provided for Kilwinning Lodge. Over time the Kilwinning copy was apparently lost, but was afterwards re-discovered in 1860 during a search of nearby Eglinton Castle. The Office-bearers of the Kilwinning Lodge hadn’t sat on their hands after they’d become aware of the First Schaw Statutes. They sent their Commissioner Archibald Barclay to appear in the Edinburgh Lodge on 27th and 28th December 1599. He produced his Commission in the presence of Schaw and the Office-bearers of the Edinburgh Lodge and behaved ‘verie honestlie and cairfullie’. According to Schaw (in a statement appended to the Second Statutes that he signed) ‘it had proved impossible to get things settled because the King was out of town.’ Given that Schaw had apparently taken it upon himself to draw up the First Statutes, it seems odd that that he would now use the King’s absence as an excuse for not dealing with Kilwinning Lodge’s submission that it should be recognised as the First and Principal Lodge of Scotland. Although Barclay had argued that Kilwinning should be recognised as the First Lodge in Scotland, Schaw appears to 3

have thought Edinburgh had the better claim and while he mentions (seven times) Kilwinning as being the ‘Second Lodge’, he only describes it once as the ‘Heid Ludge’ in the Second Statutes. It’s been argued that Schaw (who like the King, was based in Edinburgh) wasn’t aware of Kilwinning Lodge’s unique position when he drafted his First Statutes, but if that was the case, why then mention it as ‘Heid and second Ludge of Scotland’? Had he been over-duly influenced by the Edinburgh Lodge (giving some support to the argument that he might have been a Member of that Lodge)? Another possible reason suggested for Schaw writing his Statutes is that he actually was a Member of a Stonemasons Lodge and was very concerned at their lackadaisical approach to record-keeping and preserving their esoteric knowledge. Or perhaps the dispute about which Lodge was older was due to Schaw having simply assumed that Edinburgh was the oldest Lodge before learning that there was another Scottish Lodge that claimed to be older, then used a classic Civil Service device to fudge the issue? Significantly the 17th century Minutes of Kilwinning Lodge do not mention the Second Schaw Statutes after Barclay returned to report Schaw’s decision to do nothing about their claim. Schaw does however recognise Kilwinning as in some way different from other Lodges. There’s nothing to suggest that the Kilwinning Lodge didn’t actively support and participate in the creation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1736 (the Scottish Masons were following an English template) and some seven years later when the proposal to number all Lodges in terms of ‘seniority’ was mooted, the Kilwinning Office-Bearers would have fully expected to be placed at the head of the new Roll. But of course things never pan out as anticipated

and they must have been vexed (never mind angry) to learn that the main criterion for ‘seniority’ was the ability to produce written minutes rather than any other credible alternative evidence. Although Kilwinning Lodge had existed since before the turn of the 16th century, they could only produce written minutes dating from the end of 1642. Of the many reasons suggested for this state of affairs, the two most worthy of consideration are (a) that Kilwinning had had older Minutes but these were thought to have been lost over time: perhaps destroyed in a fire at nearby Eglinton Castle (recall that the third copy of Schaw’s Statutes provided for the Kilwinning Lodge were re-discovered at the Castle over 260 years after these were ‘lost’), or even taken by the monks at Kilwinning Abbey for safekeeping during the Reformation. Or (b) maybe the fact that so many of its Daughter Lodges had ‘Kilwinning’ in their titles and held Kilwinning Charters led the Kilwinning Office-bearers from 1500-1642 to think they didn’t need to bother keeping written records as Schaw had required in 1598? Even today, how many Lodges, Chapters and other Orders have incomplete sets of Minute Books that have simply been ‘lost’ or ‘mislaid’? In any event another Scottish Lodge had Minutes (coincidentally dating from a month or so after Schaw instructed Lodges to start keeping records) commencing in 1598 so Kilwinning wasn’t given what it felt was its rightful place, the situation not being helped by its critics who cited Schaw’s description of the Kilwinning Lodge in his Statutes as justification for Kilwinning not being named as the First Lodge in Scotland. And so the stand-off began with Kilwinning Lodge withdrawing from the Grand Lodge

of Scotland in 1743 and continuing to grant Charters for new Lodges as long as the applicants met their criteria. Business as usual! It’s no surprise that by the end of the 18th Century, relations between Lodge Mother Kilwinning and The Grand Lodge of Scotland were at a low ebb. By then, Grand Lodge had forbidden Brethren of its member Lodges from visiting ‘Kilwinning’ Lodges, or allowing GLS Lodges to receive ‘Kilwinning’ Masons as visitors. A number of Lodges with Kilwinning Charters had gradually been coming under the control of Grand Lodge and by 1807, there were only six ‘Kilwinning’ Lodges left out of the fold. Nevertheless, it fell to the Grand Lodge of Scotland to made an approach to Lodge Mother Kilwinning and invite it to be represented at a meeting in Glasgow on 14th October 1807 when after discussion, it was agreed that: Lodge Mother Kilwinning would give up its long-standing and fundamental right to issue Charters and would resume its membership of the Grand Lodge of Scotland; All their daughter Lodges holding a Kilwinning Charter would have their Charters confirmed by the Grand Lodge of Scotland; Lodge Mother Kilwinning would be placed at the head of the Roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and its daughter Lodges would be placed at the end initially, then ranked after confirmation as per their original Kilwinning Charter date; The Right Worshipful Master of Lodge Mother Kilwinning would be ispo facto Provincial Grand Master of Ayrshire, 4

meaning that the Kilwinning Lodge reported directly to Grand Lodge and not through a Provincial Grand Lodge;

recognise Lodge Mother Kilwinning’s unique position in Scottish freemasonry, a further agreement in 1983 provided that:-

Rather than re-number all the existing lodges, Lodge Mother Kilwinning was to be given the designation ‘0’. As the Grand Lodge of Scotland had now recognised Kilwinning’s unique status, there was no need for it to have a Grand Lodge Charter, therefore it is the only Scottish Lodge that cannot (nor needs to) exhibit its Charter to the Entered Apprentice.

The RWM of Mother Kilwinning would no longer be ipso facto PGM of Ayrshire;

Some commentators have wondered why Grand Lodge went to such lengths to bring Kilwinning back into their fold? My view is that Grand Lodge was prepared to offer whatever concessions were necessary to persuade the Kilwinning Lodge to give up its inherent right to grant Charters to new Lodges: after all it wasn’t in the best interests of Scottish Freemasonry for a relatively small country to have two Grand Lodges working independently of each other. This arrangement worked quite well for the next 176 years but there was still some sensitivity surrounding it. The 1807 agreement meant that the Past Masters of the numerous Ayrshire Lodges could only aspire to the position of Depute Provincial Grand Master in the Province of Ayrshire, since the RWM of Mother Kilwinning was automatically PGM. While some Ayrshire PMs were able to circumvent this by affiliating to Lodge Mother Kilwinning then progressing to its Chair, it was felt by some Masons that the position of PGM should not be automatically given to the RWM of Lodge Mother Kilwinning. To facilitate an amendment that respected the wishes of the Ayrshire Province, yet still 5

A new Provincial Grand Lodge of Kilwinning would be created, having only one Lodge in its membership (Lodge Mother Kilwinning No 0) and its Officebearers would be nominated exclusively by Lodge Mother Kilwinning, meaning that the Lodge still reported directly to the Grand Lodge of Scotland and not through the Provincial Grand Lodge of Ayrshire; Mother Kilwinning would have exclusive rights of nomination of the Grand BibleBearer of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. All of the other clauses of the 1807 Agreement remained unchanged. The 1983 Agreement has worked well to this day. If Schaw had been around in 1983, I’m sure he’d have had a wry smile at the deal that was struck then between Grand Lodge and Lodge Mother Kilwinning, as it continues to recognise the unique heritage of the latter without compromising the status of other Scottish Lodges! **The Old Charges The Old Charges were the legendary history of the Craft. There are no surviving manuscripts of the Old Charges (sometimes called the Old Constitutions or Manuscript Constitutions) dated before the mid-18th century but Schaw’s First Statutes indicates these were well-known by 1598. The Kilwinning Manuscript (or Kilwinning Old Charges) dates to the mid-17th century but there is nothing specifically ‘Scottish’ about its contents apart from words and spelling.

The Charges/Manuscripts trace the development of the mason’s craft from the days of Genesis and it is thought that these would be recited to a greater or lesser extent at Lodge meetings in the middle ages. Ironically all the Scottish copies of the Old Charges appear to be copies of earlier English versions. The Scottish copies appear to be associated with lodges or groups of stonemasons while the English versions aren’t.

This Article was submitted to SRA76 by Bro John F Crawford and our grateful thanks go to John for allowing us to reproduce it in the Magazine.

*Author’s note: Although the author is very proud to have been a Life Member of Lodge Mother Kilwinning No 0 for over thirty years, he stresses that the views and opinions set out in this article are his alone and in no way reflect those of the RWM and Office-bearers (past or present) of the Lodge.

DID YOU KNOW? Question: What is the symbolism of the “sprig of Acacia”? Answer: In the volume V.O.S.L. the Acacia is known as the Shitta or, in plural Shittim. It was the wood employed in making the Tabernacle, the Ark of Covenant, the Table of Shewbread, and the rest of the furniture of the Holy Place. The wood is heavier than water, and great value attaches to it from the reason that it is not attacked by the white ant or any other insect. In Freemasonry the Acacia may be said to be emblematic of the immortality of the soul, from the fact of its being evergreen.

Question: What is meant by the 'Perfect Points of Entrance'? Answer: They were first mentioned in ritual text dated 1696, when they clearly referred to secrets of the E.A. ceremony. In a series of questions asking how a mason could prove himself, the first answer was: 'by signes tokens and other points of my entrie'. In those days the first Point was 'heill and conceall' and the second was the penal sign of an EA. In effect, the 'Points of Entrance' were a brief summary of essential elements in the initiation ceremony, but they developed, eventually, into a series of 'trap questions', with very cautious answers. In the late 1700's, Preston, in his 'First Lecture of Freemasonry' defined the 'Points' as comprising the ceremonies of 'preparation, admission and obligation'. In another version of the same Lecture, he gave the Points of Entrance as a set of codewords, 'Of, At, and On' and the question ran: Question: Of what? Answer: In relation to apparel. Question: At what? Answer: The door of the Lodge. Question: On what? Answer: On the left knee bare. The 'Of, At and On' became firmly established in our English Lectures but they suffered several variations in the next 20 -30 years, until they eventually settled into the form in use to this day. Question: “What is the Masonic Goat”? Answer: Pan is one of the most ancient of mythological gods. Originally he was a gentle, rather whimsical god with a sense of 6

humor, the Arcadian god of the shepherds, chief of the inferior deities, the child of Mercury and Penelope. Pan possessed long ears and horns; the lower half of his body was that of a goat. He invented Pan's Pipes, or syrinx. From him we have the word "panic," the state into which barbarians were thrown on invading ancient Greece and seeing Pan.

from Lodges, which sprang from the 13 original colonies. These admixtures of rituals produced variations, which were occasionally increased by actions of Grand Lodges acting on recommendations of Grand Lecturers and Ritual Committees. In the early days of Freemasonry in the United States, many "travelling lecturers" brought their own conceptions of "the true Masonic work" to far areas and taught them.

When the early Christians drew upon mythology, they modified and changed it; gentle Pan became Satan. To the common mind, Satan, or the devil, was a he-goat. Thus the devil came into possession of horns and a tail and the familiar cloven hoofs. Later, the devil was supposed to appear riding on a goat.

All rituals are "correct?” What a Grand Lodge approves as its ritual is "correct" for its Lodges. No rituals in the United States contradict each other; they vary in words and details, not in essentials.

In the early days of Masonry in London, the enemies of the Fraternity employed ridicule; processions of Mock Masons, the Gormogons and other organizations, made fun of the society; they said that Freemasons were accustomed to raise the devil in their Lodges--and of course, he appeared riding on his goat! Gradually the belief came into being that Freemasons "rode the goat." Tales of the Masonic goat carry forward a ridicule of the Order begun more than two hundred years ago. Lodge room goats perpetuate an ignorant superstition and slander the fair fame of the Institution by indicating that its practices are antireligious, blasphemous.

Answer: Under the United Grand Lodge of England, and in many jurisdictions that follow our usages, the Candidate becomes a Mason at the end of his Initiation, and I believe that this is probably true in most of the recognized Grand Lodges. In several Grand Lodges in the USA a Mason does not become a Member of his Lodge until he has passed his Proficiency Test in the Third Degree and in most of those cases he cannot enjoy the privileges of the Craft [eg, Masonic Funeral, etc., etc.] until he has signed the Lodge Register following the Proficiency Test.

Question: Why are Masonic rituals not the same in all US states? Answer: Freemasonry came to the United States from several different sources (England, Ireland, Scotland) and in its spread westward formed Grand Lodges 7

Question: When does a man become a Mason, after his First or Third Degree?

The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.

Immovable Jewels "They are called the 'Immovable Jewels' because they lie open in the Lodge for the brethren to moralize upon." According to Webster's dictionary, 'to moralize' means 'to explain or interpret morally, or to improve the morals of.' The purpose of this paper will be to interpret the significance of these symbols as generally accepted by Masonic scholars. It is incumbent on every Mason to search through the symbolism of Freemasonry, and the interpretations placed on them by Masonic scholars, and to apply these interpretations to his own personal situation to improve his morals and to strengthen his character. The immovable jewels are the Rough and Perfect Ashlars and the Tracing Board, and from these many moral lessons can be learned. The word 'Ashlar' means 'a hewed or squared stone'. The term 'Rough Ashlar' would then mean a stone which has been taken from the quarry and roughly shaped. This would imply that a considerable amount of work has already been done. It would also imply that in selecting the material from which to hew the Ashlar, the Mason looked for stone of a certain character, -- not stone that would crumble under pressure, but that which was hard but workable. If we equate the Rough Ashlar to the man who first enters the Masonic circle, we see a man who has been deemed by Masonic brethren to be of good character, capable of reshaping to take his place in the structure of a better society. The Craft must be genuinely concerned that the material is beyond suspicion for 'the craft can do much in the transformation of character, but it cannot transform material".

As a Rough Ashlar, the man who is recommended for membership has already been shaped by many influences of society. He must be reasonably well educated and must have achieved some social standing in his community. His education, his work, his association with friends and neighbours, and his business dealings have shaped a character acceptable to his future brethren in Freemasonry, and prepared for finishing to a more perfect form. The position of the Rough Ashlar varies in different jurisdictions, but we place it at the north-east angle of the lodge, significant of the cornerstone of a building upon which a new and perfect temple is to be erected. The Perfect Ashlar is for the more expert workman to try and adjust his jewels on. The Perfect Ashlar therefore is a gauge by which the Mason can judge himself. Our ritual implies that no-one actually attains this perfect state. Webster's Dictionary defines 'perfect' as 'quality of a thing, frequently as an unattainable or theoretical state'. Reflect for a while on the qualities of the ideal Freemason as given in the general charge each year at installation. Can any one of us claim to have attained that ideal? Can we say that we have never erred from the ideal at one time or another? Even though the ideal is unattainable, it is the duty of every Mason to strive for it. Rev. J. T. Lawrence in his book, 'The Perfect Ashlar' says: "Still we must do our best, undeterred by the impossibility of reaching a limit. So long as nature holds one undiscovered secret, we will go on learning the hidden mysteries of nature and science. So long as there is one grace of character yet not achieved we will press forward 8

remembering that each step gained only seems to reveal more. So long as there is one baneful and malignant passion from which the heart is not yet purified, we shall continue to strive to extinguish it." Webster also gives a synonym for 'perfect,' the word 'entire' and goes on to add that "Entire suggests a perfection deriving form integrity, soundness or completeness." Completeness suggests that cultivation of a single virtue or study is not enough to qualify a man as a perfect Ashlar. Not until a man has discovered the entire range of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth, can he claim the completeness or perfection of the Perfect Ashlar. The Perfect Ashlar has six faces, each of which are of finished form, so that when viewed form any direction, its appearance is the same. The man who can liken himself to the Perfect Ashlar will present the same "undeviating line of conduct under whatever circumstances he finds himself". This suggests to us an absolute standard of conduct for a Freemason, rejecting the 'situation ethics' so popular today. i.e. what may be wrong under one set of circumstances may be deemed right under another. The more perfect the Ashlar becomes, the sharper are its edges, the more easily it distinguishes between good and evil, virtue and vice. The position of the Perfect Ashlar in our Lodges is the S.E. angle of the Lodge, depicting progress as the Mason moves toward a state of perfection. In some ancient lodges, the Ashlar was suspended, indicative of its position between heaven and earth, and that only the G.A.O.T.U. will determine its position in the intended 9

structure and that we must resign ourselves to His will. The third immovable jewel is the Tracing Board. Of course in our lodges, we have three Tracing Boards, one for each degree. But according to Lawrence, this is a misnomer, since the Tracing Board is for the Master "to lay lines and draw designs upon". The Tracing Board is more properly the trestle board. The so-called Tracing Boards are permanent representations of the drawings of the Worshipful Master for the purpose of illustrating Masonic lectures. Originally, the designs of the master were laid out on the floor of the lodge, or on a floor cloth, and in order to examine the drawings, it was necessary to perambulate about the lodge, thus squaring the lodge. The earliest printed Tracing Boards came into existence in 1744 for use in the first and second degrees. The Tracing Boards contain a wealth of Masonic teachings, an entire subject in itself. Suffice it to say that in the center of the First Degree Tracing Board, is depicted the V.O.T.S.L., which is the basis for our belief. It is the book in which are revealed man's obligation to God, to his fellow-men, and to himself, and without an avowed belief in God, no man can be made a Mason. Sourced from Redwood Lodge #193; GRA Published in GRAND LODGE BULLETIN; GRA May, 1979. Reprinted CANMAS – 6th October, 2006.

St. Thomas Kilwinning Dalmellington No. 433

John Scott occupied the chair, those being present being of the opinion that steps should be taken to form a Lodge, the first thing to be considered was how to raise funds to enable us to procure a charter from the Grand Lodge of Scotland, so we might carry on our Masonic labours in a lawful manner. John Bain, John McWhirter, James Bruce, and David McBlane were appointed to call on gentlemen in the neighbourhood for the purpose of obtaining subscriptions, and report by the next meeting, which will be held on the 23rd April. John McWhirter was appointed interim secretary and instructed to write to John Hunter Esq. Burnfoot, requesting him to take the office of Right Worshipful Master. John McWhirter Secy. John Scott Chairman.

Freemasonry began in Dalmellington in the year 1864 when the blast furnaces at Waterside and the various pits were opening, bringing great employment opportunities and attracting workmen from all over Scotland, some of these men were already Freemasons and they soon set about forming a Lodge in the village. The first recorded Minute Dalmellington 1st April 1864 A meeting was held in “David McBlane’s” for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of forming a Masonic Lodge in the village, the following brethren being present, John Scott, John Bain, John McWhirter,John Taylor, James Bruce, Andrew Nicol, David McBlane, Charles Malcolmson, and John McMurdo.

[This is an exact account of the first minute in the Lodge minute book] The second meeting in David McBlane’s on the 23rd of April 1864 must have dampened some of the enthusiasm of these founder members, as only £2- 15-0d had been collected, and Mr. Hunter had declined the office of Right Worshipful Master, [Mr. Hunter was a member of St. Thomas No. 201 Muirkirk]. Undeterred by these setbacks, the brethren wanted their application put before Grand Lodge on the 1st of May 1864. Bro. John Bain and Bro. David McBlane put up the rest of the money required, to allow the application to be sent to Bro. David Murray Lyon at the Advertiser office in Ayr, who had agreed to take it to Edinburgh, he also offered to procure the necessary signatures and he would assist them all he could. 10

The office-bearers were then elected some of the office-bearers elected had not been recorded at the first meeting, which suggests that there were many Freemasons living in the area at that time, many of whom were possible employed at the “Iron Works” which was in full production at that time! And no doubt all of these Brethren were united in a common bond of forming a Masonic Lodge in Dalmellington.

to raise funds for these alterations, a Bazaar was held in the Church Hall which raised £292-16 which allowed the improvements to take place.

Permission was granted from Grand Lodge, and a meeting of office-bearers was called on the 6th of May 1864, the secy. John McWhirter intimated that he had received a working warrant from Grand Lodge through Bro. David Muray Lyon, it was therefore agreed to meet on Wednesday the 11th May 1864 and open a Lodge in due form. Also at that meeting it was unanimously agreed that the Lodge colours be Blue! The procuring of jewels and regalia was discussed, but no decisions were taken, the next meeting to be on the 18th May, the Lodge was then closed.

In 1965 a building in the Main Street was purchased by the Lodge, and after six years of hard work by volunteer labour our present Lodge was ready for use.

The Lodge carried on under the Working Charter until 20th January 1865 when the Lodge was consecrated by RWPGM Bro. Hugh Conn who also installed the RWM and Office-bearers for that year. Afterwards, the Brethren in full regalia and accompanied by the Waterside Flute Band, marched round the streets of Dalmellington before returning to the Black Bull, where 80 Brethren sat down to dinner. The Lodge was holding meetings in the various public houses in the village:- David McBlanes, Doon Tavern, Black Bull, Cross Keys, The Snug, and the Eglinton Arms. It carried on like this until 1896, when the Cross Keys Inn was purchased for £150. The new premises needed many alterations, 11

The new Lodge was consecrated by RWPGM Bro. Matthew Arthur and his Office-bearers on 21st October 1899; this was to be the home of the Lodge for the next 75 years.

The first meeting of the Lodge in our newly refurbished premises at 52 Main Street RWM Bro. J Buchanan presided. At the first meeting on 7th April 1971 Honorary Member Bro. Norman Gordon of Granite Union No. 480 presented a book marker for our V.S.L. The year of 1971 proved to be a very busy year for the Lodge, on the 1st of May R.W.P.G.M. Bro. Gregor Grant consecrated and dedicated our new premises, on that occasion Bro. Gregor Grant was made an honorary member, one of our own members Bro. Alexander Johnstone was obligated and commissioned as Provincial Substitute Grand Master, in July the Provincial Grand Lodge held their Summer meeting in Dalmellington, indeed the then Most Worshipful Grand Master Mason Bro. David Liddell Grainger made an informal visit to our Lodge on Saturday the 29th of May. The year we moved to our new premises we received many gifts “Columns and Rests” Bro.Matt Anderson, “Bible” Bro. W Johnstone P.M.433, “Mallets” Bro. R

Lawrence P.M. 133, “Bible Marker” Bro. N Gordon 480 H.M. 433, “ Square and Compasses” Bro. A Johnstone P.M. 433. In 1975 the Lodge applied for permission to open a Social Club, which has now proven to be an asset to our fund raising ventures, “the club” has been upgraded many times since it opened, and funds from the same has allowed us to enjoy the comfort of a fine Lodge Room. True to Masonic principles Lodge 433 raises and distributes benevolence to many local organisations, as well as donating to Masonic charities, the Bro. Almoner ensures that our own Brethren are well looked after. The Lodge takes part in all the local parades and celebrations held in the Village, The Lodge is 148 years old and it has survived two world wars and is an integral part of the local community, soon we will be celebrating our 150 year Anniversary, it is hoped that we will continue to go from strength to strength and continue to be part of the history of our Village. Lodge Meetings are held within the Masonic Temple, 54 Main Street, Dalmellington, KA6 7QL. Meetings take place on the 1st and 3rd Wednesday of every month from September – May starting at 7pm. Nominations and elections of office bearers take place on the 3rd Wednesday in October within the Masonic Temple - 54 Main Street, Dalmellington, KA6 7QL. The annual installation of the Right Worshipful Master and his office bearers takes place on the first Saturday in December. The installation takes place in Dalmellington Community Centre – 38 Ayr Road, Dalmellington, KA6 7SJ starting at 4:30pm. Information from the Lodge website. This History of St. Thomas Kilwinning Dalmellington No. 433 was sourced from the excellent Lodge Website and can be viewed here. (Please visit their site) Our thanks go to St. Thomas Kilwinning Dalmellington No. 433 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owner of this History.

THE North East CORNER. It is customary at the erection of all large buildings to place the foundation stone at the north-east corner of the intended structure. Actually, this foundation or corner-stone of the building is as important to that building as a keystone to an arch. Its ultimate task is to bind together at that point two walls of the building, and in due time it not only serves as a link or binding post, but also as a foundation and is built upon. The newly admitted E.A. is placed in the northeast corner of the Lodge figuratively to represent that stone, and in the years that come after he will have risen to a position of greater influence in the Craft, and will be responsible for the future success of the Lodge. If he be weak, then the section that he forms in the edifice will be weak also. In by-gone times it was customary for human beings to be buried alive beneath the corner-stone and in the walls, as an offering or sacrifice to appease the gods. The soul of those who so sacrificed themselves was considered to derive rich reward in the hereafter. It was also regarded as a sacrifice to propitiate Mother Earth to induce her to bear the weight of the building, thereby ensuring the stability of the structure. Baring-Gould wrote "When the primaeval savage began to build he considered himself engaged on a serious undertaking,. He was disturbing the face of Mother Earth, he was securing to himself in permanency a portion of that surface which had been given by her to all her children in common. Partly with the notion of offering a propitiatory sacrifice to the earth, and partly also with the idea of securing to himself a portion of 12

soil by some sacramental act, the old pagan laid the foundation stone of his house and fortress in blood." It was even thought at one period that the pinkish colour of old Roman walls was due to the use of blood in constructing them. In [Q.C. Pamphlet No. 1.] "Builders' Rites and Ceremonies: The Folk Lore of Masonry," by that erudite Mason, C. W. Speth, first secretary of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge 2076, will be found many accounts showing how widespread was this sacrificial rite, a rite practised, as he says, "by all men at all times and in all places." In course of time, and in the process of enlightenment as each race became more cultured, human sacrifices were replaced by animal sacrifices, and then by symbolical ceremony or token. To-day it is customary to place coins of the realm beneath the foundation stone of an important building, while Freemasons perform ceremonies possessing much beautiful symbolism, corn, wine and oil being poured over it. As Speth wrote in the latter part of the last century, "Our fathers, ages ago, buried a living human sacrifice in the same place to ensure the stability of the structure ; their sons substituted an animal ; their sons again a mere effigy, or other symbol; and we, their children, still immure a substitute, coins bearing the effigy, impressed upon the noblest of metals, the pure red gold, of the one person to whom we are all most loyal, and whom we all most love, our Gracious Queen.� Though connected directly with the building, but not with the corner-stone, it is of interest in passing to note that it was also often customary to have a completion sacrifice. A story or legend told of many sacred edifices recalls how the architect on completion of the work was killed by 13

command of those who ordered it, or alternatively was deprived of his eyesight – the architect being chosen as the victim so that he might become the guardian spirit of his own creation. Speth, in his "Builders' Rites and Ceremonies," quotes eight instances of the builder or the architect himself being the " Completion Sacrifice," or narrowly escaping that fate. These are the Castle of Henneburg, Remus at the Foundations of Rome, Manoli and his Masons, The Apprentice of Rosslin Castle, The Apprentice of the Abbey of St. Ouen, The Architect of St. Basil, Moscow, King Olaf and Eastern Snare, and the Devil Builder Tales, and lastly Tolleshunt-Knights Church. In our ceremonies, the E.A. is taught a symbolical lesson regarding the north-east corner of the Lodge, which is figuratively representative of the corner-stone. He can be considered to represent a building stone, to be used in uniting together the walls of the spiritual Temple which the members of Lodge endeavour to form to the glory of the G.A.O.T.U. and the benefit of all mankind. It can also be inferred that he exemplifies the need of divesting oneself of the tendency to yield to the temptations of mammon, in case greed and lust crush down the finer and more aesthetic points of a man's character. In Revelation ii. 17 we read: "To him that overcometh I will give him a White Stone, and upon the stone a new name written which no man knoweth but he that receiveth it." From the earliest times men have erected stones to represent their gods, or as offerings to their gods. We find that this practice started from single unhewn stones, and progressed to hewn pillars, then these pillars were adorned with sculpture, and as

the years went by particular parts of a building deemed of importance were given special names and we got Corner-stone, Key Stone, Cope Stone, etc. The Corner-stone which the E.A. represents is generally of cubical shape, its squareness depicting morality, its six sides facing in all directions represent Truth. Its situation in the northeast symbolically between the points of darkness and light, portrays that our newly admitted member has left behind him that period of darkness caused by ignorance, and is passing into the "light" of a new aim and a new world which is now in process of being revealed to him. Ruskin said: "Fine art is that in which the hand, the head, and the heart go together," and we in Freemasonry make extensive use for symbolic purposes of stones of simple but beautiful form, and deduce therefrom useful lessons in which the hand, the head and the heart are brought into unison to act together. We have our rough and perfect ashlar, our corner-stone, our lodge in the form of an oblong square representing a cubic stone, in the mark a Keystone, and in the R.A. a double cube. Our E.A. learns the first lesson of Masonic line and rule while representing a corner-stone, and be it remembered that the ten Commandments of Jehovah were written upon two Tables of Stone (Exodus xxxii. and xxxiv.). Our E.A. standing in the north-east corner of the Lodge may be considered to be the corner-stone of Freemasonry; he is from that time onwards a builder with his fellowmembers of the Order, but as in course of time his seniors will by the laws of nature "pass on," he ultimately takes their place, becoming not only a builder but one who is subsequently built upon, an important unit contributing to the ultimate strength of the structure. To each and all in the Craft has been given the sacred task of guarding the

bases, of seeing that those whom we permit to follow are worthy apprentices of a Craft of world-wide good repute. Our future living cornerstones must be worthy of those who so ably laid the original foundations, otherwise the walls of Freemasonry will go down despite the living sacrifices that have been made. Let the wonderful record that has been achieved serve as a reminder to all of us, therefore, to guard our portals with due care.

Freemasons Are Builders ‘The fundamental and vitalizing purpose of Freemasonry is to build; to gild an ideal; to build that impressive portion of the Temple of Truth which is dedicated to the beautiful art of fine living.’ To build within ourselves the Temple of Truth, that Temple which the Bible tells us is holy – which Temple we are; and then to dedicate it – that is, ourselves – to the ‘’beautiful art of fine living.’ How better could Masonic mission, Masonic purpose be expressed?’ The beautiful art of fine living: a steadfast belief in the existence, the perfection and the fatherhood of Deity; a conscientious and patriotic acceptance of all the duties of citizenship in the community, the state, the nation, in which we are privileged to live. The beautiful art of fine living: brotherhood which regards the whole human family as children of one heavenly Father; which teaches that the burden of each is the burden of all; that he who would be greatest must be the servant of all; that of the human virtues the greatest is charity – that is, love, kindness, consideration, understanding. The beautiful art of fine living: the practice out of the lodge of the things we have learned in it; to be good men and true, and strictly to observe the moral law; to work diligently, live creditably, and act honourably by all men; to fit our hearts and minds for that spiritual building, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. 14

Famous Freemasons P.G. Wodehouse Right Ho, Jeeves

Pelham Grenville Wodehouse was born in the town of Guildford in England on 15 October 1881. His father was a magistrate in Hong Kong and soon mother and son travelled to the British Colony of Hong Kong to be with the father. In 1886, aged 5, Wodehouse and his two brothers were sent back to England to attend school, until at the age of 12 he was sent to Dulwich College, and ‘Plum’ as he was nicknamed, soon found himself at home and would later call this schooling, ‘the happiest time of my life.’ He excelled at sport and distinguished himself at cricket, rugby and boxing and was described by his headmaster as being a good, if not consistently diligent, student. In addition to sport, he was a good singer taking part in the school concerts and also found time to edit the school magazine. It is reported that P.G. Wodehouse remained 15

devoted to the school and one biographer wrote that Wodehouse "loved the college as much as he loved anything or anybody". In 1900, instead of going to Oxford University, Wodehouse began working as a junior in the London office of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, a job the he disliked immensely. At the end of each day he would go to his lodgings and write short stories. His first comic story, “Men who missed their own Weddings,” was accepted by a magazine and soon other he was producing work for other magazines of the day. During his two years working with the bank, Wodehouse had eighty stories published in nine magazines. Then in 1901 he secured an appointment with ‘The Globe’ on a part time basis, until 1902 after his first book was published, he resigned from the bank and became a full-time writer. Between the years, 1902 and 1909 he wrote eight novels, and in 1904 Wodehouse began writing for the theatre with lyrics for comic songs, he teamed up with Jerome Kern in 1906 and the first song they wrote together, ‘Mr. Chamberlain’ became a hit and was for a while the most popular stage song in London. By 1908, Wodehouse had developed his style of writing and began introducing some recurring characters in his stories and novels, the first of which was ‘Psmith’ and the following year until 1914 he made many frequent visits to America where he was able to sell his stories for a much higher price than in England. Wodehouse was in New York when the World War I began, but was ineligible for military service because of his poor eyesight. He would remain in the US for the duration of the War in Europe. He married Ethel May Wayman in September 1914, however there were no

children of the union. During this period in the US, Wodehouse experimented with different forms of fiction, and this saw the first in the series of novels set at Blandings Castle, which became a best seller. In 1915 he introduced Bertie Wooster and Jeeves, the two characters he wrote about for the rest of his life. In the years after the war, the sales from Wodehouse’s books soared, he returned to England and in 1920’s he collaborated with nine musical comedies produced on Broadway or in the West End in London, he also non-musical plays, which were popular. The next milestone in Wodehouse’s life was when Hollywood came calling, there had previously been screen adaptations of some of his books, but in 1930, his wife Ethel negotiated a contract with MGM for Wodehouse as a writer for which he would be paid $2,000 a week. However, Wodehouse found he had little to do in the studio, he would comment, ‘It's odd how soon one comes to look on every minute as wasted that is given to earning one's salary.’ Even when the studio found him a project to work on, constant rewriting by numerous contract writers meant his ideas were rarely used. With the result, Wodehouse was getting very frustrated with MGM and soon let vent to his feeling, with devastating consequences. Wodehouse’s contract was not renewed after a year and MGM asked him to give an interview to the Los Angeles Times which caused a furore. He complained about incompetency and extravagance in the studios and reported that working for them was a complete waste of time and money and expensive talent. During the 30’s Wodehouse’s literary career reached a new peak, he was averaging two books each year, and grossing an annual

£100,000. His books were selling well, and his work in constant demand for new stories, novels and west end shows. Then in 1934 he moved to France for tax reasons. He had been spending his time between Britain and America and gave him difficulties with the tax authorities in both countries. Both the UK and the US wanted to tax him as a resident and demanded he paid them. The matter was settled but the Wodehouses decided to change their residential status and moved to France where the bought a house in the north near Le Touquet., and was still living there when the Germans advanced into France . In May 1940 the Germans occupied Le Touquet and Wodehouse had to report to the authorities daily. After two months of occupation the Germans interned all male enemy nationals under 60, and Wodehouse was sent to a former prison in Loos. Ethel remained in Le Touquet. The internees were placed four to a cell, each of which had been designed for one man. One bed was available per cell, which was made available to the eldest man—not Wodehouse, who slept on the granite floor. The prisoners were not kept long in Loos before they were transported in cattle trucks to a former barracks in Liege, Belgium, which was run as a prison by the SS. After a week the men were transferred to Huy in Liège, where they were incarcerated in the citadel, remaining there until September, when they were transported to Tost in Upper Silesia. On 21st June 1941, Wodehouse received a visit from the Gestapo, he was given ten minutes to gather his things before he was taken to the Hotel Adlon, a luxury hotel in Berlin. He stayed there at his own expense, the royalties from the German edition of his books had been put into a frozen bank account at the start of the war, but 16

Wodehouse was permitted to withdraw funds whilst staying in Berlin. After his release from interment, Wodehouse made five broadcasts from German radio to the US, which had not yet joined the war. His talks were comic and non-political about Wodehouse’s experiences as a prisoner. The German propaganda ministry then arranged the recordings to be broadcast to Britain which caused an uproar and anger, some newspapers calling him a collaborator, and demanding that he be prosecuted when the war ended. After he had recorded his final program, Ethel joined him in Berlin having sold most her jewellery to pay for the journey. When Wodehouse heard of the uproar the broadcasts had caused, he contacted the Foreign Office through the Swiss embassy in Berlin to explain his actions, and attempted to return home via neutral countries, but the German authorities refused to let him leave. In 1953 Wodehouse wrote, "Of course I ought to have had the sense to see that it was a loony thing to do to use the German radio for even the most harmless stuff, but I didn't. I suppose prison life saps the intellect". The Wodehouses remained in Germany until September 1943, when, because of the Allied bombings, they were allowed to move back to Paris. They were living there when the city was liberated on 25 August 1944; Wodehouse reported to the American authorities the following day, asking them to inform the British of his whereabouts. He was subsequently visited by an intelligence officer with MI6. The young officer quickly came to like Wodehouse and considered the question of treasonable behaviour as "ludicrous"; he summed up the writer as "ill-fitted to live in an age of ideological conflict". On 9 September Wodehouse was 17

visited by an MI5 officer, who formally investigated him, a process that stretched over four days. On 28 September he filed his report, which states that in regard to the broadcasts, Wodehouse's behaviour "has been unwise", but advised against further action. On 23 November the Director of Public Prosecutions, decided there was no evidence to justify prosecuting Wodehouse. On November 1944, the French authorities arrested the Wodehouses, Ethel was released within four days, but P.G. was detained until January 1945, however, they did not inform him until June 1946 that he would not face any official charges and was free to leave the country. In 1947 PG and Ethel set sail for America and Wodehouse never left America after his arrival. It was not until 1965 that the British Government told him that he could return without fear of legal proceedings, and by then he felt too old to make the journey. In 1955 Wodehouse became an American citizen, though he remained a British subject, and was therefore still eligible for UK state honours. He was considered for the award of a Knighthood three times from 1967, but the honour was twice blocked by British officials. In 1974 the British prime minister, Harold Wilson, intervened to secure a knighthood for Wodehouse, which was announced in the January 1975 New Year Honours list. The Times commented that Wodehouse's honour signalled "official forgiveness for his wartime indiscretion. ... It is late, but not too late, to take the sting out of that unhappy incident." The following month Wodehouse entered Hospital in Long Island, for treatment of a skin complaint. While there, he suffered a heart attack and died on 14 February 1975 at the age of 93. He was buried at

Remsenburg Presbyterian Church four days later. Ethel outlived him by more than nine years. P.G. Wodehouse joined Freemasonry in Jerusalem Lodge No. 197 in London. He was initiated on March 22, 1929, passed April 26, 1929 and raised November 10, 1929. He resigned from the Lodge on November 10. 1934, because he thought that he had inadvertently slandered his friend Roland Pertwee a member of the same Lodge. Pertwee was also a scriptwriter in Hollywood at the same time as Wodehouse. When Wodehouse gave his infamous interview to the papers, he mentioned that Pertwee had been told by a policeman at the studio gate that he was fired. Pertwee wrote a letter to the New York Times saying that was not true, he had been dismissed as the result of a merger between two studios. He reported, “Unlike my friend Wodehouse, I am in no sense appalled at the amount of salary I drew, nor am I troubled by any pangs of conscience about the amount of work I did.” Wodehouse was that embarrassed over the distress he thought that he had caused his friend and fellow brother that he resigned from the Lodge.

This article by the editor of the SRA76 magazine has been compiled from a Variety of sources freely available on the internet, some of which are as follows;

Wikipedia United Grand Lodge of England records, cited by Barry Phelps, P.G. Wodehouse, man and myth. London. Constable, 1992. pp. 153, 171. P.G. Wodehouse and Hollywood: Screenwriting, Satires and Adaptations By Brian Taves. Pages 43-44 Website - And many others, thanks to all.

The Origins of the Word "Freemason"

As with many facets of the Fraternity, the origin of the term "Freemason" has been lost over the centuries and modern scholars are left with theories and speculation. One thing that we do know, is that the term "Freemason" was not used to describe a brick mason. One theory, proposed by George F. Fort, was that the term was taken from the French "frère maçon," meaning "brother mason," and which has been corrupted via English translation into Freemason. This theory has little support among current authorities. A second, and more credible theory is that the term originated with the Scottish masons and that it meant that the mason in question had become free of the masons' guild or incorporation and had the freedom to practice throughout the burgh or countryside. This would be in keeping with a like practice to other guild artisans such as the free vintners, free fishermen, free linen weavers, free gardeners, free dredgers, etc. These terms were commonplace in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and persisted well into the eighteenth century when the Grand Lodge of England was formed in 1717. However, it should be noted that a guild of stone masons, as such, did not exist at that time in England. Therefore, it is doubtful that such a guild of builders was operating in Scotland. Indeed, there were builders in Scotland, but they also included members of other crafts or building trades and were not exclusive in association to those members who were stone masons. 18

Most authorities (i.e. Knoop and Jones in their Introduction to Freemasonry as well as Harold V. B. Voorhis, one of three editors of Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia) give the greatest credence and respect to a third theory. First of all, it is supportive of an origin from the operative era. It holds that the term came from the fact that the finest craftsmen of the gothic cathedral builders were those that carved and sculpted "free stone." Free stone was a limestone or fined grained sandstone which could be cut in any direction without splitting and which had been "cut free" of the mountain or quarry. It was then readily worked at the building site or the worker's shop (or perhaps the lodge) where it was sculpted to form arches for window and door frames, vaulting, capitals and other carved figures found in gothic stone structures and cathedrals. The hewers of hard stone were ultimately called "hard hewers." The term "freemason" was reserved for the carving artisans to distinguish and separate them from the brick masons and their haulers, walling and setting crews, as well as the hard hewers of the stone masons. The term first came into use around the middle of the 16th century. It appears in Charters granted by the King of England in 1604 and among the minutes of the Masons Company of London in the 1620. In Scotland, the usual form was for a "free man" or for a "free-man mason." However, the Lodge of Edinburgh's minutes of 1636 contains the term "frei masones" and in the Melrose version of the Ancient Charges, that term is repeatedly interchanged with the term "free-man mason." From the middle of the same century onward, the terms "mason" and "freemason" are used interchangeably. It is therefore of no 19

surprise that Anderson used "Freemason" in the Constitutions of 1723 and 1738. In summary, the term was, and hopefully still is used to distinguish those craftsmen who are true artisans, the most highly skilled and respected members of an ancient and honourable society. Source: New Jersey Freemason, June 1990

THE CORINTHIAN COLUMN The column in the south is known as the Corinthian column. It came into existence in 335 B.C. and is named after the city of Corinth. The distinguishing characteristic of this column is the capital. Legend informs us that Callimachus, the sculptor, who was responsible for this column, while wandering through a graveyard one day, came upon the grave of a child. On this grave a vase had been placed. This vase was filled with toys, and covered with a title to keep the elements from the toys. Inadvertently the vase had been placed on the roots of an acanthus tree, and in the Spring the succulent roots had sprung up along the side of the vase, struck the tile, and fallen back upon themselves, and that was the inspiration for this beautiful Corinthian column. We are led to believe that the shaft of this column was smooth. It was raised upon a base which gave it added height and grace. This column, which is the most elaborate, is placed in the south and is know as the column of beauty. Author Unknown

would not need to be Master Masons; that while you are a lodge member in good standing; you are not a Master Mason." "I don't think I quite understand," puzzled the Young Mason. "I was quite surely initiated, passed and was raised. I have my certificate and my good standing card. I attend lodge regularly. I do what work I am assigned. If that isn't being a Master Mason, what is?"


"I have been a Mason for a year now," remarked the Young Brother to the Old Past Master "and while I find a great deal in Masonry to enjoy, and like the fellows and all that, I am more or less in the dark as to what good Masonry really is in the world. I don't mean that I can't appreciate its charity, or its fellowship, but it seems to me that I don't get much out of it; I can't really see why it has any function outside of that relationship we enjoy in the lodge room and the little charitable acts we do." "I think I could win an argument about you," smiled the Old Past Master. "An argument about me?" "Yes. You say you have been a Master Mason for a year. I think I could prove to the satisfaction of a jury of your peers who

"You have the body but not the spirit," retorted the Old Past Master. "You eat the husks and disregard the kernel. You know the ritual and fail to understand its meaning. You carry the documents but for you they attest but an empty form. You do not understand the first underlying principle which makes Masonry the great force that she is. And yet, in spite of it, you enjoy her blessing which is one of her miracles that a man may love and profit by what he does not comprehend." "Why....I...I just don't understand you at all. I am sure I am a good Mason..." "No man is a good Mason who thinks the fraternity has no function beyond pleasant association in the lodge, and charity. Man, there are thousands of Masons who never see the inside of a lodge and therefore, perforce, miss the fellowship. There are thousands who never need her charity and so come never in contact with one of its many features. Yet these may take freely and largely from the treasure house which is Masonry. "Masonry, my young friend, is an opportunity. It gives a man a chance to do and to be, among the world of men, something he otherwise could not attain. No man kneels at the Altar of Masonry and 20

rises again the same man. At the Altar something is taken from him never to return; his feelings of living for himself alone. Be he never so selfish, never so selfcentred, never so much an individualist, at the Altar he leaves behind him some of the dross of his purely profane make-up. "No man kneels at the Altar of Masonry and rises the same man, because, in the place where the dross and selfish was, is put a little of the most Divine spark which men may see. Where was the self-interest is put an interest in others. Where was the egotism is put love for one's fellow man. "You say that the "fraternity has no function." Man, the fraternity performs the greatest function of any institution at work among men, in that it provides a common meeting ground where all of us, be our creed, our social position, our wealth, our ideas, our station in life what they may, may meet and understand one another. "What was the downfall of Rome? Class hatred. What caused the Civil war? Failure of one people to understand another, and an unequality of men which this country could not endure. What caused the Great War? Class hatred. What is the greatest leveller of class in the world? Masonry. Where is the only place in which a capitalist and labourer, socialist and democrat, fundamentalist and modernist, Jew and Gentile, gentle and simple alike meet and forget their differences? In a Masonic lodge, boy, through the influence of Masonry...Masonry, which opens her portals to men because they are men, not because they are wealthy or wise or foolish or great or small but because they seek the brotherhood which only she can give. 21

"Masonry has no function? Why, son, the function of charity, great as it is, is the least of the things Masonry does; the fellowship in the lodge room, beautiful as it is, is at best not much more than one can get in any good club, association, organization. These are the beauties of Masonry, but they are also beauties of other organizations. The great fundamental beauty of Masonry is all her own. She, and only she, stretches a kindly and loving hand around the world, uniting millions in a bond too strong for breaking. Time has demonstrated that Masonry is too strong for war; too strong for hate, too strong for jealousy and fear; the worst of men have used the strongest of means and have but pushed Masonry to one side for the moment; not all their efforts have broken her, or ever will! "Masonry gives us all a chance to do and to be; to do a little, however humble the part, in making the world better; to be a little larger, a little fuller in our lives, a little nearer to the G.A.O.T.U. And unless a man understands this, and believe it, and take it to his heart and live it in his daily life, and strive to show it forth to others in his every act; unless he live and love and labour in his Masonry, I say he is no Master Mason; aye, though he belong to all Rites and carry all cards, though he be hung as a Christmas tree with jewels and pins, though he be an officer in all bodies. But the man who has it in his heart, and sees in Masonry the chance to be in reality what he has sworn he would be, a brother to his fellow Masons, is a Master Mason though he be raised but tonight, belongs to no organization but his Blue Lodge and be too poor to buy and wear a single pin." The Young Brother, looking down, unfastened the emblem from his coat label and handed it to the Old Past Master. "Of

course, you are right," he said, lowly. "Here is my pin. Don't give it back to me until you think I am worthy to wear it." The Old Past Master smiled. "I think you would better put it back now," he answered gently. "None are more fit to wear the square and compass than those who know themselves unworthy, for they are those who strive to be real Masons." This is the fourteenth article in this our regular feature, ‘The Old Past Master,’ each month we will publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.

A Way of Life What is Freemasonry? A question for the ages. There is a definition for this question in every person who reads this article. You would hear the words allegory, mystery, secret society, benevolence, brotherhood and many other catch-phrases that are common to the definition. However, what if we were to take all of these definitions and put them in a press. The ancient Greeks used to put their olives in a press and squeeze from them the pure oil. What if we did the same thing with all of the definitions of Freemasonry? Placed them all in a press. What do you think would come out? I believe that we would end up with a pure golden droplet that would be defined as - a way of life. Why a way of life? The men who are considered candidates to this body of just men are hopefully good citizens, caring fathers and husbands who work hard, contribute to charities and lead

upright lives. The pastors, rabbis, priests, parsons and reverends tell these parishioners of the benefits of a belief in the G. A. O. T. U. They are told of their love of God, of God’s love for them, of heaven etc. In the Masonic sense, this process brings them to the developmental stage represented by the Rough Ashlar. And, if you will grant me a little latitude, imagine, if you will, that the Rough Ashlar and the Perfect Ashlar represent the Empty and Full indications of a fuel tank. In this case, we are not looking at fuel as in the sense of gasoline, but rather, Masonic Knowledge and Education. This wand will indicate the needle that shows where we are on our level of Masonic knowledge. Only you know what your Masonic fuel level is today. Since our new Candidate is just arrived, we will place the needle on the floor, the starting point from whence we all began our Masonic journey. Our fuel tank is empty. We then find that this good citizen and caring father and husband decides to become a Mason. Unlike the kind and graceful homily presented in our respective religious institutions, we bring this candidate into our midst for a new kind of experience. For Masonry is very much a sensory-rich experience in self-development and self-realisation. It is the art of making a good man better, as we like to say. His education begins, and his fuel tank begins to fill with the knowledge that is imparted to him during the course of his indoctrination. At least, one would hope that this would be the case. As the new member makes his way through the degrees to ultimately become a Master Mason, we can move his needle up a little further each time because he has learned so much, right? There are more than a few people who believe that when you receive 22

the sublime degree of a Master Mason, you have done it all. There is no more. They know that there are other bodies such as the Chapter of Royal Arch Masons and the Scottish Rite, but they have done all they really need at this point. If that is true, why is the needle only here at the half-way point on the Masonic fuel gauge? How do we fill the rest of the Masonic fuel tank? And why should we? First of all, you are a Mason and, as such, why would you not want to know more about who and what you are and, from whence came you in your Masonic fraternity? I am not suggesting that you spend your waking hours with your noses buried in Masonic books for the sole purpose of expanding your Masonic knowledge. But, you could do worse. You have been urged, during your degrees, to further your Masonic knowledge daily in some way. A couple of pages a day? What could it hurt? If you were to take the time to read a few books on the subject of Masonry, you would begin to realise that it is quietly insinuating itself into your daily life. You begin to look at things a little differently. You begin to apply the measure of Masonic morality and ethics to what you do. You develop a greater tolerance of the shortcomings of others. Your compassion increases. You apply a standard to your work and ask if this is the right thing to do and the right way to do it. It begins to become a way of life. Who among us, has not gone through a labour of learning or a trial or tribulation in their lives and not been made all the stronger for it? There is a benefit to be accrued. But be careful. Reading about Masonry is habit forming. Once you start, you just might not want to stop. You have been warned. 23

To those who take the time to read a little about our Brotherhood, you will gain so much. We are not a monthly boy’s club but a Brotherhood that spans centuries in measuring its life. It numbers Kings, Princes and Counts among its adherents through time. They have supported this Brotherhood because of what it is and what is does. It is a highly moral and ethical organisation that exercises brotherly love among its members and does everything it can to preserve these behavioural standards of morality and brotherly love and to help those less fortunate around us. It’s a place where you can do the right thing and not be ridiculed for it! To learn and embrace its origins is to begin to understand the ethics and morals of man, or at least what they should be. And we should always bear in mind that we are all a work in progress. No one ever learns it all. But if we are to feel the real benefits of Masonry and all that it has to offer, and be prepared to show others the way, we must make a concerted effort to at least try and read a little about who and what we are. Masonic history is replete with the lessons of life of today. From the Regius Poem from the twelfth century to the Proceedings of Grand Lodge of today, you will find a wealth of information about the organisation of which you are, or should be, an active participant. You are an active part, aren’t you? Now ask yourself this question:

What kind of a lodge would this be, if it were filled with members just like me? This talk was given by Bro. Paul J. Pinel, Liberty Lodge No. 419, Sarnia. This is our new Regular feature of articles under the title, “Reflections.” Articles from all around the world from a variety of Constitutions and authors and adapted to use in SRA76

Freemasonry and Prayer Prayer is an important part of the ritual in the Craft. The opening and closing of the degrees and ceremonies invoke prayer and guidance from God, the “Great Architect of the Universe”. Beginning with an examination of the earliest Manuscripts of “Old Charges”, the Regis Poem Manuscript of 1390 A.D., shows that all lodge activities were begun with prayer to God. Prayer is considered by Masons as being an important and integral part of the Order. The Universality of Prayer in Freemasonry can best be expressed in its acceptance of a principle as that “in which all good men agree.” The initiate is required to profess a belief in a Supreme Being who is the Creator, Maker and Sovereign over us all. Masons are taught from the very beginning not to start any enterprise without first invoking the guidance of the Deity. On entering the Lodge the initiate is asked “In whom do you put your Trust?” The reply forms the foundation of belief in the one True God. The affirmation of that belief inspires within the Mason the spontaneous praise, thanksgiving and honour for the maker and giver of life. The need for prayer is further affirmed for the E.A. when he is presented with the Working Tools of the degree. He is taught the moral interpretation of the 24-inch gauge and that he should apportion a part of each day Prayer, Labour, Refreshment and Sleep. Thus he is encouraged to bring balance to his life and honour to his God by opening the day with

prayer. It is significant to observe the order in which the explanation of the 24-inch gauge is given; prayer is stressed as the first requirement. What is Prayer? It has been described as a petition or solemn or humble request to God for His blessing or thanksgiving. It is a communication between man and God and is a means by which man can coordinate his mind with the will of God. Prayer is universal because it speaks to some basic human need. As Thomas Merton put it, “Prayer is an expression of who we are… We are living incompleteness. We are a gap, an emptiness that calls for fulfilment.” Merton’s thoughts on prayer fit into the Masonic Philosophy of making good men better. Prayer in Lodge raises the sights above the petty circumstances of life and affords a glimpse of that lofty perspective. Prayer is a declaration of dependence on God. It brings together the mind of man and the divine Spirit giving confidence to the suppliant that his petition for Divine Guidance will be granted. It creates reason and logical thinking within the petitioner. The Ancient Hebrews exercised a “dialogue” with Jehovah whose “ineffable name” could be pronounced only by letters or syllables. It is the Mason’s duty to continue that “dialogue” as a response to the moral imperative set forth by the 24-inch gauge. The main purpose of prayer in the Lodge is not to make life easier, nor gain magic powers, but to get to know God “in whom we put our trust”. The early Masonic Fathers were sincere men of faith and dedicated the Fraternity to the moral and spiritual improvement of mankind. The ceremonies that they developed contained moral lessons that 24

were intended to enhance the spiritual improvement of candidates and the brethren. The ceremonies contained in the modern rituals of our Grand Lodge are intended to foster that spiritual improvement. Freemasonry is not a religion, nor is it a substitute for religion. We are joined together in pursuit of universal brotherhood- recognizing the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man. All Masons acknowledge the Supreme Being that imposes order on the Universe. The use of Scripture illustrates the fact that Godfearing men practice our gentle craft. Our ritual clearly demonstrates the extent to which Freemasonry places its dependence on God and the efficacy of prayer. Freemasons, as builders of character, work on the inner man to polish and refine the raw material. The lodge is a quiet place conducive to reflection and introspection. The lectures, charges and prayers of the several degrees are intended to assist a man to contemplate the deeper meaning of life and to ponder his place and purpose in it. To think seriously about the eternal Why am I here? Where did I come from? What am I doing here? And where do I go from here? When a man puts the timeless precepts and time honoured principles of Freemasonry into practice the world will indeed be a better place. His prayers will have been answered. Freemasonry’s attitude toward things spiritual is an important part of our belief in the Supreme Being and in the future life. Masons believe that at the time of death the soul returns to God who gave it. Freemasons are bound by the “eternal truths” contained in the Volume of the Sacred Law and those sacred truths are given to us to govern the rules of life and conduct. References, therefore, in the rituals 25

of the Masonic Degrees to the omnipotence of God impresses upon the candidates and the brethren the power of prayer in Masonic Work. God is not the Great I Was, but the Great I am. In Him we live move and have our being. He speaks to us in nature, in the moral law, and in our own hearts, if we have ears to hear. He speaks most clearly in the V.O.S.L. which lies open on our Altar. Every prayer in the ritual has a purpose and has an appeal to the Deity for direction and guidance. It is necessary not just to learn the prayers by rote but to reflect on them and think about their meaning for the life a Mason. The place of prayer in Masonry is not perfunctory. It is not a mere matter of form and note. It is vital and profound. It is truly a great prayer when we join in and place ourselves in the very hands of God, as all must do in the end, trusting His Will and way, where there is no path into the soft and fascinating darkness which men call death. The response of the Lodge to that prayer, as to all others offered at its Altar, is the old challenging phrase “So Mote It Be.” Freemasonry and Prayer by Bro. Garnet E. Schenk and sourced from Ontario Mason Magazine Winter 2015.

What is an Allegory? What is an Allegory? Allegory is when characters or events are used to portray certain lessons. What is an Analogy? An analogy is a comparison between two items which are similar in some way. An analogy encourages us to look at the ritual themes for modern ways which they may be applied to our lives. The ‘Principle of Analogy’ asks and answers the question, "Are there modern situations which are comparable to those which are historically portrayed in the ritual?" The Principle of Analogy is applied when you have scenarios from a historic text or texts that might not exist perfectly the same today but we can still apply the lessons to similar situations. Thus, analogy is less about "What can this teach?" and more about "How can this be applied?" Often our Masonic education tends toward having an obvious connection to Masonry. Many topics have the word “Mason” in it, are about a famous Mason, or touch directly and specifically on our symbols. In applying the Principle of Analogy, we can significantly expand that which is Masonically necessary to teach. What can we be teaching and discussing within our halls to expand our understanding of the world? Topics that may not be obviously Masonic in nature, could present serious value to our order. Our degrees address relief. What does that look like in 2020? Could we be developing the hearts of our Brethren by evaluating injustices surrounding us: human trafficking, access to clean water, or institutionalized classism? The tools

presented in our degrees should enable us to recognize that these are not political issues; they are matters affecting humanity likely in our own backyards. This analogy discourages our participation in divisionary activity and encourages actions, which cement all men together in the bonds of Brotherly Love and Affection. This is an example of Preston’s inclusion of the sciences in our degrees. His intent was to encourage both critical thinking and a sense of wonder in the Great Architect's creation. When the lectures were written, many of these topics were revolutionary but 200+ years later, they no longer ought to be considered as such. We should be expanding our education beyond basic history to include anything that might expand the intellect of our Brothers? Analogous topics could be string theory, psychology, and Fibonacci. Each of these subjects can be justified through the Principle of Analogy and understanding the context in which the ritual was written. What else does the Principle of Analogy expand our teachings to include? How can we use this to approach the text with new insight? This article was sourced from the Craftsman Magazine May, 1910.

“Freemasonry is an institution founded on eternal reason and truth; whose deep basis is the civilization of mankind, and whose everlasting glory it is to have the immovable support of those two mighty pillars, science and morality.” George Washington 26

DID YOU KNOW? Question: Why do we talk of the pillars, B. and J. being crowned with 'two spheres on which were delineated maps of the celestial and terrestrial globes' when everybody, at that time, believed the world to be flat? Answer: The Biblical account of the objects which surmounted the pillars is by no means clear. The original Hebrew word is goolot (plural) or goolah singular) and it may mean globes. bowls or vessels. Various forms of the same word are often used to describe anything circular or spherical. The Geneva Bible of 1560 was one of the early illustrated Bibles that contained a picture of the pillar surmounted by an ornamental sphere, not a map; but there are several illustrations, produced about the same time and later, showing the pillars surmounted by hemispheres or bowls, and the Authorized Version of the Bible at 1 Kings vii. v. 41. speaks of 'the two bowls of the chapiters that were on the top of the two pillars...' Whether they were really bowls or globes cannot now be determined, but it is quite certain that they were not maps, either celestial or terrestrial. Solomon's Temple was completed. according to Usher, in 1005 B.C. (Graetz, the Jewish historian. says 1007). The earliest known map of the world is believed to have been designed, some 400 years later, by Anaximander (c. 611-546 B.C.) who held that it was flat and shaped like a cylinder of great thickness, bounded round its circumference by water. and suspended in the circular vault of the heavens. 27

During the next 1500 years or so, the science of cartography made very little progress, although celestial globes were already known in the time of Bede, A.D. 637-735. The map-makers were generally agreed that the world was flat, though they differed as to whether it was an 'oblongsquare', or oval, or circular. The fathers of the Christian Church did not encourage scientific pursuits and it was not until the period c. A.D. 1100-1250 that the sphericity of the globe began to find acceptance among philosophers and scholars. The earliest known 'global maps' (the Nuremberg globe, by Behaim, and another, known as the Laon globe) are both dated 1492, the year in which Columbus began his first major voyage. Masonic interest in these matters seems to have developed in a very gradual and somewhat roundabout way. Most of our early ritual texts contain questions relating to the 'lights of the lodge', always three in number, at first denoting the Master, warden, and fellow-craft. Later they are said to represent the 'Sun, Moon, and Master', and c. 1727-1730 we find the expansions 'Sun to rule the Day, Moon, the Night', the first faint hint of an interest in the celestial bodies. By this time, 1730, Masonry Dissected indicates in its catechism that the Lodge is 'as high as the Heavens' and as deep as 'the Centre of the Earth', and is covered by 'A cloudy Canopy of divers colours (or the Clouds)'. The next main link in the chain of evolution is in the French exposure L 'Ordre des Francs-Macons Trahi, 1745, which repeated all the details summarized from Masonry Dissected, above, but added a new piece of interpretation to the dimensions:

Q. Why do you answer thus? A. To indicate, that Free-Masons are spread over all the Earth, & all together they form nevertheless only one Lodge. Here is the first hint, in any Masonic ritual, of the idea which was soon to be enshrined in the phrase 'Masonry universal'. In the French texts generally, the canopy is now 'studded with golden stars', but the Trahi has another embellishment of rather greater interest. At the centre of the combined E.A.F.C. 'Floor-drawing' or Tracing Board, there is an 'armillary sphere', i.e., a kind of skeleton celestial globe consisting of metal strap rings or hoops, used in the study of astronomy. This was, apparently, the first precursor of the handsome globes which became a distinctive feature in the wealthier and well-equipped Lodges in the late 18th and 19th centuries. The final evolutionary stages cannot be determined precisely, though they seem to be directly linked with the words 'Masonry universal' which appeared for the first time in Three Distinct Knocks, 1760, and then in J. & B., 1762: Mas. Why...from the Survase to the Center of the Earth? Ans. Because that Masonry is Universal.

'Masonry universal' which may well have inspired their introduction. The evidence of Lodge minutes and inventories suggests that it was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that the Lodges began to acquire these costly items of furniture and there is a strong possibility that the globes with maps were added to the Wardens' columns as an economy measure, in place of the far more expensive globes on ornamental stands. Eventually the term 'Masonry universal' made its appearance in the Lectures, and in the 'Explanation of the Second Tracing Board' in which the Masonic description of Solomon's pillars stated that they were 'further adorned with two spherical balls, on which were delineated maps of the celestial and terrestrial globes (symbolizing) ...masonry universal'. The symbolism of the globes is wholly acceptable, but the statement that Solomon's pillars were adorned with globes depicting those two maps is nonsense, a flight of fancy, doubtless introduced by a fanatical 'improver' who was determined to make the ritual comply with his ill-founded theories. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.

Both texts describe the Wardens' columns in detail and there is no hint at this stage, that they were surmounted with globes. Many later editions of these and other English exposures contain an engraved frontispiece showing the furniture of the lodges of their day, in which the globes are a regular feature, and we cannot be sure which came first, i.e., the handsome globes or the words 28

FREE What is the meaning of the word ‘FREE’ as used on two occasions in the First Degree?’ asked a questioner. The word occurs quite early in the ceremony, in fact, before the Candidate is admitted. The IG advises that he come of his own free will and accord. In this there is nothing profound or of deep Masonic significance. The word may be taken as its normal meaning as ‘unrestrained’ or being at liberty. This question is followed by another, the answer of which is; ‘By the help of God, being free and of good report’. Before the Candidate takes his obligation the M.W. informs him that: ‘Masonry is free and requires a perfect freedom of inclination in every Candidate for its mysteries’. Later he is told that he is in a Lodge of ‘Free and Accepted Masons’. It will be seen that the word ‘Free’ is used a number of times and not just on two occasions as indicated in the Question. The questioner may have been a little prophetic, in as much as the various uses of the word may be divided into two groups, each having a similar meaning applicable to that group. The second group has a much deeper Masonic meaning and significance. The word ‘FREE’ in our title of ‘Free and Accepted’ has been given a number of probable origins, some of which are highly imaginative but two alternatives are reasonable and possible. In the Book of Constitutions of the First Grand Lodge of England, prepared by Dr. 29

James Anderson in 1723, there was a long preamble purporting to be the history of Masonry from the beginning of time. Speaking of the ancient masons Anderson says, ‘in many places, being highly esteemed, they taught the Liberal Arts only to the Free-born, they were called Freemasons’. The word, however, even wider intent than that of birth alone. A man must not only be free-born, not a slave or serf or bonds-man, but he must be free of all obligations both civil and religious, that would prevent him from entering into a solemn obligation or contact to keep inviolable the promises he may be required to make in his relations to the Craft. The othe possible origin of the word is also quite feasible ang logical. It refers to the days of the operative lodges, when most of the were under the direction of the Civil Authorities and were ‘tied’ to a particular city or area. As many of the large building, Cathedrals, Castles and such like, were built outside the confines of any town, it was necessary to draw together bodies of masons who lived on the site of the work and might be so employed for a whole lifetime. These particular masons were said to be ‘Free of the Guild’ and Masonic researchers claim this as a reason for the inclusion of the word in our name.

THE BACK PAGE The Masonic Deck of Cards

In many of these countries Masonry is not accepted and in fact is prohibited. Brethren who wish to practice our Craft must do so as an underground movement. I am told by a very reliable source that there are men who have the Masonic furnishings and jewels in a miniature form and transport them from place to place, mostly in private homes. They never meet in the same place twice in approximately two years so as not to be found out. If a foreigner is caught, he is jailed for approximately two weeks or until his deportation papers are prepared and he is deported. If a native is found out, very serious consequences apply, as much as life in prison. One of our brethren overcame this hurtle by carrying a simple deck of cards with him which became his Ritual, Almanac, Calendar, and most important his Volume of the Sacred Law. He had taken his cards to Lodge one evening when the Worshipful Master approached him as to their use. His explanation was as follows: The Ace - in the Pythagorean System, the number one is identified with reason, because it is unchangeable. It reminds us there is but one Supreme Being whom we ought humbly to adore. The Deuce or Two is opinion - there is strife and disorder. Also, it is the representative number of the pillars of Fire and Cloud, the import of which is found in the Volume of the Sacred Law. The Three - three is the perfect number. The ancients believed their world to be ruled by three Gods: Jupiter (Heaven), Neptune (Sea) and Pluto (The Underworld) The fates controlled birth, life and death. The Trinity is the basic Christian Creed, and Jesus arose from 30

the dead on the third day. The numeral three describes Masonry almost in its entirety: three Greater Lights, three lesser lights, three degrees, three working tools in each degree, three Grand Masters, and the list goes on. The Four is associated with Justice and Solidarity; it reminds us of the four tassels representing the four cardinal virtues: Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice. Five is the mystic number of the Pythagorean System and philosophy because it is the sum of 2 and 3, the first even and odd numbers. The wounds of our Redeemer were five, two in the feet, two in the hands, and one in the side. It also calls to mind the five noble orders of architecture. The Six represents the six days the Great Architect of the Universe laboured to build his temple and rested on the seventh. Seven is the sacred number and the luckiest. There are seven days in a week. Seven deadly sins: Pride, Wrath, Envy, Lust, Gluttony, Avarice, and Sloth. There are seven virtues as well: Faith, Hope, Charity, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice. Eight is the number of the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-11): one of which comes to mind "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall sec God". The Nine refers to the number of stars visible in the Lodge Room: seven in the West, one in the Mosaic pavement, and the bright morning star in the East. The Ten denotes strength and goodness, the Ten Commandments, the original Landmarks of Masonry and the very foundation of our Society. The Jack or Knave alludes to that nefarious Fellowcraft Jubelum, who when his companions Jubela and Jebelo failed in their attempts, felled the Grand Master Hiram Abif. The Queen, "The Widow", "Is there no help for the Widow's Son?" I am sure as we have travelled through life, when circumstances have dictated it, there has been an answer to this question. The King - can only have reference to King Solomon. In Closing - a quick summary – - There are 365 spots in the deck of cards: the number of days in a year. - 52 cards in the deck: the numbers of weeks in a year. - 12 face cards: the number of months in a year. There are 4 suits: the number of seasons in a year, also referred to as Spring - the time of childhood, Summer - the time of youth, Autumn - the time of manhood, and Winter - the time of old age. MASONIC DECK OF CARDS [By R. W. Bro. H. Daniel Knox, P.D.D.G.M. Waterloo District, currently W.M. of Wilmot Lodge No. 318. Article reprinted from the Records of Medwayosh Council, Allied Masonic Degrees,]


Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor