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SRA 76 Monthly Magazine

Cover Story, The Enigma of Solomon’s Temple Labouring in the Quarries Did You Know? The Perfect Point of Entrance The Pythagorean System The Prince’s Lodge No. 607. Famous Freemasons – Richard Todd The Lambskin Apron’ Rays of Masonry Old Tiler Talks Why we are Freemasons King Solomon and the Freemasons Did You Know? The Emblems of Freemasonry

Main Website – Relief and Charity

Volume 14 Issue 5 No. 111 September 2018

In this issue: Cover Story ‘The Enigma of Solomon’s Temple.’ We are all travelling a long, long road, from which there is no return, and there can be no brotherly love without tolerance. This excellent article practices these virtues.

Page 5, ‘Labouring in the Quarries.’ A parable of three workmen. Page 7, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 8, ‘The Perfect Points of Entrance’ Page 10, ‘The Pythagorean System.’ Looking at Geometric Symbols. Page 12, ‘The Prince’s Lodge No. 607’. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 13, ‘Richard Todd’ Famous Freemasons. Page 16, ‘The Lambskin Apron.’ More Ancient than any other Order in existence. Page 19, ‘Rays of Masonry.’ “Simplicity” Page 19, ‘The Old Tiler Talks.’ “Advertising”, sixty-eighth in the series. Page 21, ‘Why we are Freemasons.’ Page 24, The thoughts of Bro. Rabbi Raymond Apple. Page 26, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 26, ‘Freemasonry is …’ Page 30, ‘The Emblems of Freemasonry.’

In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘Relief and Charity’ [link] 1

Front cover – Stock Picture

The Enigma of Solomon’s Temple For centuries Christians, Jews, archaeologists, biblical scholars and Masons world-wide have attempted to construct a model of King Solomon's famous Temple. As described in I Kings and II Chronicles in the Old Testament the details are incomplete and ambiguous. A recently discovered Dead Sea Scroll has clarified many of the 3000-year-old enigmas. After Moses had received the two stone tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments he was commanded by God to build an Ark to hold the Decalogue. For almost 500 years the Israelites kept the Ark of the Covenant in a tent-like tabernacle erected in accordance with God's orders. One day King David declared, "Lo, I dwell in a house of cedar but the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord remaineth under curtains". Thereafter David commenced to amass gold, silver and the materials to build a "House of the Lord". Since the Levites had always been responsible for the Ark he designated 38,000 of them over the age of 30 as follows:-24,000 to supervise construction of the Temple 6,000 to be officers and judges 4,000 to be Temple guards, and 4,000 to be musicians. Those between ages 21 and 30 were assigned to assist the priests, perform ceremonial purification and custodial duties. Those designated as priests were all

descendants of Aaron, the original High Priest. However, God forbade David to build "His House" since David had been a warrior and had shed blood. David designated his son, Solomon, to succeed him and provided him with detailed plans for the "Temple and its surroundings - the porch, courts, houses, inside rooms, upper chambers, storage areas, treasuries, utensils." However, not all of these entities are adequately described in I Kings and II Chronicles, even though they are alluded to several times throughout the Old Testament. Solomon succeeded David in 961 B.C. and reigned for 40 years. He initially took a census of all foreigners in his kingdom and indentured 153,300 of them to construct the Temple. Assisted by Hiram, King of Tyre, construction commenced on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem in 957 B.C. The dimensions provided in the Old Testament are mostly interior measurements expressed in cubits, a cubit being approximately 18 inches. The following description is expressed in linear feet in order to provide a more familiar visualisation. The House of the Lord was 90 feet long by 30 feet wide divided into two separate chambers. The eastern chamber. 60 feet by 30 feet (and probably 30 feet high) was called the Holy Place. The only interior details provided were ten golden tables and ten golden Lamp stands placed on either side. Biblical references to women's. men's and priests' courts were postulated by some to be located within the Holy Place. The western chamber was the Holy of Holies, a 30 foot by 30 foot room, 30 feet high. This chamber contained the hallowed Ark of the Covenant, a shewbread table, a menorah and an incense altar (possibly outside) - all 2

made of gold. Two carved wood angels, 15 feet tall with wingspans of 15 feet, stood side by side with their faces turned towards the Ark. They were overlaid with gold and their combined wingspans extended from wall to wall. The entrance from the Holy Place was through two folding, golden doors. A crimson and blue veil decorated with angels was draped from ceiling to floor to separate the two chambers. The House throughout had cypress floors and cedar panelling inlaid with gold and jewels. The only entrance was at the East end through two golden doors. A partially covered vestibule 30 feet wide well known to Masons and 10 feet high extended 15 feet out from the East end. Two 35-foot-high bronze pillars, 5.5 feet in diameter were placed on either side of the porch. The capitals of the pillars were lilyshaped and flared into a 45-foot-high roof. The two capitals were adorned with bronze chains hung with 400 bronze pomegranates and surmounted with two pommels. On both sides and around the rear of the House were about ninety annexes (chambers) arranged in three storeys of thirty chambers each. The second and third storeys were supported by timbers resting on the stepped exterior of the outer wall. The annexe rooms were each 7.5 feet high and varied in width from 7.5 feet on the first storey, 9 feet on the second and 10.5 feet on the third; their length was unspecified. It was postulated that these small chambers were living quarters for the priests. The Bible mentions that access to the upper chambers was from the North side of the House via the winding stairway. The description thus far is based on texts from the Bible. In 1967 the Israelis acquired a Dead Sea Scroll which was ultimately to be designated the "Temple Scroll". After nine 3

years of painstaking analysis and translation of the badly damaged, 30-feet-long leather scroll by Yagael Yadin, it was determined to have been written about 150 B.C. It detailed the construction of the Temple and prescribed rituals and procedures. According to this document the House of the Lord was enclosed by three concentric courts. The Outer (Women's) Court was a square enclosure 2400 feet on each side. Three equally spaced gates were installed in each side. Each gate was 75 feet by 75 feet and 105 feet high. The twelve gates were individually named for the twelve sons of Jacob. Outside each gate was a twelve-step terrace. Recent excavations in Jerusalem have unearthed one such terrace. The Scroll explicitly lists the assignment of priests, Levites and all other tribes of Israel to each section of the three-storey Outer Court. The public, women and children, were permitted to enter the Outer Court. The Middle (Men's) Court was 720 feet on each side and was probably two storeys high. Each side had "cells made into the walls". No other details were retrievable. Each side had three equally spaced gates 42 feet by 42 feet (height unknown) and they were named for the twelve sons of Jacob. A winding stairway in each gate provided access to the second storey. Only Israeli men over age 20 were permitted to enter the Middle Court. The Inner (Priest's) Court was 420 feet on each side with a single gate named for the four points of the compass in each side. A colonnade porch provided a covering for tables and chairs arranged on all sides. At each corner was a cooking place or kitchen. According to the description in I Kings "He built the inner court with three rows of hewed stone and a row of cedar beams".

Only priests were permitted to enter the Inner Court. Within the Inner Court the "House of the Lord" and the following other structures were all enclosed inside a 4.5-foot-high parapet. The "House of the Winding Stair" (stairhouse) was a 30-foot by 30-foot structure adjacent to the northwest corner of the "House". A square 6- foot-wide winding stairway provided access to the second and third stories of the upper chambers (annexes) and to the roof of the House via bridges. The Scroll reveals that the annexes were actually storerooms and treasuries. The walls of the stairhouse were inlaid with gold since it was in proximity to the Holy of Holies. Similar winding stairways have been discovered at Masada and Dor. Adjacent to the southeast corner of the House was the House of the Laver, a 31.5 foot by 31.5 foot, 30-foot-high structure containing a 15 foot-diameter bronze "Molten Sea" (tank) 7.5 feet-high supported on the backs of twelve bronze oxen. Here the priests changed clothes and washed before and after sacrifices. Ten feet directly East of the Laver House was a structure of identical dimensions identified as the "House of the Altar Utensils" where sacrificial implements were stored.

Located 75 feet to the East of the Laver House was the bronze sacrificial Altar supported by rough hewned stones. North of the Altar was the pillared "Slaughter House" for the processing of oxen prior to sacrificial burning on the Altar. Between the House of the Lord and the West Gate was a similar pillar-supported "Stoa" used for the separate preparation of sheep and goats to be sacrificed for the sins and guilt of the people. The Temple was completed in seven years, but thirteen more years were required to complete Solomon's Palace, Hall of Judgement (Throne Room), Hall of Pillars, Living Quarters and the Great Court (possibly the Outer Court). The Temple was dedicated in 937 B.C. during an eight-day ceremony consuming 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep and goats for sacrifice and feasting. In 586 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king, captured Jerusalem, looted and destroyed the Temple and enslaved the Israelites. The "Second Temple" was constructed by Zerubbabel about 5 16 B.C. after Cyrus, the Persian, vanquished Nebuchadnezzar and eventually freed the Israelites. It was not as grandiose as the "First Temple,' and possibly consisted only of the House of the Lord, the Inner Court and its various 'Houses". But there was no


Ark since it disappeared or was destroyed when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem. Herod the Great dismantled the Second Temple and constructed a magnificent Temple in 20 B.C. in an attempt to glorify Jerusalem and his name. It was ultimately demolished by the Roman Emperor Titus in 70 A.D. Today it is the site of the Dome of the Rock, built in 691 A.D. to commemorate Muhammad's ascent to heaven from that spot. The ancient Wailing Wall, considered to be one of the most sacred places of all to the Jews, is a portion of the West wall that enclosed Herod's Temple in ancient times. The Temple Scroll has solved another mystery for scholars of the Bible today. Sixteen of the Dead Sea Scrolls were wrapped in linen coverings which had a pattern of three concentric quadrangles woven in blue thread. The analysts of these scrolls could not fathom the meaning of these patterns. We now realise the significance of this design as a geometric representation of King Solomon's Temple. Hopefully more Dead Sea Scrolls will ultimately be discovered, more of the Bible will be confirmed and additional enigmas resolved. THE ENIGMA OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE by Bro. Robert Roman, Virginia, U.S.A Sourced from The Masonic Trowel Website

Labouring in the Quarries While wandering through the quarries, examining the various trestle-boards stationed therein, Hiram Abif happened by chance to encounter three workmen. As he approached the first man hard at work, he could see that the labourer’s beard was very sparse. He was still a young lad, scarcely old enough to leave home, but he was strong and industrious. Hiram called out to him: “From whence come you, and what come you here to do?” The youth replied, “I come from the Lodge of the Holy Saints John at Jerusalem to subdue my passions and improve myself in Masonry.” “Then I presume you are a Mason,” Hiram asked. Hiram took particular note of his somewhat impatient answer: “I am so taken among Brothers and fellows. Can’t you see, old man? I’m a stonecutter.” And the lad raised high above his head a 24-inch gauge to measure and lay out his work and a common gavel to break off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builders’ use. The Grand Master immediately knew this young man to be an Entered Apprentice who needed badly to improve himself in Masonry. Hiram Abif moved on in his wanderings and met a second labourer. Having a full, dark beard, he was a grown man in his prime. Presuming him to be a Fellowcraft. Hiram approached him. “Hail, Brother, are you a Fellowcraft?”


“I am,” the workman replied. “Try me.” Hiram could see hanging from his apron a plumb for raising perpendiculars, a square for squaring his work, and a level for laying horizontals.

But ignoring these working tools, the workman extended his free hand grasping another implement, explaining: “A trowel to spread the cement which unites a building into one common mass.”

“Ah,” Hiram thought to himself, “Here is a well-schooled man, versed in the liberal arts, and especially in the science of geometry. Here is a man who stands ready to succeed in any test one could pose.” So Hiram tested him: “Why are you labouring in these quarries?”

“Why are you labouring in the quarries with all the rest?”

“I earn one shekel each time I present my finished work to the Overseers and pass their inspection.”

His answer filled the Grand Master with an overpowering sense of regard, but feeling a bit weary, Hiram sat down in the rubble in the shade of a finished column to reflect upon his encounters and to contemplate his recent experiences.

Hiram knew this labourer to be a Fellowcraft, who, like the young Entered Apprentice, had a long journey before him. Hiram proceeded further into the quarry, deep in thought, and came across a third labourer with a long, white beard, older, but still strong, and seemingly wiser than the first two. He had the look of a craftsman who had laboured in the quarries for many years, yet his apron was virtually spotless. Taking a chance on the assumption that he was indeed more knowledgeable, Hiram called, “Hail, Brother, are you a Master Mason?” The old workman’s simple, direct reply, “I am,” gave proof of a self-confidence that stems from being at peace with one’s passions. “Can I provide help for the widow’s son?” Shrugging off his brotherly offer, Hiram asked, “What do you carry there?” He had a 24-inch gauge and a common gavel in his apron. There were a plumb, square, and level firmly stuck under his arm.

The old labourer’s reply immediately convinced Hiram that he was in fact a Master Mason: “Why, I am building King Solomon’s Temple to God.”

“Here I have just met three men with similar jobs. One cuts rough ashlars and finishes them. Another lays them out horizontally and raises them perpendicularly. And the third unites them with cement into one common mass. They are each labouring in the same quarry, working with the same materials, following the same set of designs. Yet, when I asked each one in turn what he was doing in the quarry, the first said he was a stonecutter, the second said he was a wage earner, and the third said he was a temple builder. What is the meaning of these different replies? “The first, the young stonecutter, cannot see any real, long-range purpose for his labours. Everyday he cuts stones, just that. He does not know where they come from or where they go when he passes them on, nor does he seem much to care. Where is his purpose for labouring in the quarries? He has none. He was told to cut stone, and cut stones are all he cares to do. He has no sense of the past or of the future. He is locked in the present moment cutting stones. He is good 6

to be industrious, but he has a long way to go before becoming a Master Mason. “The second, the adult wage earner, does have a purpose for his labours, but the purpose the wages is to cater to public opinion, to impress other people and attract their favour. He thinks of himself as one who should take other people’s tests, who must live up to other people’s standards and expectations. But where are his own standards and personal expectations? He is good to be obedient, but he, too, has a long way to go before becoming a Master Mason. “The third, the temple builder, is the only one who has fully comprehended the designs on the trestle-board. He does not, like the Entered Apprentice, merely do his job like a dumb beast of burden. He knows his job is a vital part of a larger plan. He does not, like the Fellowcraft, cater to the winds of custom and the breezes of fad and fashion. This Master Mason is building a cathedral, a dwelling place for the Grand Architect of the Universe. He is building a temple to span all ages, not just for a day as for the Entered Apprentice or for one man’s lifetime as for the Fellowcraft, but for Eternity. It is this wise temple builder who understands being a Master Mason is more than day-to-day labouring in the quarries, more than accumulating corn, wine, and oil. Being a Master Mason is to be aware that he must become a living stone for that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. There stands a just and upright Master Mason.” Now refreshed, Hiram Abif rose from his resting place beneath the column to seek out the temple builder’s name. Sourced from the Pyramid Texts - 1989


DID YOU KNOW? Question: Are the tracing board and the Trestle-board the same Masonically? Answer. No. The tracing-board bears upon it representations of the several symbols of one or all the degrees; the trestle board is that drawing board, supported upon a trestle, on which, anciently, the Master Builder drew his designs. In early Lodges, Masonic symbols were drawn upon the earth or floor with charcoal or chalk; these were erased when the meeting was over. Later, such symbols were presented upon a permanent surface and became the "Master's Carpet," and today in many Lodges are to be seen upon oil cloth or canvas, pointed out by a Deacon during the delivery of the lecture. Trestle board appeared at least two hundred years ago, mentioned in Prichard's "Masonry Dissected,” an early expose of Masonic ritual. Mackey considers that the Volume of the Sacred Law is the trestleboard of modern Masons. Question: Why has Symbolic Masonry three degrees only, and not four or seven or a larger number, as have other branches of the fraternity? Answer. Three is the numerical symbol of the equilateral triangle, which is man's earliest symbol for God. It was the "most sacred number" at the dawn of civilization. Masonry emphasizes it: three degrees, three circumambulations, three Great Lights, three Lesser Lights three steps on the Master's Carpet, three Fellows who stood at the gates of the Temple, three who discovered the Master Workman, three principal rounds, three Grand Columns, etc. Evidently the ritual makers of an early age believed that there should be a symbolism

of number as well as of object in the teaching of Masonry regarding the fatherhood of God, to instruct that He is present at all times in every ceremony and meeting.

The Perfect Point of Entrance

Question: When is a Lodge clandestine? What is a clandestine Mason?

What is meant by the Perfect Points of entrance?

Answer: In general, a Lodge or a Mason is clandestine when not legally constituted under generally accepted Masonic laws. But "not lawfully constituted" may not necessarily mean "clandestine." A Fellow Craft receiving the Master Mason degree in a Lodge in which the Charter has been lost is not "lawfully" made and must be reobligated to be "healed," but such a making is not "clandestine." The clandestine Lodge today is one, which is set up by an unrecognized Grand Lodge, which is spurious, unlawful. Any group of men--even men not Masons--might declare themselves a Lodge and "make Masons," but all these actions, being done outside of the scope of Masonic law, would produce only a clandestine Lodge and clandestine Masons. Modern scholarship distinguishes between the "clandestine" and the "not recognized." For instance, many Grand Lodges (including the United Grand Lodge of England) consider the Prince Hall Grand Lodges to be "regular" (i.e., legally constituted under Masonic law), but to this time only a small number of Grand Lodges that recognize the United Grand Lodge of England have extended recognition to Prince Hall Grand Lodges. Thus, at this time, most of the Prince Hall Grand Lodges are unrecognized, but they are not clandestine. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.

They were first mentioned in ritual text dated 1696, when they clearly referred to secrets of the Entered Apprentice ceremony. In a series of questions asking how a mason could prove himself the first answer was; "by signes [sic] tokens and other points of my entrie [sic]." In those days the first Point was "heill [sic] and conceal [sic]" and the second point was the penal sign of an Entered Apprentice. In effect, the "Points of Entrance" were a brief summary of essential elements in the initiation ceremony, but they developed eventually, into a series of "trapquestions," with very cautious answers. In the late 1700's, Preston in this "First Lecture of Freemasonry" defined the "Points" as comprising the ceremonies of "preparation, admission and obligation." In another version of the same Lecture, he gave the Points of Entrance as a set of code-words, "Of, At, and On," and the question ran: Question: Of what? Answer: In relation to apparel, Question: At what? Answer: The door of the Lodge. Question: On what? Answer: On the left knee bare. The "Of, At and On" became firmly established in our English Lectures in the next 20-30 years, until they eventually settled into the form in use to this day.

You may have noticed that there are parts of our ritual which are not readily understood and are never explained, yet we commit them to memory and at appropriate times recite them without question. One 8

particularly confusing phrase is "The Perfect Points of Entrance." does this have any special meaning and when and how did it become a part of our ritual?

unclear. Perhaps it is one of those things that is intended to excite our curiosity and leave each of us to draw our own conclusions.

In the Entered Apprentice lecture we learn that there are four Perfect Points of Entrance: The Guttural, Pectoral, Manual and Pedal, which are illustrated by signs and exemplified by the four Cardinal Virtues: Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice. After a short lecture on each of these Cardinal Virtues, we are treated to a demonstration of the sign for each of the points of entrance, with a reference to its origin, but at no time are the points or cardinal virtues associated with entrance. Thus we are left with three separate and seemingly unrelated subjects. The only other reference to the Perfect Points of Entrance occurs in the dialogue between the Worshipful Master and the Senior Warden during the opening and closing of the lodge on the Entered Apprentice degree, but again the Points of Entrance are not defined.

When and how did this become a part of our ritual? There is no ready answer to this question because so much of our ritual is esoteric and is handed down from mouth to ear, making it almost impossible to determine the exact origin of any part of it. There is a distinct possibility that the roots of this particular part of the lecture date back beyond the establishment of Symbolic Masonry. Since the conferral of the Entered Apprentice degree, in which these points occur, deals with the subject of entrance; the entrance of the Entered Apprentice into the lodge, and the entering of his name on the rolls of the lodge, it seems logical to conclude that they were points of instruction relating to the candidate's entrance.

Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia offers this definition: "The four Perfect Points of Entrance constitute the esoteric closing of each of the lectures on Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice, to which they respectively do not apply, illustrate, or in any way belong, so that the esoteric portions of the four lectures have to be somewhat manipulated to make a connection with them. Moreover, Point of entrance is somewhat Cabalistic, since it does not disclose what the entrance is into. Does it mean entrance of the candidate into something, or of something into the candidate? Whether the architects of our ritual had something specific in mind when they designed this particular part of the work is 9

There is some evidence in the Old Manuscripts that there may have been only one point originally, with the three others added and attached to the lectures on the Cardinal Virtues during the 18th century. None of the early exposed rituals had anything to say about Guttural, Pectoral, Manual or Pedal until 1724, at which time they were mentioned as Freemason's signs, and were not connected in any way with the subject of entry. Later exposures, while making reference to the points of entrance, did not associate them with the signs of Guttural, Pectoral, Manual or Pedal, and as late as 1740 there had been no mention of the Cardinal Virtues. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia gives this theory on the evolution of the Perfect Points of Entrance in our ritual: "Modern rituals on this subject, in a portion of the Entered Apprentice lecture, combine in a single

treatment of three different things, as follows: 1. Entry on entrance, the points at which there were secrets and penalties; 2. Certain signs classed as Guttural, Pectoral, Manual and Pedal; and 3. Cardinal Virtues, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice. In the earliest rituals, they were entirely dissociated. At least up to 1750, points of entry were no more than secrets, signs, tokens, etc., but undefined. These were certain signs classified as guttural, pectoral, manual and pedal, not further defined, but seeming to have no connection with entrance. Evidently, cardinal virtues did not enter the ritual until after the middle of the 18th century when they were taken from the Christian church, which derived them from Plato... So the four cardinal virtues were imposed on the four signs; guttural, pectoral, manual and pedal, and the whole merged with the points of entry, with the result that three matters of doubt and uncertainty, which the ritualists were unable to rationalize were consolidated into one incongruous mass of verbiage. The only part which has any virtue or value is that of the Cardinal Virtues which, however, could stand on their own merits, needing no assistance from the other enigmatic parts." The Cardinal Virtues aside then, we might consider the Perfect Points of Entrance, not necessarily in the order in which they are listed, as: the reception upon the point of a sharp instrument, the due guard, the penal sign, and the position in the northeast corner of the lodge upon the first step of Freemasonry, which allude to obligations, penalties, and moral responsibilities. These would seem to be the principal points of a candidate 's entry into the Lodge, and would explain, and perhaps justify, the retention of "The Perfect Points of Entrance" in our ritual. Sourced from Ontario Mason Magazine Winter 2016.

The Pythagorean System One of the great authorities on Freemasonry was Robert Macoy (1815-1895) whose writings continue to be relevant and a source of knowledge for today’s masonic scholar. Much of the information for this article comes from his A Dictionary of Freemasonry which was originally published late in the nineteenth century and was reprinted in 2000. The influence of the early Greeks upon the world cannot be overestimated. Their mythology formed the basis upon which the world’s great philosophers built their theories. Science too had its origins in their earliest discoveries. Pythagoras (540 - 487 BCE) was born into an enlightened Greek family and his education was calculated to challenge his mind and invigorate his body. At an early age he travelled to Egypt, Chaldaea and India where he was initiated into their mysteries. He returned home after collecting their unique traditions including the nature of their religions and their belief in the immortality of the soul, settled in the south of Italy where he founded the Pythagorean Fraternity which attracted a large number of students. Their curriculum included many of Pythagoras’ discoveries in the fields of Geometry, Astronomy and Mathematics. Euclid, who lived about 300 CE founded a school at the hub of intellectual activity of the day, at Alexandria on the Nile River delta was a mathematician whose famous book “The Data” contained 94 propositions dealing with elementary geometry, in which 10

if certain elements in a figure are known, others can be calculated. Pythagoras developed the solution to the 47th proposition of this book, which explains how to calculate the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle when the length of the other two sides are known. This solution forms the basis of the jewel of a Past Master. He is often considered as one of the fathers of philosophy, or lovers of wisdom. His teachings greatly influenced Plato whose philosophy has had a tremendous impact upon the development of western civilization and culture.

The philosophy of Freemasonry is many faceted; it involves the history of our origin, a calm enquiry into the ideas concealed at its core, an analytical study of the three degrees and the understanding of the concepts illustrated by its legends, myths, allegories and symbols. Over a century ago Macoy stated that Freemasonry had then arrived at a time when its prosperity (we would now claim its future) imperatively demands a deeper insight into its character and teachings. For the past 150 years 11

Masons have concentrated upon the outward and material forms of the institution. Not knowing what ideas the system had at its birth, what truths were symbolized within the rites nor the mysteries which were intended to be illustrated by its symbols, we have not been able to rise to a true appreciation of its sublime nature and profound significance. The superior intelligence and culture of the present age requires, nay demands, more than this. To be an effective agent in elevating and advancing man to a more perfect condition, its philosophy must be studied and its mysteries better understood so that the ageless emblems and symbols may once again relate their ancient and immortal meanings. While we acknowledge and celebrate his famous right angled triangle he applied a lesson to several other geometric forms. The equilateral triangle was adopted by ancient nations as a symbol of Deity, the principle and author of all sublunary things, the essence of Light and Truth, who was, and is and shall be. The square joins the celestial and terrestrial elements of power. The cube symbolized the mind of man who thought a life spent in acts of piety and devotion, was preparation by virtue for his translation into the society of the celestial gods. The point within a circle symbolized the universe, the circle representing creation and man the point within. Another symbol of the universe was a twelve sided figure, or a Dodecahedron which now represents the twelve zodiacs seen in the night sky. This article was sourced from the Manitoba Mason. 2013

“The Prince’s Lodge” No. 607 In May, 1877, a petition to raise the Lodge was signed by James Bain esq., the then Lord Provost of Glasgow, by F.W.Clarke, the then Sheriff of Lanarkshire, and thirteen other Masons. They were mostly, if not all, members of The Lodge of Glasgow, St. John's No. 3 bis, which we still acknowledge to be our Mother Lodge. A further meeting of the signatories was held on the fourth of June. The petition was passed, and interim office bearers were elected. The Right Worshipful Master being Sheriff Clarke, with James Bain, Depute Master. There are conflicting theories as to the embracing of the title, "The Prince's". Many believe it to refer to the Merchant Princes of Glasgow, as the Lodge was formed specifically to cater for "The Gentlemen of the West End." A more likely explanation is that the formation of the Lodge coincided with a visit to Glasgow of the Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII. The Lodge first met in fully constituted form on fourth October 1877, and this was the date in 1977 when the Centenary Dinner was held in The Trades House. An examination of the Lodge's first declaration book shows that the first initiates were John William Burns of Cardross and William Pearce of Elmbank House, Govan, both receiving their first degree on the eighteenth October, 1878. William Pearce was, of course, the baronet who had succeeded John Elder as a Shipbuilder at Govan and was chief of the

Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company. Sir William brought early honour to his mother Lodge, when in 1880 he was appointed Provincial Grand Master of Glasgow. His appointment was the start of a remarkable record. From his installation until 1936 the chair of Provincial Grand Lodge of Glasgow was continuously occupied by members of "The Prince's" Lodge No 607 1880 – 1888 1888 – 1904 1904 – 1930 1930 1930 – 1936

Sir William Pearce John Graham A.A.Hagart Spiers J. Rankine Andrew (DIO) John M. Grant

The Lodge was again to supply a Provincial Grand Master of Glasgow, when in 1968, Bro. George F. Fenwick was appointed to that high office, which he filled with distinction until his death in June 1970. This achievement is further enhanced when we mention that Bro. Hagart Spiers only resigned his commission as Provincial Grand Master on being elevated to Grand Master of Scotland. There have been other members of "The Prince's" who served the craft well. There have been members who achieved fame in the world outside masonry. Men such as Field Marshall Lord Wavell who joined our Lodge when, as a young officer, he was stationed in barracks at Maryhill. We, who are members of this Lodge today are proud of these traditions, and proud of the fact that such men chose to follow their masonic careers in our Lodge. We strive to maintain the traditions that they have set us. We still have our close links with Provincial Grand Lodge of Glasgow supplying to that worthy body their Depute 12

Provincial Grand Masters; our recent Past Master, Rev.Dr. Idris Jones, is Provincial Grand Chaplin, and until October 2015 will serve as the Third Citizen of Glasgow in his office of Deacon Convener of the Trades House of Glasgow. Another of our Past Masters, Bro. Robert Best, who died in 2012, was Past Provincial Grand Master and served on one of the Committees of Grand Lodge.

Famous Freemasons Richard Todd

Our Lodge has had various meeting places throughout its history, but for many years assembled in The Trades House of Glasgow. It was in this building that the Jubilee Dinner was held in 1927. On that occasion the guest of honour was the Grand Master Mason of Scotland, Lord Blythswood, who was made an honorary member of the Lodge. On fourth October 1977, our Centenary Dinner was once again Held in Trades House when a Re-Dedication Ceremony was honoured by the presence of Bro. Captain Robert Wolridge Gordon of Esslemont, Most Worshipful Grand Master Mason. As a result of the refurbishment of Trades House the Lodge was relocated in 2007 to the temple at 3 Mafeking Street, Ibrox, where we continue to flourish. Now, almost half way through our second century, with the help of God, we shall seek to maintain this proud record of masonic service, and by our own humble efforts do our utmost to enhance them. You are, at all times, most welcome to join our meetings and enjoy Harmony which follows. This History of “The Prince’s” Lodge No. 607 was sourced from their website which can be viewed by clicking here. (Please visit their site) Our thanks go to the Lodge No. 607 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owner of this History.


Exit Dashing Young Blade Richard Todd was one of Britain’s best known actors in the 50’s and early 60’s. A major star of the British cinema he appeared in a variety of films, but he is probably best remembered for playing Wing Commander Guy Gibson in the film ‘The Dambusters.’ (1955) and also for his portrayal of Major John Howard in the film, ‘The Longest Day,’ (1962) But what is probably not so well known is the fact that Captain Richard Todd was one of the first British officers to parachute into Normandy in advance of the main D-Day landings in 1944. Richard Andrew Palethorpe-Todd was born in Dublin on June 11th 1919 into an aristocratic Anglo-Irish family. His father

was a British Army physician who had gained three caps for Ireland at rugby before the First World War; his mother was a noted beauty and horsewoman. The family moved to Devon when Richard was very young, although due to his father's Army commitments a few of his childhood years were spent in India. After leaving school he enrolled at the Italia Conti Academy to study acting, and while training as an actor, he appeared as an extra Will Hay films. But his main focus was the stage and after graduating he joined the Dundee Repertory theatre group in 1939. However his stage career was interrupted when World War 1 broke out and Richard volunteered the day after war was declared and was commissioned in the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry in 1941. In 1943 he applied to become a parachutist, and in May of that year was posted to the 7th Parachute Battalion – part of the 6th Airborne Division. For the Normandy landings, he was appointed assistant adjutant and his battalion parachuted into Normandy on 6 June, 1944 as reinforcements after glider troops had landed. Richard was 25 years old. As an officer in the 7th (Light Infantry) Parachute Battalion, he had not only been one of the first to land in Normandy, he had also been among the first to meet the glider force, under the command of Major John Howard, defending Pegasus Bridge, a scene memorably recreated in two epic films in which Todd later starred. In D-Day, the Sixth of June (1956), he played the commanding officer of his unit. In the film The Longest Day (1962), which was based on the book of the same name by the Telegraph special war correspondent Cornelius Ryan, Todd took the role of

Howard, performing one scene opposite the actor playing himself (a role he turned down). "I was, in effect, standing beside myself talking to myself," he noted later. At a cost of $8 million, The Longest Day was the most expensive black and white film made until Schindler's List. On demobilisation, he returned to Dundee Rep before signing a seven-year contract with Associated British Films. He made his screen debut in ‘For Them That Trespass’ (1949), giving a strong performance as an ex-convict wrongly imprisoned for murder, and on the last day of shooting, Todd was spotted by director Vincent Sherman, who was preparing a film version of the play ‘The Hasty Heart’ and felt that Todd would be ideal casting as the dour, truculent soldier Lachlan McLachlan, who initially rejects the attempts at friendship made by fellow patients in a military hospital in Burma. Though his co-stars, Ronald Reagan and Patricia Neal, gave fine performances, Todd was outstanding as the dying Scot, later commenting, "I had seen boys in the war in much the same state and I knew what he was feeling," and he won an Academy Award nomination as best actor (losing to Broderick Crawford in All The King's Men). However, he won the Golden Globe for his portrayal. Richard Todd and the future President of the United States Ronald Regan became lifelong personal friends after this film. Richard’s film career then took off; he acted in a Hitchcock film opposite Marlene Dietrich, and then took over a series of swashbuckling films for the Walt Disney Company. The Story of Robin Hood and his Merrie Men (1952), The Sword and the Rose (1953) and Rob Roy, The Highland Rogue (1954). Critics would later say, 14

‘These films showed he was no Errol Flynn.’ Following these, he was cast opposite Bette Davis in the film, ‘The Virgin Queen’ playing Sir Walter Raleigh and for years was in huge demand acting in a number of War Films, including, playing the lead in ‘The Long, the short and the Tall,’ which Todd later said he hated filming. It was around this time that Richard Todd was Ian Fleming's first choice to play James Bond in Dr No (1962), although it was reported at the time that due to a scheduling clash he gave the role to Sean Connery, however, the producer Harry Saltzman had considered him too short and vetoed him. (He was 5’8”.) From the mid 60’s onwards, Richard Todd’s career began to decline, lead roles all but finished, and his later films were for the most part forgettable. He returned to the stage and toured all over the world for many years. He worked in television appearing in such series as; Virtual Murder; Silent Witness; Holby City; Murder, She Wrote; and in Doctor Who in 1982. He was in the television miniseries Jenny's War, and played Lord Roberts of Kandahar in the miniseries Sherlock Holmes and the Incident at Victoria Falls (1992, featuring Christopher Lee as Sherlock Holmes). After retirement Todd worked as a volunteer for Age Concern, supported the Royal British Legion and was a popular speaker at charity functions and military commemorations, raising huge sums for charity. His interests included the countryside; for many years he lived near Chipping Camden in Gloucestershire. Later moving to Little Ponton in Lincolnshire, he was appointed OBE in 1993. 15

Richard Todd was twice married, first to the actress Catherine Grant-Bogle, with whom he had a son and a daughter, and secondly to Virginia Mailer, a model with whom he had two sons. Both marriages were dissolved. Tragically Richard lost two sons through suicide. In a subsequent interview, Todd likened the process of coming to terms with these tragedies to the experience of war: "You don't consciously set out to do something gallant. You just do it because that is what you are there for. It is your country. And you just get on with it." Richard Todd, a major actor of the British Cinema died in his sleep aged 90 in 3rd December 2009, his gravestone epitaph reads; “Exit Dashing Young Blade” a reference made by the Queen Mother of the actor. Brother Richard Todd was initiated into Lodge of Emulation No. 21 on 19/11/1956 and became a joining member of the Grand Stewards Lodge No. 0 on 10/06/1970.

Richard Todd during WW2 This article has been assembled from various sources for the famous freemasons section of the magazine. Ed.

The Lambskin Apron The apron is the initial gift of Freemasonry to a candidate. The word derives from the French “napron,” meaning a cloth, and from the expression “a napron” evolved “an apron” in English. The candidate is instructed to wear this distinctive badge throughout an honourable Masonic life. As we will see, the presentation or Rite of Investiture symbolizes the candidate’s new life of understanding and inner purification. Our speculative use of the apron derives from both historical and operative sources. From the historical perspective, we learn about initiatory and religious functions. The initiate into ancient Orders travelled a so called Rite of Passage, whereby he symbolically matured from the naïveté or spiritual darkness of the child to “enlightenment” as an adult. He became “cleansed of impurities” of both the mind and spirit. This “redemption” or “regeneration” afforded his placement into a milieu of special human fellowship, moral truth and spiritual faith. White aprons were worn upon initiation into the ancient mysteries of Mithras, the Jewish cult of the Essenes and Chinese secret societies. They were worn by ancient Jewish and Druidic high priests. The early Christians wore them when baptized. The Persians used it as a national banner. It adorned Greek and Egyptians gods. It was used by the Mayans, Incas, Aztecs and Hopi Indians, the Vikings, the Zulus and by the Anglican clergy. Because men wore them as emblems of their high office or position, the apron acquired an aura of authority and respect in many diverse cultures. From the religious or mystical standpoint, the white apron was regarded as a sign of purity. It

covered the lower portion of the body, which was associated with uncleanness and immorality. The sash or band used to tie the apron separated the upper and lower parts, and when worn at prayer, reminded one of the functional priority of heart and mind. The “mystics” spoke of the four physical (earth, air, fire and water) and three spiritual (presence, knowledge and power: symbolic of Deity), which add up to the Pythagorean “perfect” number seven. Masons have similarly speculated about the symbolic perfection of the seven sides of the apron and its flap. When worn by an entered apprentice, the “physical” four-sided main portion is separate from the “spiritual” three-sided flap. As this new Mason progresses through the degrees and becomes “enlightened,” the flap descends to the apron, symbolizing entrance of his spiritual nature into that of the physical. Then the corner turns up, symbolizing an intertwining embrace of the two aspects. Another esoteric explanation considers the pentagram, square and triangle. If we trace the outlines of the apron for each degree, the entered apprentice’s has five sides, the Fellowcraft’s, four sides and the master’s, three sides (the latter form is now obsolete). In this we can find a recurring theme in Masonry, the 47th Problem of Euclid. Discovered by Pythagoras, it teaches that in right-angled triangles, the square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the two other sides. This is the root of geometry and foundation of mathematics, which was essential knowledge for our Masonic cathedral builders. From the operative perspective, the apron, no doubt, had its development for practical reasons and became necessary equipment for the medieval stonemasons. The apprentice was a bearer of burdens, carrying ashlars and timbers against his body. He needed a large 16

apron, usually made of a tough animal hide, to protect him from physical injury and his clothes from damage and soiling. The Fellowcraft was a hewer in the mountains and quarries and required the apron to deflect lime chips and stone dust. The master, as overseer of the work, wore his apron with the corner turned up, as a mark of his special authority. The apron and other clothing, such as cap, collar and gloves, developed into uniforms which distinguished members of one guild from another. The mason’s apron became his specific badge! It was in the 17th century when the building of massive edifices slowed and membership in the guilds declined that the seeds of modern Speculative Masonry were sown. Our founding fathers recognized the importance of incorporating the wisdom and experience of both the historical and operative perspectives into a new moral system that would attract the interest of men whose vocations were not in the operative craft. On this basis, how was the apron treated? Let us look to the description in our ritual. LAMBSKIN. The lamb is gentle and harmless. In ancient times it was often offered as a sacrifice to the gods, either to please them or as a symbolic plea for the expiation of sins. The lamb is therefore associated with redemption and purification. The lamb’s white colour is an ancient symbol of purity and cleanliness, of innocence, conscience, good character and discipline. It is the colour that reflects the most light, speculatively the “light of understanding.” Alternately, it shows stains most plainly, so we must beware if committing misdeeds and acts of immortality. The origin of the word “candidate” is from the Latin, “candidus” meaning white. Candidates for office in 17

ancient Rome often wore white togas to proclaim their qualities. Today, we use the word “candid” to mean free from prejudice or deception, fair, or an honest and sincere expression. EMBLEM OF INNOCENCE. First let us examine the difference between symbol and emblem. A symbol is an idea, sign, device or object which has within itself something else, which it guards from false scrutiny, but which it may yield, if studied. “Virtues” are symbols, for example. An emblem is a symbolic device whose meaning need not be discovered. Its meaning is obvious, known and accepted by common agreement. For example, “white means purity.” Innocence originally meant “not to hurt,” but in modern times it has come to mean “lack of the knowledge of evil.” And so the “innocent girl,” the virgin, is symbolically married in a white dress. Masonry teaches us that as adults we cannot ignore evil and we use the word in its original context, “to do no hurt,” to be harmless, gentle, moral, patient, forgiving and having forbearance with men’s crudeness and ignorance. BADGE OF A MASON. The badge differs from the symbol or emblem, in that it is a conscious mark or sign by which a person (or object) is distinguished, making his identity or membership known. The apron is a sign to prove rough work, either that physical labour or the Operative or the spiritual work of the Speculative Mason. Historically, this badge helped to elevate Masonry’s status to that of a worthy and honourable profession, one of creating and constructing. It did much to change societal attitudes toward labour, which was no longer thought relegated to slaves or menials. As the badge of Masons, the apron also represents their “bond of friendship.” Since our Speculative history began in 1717, the lambskin has undergone many

changes in size, shape, length and fabric. We presently use an unspotted lambskin 14”-16” wide, 12”-14” long, with the flap apex extending 3”-4” from the top. It is properly worn in full view, outside the jacket or coat. Ornaments, edgings, rosettes and tassels of varying design and colour are used for Grand Lodge and Blue Lodge officers, Past Masters, and by otherMasonic orders. While it is not within the scope of this essay to describe and discuss these differences, this information can be obtained from several of the reference papers. [Note: Variations in the above paragraph

distinction and special privilege, as well as the “Divine Right” of kings. The Order of the Star probably alludes to a society founded in 1351 by John II of France. While it extolled aristocracy, idleness and aloofness, King John engaged in acts of despotism and destruction. Its insignia was a sliver eight-pointed star, worn on the left breast. The Order of the Garter was founded in 1349 by Edward III of England and consisted of the King and 25 knights. It promoted chivalry with the “proper classes,” while the so-called “lower classes” were treated with scorn and cruelty.

may and do exist in other Jurisdictions. ]

MORE ANCIENT THAN THE GOLDEN FLEECE OR ROMAN EAGLE. The Order of the Golden Fleece was founded in 1429 by Phillip, the Duke of Burgundy, upon his marriage to the Infanta Isabella of Portugal. The “Golden Ram” was its badge and alluded to the lost Greek mythologic object sought by Jason and the Argonauts. It was the symbol of the triumph of superior spiritual strength and purity of the soul. In contrast to Masonry, this Order’s motto was “wealth, not servile labor.” Its original purpose was to protect the Church and Catholic faith, but later extended to other faiths. It still exists and interestingly, in 1985 King Carlos of Spain, conferred the Order on a Moslem, King Hussein of Jordan. The Roman Eagle was the ensign of Rome’s Imperial power, around the 1st century B.C., during the second consulship of Gaius Marius. It exalted the glory and greatness of the past. It fostered a belief that the wisdom gained by experience was the basis of progress and secured our present and future happiness. It was thus a source of morale for the Roman Legionnaires. MORE HONORABLE THAN THE STAR OR GARTER. To “bestow honour” was device of flattery. It promoted class

Freemasonry exists in striking contrast to these concepts. It teaches reverence and service to God. It promotes the pursuit of knowledge, self-reliance and devotion to honest work. It stresses the soundness of moral principles, integrity, justice, good conscience and “right” conduct. It glorifies the building of exemplary character. It dissipates discord and dissension by promoting peace, patriotism, Brotherhood and equal opportunity. Indeed, Freemasonry’s supports are “Wisdom Strength and Beauty.” Its beliefs are “Faith, Hope and Charity.” Its tenets are “Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth.” The Lambskin Apron should “continually remind us of that purity of life and conduct” required of Masons. Only “when worthily worn” can we spiritually merit “gaining admission into the Celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides.” We are thus taught accountability for our actions here on earth. And, as we strive to understand Freemasonry’s philosophy and practice its lessons, a gradual enlightenment enables us to wear our aprons “with pleasure to ourselves and honour to the Fraternity.” Sourced from the California Freemason Winter 1992.


Rays of Masonry “Simplicity” The great things of life are unadorned. The ages declare the greatness of men who walked humbly and quietly, and who were so absorbed in a life of well-doing that they never had an idle moment to reflect upon history's evaluation. The tallest monument erected to a false greatness reveals only the monument, while a rough slab, lonely in its appearance, may loom as an imposing symbol if it bears the name of one who lived such a life that only time could transform such an obscure existence into everlasting greatness. Great truths are expressed in simple words.


Let ceremonies and superstitions enter and the simplicity of Love, the very essence of Religion, is lost. With its disappearance all semblance of True Religion is gone.

The New Brother leaned against the wall near the Old Tiler and lighted a cigar. "We would do more good in the world if we advertised ourselves more," he said.

Speak of perfection and infallibility and the human touch is withdrawn.

"Why?" asked the Old Tiler.

Who can point out the great citizens of today? Are the great of today the ones whose autographs are sought? No, the great of today are the men whose autographs will be sought by future generations. Today we do not know their names. And there are untold thousands whose greatness will never be known by man. They are the simple, honest men, unknown and unheralded, whose hearts are attuned to the Great Heart of the Universe. Dewey Wollstein 1953.


"So that those not members of the fraternity would know more about our work." ''Why should they?" "The more people know about us, the more regard they have for us, the more men would want to be Masons, the larger we would grow, and so the more powerful we would be!" answered the New Brother. "You would advertise us until all men became Masons?" "Well – er – I don't know about all men; but certainly until most men applied."

"If all men were Masons at heart there would be no need for Masonry,'' answered the Old Tiler. " But not all who call themselves Master Masons are real Masons. What we need to do is advertise ourselves to our brethren." "But we know all about Masonry," protested the New Brother; "the world at large does not." "Oh, no, we don't know all about Masonry!" cried the Old Tiler. "Even the bestinformed don't know all about Masonry. The best-informed electricians do not know all about electricity; the best-informed astronomers do not know all about astronomy; the best-informed geologists do not know all about geology. We all have much to learn." "But electricity and astronomy and geology are sciences. Masonry is – is – well, Masonry was made by men, and so some men must know all about it." "Can a man make something greater than himself?" countered the Old Tiler. ''Our ears hear sounds-translate vibrations of air or other material to our brains-as noise or music. But the ear is limited; we do not hear all the sounds in nature; some animals and insects hear noises we cannot hear. We have eyes, yet these imperfect instruments turn into colour and light but a tiny proportion of light waves. Scientific instruments recognize vibrations which physical senses take no account of-radio and X-ray for instance. Yet our whole conception of the universe is founded on what we see and hear. Very likely the universe is entirely different from what we think. The ant's tiny world is a hill; he has no knowledge of the size of the county in which is his home, let alone the size or

shape of the world. A dog's world is the city where he lives; not for him is the ocean or the continent or the world. The stars and the moon and the Sun are to him but shining points. Our world is bigger; we see a universe through a telescope, but we can but speculate as to its extent or what is beyond the narrow confines of our instruments. "Masonry is like that. Our hearts understand a certain kind of love. Prate as we will about brotherhood of man and Fatherhood of God, we yet compare the one to the love of two blood-brothers and the second to our feeling for our children. We measure both by the measuring rods we have. "Real brotherhood and real Fatherhood of God may be grander, broader, deeper, and wider than we know. Masonry contains the thought; our brains have a limited comprehension of it. If this be so then we know little about Masonry, and what even the most learned of us think is probably far short of reality." "All that may be so," answered the New Brother, "and it is a most interesting idea; but what has it to do with advertising to the profane?" ''Does a scientist make any progress by advertising his science?" countered the Old Tiler. "Will a geometrician discover a new principle by advertising for more students? Will the astronomer discover a new sun by running placards in the newspapers? Will a geologist discover the mystery of the earth's interior by admitting more members to the geological Society? "Masonry needs no advertising to the profane, but advertising to its own members. I use the word in your sense, but 20

I do not mean publicity. Masons need to be taught to extend Masonry's influence over men's hearts and minds. We do not need more material to work with, but better work on the half-worked material we already have. ''Masonry is humble and secret; not for her the blare of trumpets and the scare head of publicity. To make it other than what it is would rob it of its character. To study, reflect, and labour in it is to be a scientist in Masonry, discovering constantly something new and better that it be more effective oil those who embrace its gentle teachings and its mysterious power." "Oh, all right!" smiled the New Brother. "I won't put it in the paper tomorrow. Old Tiler, where did you learn so much?" "I didn't," smiled the Old Tiler. "I know very little. But that little I learned by keeping an open mind and heart – which was taught me by -" ''By your teachers in school?" "No, my son," answered the Old Tiler, gravely, "by Masonry."

WHY WE ARE  FREEMASONS  Brethren, I have undertaken the task of delivering my debut Masonic Paper Brethren, this evening. I have long been convinced that an important part of Freemasonry is Masonic Education. I once read this quote from a talk given by RW Bro. JH CHANDE, District Grand Master of East Africa (EC) at his Annual Meeting in 1988: ‘Too many Worshipful Masters have come to believe that the qualifications for occupying the chair of the Lodge are the ability to perform the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, conduct the business of the Lodge and administer the Obligations of the three Degrees. Notwithstanding that he was informed at his Installation and again at every meeting of the Lodge that his principal duty was to instruct the Brethren in Freemasonry.’

This is the sixty-eighth article in this regular feature, ‘The Old Tiler Talks,’ each month we publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.

The Master all too often ignores the instruction to the great disadvantage of the members, thus leading to irregular attendance of many and sometimes resignations.

“He who desires to understand the harmonies and beautiful proportions of Freemasonry must read, study, reflect digest and discriminate. The true Freemason is an ardent seeker after knowledge.” - 1923

Freemasonry consists of a body of men bonded together to preserve the Secrets, Customs and Ceremonies handed down to them from time immemorial and for the purposes of mutual, intellectual, social and moral improvement; they also endeavour to cultivate and exhibit brotherly love, relief and truth, not only to one another, but to


the world at large. This evening we will omit the world at large. The decision to become a Freemason is voluntary. We individually chose to be initiated into the Craft, having been asked, that unbiased by the improper solicitations of friends against your own inclination and uninfluenced by mercenary or other unworthy motives, you freely and voluntarily offer yourself self as a candidate – that you were prompted by a favourable opinion preconceived of the Institution, by a general desire for knowledge and a sincere wish to render yourself more extensively serviceable to your fellow creatures? After initiation, you are charged to ‘work with that love and harmony which should at all times characterize Freemasons,’ you are made aware that charity ‘may justly be denominated the distinguishing characteristic of a Freemason’s heart.’ You were congratulated on being admitted to an institution of which ‘no other institution can boast a more solid foundation than that on which Freemasonry rests, the practice of every moral and social virtue’ and taught the important duties you owe to God, your neighbour and yourself. The decision to remain a Freemason is voluntary. In fact, Masons have dropped out or resigned from the Craft. What of those of us who remain? What binds us to Freemasonry? What is it that this ancient and honourable institution holds for us that we firmly place in the centre of our lives? Or do we? Where were you first prepared to be made a Freemason? – In my heart. If that is so, then Freemasonry ought to be in the centre of your life – your heart – and

it is then without difficulty you will attain the first Grand Principle on which the Order is founded –‘Brotherly Love.’ The decision to become a good and true Freemason is not voluntary as by a natural tendency, it conduces to make all those so who are obedient to its precepts. Those precepts, Brethren, I need not here dilate on their excellence; but let us use the thoughts of other Freemasons to measure if we are availing ourselves of the lessons of Freemasonry. The United Masters Lodge No. 167 - A Lodge of Masonic Research - falling under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of New Zealand, published a 'Letter to a Master Mason' in August, 1972, and I quote from it. "You already have copies of our Book of Constitution and By-Laws of your Lodge, and a study of those will make you familiar with the way in which our Order is governed. You should, as soon as possible, make yourself familiar with the Ritual, which will be your most important study in Freemasonry. "Our Ritual is not the invention of one man or body of men; its beginnings lie far back in the usages, legends and customs of Operative Freemasons. As you advance in Masonic understandings, you will be more and more able to recognize and appreciate those parts of the Ritual, which have come to us from them. "It is from the Lodges of Operative Freemasons in the Middle Ages, 600 or more years ago, that our present 'Accepted' or Speculative Masonry derives, and the story of the transition from Operative to Speculative is one that you should study for yourself. 22

"Our Ritual is not something to be learned by heart and that only. You remember that our system is veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols; the allegory and the symbol are but the surface representation of the truths that lie hidden in our ceremonies. The value of the symbol is in the meaning that is discovered to lie behind it; not every Brother draws the same meaning from a given group of allegories and symbols.

support involves a tolerance of his views, his shortcomings and his idiosyncrasies. The Initiates of a Lodge require support and nurture, remembering that it is they who will be the future of the Craft. Making them more knowledgeable will spur their interest and lead to greater participation.

"To one, our ceremonies may appeal for their character and drama, and he may delight in the performance of the ceremony as such. Another may be interested to place the various portions in their historical settings and to identify the threads that have been woven into the complete whole; and yet a third may find satisfaction in contemplating the wisdom and the philosophy contained in our system. You, my Brother, may see and appreciate yet another aspect. None would be wrong. For there are truths which each must discover for himself and take to his own heart."

There are many interpretations of what Truth me—s but, to me, it is a determination to be honest in all things and unwavering loyalty to your Lodge, your Brother and the Craft.

The truths which a Brother has discovered for himself, howsoever diverse the interpretation from that of another Brother, should not be cause for disharmony as, though we approach Freemasonry from many different directions and along diverse paths, having been exposed to the light of Freemasonry, it is incumbent — us to travel together thereafter to ultimately discover the hidden mysteries. The second Grand Principle in which the Order is founded - Relief - symbolizes mans duty. A duty to assist and support all those in need. The definition of need covers a multitude of things, including a Brother's need to be understood, assisting with his grasp of what the Craft requires of him and his interpretations of Freemasonry. That 23

The third Grand Principle is Truth. - To be true to your God, your Brother and yourself.

Practice of the first two Grand Principles naturally leads us to be true to the noble institution of Freemasonry, which exist to lead all its members into the light. The light that releases us from the bondage of intolerance, bigotry and false pride. At the Installation Ceremony of this Lodge in September, 1997, my first, having been initiated in April, I received my first Masonic prod during the address to the Wardens -'suffice it to say that what you see praiseworthy in others, you will carefully imitate and what in them may appear defective, you will in yourself amend.' It is this self -examination and the consequent acceptance of that Truth, which has influenced what I have said this evening. The practice of these Grand Principles by Freemasons will lead us to have but one aim in view, to unite in the grand design of being happy and communicating happiness to shed a tear of sympathy o'er the failings of a Brother and pour the healing balm of consolation into the wounds of the afflicted, and by constancy and sincerity in our friendships, a uniformly kind, just, amiable and virtuous deportment, prove to the world

the happy and beneficial effects of our ancient and honourable Institution.

Why are we Freemasons? We are Freemasons because we area body of men bonded together guided by the Light of Freemasonry and in our breasts beat hearts, which are filled with Benevolence and in our heads are minds bent on being as charitable as we can be thus we can maintain to their fullest splendour those truly Masonic Ornaments Benevolence and Charity. Brethren, those are my views but I leave you with those of another Brother. "Learn all the Lessons the Craft can teach you veiled in allegory though they may be, but look around, there are symbols to the story. Do not be content to be merely a member of a Lodge. Be a Mason" Sourced from ‘The Almoner’ Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2011 - The Newsletter of Glenlyon Lodge No.346 Scottish Constitution. WHY ARE WE FREEMASONS? By W. Bro. Errol R.K. Gage (Excerpt from Lecture at Lodge De La Vega , Presented on June 16, 2005)

‘The more one knows about Freemasonry the better he likes it; at least, that’s the way it works with most men!’

King Solomon and the Freemasons My subject is King Solomon and the Freemasons. Solomon was of course a legendary figure in ancient history. He strode the stage of the political life of the Middle East. His name was attached to remarkable works of literature. His wisdom was acclaimed and proverbial. Some might ask how a man could have so many wives and still be called wise, though in fact his matrimonial associations were part of an imperial strategy. His Temple was described as the most magnificent building of its time and place. In Freemasonry he is admired, revered and quoted. No-one else has his cachet. Yet none of this impresses the revisionist historians. Actually no-one is ever safe when revisionists are at work. They will tell you for example that Moses never existed, nor did Jesus, and that Jerusalem was never the Jewish capital. They say there never was a Jewish Temple, so none was destroyed by the Romans. To them the seminal events of Jewish history simply didn’t happen, not the 2000-year exile, not the Holocaust, nothing. And the revisionists are not just anti-Jewish. They are anti-everybody. No-one is immune from them. When they decide to turn their attention to Australia, they will assert that there never was a Gallipoli, there was no Fall of Singapore, there was no Dismissal. Ned Kelly never was, and probably not Tom Keneally either – or WM Hughes, Bob Menzies, Bob Hawke, Don Bradman, or even Phar Lap. There is good money to be made from revisionism, and if it isn’t money they want, 24

they enjoy pulling down the tall poppies and shaking up the traditions and ideas that are part of our heritage.

came into being, largely adopted these teachings and attached a name to them. That name was King Solomon.

But on an evening when a Masonic historian is due to speak on King Solomon and the Freemasons, how are some people going to react to the news that Solomon was not a Freemason, that Worshipful Masters or at least Grand Masters do not occupy King Solomon’s chair, and that Freemasonry arose out of the European culture of the 17th and 18th centuries?

The beginnings of the craft are still a matter of dispute. There are three main theories.

Don’t these claims place a lecturer fairly and squarely within the ranks of the revisionists? The answer is a decided No. There is a well-known phenomenon of disguising something new so that it appears to be venerable and traditional. It happened to King Solomon in literary history, and it happened again in the early days of Freemasonry. Several Biblical books bear King Solomon’s name but whether he actually wrote them is less important than the perception that he did. To gain credibility it was an accepted usage to attach a famous name to a book that seemed to be in the great man’s tradition. The book gained status because it was attributed to a historical giant. And thus it was with Freemasonry. The craft borrowed its culture and terminology from the operative masons of the Middle Ages but its real aim was to be a broadminded ethical movement determined to reconstitute European civilisation. The purpose was admirable, but it could not be separated from a political and intellectual milieu featuring thinkers such as John Selden who found wisdom in Biblical precedent, rabbinical commentary and scriptural teachings. Freemasonry, when it 25

One – the “time immemorial” theory – looks back to the early Biblical age, seeing Adam, Noah and Nimrod as Masonic pioneers, with Solomon and Hiram culminating the age of glory. A second theory focusses on the Middle Ages, when the builders of the cathedrals and castles became a fellowship and talked about their trade. The third theory sees the craft as the creation of high-minded scientific and political thinkers, often involved in the Royal Society, who were part of the making of modernity. Unfortunately the source material is scarce up to the time of the premier Grand Lodge in 1717, so we have to use a certain amount of conjecture. The third theory has two sectors of society converging – a workmen’s fraternity that was grinding to a halt and needed new members and a new impetus, and a relatively intellectual group that had ideas for social progress and perhaps a political platform, but needed nomenclature, a format, and perhaps even a disguise. There are still many questions, especially about the relationship between groups that must have been disparate in origin, education, ideology and socio-economic ethos. We know of a few early speculative masons but are not sure how they were received and whether they were a trickle that became a flood, whether operative Masonry realised it was becoming a network of gentlemen’s clubs, and how Solomon and his Temple, which had received minor attention in early Masonic

charges, came to supply the movement with a fabric of myth and metaphor. Yet the end result was that Solomon became the role model. His throne suggested a grand seat for a Masonic leader; his Temple offered a paradigm by means of which to construct the moral man and the just society. I recently read Yoram Hazony’s review of Eric Nelson’s book, The Hebrew Republic: Jewish Sources and the Transformation of European Political Thought (Harvard 2010). Hazony says it tells the true story of “the birth of the modern West” in the 17th century and rejects the theory that the Bible had no real influence on the creation of Western modernity. The leaders of thought of the time knew and acknowledged the influence of Hebraic sources. Some could handle the Hebrew texts. They were not religious fanatics, but nor were they secularists enthroning human reason in place of God. They were thinkers and pragmatists seeking excellence, especially in political structures. They found in the Bible the pattern of a perfect republic in which authority would rest in the people, private ownership would be limited, man would be considered essentially benevolent, and religious toleration would allow all views to be heard. This “political Hebraism” is analysed in Fania Oz-Salzberger’s esay, “The Jewish Roots of Western Freedom” in the Summer 2002 issue of Azure. This suited the purposes of the formulators of the Masonic constitution, especially James Anderson. They built Freemasonry upon Scriptural texts and rabbinic legends, though the material underwent distortion and become self-contradictory. The craft,

though not a religion, was certainly religious, and it regarded atheists with disdain. It was humanist but not secular: it implied, “We have been looking for wisdom, and found no source to be better than the Bible”. Anderson – in spite of his confused view of some Biblical narratives – was one of the thinkers of the age, and Freemasonry became a major component of the emergent modern way of thinking. By filling the craft with Biblical allegory, they reinvigorated the Solomon story and enriched civilisation. One of the problems of the era is its apparent dechristianisation of the craft, though it did give saints’ names to a number of lodges. It is possible that Anderson as a Presbyterian Protestant wanted to diminish denominationalism so as to protect the nonconformists from being swamped by the Anglicans, or maybe he was trying to urge tolerance towards non-Christians by advocating “that religion to which all men agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves”. The second option has much to commend it, since there were other groups who were working on similar lines. An example is the so-called Brethren of Asia, who, beginning in Berlin or Vienna about 1780, adopted a mixture of Jewish, Christian and Muslim ideas and ceremonies with the apparent aim of promoting religious tolerance. We wonder what they and the early Freemasons would have said about William Blake’s words in “The Divine Image” (in Songs of Innocence): And all must love the human form, In heathen, Turk, or Jew. Where Mercy, Love, & Pity dwell, There God is dwelling too. 26

Blake may have understood “Turk” as “Muslim”, in which case the Freemasons may have read the second line as “Christian, Turk or Jew”. Why wasn’t more Christian material put into the craft degrees, even if it might create problems for non-Christian (largely Jewish) aspirants for Masonry? I am not sure, but it may be that Anderson and the Masons perceived in the Old Testament and its rabbinic commentators such a comprehensive pattern of practical ethics, including the maxims of the Book of Proverbs attributed to Solomon, that there was no need to look further. It is also possible that for all his loyalty to Christianity as a superior form of theology, Anderson saw Christian ethics as less original and more derivative than those of the Hebrew Bible. Christian teachers argue that Jesus had a better ethical sense than many of the rabbis of his time, but they do not always see that he was teaching as a Jew and often echoing various groups within early rabbinism. Anderson may thus have opted for a form of ethics that was aligned with the Judaism in which Jesus had been brought up. I am not certain, but I could be right in this explanation of why Freemasonry seems to be grounded in the Old Testament and not the New. I would also like to know where Anderson and the other formulators of the ritual derived their knowledge of the rabbinic tradition, even though they reshaped it to suit themselves. Were they Hebrew scholars, or did they rely on translations into European languages? More puzzles, more perplexities: more room for continued Masonic research and writing. 27

But back to tonight, and to King Solomon. Thanks to Solomon and his symbolism, Freemasonry has become a rich vein of ethical treasure, allowing the members of the movement to find immense inspiration in the craft. As a former Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales used to say, “Freemasonry is good. Let’s talk about it!” By Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory. Click the name to go to his website.

DID YOU KNOW? Question: Distinguish between Hiram. King of Tyre and Hiram Abif? The Bible refers to only one. Answer: The question is wrong. Both are mentioned several times in the course of the two Old Testament versions of the building of King Solomon's Temple. Hiram King Tyre appears in I Kings V, 1, as Hiram, King of Tyre and several times in the same chapter as Hiram. Hiram Abif, the "widow's son" appears first in I Kings VII, 13, and again in the same chapter in verse 40, where the name appears with two slightly different Hebrew spellings. This has given rise to a theory that there were two craftsmen named Hiram [Quite apart from Hiram, King of Tyre] Hiram, King of Tyre appears in the Chronicles version [in ll Chronicles 11, 3] and he appears again as Hiram, King of Tyre in the same chapter, verse 11. In verse 13 he writes to Solomon saying that he has sent him a skilled craftsman, "a cunning

man, endued with understanding, of Hiram my Father's." these last four words in English are the translation of the Hebrew words "Le-Haram Aviv" and this sentence is the source of our words "Hiram Abif. It was Luther who first used this name [Hiram Abif] because he could not make sense of the Hebrew "of Haram my father's." Note: In ll Chronicles, IV, 11, we find the name of Hiram, the craftsman, again with two different Hebrew spellings, suggesting that there were two craftsmen of the same name, a father and a son. It is impossible to solve this problem more especially because, unlike our Hiramic legend - which is pure legend - there is no Biblical record of the death of Hiram, the marvellous craftsman. Question: Explain the significance of the Candidate's dress in the 1st Degree. Why does he bare his right arm, left breast and left knee and why is he slipshod? When did this first originate? Answer: The sum total of these procedures were not standardized in England until 1813-1816. The individual items came into use at various times and the records are very scanty, e.g. The "left knee bare" appears in the Dumfries No. 4 M.S. dated 1710. The "Naked Left Breast" appears in Masonry Dissected 1730 and the Wilkinson MS, 1730. Slipshod, and other hints relating to clothing, appear in a curious question and answer in Masonry Dissected: Question: Is there any significance in the Right Arm laid bare etc.? If not, why bother? Answer: Certainly there is; [See previous question] It would be fair to say that there is "significance in every item of clothing, equipment and procedure, sometimes very important, sometimes almost trifling. But

what is trifling to you, may be important to me. In matters of symbolism and interpretation, the significance that you work out for yourself is what really matters. Try it sometime; you will find it an interesting exercise. As for the Right Arm, it is bare to show that the candidate carries no weapons.

Question: What discussion of Masonry is proper in the presence of those not Masons? Answer: As little as possible, unless in answer to a direct and respectful question the answer to which is not secret. Such questions as "How may I become a Mason?" or "When does the Masonic Lodge in this town meet?" or "What is the expense of becoming a Mason?" of course are answerable questions. No argument should ever be held with any one regarding Masonry. In the charge of the Entered Apprentice Degree it is stated: "Neither are you to suffer your zeal for the institution to lead you into argument with those who, through ignorance, may ridicule it." Freemasonry needs no defence from anyone. The less Masonic matters are discussed in public, the better for Masonry. "The attentive ear receives the sound from the instructive tongue" (Charge, Fellow Craft Degree) refers to a Masonic ear. "The mysteries of Freemasonry are safely lodged in the repository of faithful breasts,” (Charge, Fellow Craft Degree) means what it says. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.


freemasonry is ……… Kindness in the home Honesty in business Courtesy in society Fairness in work Pity and concern for the unfortunate Resistance towards the wicked Help for the weak Trust for the strong Forgiveness for the penitent Love for one another-and-above-all Reverence and love for God Freemasonry is many thingsBut most of all – Freemasonry is a way of life.


THE EMBLEMS OF FREEMASONRY The Third Degree The Broken Column. The Broken Column is emblematical of the chief supporter of the Craft who was slain before his work was finished. Tradition records that this was the design of the monument erected to the memory of Hiram Abiff . It is symbolical of the frailty of man and all things human. A virgin wept over the broken column, with a book open before her. In her right hand there was a sprig of acacia, and in her left an urn. Time stood behind her with his hands folded in the ringlets of her hair. The weeping virgin denotes the unfinished state of the Temple; the open book indicates that Hiram’s memory is in imperishable record; the urn refers to the fact that his ashes are safely deposited; and Time standing with his hands in her hair suggests that time, patience, and perseverance will accomplish all things The Sprig of Acacia. The Acacia is an evergreen plant or shrub which grows in abundance in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Masonic tradition informs us that it was used as a means of marking the temporary grave of Hiram Abiff. It is represented by the little sprig of evergreen, which every brother deposits in the grave of a member who is buried with Masonic honours. Freemasons esteem it as an emblem of tender Sympathy and undying Affection, and, as it is an evergreen, regard it as emblematical of the soul that never dies,, and that when the cold winter of death shall have passed, and the bright summer morning of the resurrection appears the Sun of Righteousness shall descend, and send forth his angels to collect our ransomed dust. Then if we are found worthy we shall enter into the celestial Lodge above. The Ornaments. As an E... A... and F... C... the Free- mason has been made familiar with much that belongs to the Temple, but one or two of the ornaments relate in a special manner to the Third Degree. These are the Porch, the Dormer, and the Chequered Pavement. The Porch. The Porch was the entrance to the Sanctum Sanctorum or Holy of Holies. In the Third Degree it is aptly chosen as some- thing to remind the Master Mason that the grave is the 30

portal through which all men must; pass to the Spirit world. He must never regard it as the entrance to a land of gloom but! rather as the avenue that leads to greater possibilities and ampler opportunities than j are offered to mortals in this vale of tears. The Dormer. The Dormer represents the Window which gave light to the Sanctum Sanctorum or Holy of Holies, and as such is to the Free- mason an emblem of that Fountain of Wis- dom which enlightens the mind and dispels the gloom of ignorance. By drinking of such a fountain the Brother will not only advance his own mental welfare but will radiate the sunshine of knowledge on all around. The Chequered Pavement. The Chequered Pavement was for the High Priest to walk upon. Part of his office was to burn incense to the Most High and to pray for peace and tranquillity. By purity of heart the Freemason may perpetuate the priestly office and his life should be devoted towards spreading the glories of peace throughout the world. Conclusion. No more fitting conclusion to a study of the Ornaments and Emblems of the various degrees could be found than the suggestive admonition which it is customary in some Lodges for the Master to give to the brethren ere the labours of the day are brought to a close. “Brethren, we are now about to quit this sacred retreat of friendship and virtue, to mix again with the world. Amidst its concerns and employments forget not the duties which you have heard so frequently inculcated, and so forcibly recommended in this Lodge. Remember that around this altar you have promised to befriend and relieve every Brother who shall need your assistance. You have promised in the most friendly manner to remind him of his errors, and aid in re- formation. These generous principles are to extend further: every human being has a claim upon your kind offices. Do good unto all. Finally, Brethren, be ye all of one mind, live in peace, and may the God of love and peace delight to dwell with and bless you.”

This concludes William Harvey’s book, “The Emblems of Freemasonry” 1918.

Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor 31

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The Monthly Magazine of Lodge Stirling Royal Arch No. 76.


The Monthly Magazine of Lodge Stirling Royal Arch No. 76.

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