Volume 16 Issue 4 No. 126 April 2020
Cover Story, Light in Freemasonry Masonic Light The Hour Glass and Scythe Did You Know? A Reminder of a Freemason Duties and Responsibilities Lodge St. Munn No. 496 Famous Freemasons – Jack Dempsey The Star, the Word and the Soul The Old Past Master The Globes And Crown Thy Good With Brotherhood Did You Know? The Back Page – The Masonic Fool
Main Website – The Spiritual Aspect of the First Degree
In this issue: Cover Story ‘Light in Freemasonry’
“Freemasonry is the science of emblematic or symbolic Light, and Freemasons are the seekers after Light.”
Page 5, ‘Masonic Light’ More Light Page 7, ‘The Hour Glass and Scythe’ Page 10, ‘Did You Know?’ Questions about the Craft. Page 12, ‘A Reminder of a Freemason Duties and Responsibilities’ Page 15, ‘Lodge St. Munn No. 496. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 18, ‘Jack Dempsey’ Famous Freemasons. Page 22, ‘The Star, the Word and the Soul.’ Page 23, ‘The Old Past Master.’ “When Laughter is Sad”, thirteenth in the series. Page 25, ‘Reflections.’ The Globes Page 27, ‘And Crown thy Good With Brotherhood.’ The Musings of Julian Rees Page 29, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 31, ‘The Back Page.’ The Masonic Fool.
In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘The Spiritual Aspect of the First Degree.’ [link] 1
Front cover –Pic of Lamp at Lodge in Bradford-on-Avon.
Light in Freemasonry From very early times the word Light has had, besides its primary meaning, the additional meaning of knowledge, understanding and wisdom. As physical light enables the eye to see, so knowledge enables the mind to understand and comprehend. An enlightened mind is one which, besides being educated and cultured, seeks after moral truth. Thus "Light" has come to mean, in an emblematic sense, moral and spiritual understanding, truth, goodness, the beam which proceeds from God Himself. On the other hand, darkness, being the antithesis of light, implies ignorance, depravity, cruelty and evil. So it is we find it in Freemasonry; in fact it may be said that Freemasonry is the science of emblematic or symbolic Light, and Freemasons the seekers after Light. The principal allegory in Freemasonry is of a man groping his way from infancy towards the Light, ever seeking and searching from youth to old age for truth, wisdom and understanding: to find his own place in the great plan of the Universe: and to gain knowledge of its great Creator and Architect. So In our ceremonies a Candidate is placed symbolically in a state or darkness; but later when light is restored to him the sudden transition is almost blinding in effect and he is unable to see clearly. This is a representation of the bewilderment of his mind when he is introduced to Greater Lights, Lesser Lights, Sun and Moon,
physical light and emblematical light; he is bombarded with the word "Light" and of one thing only does he feel sure, and that is that Light is very important in Freemasonry. Throughout our Masonic ceremonies and charges we find allegory and symbolism, comparisons and parallels, and this also implies to Light; in fact Light may be said to embrace all our symbols. We are well aware that we are descended from those early Cathedral Builders of some six or seven hundred years ago, and it is both interesting and instructive to compare an imaginary Lodge of operative masons of that period with a modern Lodge of Freemasons, particularly with regard to Light. The Lodge building or workroom for fashioning the freestone was frequently erected on the partially built south wall of the new cathedral, and openings were made in the east, south and west to admit light. The positions and the reasons for them, of the Master and his Wardens or foremen, are very aptly set out in the opening ceremony of today. Let it be noted there is no opening for the entry of light in the north. Therefore the north becomes emblematically the place of darkness. However, ancient mythology has it that the West is the place of darkness as it is opposite to the East, the place of light, and also is the place where the Sun-god goes daily to his death. Our institution has happily if not intentionally combined both ideas. for in our ceremonies the Candidate begins his progress in the Lodge in the N.W., as from a figurative point of view this is the darkest place in the Lodge, signifying ignorance; and it is from this point that he is gently led towards the East, the source of light. or symbolically the place whence comes knowledge and understanding. 2
Physical light when suddenly restored is dazzling to his eyes and bewildering to his mind, and is designed to teach him that spiritual truths cannot be fully understood by the immature mind at one bound, but must be gradually assimilated as the mind is trained to comprehend. Later, when he is placed in the N.E. part of the Lodge, he not only figuratively represents a foundation stone, but his position also implies that he has progressed from darkness into light. Similarly a Fellow Craft is placed in the S.E., a place of greater light, to symbolise an increase in his knowledge. A Light to an architect, mason, or builder, means a window, or the means by which natural light obtains entry into a building, e.g. skylight. The Great Light In the East in many of the old cathedrals was a wonderful piece of work, quite apart from the lovely stained glass with which each was glazed. The designing of the huge window and its construction - the masons work, displays great artistry and extreme skill, and after viewing such work one feels both humble and proud to call oneself a Mason. These glorious examples of the mason's craft are very fitting symbols of the great emblematical light in the East, the V.S.L.; and the V.S.L. is in turn a symbol of the G.A.O.T.U. Himself the source of all spiritual light: eternal truth. Here we find a triple comparison, for we have: (1) Light itself, i.e., physical light and the vehicle or means by which that light enters a building, e.g. a window. (2) Enlightenment, i.e., the light of knowledge and moral truth and virtue, represented by the Working Tools of a Freemason. 3
(3) Wisdom, or spiritual understanding as represented by the V.S.L., in which is set out our duty to God, our neighbours and ourselves. So, to our initiate are revealed three Great Lights and he is informed of their purpose and teaching, the Sacred Volume to govern our faith, the Square to regulate our conduct, and the Compasses to keep us within due bounds with all mankind. Then his attention is drawn to three Lesser Lights, and he is told that they represent the Sun, Moon, and Master of the Lodge, and given the reasons why they are said to represent them. It is rather strange that the Three Great Lights are not said to represent anything. and I suggest that in the early days of Speculative Masonry, when Freemasonry was Christian in belief and teaching, it was implied that the Three Great Lights represented the Three Persons in the Trinity. Of the Three Lesser Lights, the Sun, being the source of natural light, is frequently mentioned in our ceremonies and lectures, but the Moon, except for the statement that it rules the night, does not appear to have any symbolic significance. However I suggest that when the S.W. lowers his column, it signifies the setting of the Sun and similarly when the J.W. raises his, it signifies the rising of the Moon. This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that from very early times Freemasons were forbidden to work after sundown because of the hazardous nature of their work, and thus the setting of the Sun and rising of the Moon implied that the work had ceased and the time for refreshment and sleep arrived. So, symbolically, when the Moon (J.W.) governs there is no work. In our speculation we must be careful that we do not confuse Light with the source of that Light, and pay homage and reverence
where it is not due. This error is one reason for the prevalence of Sun-worship, the beginnings of which are lost in antiquity. Even the Israelites were guilty of this error for it is recorded in the V.S.L. that on numerous occasions they worshipped Baal, which was the Sun. It is interesting to note that the Tabernacle in the Wilderness and King Solomon's Temple which was patterned on it, both had their entrances in the East so that priests and worshippers had of necessity to turn their backs on the Sun, and I suggest that the Blazing Star, the Glory in the Centre, which is a representation of the Sun, the Glory in the Heavens, is placed upon the floor of the Lodge so that it may he trampled underfoot to remind us that it is not an object of worship, but one of the glorious creations of the G.A.O.T.U. The Master's and Wardens' Lights have had a somewhat chequered career, having once been known as the Lesser Lights and been placed near the V.S.L.. somewhat after the nature of altar candles. Then they were moved to their present position to replace the "fixed lights" or windows situated in the East, South and West,
some light upon our dark world, so each of us should endeavour to shed his quota of Masonic light upon the community. At a later stage in his Masonic career the young Mason is told that the light of a M.M. is but darkness visible. This is but another way of stating the old truth expressed by Paul and found in his Epistle to the Corinthians, where he says that "Now we see through a glass, darkly. but then face to face', this takes us right back to the beginning again, as it is but a repetition of the first lesson we receive in Freemasonry, that Eternal Truth - Divine Light - call it what you will, is too vast, too great, too deep for our human understanding, but lest we be discouraged the path to be followed is lighted to the extent that we seek the light, and that it is unveiled to us. This glimmering ray has both physical and spiritual reference; first It is the dim light shed by the Master's light and secondly it is a reference to "that light, which is from above", the V.S.L., man's endeavour to express his feeble understanding of Divine Light - a ray, a shaft of light proceeding from the Source of all Light.
These Lights serve to show that the Lodge is properly constituted and dedicated, and symbolically that the Master and Wardens as rulers of the Lodge are prepared to shed Masonic Light upon their brethren; and further as a reminder to them to obey that injunction in the V.S.L. - "To let their light so shine before men that they may see their good works".
Finally his attention is drawn to the rising of that Bright Morning Star as a source of help. encouragement and hope to light him on his way. and I suggest that this is another reminder of the Christian character of Freemasonry of not so long ago, for is it not a reference to the bright and morning star of Rev. 2 v. 16?
Having mentioned the Sun and Moon, one expects to find Stars also coming into our Lectures. They are mentioned hut do not appear to have any particular significance and are apparently for Masonic speculation, and I suggest that even as the stars shed
So, Brethren, we find that every act and word in Freemasonry should lead us towards the light of greater knowledge. The perambulations of a Candidate are a symbol of time, for each advance toward the East where knowledge and instruction is 4
imparted is followed by a retirement towards the West: morning, afternoon, evening and night: knowledge gained, a time for assimilation and reflection, and preparation to make a further advance, emblematic of that exhortation to make a daily advancement in Masonic knowledge. Sourced from â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Food For Thought Blogâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.
MASONIC LIGHT "All the world's a stage", said Shakespeare. Most of us play our part as best we can. We put on a brave show. We may have our personal problems, our own private fears and worries, but we hide all these behind a mask, and show the world a pleasant face. This may be necessary, but when we come into Masonry, we face up to the real situation. We have finished with pretence and make-believe. Here we learn the truth the real truth about ourselves. It is depicted so vividly in the initiation ceremony: "a poor candidate in a state of darkness." With stumbling steps we blunder on. What does it all mean, where are we going? Most people prefer not to ask those questions. Better forget, better try and fill in the time pleasurably, and see what tomorrow will bring. Masonry compels us to think, to face up to this challenge. It makes us realise that we are in darkness, that we are uncertain of the way. And so when the master asks us what is the predominate wish of our heart, we cry out that we wish to be restored to light. We want to see, to know, to understand. When we are allowed to see, we are also informed that it is more than seeing with our eyes, there are certain emblematical lights, there are inner meanings beyond what the eye can see. 5
An artist has been defined as one who sees both the visible and the invisible. This is why he excels over the camera. The camera can only copy. The true artist, as he copies a likeness, also includes a meaning and an interpretation. If, for instance, he is painting a face, he will give you not only the features, but also the character of the person he paints. "This world", said Tauler, "is like some fruit, such as a plum or an apple; and it has its rind-men, its pulpmen, and its core or kernel-men. All live with the same faculties, only the first live merely on the surface of things, while the last perceive how the outer form is determined by the central life within". In Masonry we are concerned with the central life within. "Light" is given us to see and understand. It is an inner light revealing life's true meaning. What does this new light reveal? you may ask. First and foremost Masonry begins by showing you your true self: not the self the world see, not the outward form, not the mask we wear. To compel us to realise this, at our initiation our clothes (part of the mask) are taken from us. Money and metal is also removed so that we may know that we are not concerned with what money can buy. We are not thinking of outward things, but only with the real self. Only too often we know how in everyday life the outward and unessential things become all important. Instead of a person having possessions they sometimes possess him. Sometimes we are told that we possess a soul which we may cultivate. Masonry gives us the true picture. We are essentially spiritual beings who possess for a time a body. This truth is taught in the putting on of our aprons - they symbolise the human body. We put on our aprons, and we put
them away. The apron does not give us the complete picture of a human body, nor does the body tell us all there is to know about a person. We are immortals who put on and put off a body. There is far more about us than this apron-body. Though this body is important (as reminded when first invested) and told never to disgrace this body, if we treat it with respect, it will never disgrace us. Before we were given this picture of our true self we were asked to take vows of fidelity. The penalty mentioned for those disloyal to their vow may sound barbaric. Has this, you may ask, anything to do with one's due self? (1) Burial. Masonry has inherited the wisdom and the picture language of the ages. In pre christian days the correct burial of the dead was a most sacred duty. One of the ancient Greek legends (Antigone) tells how a princess willingly sacrificed her life in order to give her brother a proper burial. Only so could his soul find rest. Bodies of slaves and criminals were thrown indiscriminately in a hole or well. In making his obligation, the initiate declares that he is aware that violation of his vow means that his b ... will be b....... in the sands of the sea at a point where there is a constant ebb and flow of the tide ... never for one single day is there peace and quiet ... the ever moving sea denotes continual restlessness. The body will never be at rest. Behind the outward form is the inner meaning. To be disloyal to one's true self means we shall never know inner peace. (2) Tearing out the tongue. This may offend modern ears. And so it may seem the more surprising if I tell you that in the V. of the S.L. (Psalm xii, 3) it is God who tears out the tongue by the roots. A study of the tongue as described in the V. of the S.L. is
most revealing. The most numerous references say it is deceitful. Gathering together in one group the many references we have this picture: The tongue "loves devouring words, is boastful, perverse, causes mischief and strife, it can even kill, its sting is compared to a scourge, a razor, a sharp sword, it is full of potentialities for evil, it can poison the whole body. Only those who realise the real situation can make any progress. There is within the Hebrew psalter the details of the 15 steps in a Jewish initiation. They are called the "Songs of Ascent" (Psalm 120 and following). With each step forward the candidate gets nearer and nearer God's presence. We are concerned only with the first step. The candidate would recite his newly-found knowledge as he progressed. His first essential step on this journey was concerned with the control of the tongue (Psalm cxx, 2). We have the same test at our initiation. We vow ourselves to secrecy. We will be masters of our tongue. This is a first and essential step on our journey of understanding. God will root out, will destroy, that which hinders spiritual progress. May I end with this picture given us in the ceremony of initiation? Instead of blindly blundering on in darkness, not knowing whither we are going, we ask for, and receive, enlightenment. We learn that we are, in essence, immortals who wear for a time a body. How to wear it aright is all important. We learn that we must control the tongue: this is the first step in our journey of spiritual understanding. We promise we will steadily persevere, and that in strength we will lay a foundation stone for a new building worthy of the builder, and acceptable to the G.A.O.T.U. Sourced from the Dormer Masonic Study Circle by Bro. Rev. Rolf Gledhill, M.A., B.D.,
THE HOUR GLASS AND SCYTHE
"The Scythe is an emblem of time, which cuts the brittle thread of life and launches us into eternity. Behold, what havoc the scythe of time makes amongst the human race; if by chance we should escape the numerous evils incident to childhood and youth, and with that health and vigour arrive to the years of manhood, yet withall we must soon be cut down by the all-devouring scythe of time, and be gathered into the land where our fathers are gone before us. Both these emblems seems to be inventions of the ingenious and resourceful American who left do tremendous an imprint upon our ceremonies. Mackenzie, the English Masonic encyclopaedist, says of the hourglass: "Used in the third degree by Webb â&#x20AC;&#x201D; but not essential nor authorized in any way. Of the scythe, he says: "Since the time of Webb, the scythe has been adopted in the American system of Freemasonry, as an emblem of the power of time in destroying the institutions of mankind. In England it is no regarded as of any typical meaning."
In nearly all Masonic rituals in the United States, these two emblems of the third degree are explained in practically the form given by Thomas Smith Webb: "The HourGlass is an emblem of human life; behold! how swiftly the sands run, and how rapidly our lives are drawing to a close. We cannot, without astonishment, behold the little particles which are contained in this machine, how they pass away almost imperceptibly, and yet to our surprise, in the short space of an hour, they are all exhausted. Thus wastes man! today, he puts forth the tender leaves of hope; tomorrow, blossoms and bears his blushing honours which upon him; the next day comes a frost, which nips the shoot, and when he thinks his greatness is still aspiring, he falls, like autumn leaves, to enrich our mother earth. 7
Woodford, in Kenning's Encyclopaedia, says: "Hour Glass â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Said by some to be a Masonic symbol, Oliver inter alias, as an emblem of human life; but in our opinion, not strictly speaking so. Woodford does not mention the scythe. Mackey, (Clegg revised edition)b credits the hour glass to Webb and states: "As a Masonic symbol it is of comparatively modern date." The familiar illustrations of these emblems, shown on many if not most Lodge charts, and in that collection of monstrosities which commercial companies have sold to confiding Lodges on lantern slides to illustrate the lectures, are based on the Doolittle pictures in the "True Masonic Chart" of Jeremy Cross.
Here the scythe appears in the drawing of the marble monument, held under the arm of the very chubby Father Time, who is provided with a most substantial p[air of wings. It also appears as a separate illustration for the "scythe of time." In the same quaint work the hourglass is illustrated with a pair of open wings. If young in Freemasonry, both scythe and hourglass are very old. Old Testament days knew the sickle; ancient Egypt had reaping knives. Just when the knife or sickle was curved into the familiar two-handed tool with the crooked handle is less important than that it was earl associated with a symbolic meaning, as an instrument for the reaping of humanity, the cutting off of life. Revelation 14-14 to 20 inclusive is illustrative: "And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap; for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe. And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped. And another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle. And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying; Thrust thy sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe. And the angle thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto
the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs." Ancient Greece and Rome knew three cruel fates; Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. Clotho held the distaff from which the thread of life was spun by Lachesis, while Atropos wielded the shears and cut the thread when life was ended. They were deemed cruel because neither she who held the staff of life, she who spun the thread nor she who cut it, regarded the wishes of any man. In the Sublime Degree Freemasons hear a beautiful prayer, taken almost wholly from the Book of Job (14, to 14 inclusive). Just why the fathers of the ritual thought they could improve upon Job, and left out here a verse, thee substituted a word, is a sealed mystery. The phrases of the King James version seem intimately connected with the ritual of our hour glass and scythe of time: Man that is born of a woman is of a few days and full of trouble. He cometh forth like a flower, and is cut; he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not. And dost thou open thine eyes upon such a one, and bringest me unto judgment with thee? Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one. Seeing his days are determined, the number of his months are with thee, thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass; turn from him, that he may rest, till he shall accomplish, as an hireling, his day. For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease. Though the root thereof wax old in the earth, and the stock thereof die in the ground; Yet through the scent of water it will bud, and bring boughs like a plant. But man dieth, and wasteth away; yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he? As the Waters fail from the 8
sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth up; so man lieth down and riseth not; till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep. O that thou wouldest keep me secret, until thy wrath be past, that thou wouldest appoint me a set time and remember me! If a man die, shall he live again? All the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come." "If a man die, shall he live again?" Job's cry of despair has rung down the centuries; it is one of Freemasonry's glories that her answer is as ringing! Her tragedy ends in hope; her assurances of immortality are positive. Ritual of hour glass and scythe, if read alone, is gloomy and disheartening, but not as parts of a whole which end in a certainty of immortality. Measurement of time has demanded the attention of learned men in all ages. Our modern clocks, watches and chronometers have a long and intricate history, and many ancestors quite unlike their descendants; among them the sun dial and hour glass. Just how old the instrument is which measures time by the slow dropping of liquid or running sand is not easily stated; ancient Egypt knew a water clock and Plato is said to have invented the "Clepsydra," in water drips from container to container, marking hate passing of hours. The substitution of sand for water must have occurred early, sand having the great advantage that it runs more slowly than water and does not evaporate in the process. The sealed semi- vacuum double bulbs of more modern days were then, of course, unknown. Nor can the earliest symbolic relationship between the passage of hours and days and man's life both here and hereafter be stated; the connection between time and life is so 9
intimate that it is difficult to believe that ideas of duration as a factor of life, as well as a practical matter of eating, sleeping, etc., did not arise coincidentally. Both old and New Testaments have this poetry; Isaiah 3810: "I said in the cutting off of my days, I shall go to the gates of the grave: I am deprived of the residue of my years." and John 5-25: "Verily, verily, I say unto you; The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live." The brethren who built upon the simple esoteric work of operative Lodges the magnificent system of philosophy, life and morals which is our Freemasonry, wrought with the viewpoint of their times. Yet the abiding spirit of the ritual is a reality, otherwise it would not have lived in men's hearts and worked its gentle miracles for so long a period. Apparently taking some sombre pleasure from dwelling on mortality, decay, the evening of life, old age and death; these early Masonic ritualists nevertheless builded well when they endeavoured to impress upon all brethren the vital importance of time. Indeed, time is so intimately interwoven in the degrees of Freemasonry (see Short Talk Bulletin, January 1928) that it very obviously has a symbolic as well as moral significance. Shakespeare wrote of "the inaudible and noiseless foot of time," and "time the nurser and breeder of all good." Richter denominated time "the chrysalis of eternity;" Franklin called it "the herb that cures all diseases." Tusser said: "Time tries the truth in everything," echoing Cicero's "Time is the herald of truth." Paine dug the meat from this nut in writing "Time makes more converts than reason." Freemasonry's ritual deals with time in a strictly limited sense; we speak of a definite
number of years the temple was in building; of the days the Master was buried; of the scythe of time, which cuts the brittle thread of life; of the hour glass which marks the passing of life. But in the symbolic sense Freemasonry makes of time a vast conception, allied with the very fundamentals of God and the hereafter. Her whole teaching is of the preparation for another and better life by a substantial and an honourable living of this one. Freemasonry makes a very clear distinction between everyday time, which all men share; — eight hours for labour, eight hours for God and a worthy brother, and eight hours for refreshment and sleep — and the time his immortal part must spend in the hereafter. The scythe of time "cuts the brittle thread of life and launches us into eternity." The immortal part of man "never, never, never, dies." "Time, patience and perseverance will accomplish all things." "Through the valley of the shadow of death, he may finally arise from the tomb of transgression to shine as the stars, forever and ever." Quotations might be multiplied; they will occur to all whom the ritual is familiar. Lucky the Master Mason who has grasped the deeper meanings of the hourglass and the scythe, and comforted is he who see behind their gloomy outlook a gleam of light; "In the night of death hope sees a star and love can hear the flutter of an angel's wing," as the great agnostic phrased it." The timelessness of time is a hard conception; that eternity has neither beginning nor ending is beyond the mental grasp even of great philosophers. Article sourced from the Builder Magazine June 1935, author unknown.
DID YOU KNOW? Question: What is meant by the term 'Symbolic Degrees' and 'Symbolic Lodges'? Answer: One of the oldest rules in the Old Charges, from c. 1390 onwards, ordered that the masons should do an honest day's work, so that he would truly deserve his pay 'as he ought to have it'. I quote the rule from a fairly late version, c. 1680, only because the wording is very clear and simple: And also ye shall every Mason serve truely the workes and truely make an End of your worke, be it taske or be it Journey Worke, if you may have your pay as you ought to have. (The Embleton MS., c. 1680) The general idea was obvious. If a mason did an honest day's work he could take his wages with full confidence and without hesitation, i.e.‘without scruple or diffidence, well knowing he was justly entitled to them’; but those words were of late introduction, probably in the early 1800s.
Question: There has been continual discussion about where you indicate the B. and J. pillars when you are explaining the tracing board in the second degree. There is agreement that B. should be on the left, but how does one decide whether the 'left' is when one is looking out of the Temple building or into it? (See Sep17 & Apr19.)
Answer: Despite the many attempts which have been made to answer this question over the years it is remarkable how frequently the same enquiry recurs. In the 10
hope that what is here suggested will be of help at least for a further period of time I proffer the following information: The enquirer will first be advised to read what was said on this topic by Bro. Harry Carr (Freemason at Work, p.138, 1976 edn.) and note that he comments: 'It would be difficult to answer this question without numerous quotations from the Old Testament...' I would have to say that it is impossible to do so and as the 'Sacred Writingsâ&#x20AC;Ś are given as the rule and guide' explicitly for our present purpose especially as it is the Wor. Master or some other P .M .who gives the explanation in the second degree already referred to. If you take the Second Book of Chronicles, chapters 3 and 4, you will there have a fairly full description of the making of Solomon's Temple. Chapter 3 describes the Holy Place and Holy of Holies (or 'the greater house' and the 'most holy house') and their contents, whilst in the next chapter we move OUTSIDE these two 'rooms' and look at what was placed there. Thus, at the close of a clear description of what was provided 'in the house of the Lord' we read: 'And he reared up the pillars before the temple, one on the right hand, and the other on the left, and called the name of that on the right hand J. and the name of that on the left B. Immediately, in the text we move outside the 'house' and are told of the altar of brass, the molton sea, (or large basin) and the ten lavers, five on the right hand and five on the left. (These are parallels to the ten candlesticks and tables inside the temple house.) We are then introduced to the court of the priests and the great court and this description finishes with these words: 'And 11
he set the sea on the right side of the EAST end, over against the south.' Thus, if the sea (for washing) was outside the holy house and at the east end of the temple building the south could only be on the RIGHT if the directions were given from the inside of the temple proper looking OUT. Even though it might seem natural, as Alex Horne has suggested in his book 'King Solomon's Temple in the Masonic Tradition' (1972), that a visitor to the temple would start from the outside of the building that is not the way the V.S.L. presents it. I suggest that we keep to what is recorded and let that decide the matter. B. was the pillar on the left looking out and J. was on the right. As it is all determined by looking east that will explain why in some older Masonic halls the pillars seem to be the other way round. As the W. Master is in the east he sees B. on the right and J. on the left. What we have to explain on the T.B. is Solomon's Temple, not our local one.
Question: What is the meaning of the phrase 'Just, Perfect and Regular' as applied to a Masonic Lodge? Answer: A Lodge is said to be 'Just' when it contains the V.S.L. unfolded; 'Perfect' when it comprises seven members; and 'Regular' when the Charter or Warrant of Constitution is in evidence.
Question: What are the recognized Landmarks of the Order? Answer: The most eminent of Masonic jurists and historians had advanced widely varying opinions regarding the recognized
Landmarks of the Order and their number. If ancient and supposedly immutable customs are to be claimed as “Landmarks” then their number is legion. Some authorities have produced lengthy lists of Landmarks; others have declined to recognize more than two or three. The Grand Lodge pf England has made no authoritive pronouncement on the subject. Albert Mackey in his ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF FREEMASONRY sets down a list of twenty-four Ancient Landmarks; some have never been disputed, while others are open to question. The first Great Landmark of the Order (Mackey divides it into two) may be said to be – A belief in One Supreme Being and acceptance of the rule that the open Volume of the Sacred Law is indispensable in every Lodge while the Lodge is working. Other universally accepted landmarks are: (a) The equality of all Freemasons. (b) Secrecy of modes of recognition. (c) The modes themselves. (d) That every Lodge shall be tyled. e) The government of a Lodge by the Master and his Wardens. There are many others, some generally accepted, others disputed. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.
A Reminder of a Freemason Duties and Responsibilities
Be especially careful to maintain in their fullest vigour those truly Masonic characteristics, Benevolence and Brotherly Love. You must love and respect your brother, irrespective of his religion, race or creed "To your neighbour, you must act upon the square, and do unto him as you wish he should do unto you." Before I became a Mason, I had the idea that Freemasonry was a tight organization whose obligations did not go beyond the bounds of the Lodge, and that Masons were under an obligation to practice Masonry with Masons and no more. Then I discovered the real bounds of the Lodge and the fact that we are not a mutual aid society. A Lodge is said, symbolically, to extend In length from the east to the west; In breadth from north to south; In height, from the earth to the highest heavens; In depth, from the surface to the centre. A Lodge is said to be of these vast dimensions to denote the universality of Masonry. We can see that our responsibility goes beyond the Lodge room that we may have perceived in its narrowest sense, to our fellow man, and therein lays another of our great responsibilities. 12
RESPONSIBILITY TO THE LODGE Yes we have a responsibility to the lodge – it is put to us in the ancient charges. Every member has a duty and responsibility to the Lodge to which he belongs. Sadly, there are Masons who receive the three degrees and then forget all about the Lodge. They seem to feel that it's somebody else's responsibility to keep the Lodge going. For a Brother to forget the Lodge that gave him his Masonic birth is like a son who would forget his mother that gave him physical birth. Suppose no one attended Lodge meetings any more than you do, nor took any more of an active part than you do, nor showed any more interest than you do, what would happened to your Lodge? Would it still be in existence? I quote from the Charge given to the Entered Apprentice in the Scottish and English Constitutions, "Although your frequent appearance at our regular meetings is earnestly solicited, yet it is not meant that Masonry should interfere with your necessary vocations, for these are on no account to be neglected." Pay special attention to this wording for it does not give brethren a licence to allow anything and everything to interfere with Masonry, On the contrary it gives an honest mason the opportunity to make an honest decision in the event that should it be necessary to miss a lodge meeting. In the third paragraph of the Ancient charge published in 1730 and printed in the Laws and Constitutions of Irish Freemasonry. It reads ‘in ancient times no Master or Fellow 13
could be absent from it (Lodge). Especially when warned to appear at it, without incurring a severe censure, until it appeared to the Master and Wardens that pure necessity hindered him". It is clear that Freemasonry places a firm responsibility on a brother to fulfil his duties to attend lodge meetings unless there is an honest and legitimate reason to stay away. "UNTO THYSELF BE TRUE". If you cannot live up to this, requirement, being true to yourself, then you are stepping onto a ladder with its first rung broken and there is no hope for you reaching your Masonic goal. One of the most tragic truths is that Masonry means so little to some who call themselves Masons. Can you imagine the resurgence Freemasonry would experience if suddenly every Lodge member would become a Mason once again in deed as well as in word; if suddenly every Lodge member would become what he professed to be; if suddenly every Lodge member would do what he is obligated himself to do; if suddenly he would practice what he preaches; if suddenly he should measure up to his Masonic Responsibilities or if he would attend more regularly or visit other lodges occasionally. It’s like some Brethren who believe that they can practice the art of Freemasonry without learning the rules. Being a regular mason, an efficient Secretary, Treasurer or even Master of the Lodge, is what is expected of us when we take office and being men of honour we must give of our best. Freemasonry coerces no one – you should progress at your own pace, and if you accept office it is your duty
as a man of honour to perform the task to the best of your ability. A duty is a responsibility we undertake and according to the task that duty can vary. Our Masonic responsibilities are non negotiable and cannot be wavered. Every man who entered Freemasonry did so of his own free will and accord. He was not invited to join the Fraternity. He had to knock at the door for admittance. It should have been impressed upon him during the interview stages, that as in life, "nothing comes for nothing" and now with his admittance he would be taking on duties and be responsible to live a Masonic life. RESPONSIBILITY COUNTRY
"A Mason is to be a Peaceable subject to the Civil Powers wherever he resides or lives". We are charged "to be exemplary in the discharge of our civil duties, never proposing or countenancing anything which may disturb the peace and good order of society; by paying obedience to the laws of the land in which we reside, and by which we are protected; and never losing sight of the allegiances we owe to our sovereign native land" "In the state, you are to be a quiet and peaceful subject, true to your government and just to your country; you are not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion, but patiently submit to legal authority, and conform with cheerfulness to the government of the country in which you live." Turning to VSL for guidance on this responsibility
In reply to questions from the Pharisees as to whether they should they contribute to support of a distant, alien, pagan Roman government who were occupying Jerusalem at the time and whose legitimacy was somewhat dubious. The Bible quotes Jesus as saying; "Render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s, and unto God what is God’s." He does not tell them to cheat on their taxes, to undermine the occupying power. He does not advocate tax resistance, or any other form of disobedience, civil or otherwise? So, "What can be described as Caesar’s?" This includes at the right to issue currency and collect taxes. Make laws, to control how people should live, protect the borders and regulate the safety and well being of persons within the country. In St Paul’s Letter to the Romans (Romans 13:1-) It is the duty of every Christian to obey the laws of the land as long as they do not conflict with the law of God.. (This applies to ALL Freemasons) Freemasonry does NOT tell us what political party or issue to support. We are free to choose according to our own conscience, but not discuss in lodge. On the side of duty we are instructed to be lawabiding citizens. And this is our responsibility as Masons. From the ancient charges published in 1730 we read; "that a Mason is to be a peaceable Subject to the Civil Powers wherever he resides or works, and never to be concerned in Plots or conspiracies against the Peace and Welfare of the Nation nor to behave himself undutifully to inferior magistrates". 14
In a changing world and as true Freemasons, to find our "Real Masonic Responsibilities" from which we cannot excuse ourselves, we have to keep delving deeper and deeper
Lodge St. Munn Ardnadam No. 496
To sum up what could I say are our Masonic Responsibilities? Our Masonic responsibilities can really be summed up in one word, "PRACTICE." We have the responsibility of living and practicing a Masonic life for the world to see. Freemasonry needs to be exposed through the conduct of its members, who live and practice life according to those principles to which he obligated himself, whilst kneeling at the Altar. If we say that it is un-Masonic to solicit members by asking someone to join Freemasonry, them we should use the lives we live to influence others to seek admission to our Fraternity. Remember, it only takes 20 minutes to become a member, but a lifetime to become a Mason. Freemasonry is viewed by the way that every member conducts himself. Honesty and living strictly by the rule of the square are not negotiable. Every Mason must realise and be conscious of these responsibilities and live them in his daily life. In short, "we should practice what we preach".
Article by Bro. Clive Herron Marine Lodge 627 I.C. and sourced from â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Freemasonry Explained.â&#x20AC;? Adapted by the editor. (Please take note, that views held in this article are not necessarily those held by the editor of SRA76 and or the Grand Lodge of Scotland, but are in fact those of the author of the piece. Ed.
The foundations for the erection of a lodge of Freemasons in the village of Sandbank were first laid at a preliminary meeting of brethren from Sandbank, Ardnadam, Kilmun, Strone and Blairmore; held in Rose Linn Cottage Ardnadam in 1869. Of the seven brethren present, six were Master Masons of Lodge Dunoon Argyll No. 335 whilst the seventh member and chairman of the meeting, Bro. James Moir Cousins, was a Master Mason of Lodge Shamrock and Thistle, Glasgow no. 275. He was however also an affiliate member of Lodge Dunoon Argyll and was in fact serving as Right Worshipful Master of the Dunoon lodge at the time of this meeting*. Bro. Cousins tendered his resignation to Lodge Dunoon Argyll in the March of 1879 and it was duly accepted although it does appear that there was some level of schism
created between the Dunoon lodge and the proposed new lodge. This theory is supported by the fact that there is no mention whatsoever of the formation of the Sandbank lodge in the minutes of Lodge Dunoon Argyll for that year. In addition to the seven brethren present at the meeting, four further names were added to a subscription sheet showing a total of Nine Pounds and Ten Shillings towards the erection of the proposed Lodge. It was moved and seconded unanimously that the first name of the lodge be St. Munn. It was then moved that the second name be Holy Loch but a counter proposal was put forward that it be Ardnadam. The vote went 4 to 3 in favour of the latter. The meeting was then closed with a vote of thanks and a proposal that James Moir Cousins be the first Right Worshipful Master. One of the members present at this original meeting was the aptly named Reverend Gavin Mason, the local minister of Sandbank Parish Church who went on to serve as the Secretary and the Right Worshipful Master of the lodge. When he died he was buried in the grounds of his church and to this day his gravestone is passed by the brethren of his lodge every time they attend their regular meetings in the Church hall. Amongst the other brethren whose names were appended to the petition finally sent to Grand Lodge are a large and varied list of mother lodges including: Mother Kilwinning No. 0, Glasgow St Mungoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s No. 27, Doric Kilwinning No. 68 (Port Glasgow), Greenock St. John No. 75, St. Marks at Glasgow No. 102, Glasgow Shamrock & Thistle No. 275, Dunoon Argyll 335, Royal Arch West Kilbride No. 314 and The Athole Lodge No. 384
(Kirkintilloch). Supporters of the petition included Bro. James Muir, RWM of Lodge Greenock St John No. 175 and Bro. Andrew Boag, Provincial Grand Secretary of Renfrewshire West. The charter for Lodge St. Mun Ardnadam No. 496 was granted by the Grand Lodge of Scotland on 8th November 1869 The first meeting of the lodge was held in the Workmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Club, Ardnadam on the 12th November 1869 at 7pm. Three candidates for initiation were read out and passed. They received their Entered Apprentice degrees that same night. At the regular meeting on the 17th of December 1869 the colours of the Lodge were decided upon by a vote of ten to two in favour of Royal Blue against the Campbell tartan. This is an important decision for any Scottish lodge as the colour of the regalia plays a big part in the lodge identity and no doubt much discussion took place before a decision was reached. At the same meeting it was agreed to hold every third meeting in the Kilmun area. This practice has continued through the years albeit to a lesser extent in recent times. The last meeting held there took place in 2005. Other significant events during that first year included the purchase of jewels and furniture for the lodge on the 18th March 1870 the lodge secured by a Twenty Five pounds loan from the Right Worshipful Master. On the 16th September 1870 the lodge was asked to send a deputation to Grand Lodge in Edinburgh to see the Prince of Wales installed as Patron of the Masonic Order in Scotland. At an emergency meeting on the 25th of October 1870 Mr Hugh McArthur was entered, passed and raised in the three degrees of Freemasonry 16
in the one night as he was leaving the next day to take up his post as lighthouse keeper for the Cumbrae Trustees. On the 8th of November 1870 the lodge held an anniversary dinner in the Pier Hotel, Ardnadam which was attended by 27 brethren. By the end of that first year lodge had a thriving membership of 52 brothers and a bank balance of nine pounds held in the City of Glasgow Bank in Dunoon. It is nice to note that any animosity lingering between St. Munn Ardnadam and Dunoon Argyll over Bro. Cousins defection didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t last very long and on the the 27th of December that year Bro. Cousins returned to Dunoon as Right Worshipful Master of Lodge 496 at the head of a deputation including his Secretary, Substitute Master and Inner Guard. The bond of friendship between the two lodges has lasted down through the centuries and many brothers from each lodge have been honoured with Honorary Membership in the other. From these humble beginnings Lodge 496 has gone on to play an integral part in the fabric of the Sandbank community, never leaving the village, except for occasional trips round the Holy Loch to Kilmun to initiate candidates from that area. The lodge continues to hold its regular meetings in Sandbank Parish Church Hall and indeed no fewer than three Parish ministers of that church have served as Right Worshipful Master. The lodge has continued to draw its membership primarily from the local community and many local families like Currie, Campbell and Harvey can trace their membership back through the generations. With so many years of dedication to Scottish Freemasonry behind them the brethren of Lodge St Munn Ardnadam are now looking forward to 2019 and 17
celebrating their 150th Anniversary and beyond that to serving their community for many years to come with a dedication that is second to none. * (Bro. Cousins may also have been a Past Master of Lodge Glasgow at Glasgow No. 441 but at present this remains unconfirmed)
Meeting Details The lodge meets on the second Wednesday of the month from September through to April at 7.30 pm. The Installation meeting takes place on the 3rd Saturday in November at 2.30 pm. All meetings of the lodge are held in Sandbank Village Hall, High Road, Sandbank, PA23 8PX. Directions to the Lodge. If you are coming off the passenger ferry which docks at Dunoon pier then simply turn right when you come off the pier and head up the main street. Carry on out of the town passing the stadium and hospital on your right. Heading out on the High Road you will pass a large body of water called the Lochan on you left hand side, shortly afterwards you will begin to climb a hill. Go over the top of the hill and head down into Sandbank village itself. The Church is on the right-hand side at the foot of the hill. The church hall where the meetings are held is entered via a blue door to the right of the main church building. If you are travelling by car via the Western Ferries then turn right when you exit the ferry terminal at Hunters Quay and follow the shore road all the way to its end at a Tjunction. The Holy Loch Inn will be facing you. Turn left at the T-junction and the church is on the left just a few yards along the road. This History of Lodge St. Munn No.496 was sourced from the website of the Cowal Masonic Lodges. (Please visit the website at this link; here.
Famous Freemasons William ‘Jack’ Dempsey ‘The Manassa Mauler’
moved around quite often so his father could find work. His parents converted to Mormonism and at the age of eight he was baptized in the Church of Latter Day Saints. Dempsey dropped out of school in elementary school to help support the family. By the age of 16 he had left home. To earn money he would go to bars and saloons to challenge people to fights. He would walk in and state "I can't sing and I can't dance, but I can lick any SOB in the house." Bets would be made and the barroom brawls ensued. There were few records kept of these events, it is said that Dempsey lost very few of these fights. It was shortly after this that Dempsey became a professional fighter. In Dempsey's early career he fought under various names. Because of this it is difficult to get an accurate accounting of his early fight record. It was in 1914, that Dempsey added the name "Jack" as a tribute to middleweight boxer Jack "Nonpareil" Dempsey.
Dempsey was the reigning World Heavyweight Champion for seven years from 1919 to 1926, and as a result became the richest athlete in the world for that time. Brother Dempsey’s distinct fighting style made him one of the most popular boxers in history with many of his fights set audience attendance records. He was one of the most spectacular heavyweights since John L Sullivan. Jack Dempsey was one of the toughest heavyweights in the world. ‘Jack’ Dempsey was born William Harrison Dempsey in Manassa, Colorado on June 24th, 1895. His family was poor and they
In 1917, the United States entered World War I and Dempsey went to work in a shipyard while he continued to box. He was accused of being a slacker for not going into combat. It would be revealed later that he did enlist and was deemed unfit for medical reasons. In the fall of the same year as a result of a casual meeting in a San Francisco bar, Dempsey met the flamboyant Jack Kearns. Dempsey was 22 and thus began the most spectacular fighter-manager combination in ring history. Dempsey was a small time slugger who apart from one fight in New York had done all his battling on the boxing circuits of Colorado, Utah and Nevada. He had drifted to California looking for fights and a manager, where he met up with 18
Kearns, an experienced pilot, colourful showman and ballyhoo artist. The tie-up was an immediate success. Within a year, Kearns had steered Dempsey into the million dollar class of fighters and a world crown to become the main contender for the Championship. Up to the time that Jack Dempsey fought Jess Willard, he had scored forty-two knockouts, but it wasn’t until after he had put big Fred Fulton down for the count that he received sufficient recognition to be considered a proper challenger for the champion. It was the turning point in young Dempsey’s career and a lucky stroke for the kid from Colorado. The quick Fulton victory gained for him the bout with Jess Willard, the World Heavyweight Champion. Promoter Tex Rickard entered the scene and the “Golden Triangle” of Rickard, Dempsey and Kearns introduced the million-dollar gate in Boxing. Rickard promoted most of Dempsey’s important bouts, the one in which Dempsey won the title from Jess Willard and his subsequent clashes with Bill Brennan, Georges Carpentier, Luis Angel Firpo, Jack Sharkey, and the two with Gene Tunney. Five of the bouts drew $1,000,000 or more in receipts. The second Tunney fight set an all time record of $2,658,660 at the time. They grossed a grand total in five bouts of $8,453,319. In July 4, 1919, Dempsey met World Heavyweight Champion Jess Willard for a title match. Willard regarded Dempsey as easy prey, did little training, and paid for it with a merciless beating, one of the worst suffered by a heavyweight king. Willard hadn’t realised he was facing a a tough young hobo who had fists of iron and a granite jaw. Willard scaled 245 pounds, Dempsey 187, and in the opening round went down for 19
counts seven times until the gong came to his rescue. Willard was sitting on the canvas bloodied and battered staring into space. His seconds dragged him to his corner. The referee, hadn’t heard the bell ending the round and held up Dempsey’s hand in victory, but after Jack had left the ring and the referee informed of his error by the official timer, he recalled Dempsey back into the ring and the bout continued. Willard made a game attempt for a comeback in the second round but fared little better than in the opening frame. His right eye was closed, the right side of his head was swelling, there was blood from his mouth and nose, and two front teeth had been knocked out. Yet he fought on, and came out of his corner for the third round. Willard faced another onslaught, managed a few punches of his own but soon his left eye was tightly closed, his face was a mess. The bell sounded for the end of the round. Jess Willard called the referee to his corner, where he had been dragged by his second, and announced his retirement from the bout. The King had abdicated, and a new King was crowned. Dempsey had battered Big Jess Willard into submission in three rounds It was the start of Jack Dempsey’s career as world champion that got the Golden Era of Boxing underway when the Champion faced the Orchid Kid, Georges Carpentier from France, a popular boxer who had previously annexed the world light heavyweight championship. Carpentier, was a World War I hero from France and the fight took place in New Jersey and would be the first million-dollar gate in boxing history. It would also be the first national radio broadcast. The bout, called “The Battle of the Century,” ended with the dramatic knockout of Carpentier.
Jack easily won the first round, the Frenchman turned the table is the second, and for one complete round had the greatest boxer of recent years rocking and backing under the fury of the onslaught. A swooping overhand punch was responsible. Then came the turn of the battle, with 80,000 cheering the Orchid Kid as he came out for the third round, Jack leaped forth with an attack and shot in several hard right hand blows to the face and a solid right smash to the stomach that changed the tide. The Frenchman covered up, was cornered and bombarded with body blows. He looked like a weakling in the hands of his now victorious opponent. It took but little time in the fourth and final round to end the fray, the champion’s deadly left hook found its mark to an unguarded body and then Frenchman slipped limply to the canvas. He took a count of nine, through all this; scarcely a sound was heard as the huge gathering gasped in astonishment at what was happening. Dempsey swung against the jaw of the challenger and again he went down, his body stretched across the floor. He didn’t move until eight was counted and then attempted to get to his feet but couldn’t make it. The fight was over and Dempsey became a national hero. Dempsey would defend his World Heavyweight Champion title several times. In his last successful defence of his title against Luis Ángel Firpo, in 1923 whom he knocked out in the second round. Jack floored Firpo seven times in the opening round and twice in the second before putting him away. A short right uppercut to the jaw ended the thriller. But in those three minutes, fifty seconds of fighting, there was crowded more action
than ordinary is witnessed in fifteen rounds of a championship match. In those minutes of thrilling whirlwind, terrific battling, Dempsey was knocked through the ropes, out of the ring and hadn’t friendly hands pushed him back he would have lost his title. . Firpo had the world title within his grasp, the richest title in boxing almost in hand, yet failed to triumph because he lacked one of the great essential in boxing – a fighting brain. Twice he floored Dempsey in the first round but couldn’t take advantage of the opportunity by following up his attack properly. Dempsey, fully recovered in the second round, made quick work of his opponent. During the course of Dempsey being the World Heavyweight Champion, he would become the richest athlete in the World and would be put on the cover of Time magazine. In 1926 Dempsey ‘s promoter put on a title fight with Gene Tunney. It was another million-dollar bout and drew an attendance of 120,757, the largest in boxing history. The gate was $1,895,733. The fight took place in a driving rainstorm that made the canvas slippery and drenched spectators and participants alike, Tunney, fared better physically, and was master of the situation in all except two rounds, in one of which, the fourth, he was on the verge of a knockout. The champion was awkward, slow, and couldn’t follow through as he did in the famous battles with Willard, Carpentier, and Firpo. Gene, on the other hand, exhibited cleverness and sharp hitting, He fought his greatest battle. He often beat Jack to the 20
punch and several times rocked his head. He opened a gash over Jack’s eye in the fifth round. In the sixth, Dempsey succeeded in checking his rival’s attack, but Tunney came back with power in the last portion of that round and the next to toss punch after punch to the head and body without a return from the champ. And that’s how it went from then to the tenth and final session with Tunney always leading, striking effectively, and Jack missing. For the first time in his career, the Manassa Mauler found himself entirely on the receiving end. His left eye was closed, his face puffed, and he was wobble when the gong ended the affair. Tunney, the New York boy who had won the light heavyweight crown in the American Expeditionary Force in France, was now the world heavyweight champion. When he returned to his dressing room after his defeat he told his wife "Honey, I forgot to duck." Dempsey would attempt to win back his title in 1927 from Tunney. Dempsey was losing the fight until he came back and knocked Tunney to the canvas. There was a new rule instituted at the time that required the boxer to go to a neutral corner. Dempsey refused to go and the referee had to escort him over to the corner. This gave Tunney an extra 5 seconds to recover and was able to get up on the 9 count. Dempsey would later be knocked down and some say that Tunney did not go to a neutral corner and the referee counted anyway. Regardless of any controversy it would be Dempsey's last major fight. He would continue to do exhibition matches. This ended the fighting career of one of the great ringmen of all time. 21
Though Dempsey tried a comeback and gain a fortune in exhibitions after the second defeat, his real fighting terminated with the “Long Count” battle. Dempsey retired from boxing for good in 1935, and went in to business. He opened Jack Dempsey’s Restaurant across from the third Madison Square Garden, the name of which was changed later to Jack Dempsey’s Broadway Restaurant in New York City’s Times Square. When the United States entered World War II, Dempsey enlisted again. This time in the New York National Guard. He then transferred to the United States Coast Guard Reserve. He would be honourably discharged from the Coast Guard Reserve in 1945. After the war, Dempsey became a philanthropist. He notably stated that he was glad that he never had to fight Joe Louis in the ring. When Louis fell on hard times, Dempsey headed a charity for Louis to get him back on his feet. Dempsey passed away on May 31st, 1983 aged 87 in New York City. He said to his wife, "Don't worry honey, I'm too mean to die" just before passing away from heart failure. Jack Dempsey was a member of Kenwood Lodge #800 in Chicago, Illinois. This article by the editor of the SRA76 magazine has been compiled from a Variety of sources freely available on the internet, some of which are; Wikipedia World in Sport - Jack Dempsey – The Manassa Mauler Website - UGLE Website; SRite - Sporting Gold: Masonic Athletes Grove Lodge #824 And many others, thanks to all.
‘The Star, the Word and the Soul’ Masonic ritual and usages have ever been associated with King Solomon, his wisdom and his building of the mighty Temple at Jerusalem. It is well known that his father David could not qualify to build the House of God, because he was a warrior with blood upon his hands and human weakness in his soul. But David had the touch of greatness too. The shepherd boy who came to sit upon the throne achieved this end without resorting to the murder of his predecessor, when this might have been excused Of all the works ascribed to David, we remember best the ‘Book of Psalms’, that great collection of his thoughts on God and man, on life and death, on sorrow, happiness and praise, on everything there is in heaven, earth or hell. These thoughts are multitudinous as the seas or single, clear and concentrated as a vision of the sun. By the help of God, being free and of good report. The nineteenth Psalm has particular significance to Masons as it touches on the three great subjects which concerns us most. These are the Universe, the Sacred Law and, most of all, the Soul of Man. The Psalm commences with a manifesto of the glory and the power of God throughout the Universe, reminding us that He is present in the distant stars and in our own great sun whose influence controls our ways. It then refers us to the Word of God within the Volume of the Sacred Law, reminding us that here we find perfection, wisdom, purity, the truth and righteousness. Then finally, it turns to Man himself, the greatest of created things, reminding us that he should keep his soul from errors, secret faults and from presumptuous sins.
While David does not have the same importance to our Craft as Solomon, we must remember that his people owed him much. His star became the symbol of the race. His writings occupy a place of honour in their scriptures. His campaigns drove the invader from the land. His capture of Jerusalem made it the sacred place of Israel, and his diplomacy secured alliances his son was able to exploit. In short, he laid a sure foundation for King Solomon to build upon. We too can build upon the Three Great Truths proclaimed within the Psalm–God in the Universe, God in the Volume of the Sacred Law and God within the Soul. As speculative Masons we are able to appreciate the Grand Design of Him who has created and who still preserves our Universe. The Star that brings peace and salvation to us, takes its light from the Great Architect Himself. We teach men that the Scripture holds His Laws which to obey is life and which to disregard is death. Our system holds that man is free to choose between the good and evil of the world, but with the certainty that he must bear the consequences of his choice. Where God controls the Soul, no danger can ensue. On such foundations we can raise ‘that House not made with hands’. Kind David did not build the Temple, but he did do much to set it on a sure and lasting base. He saw God in the Star, the Law and in his Soul, and if he erred, his sorrow and regret were genuine. No matter to what depths he sank, he rose again and made atonement for his sins. None but a great man could have offered up this prayer. ‘Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O Lord, my strength, and my redeemer’. Sourced from Lodge Enterprise 400 by Bro. Raymond Pattinson.
going on and objected to every move and generally reminded me of a bucking billy goat. I laughed until I cried. I shall look forward to Wednesday night..." "I wonder," broke in a quiet voice, "if you young gentlemen realize what it is you are saying?" "Why... why... why of course, we do. We haven't said anything wrong, have we?" inquired the first speaker of the Old Past Master sitting quietly in the corner of he ante-room, listening.
When Laughter is Sad
"Oh, it's going to be rich. The poor fish is scared to death. And you know when Abbot does the work in the third degree how, er... well, let's call it impressive, he is." The Young Mason chuckled at the thought. "That's not going to be the only funny thing happen Wednesday night," answered another newly-raised brother. "I happen to know my friend Ted is going to do the Senior Deacon's part. And Ted gets stage fright. He doesn't lose his memory or anything, but his voice goes up about an octave and a half; Oh, it's funny. I laughed, last time I heard him..." "I had a good laugh at one of the members of my class when I went in," chimed a third voice. "He couldn't understand what was 23
"I am an old, old man," countered the Old Past Master, gently. "I have lived a long, long time, and the longer I live the less able I am to classify anything as wholly right or wholly wrong. I wouldn't say that in what you said is wrong in the sense that it is intentional evil. It is wholly wrong from my point of view, to bite the hand that feeds you, to abuse hospitality, to belittle the agency that helps you, to deride and make sport of holy things, to injure that which is valuable to others even though valueless to yourself." "But, good heavens, man. We haven't done any of those things. Why, I only said that Abbot is so impressive he'd make a good laugh come out on Wednesday's degree..." "That was enough, my brother. Is there a church into which you would go with the idea of laughing at a penitent at the Altar? Is there a church in which you would think it right to laugh at a communicant partaking of the bread and wine? Is there a church where the spectacle of a man on his knees would make you laugh, no matter how odd or peculiar he was or how he was dressed?" "Of course not. I don't laugh in church..."
"Then why laugh in the lodge? In all the third degree, is there humor? Do you not know that it is a tragedy which the third degree portrays, a tragedy no less that it teaches an inspiring lesson, and has the inspiration of all that is good and noblest in a good man's character? "What do you think a candidate thinks when the most solemn, the most sacred, the most secret of a Master Mason's lessons is being given to him, if from you, and you, and you on the benches, comes smothered laughter? Will it add anything to the impressiveness of the degree in his eyes? Will he feel that what he is being given is sacred, valuable, and precious to his heart? Or will he say to himself, 'Evidently there is a catch in this somewhere... I guess it's a joke, and I am it!' "You have spoken of Filby, who has stage fright and whose voice raises an octave because of it. Filby wasn't blessed by nature with a beautiful voice, but God gave him something precious to Masonry, and that is earnest, sincere, genuine enthusiasm. I have been in this lodge for more years than you have been on earth, and I have never known a Senior Deacon to put more into his work than Filby does, though he has a poor voice. The words Filby uses are inspired words; the degree he puts on is a noble degree. And Filby does it as if inspired by its nobility. Would you laugh at a hero saving a life because he was dressed in caps and bells? Can't you hear, beyond poor Filby's cracked vocal chords, the chimes pealing in his heart as he tries to make his words impressive and beautiful? "Another of you has found it funny when a candidate for the third degree has not understood his part and made it difficult for the team to put him through the ceremony. At Receiving Hospital last week they
brought in a young man suffering from a broken arm. He was very ignorant; one of those foreigners who understands little or nothing of American ideas and ideals. And to him a hospital was a torture place, a house where doctors cut people to pieces for their pleasure. He was frightened almost to death and struggled and fought, while the surgeons tried to control him that they might set his arm. Was it funny? Or was it sad, that ignorant people had so destroyed his faith in his kind that he couldn't recognize kindness and help when he saw it? "The man who was too frightened to understand and so made his third degree difficult was a victim of those who had tormented an imaginative mind with the idea of goats and pain and indignity in a Masonic lodge. I find nothing funny in it; only sadness. "Don't think of me as an old kill-joy. A good laugh at some wit in a business meeting, a good laugh at a good story after lodge; these are all well and good; wholesome and natural. Whether they are located in a lodge, a church or a home, they are good. "But not in a church during service, not in a lodge during a degree. There is no laugh in the lodge during any degree which is not an insult to the officers, and a badge of ignorance and ill-manners for him who laughs. Charity we can preach; charity we should practice towards those who do not do so well in the degrees as we think we might; the fraternity is not to be laughed at because there are some who make one part of the third degree less real than strenuous. "Look, my brother, for what lies beneath; regard not so much the outward form as the inward meaning and you will not again be 24
tempted to consider a degree as a substitute for a vaudeville performance, a lodge as a temple of laughter."
The Old Past Master ceased and sat quiet, waiting.
Historical Anachronism – Significant Symbol
"But I say!" cried the Young Mason, "Don't you think you are a little rough with us?" "You are all much too good material to allow to spoil for the sake of your feelings," answered the Old Past Master with a smile. "But you sure take a chance we'll dislike you for plain speaking." "What do I matter? You may dislike me... but I don't believe you will laugh in lodge again!" "I'll say I won't either!" answered the Young Mason. It's a promise...and I'd like to shake hands!" This is the thirteenth article in this our regular feature, ‘The Old Past Master,’ each month we will publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.
One Summer Visitors Night in August. Muskoka Lodge received a unique gift. Two beautifully crafted globes added to the ornamental pillars that flank the entrance to the lodge room. The globes unveiled on that occasion on the presence of the Grand Master and the Deputy Grand Master were hand carved from an ancient tree discovered on the farm of a Brother, and considered by archaeologists to be more than 3,000 years old. It is assumed that these pillars are symbolical of those cast in brass by Hiram, King Solomon's chief architect, that were placed at the porchway or entrance of the Temple, to which Masons attribute great ritual significance in our First and Second Degrees. However, even a casual review of the description of the pillars given in the First Book of Kings (chapter 7, verses 1521) will show that 'globes' were not mentioned. It is suggested by some that the pillars may have been surmounted by bowls that functioned as huge torches - from which issued "fire by night, and a cloud of smoke by day." In this sense they are symbols of our dependence on the guidance of the Great Architect of the Universe. The pillars of the earth are the Lord's and he hath set the world upon them. 1 Samuel 2:8 The ancients thought that pillars supported the earth, and the Old Testament has many
references to this notion. In the old religions, pillars were associated with stability, strength, and firmness. Pillars were revered as symbols of the power of the Deity. In the Book of Job, we read that God “shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble.” Masonic ritual derives the allusions to the pillars of the Temple from this theological pseudo-science: “in strength”, “God will establish” and “stability”. In this sense the pillars are symbolic of the endurance and stability of the institution of Freemasonry. Some Hebrew scholars suggest that the two chapiters that adorned the pillars were 'pomels or globes' - the Hebrew word is koteret (keter – a crown). In the time of Solomon, 10th century BCE, it was thought that the world was flat. Harry Carr states, "Whether they were really bowls or globes cannot now be determined, but it is quite certain that they were not maps, either celestial or terrestrial." 1 The concept of the round earth would come centuries later. Possibly the earliest global map was constructed by Crates, a Greek geographer, in the 2nd century BC. The first in modern times is attributed to Martin Behaim and Leonardo de Vinci in the 15th Century. So, where did the globes originate and what is the significance in Masonic tradition? Historians suggest that they were adopted in the second quarter of the 18th century, and reference to them was added to the ritual around 1745. Remember that most of the founding members of the Royal Society the 'Invisible College' -were Freemasons: Sir Chrisopher Wren, Elias Ashmole, Robert Moray, et al. Masons inscribed maps of the earth and charts of the celestial constellations as ornaments on the spheres or globes surmounting the pillars in the
lodge. The geographical and astronomical engraving alludes to the Great Architect, Creator of both heaven and earth. Masonry Universal “… two spheres on which were delineated maps of the celestial and terrestrial .. globes pointing out Masonry Universal” anywhere under heaven, anywhere in the earth, there is the home of Freemasonry! So runs an old form of the Lecture given in the Second Degree. They were first set in stands on the floor of the lodge and are so depicted among the several symbols engraved on the Master Mason's certificate, two paired globes standing on tripod stands between the columns. Sometime later they were placed as the headpieces of the two great pillars on the Tracing Board used to illustrate this Lecture. The celestial globe symbolized the spiritual part of human nature and the terrestrial globe symbolized the material side. Can we deduce any moral interpretation from the position of the two globes – Celestial atop Boaz on the left and Terrestrial atop Jachin on the right? The great English Masonic writer of the eighteenth century William Preston, in his The Illustrations of Masonry made lengthy and detailed reference to the celestial and terrestrial globes, with the spiritual and moral lessons to be learned from an interpretation of them. “The professors of our art in latter periods of the world, ever having the instruction of their disciples and the good of mankind in view, have expended their improvements by delineating on these round balls, which decorated their columns; maps of the celestial and terrestrial globes. On one globe is represented the face of the heavens, 26
the planetary revolutions, and other interesting figures of the ethereal concave. On the other is delineated the countries, seas, and various parts of the inhabited world.” “What an august conception does this give of the works of the great Creator! … While we are employed in contemplating these globes we must be inspired with the profoundest reverence for the Deity, and the most exalted admiration of his works. Thus from the rude covering of the two round balls, intended to grace the capitals of the two rude columns, which Solomon reared and consecrated, have been traced the origin of many important discoveries, which the study of the globes have produced; and the improvements of civilized society have enlarged, and extended for the benefit of mankind.” 2 “The Globes belong to the subject matter of the philosophy of Masonry.” 3
1 Carr, Harry. The Freemason At Work. Lewis Masonic, revised edition 1992. P. 261. 2 Dyer, Colin. William Preston and his Work. P. 247 3 Haywood, H. L. Mackey’s Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Supplement Volume 3, P. 1245 This is from our Regular feature of articles under the title, “Reflections.” Articles from all around the world from a variety of Constitutions and authors and adapted to use in SRA76. This article was given as a lecture in 2008 in Muskoka Lodge, Bracebridge, Ontario.
And Crown Thy Good with Brotherhood
Ring out false pride in place and blood, The civic slander and the spite; Ring in the love of truth and right, Ring in the common love of good Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1809-1892 Have you read Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar recently? It’s what they call a cracking good tale. But there is a passage which, for many years, I found profoundly depressing. It is this: ‘The evil that men do lives after them; the good is oft interred with their bones.’ I found in these words a huge measure of despair. They are certainly true of such as Josef Stalin, Adolf Hitler or any serial murderer. My youngest son read Julius Caesar for A level English Literature, and I told him then how profoundly nihilist I found this statement. He disagreed, pointing out that Mark Antony, or Shakespeare, was in fact expressing no more than a deeply-held irony (how much we do learn from the younger generation!). From that moment, I became convinced that good is greater than evil. If we accept the responsibility for our thoughts and actions that being an individual free spirit invites us to assume, then we can – we must – continue to reject the tragic nonsense we so often see being perpetrated in the world. And, as that very individual, we can
do it on our own, whether or not those around us are on our side. The fluttering of a butterfly in South America may well induce a storm in Alaska. But at the same time, action undertaken collectively with others is so often more purposeful and effective than individual strivings. I have been reading Ian McEwan’s Enduring Love. I won’t spoil the story if you have yet to read it, but in the first chapter there is a situation where six men try to hold down a helium balloon to prevent it soaring away with a small boy marooned in the basket. While the six hold on, there is a chance the balloon may not break free, but in all their minds there is doubt; doubt that the six of them may not be enough to hold the balloon down, but also doubt about each one’s physical ability to hold on. A nice dilemma. The first one to let go effectively scuppers the rescue attempt of the remaining five, four of whom then let go, one after the other. The last, who perseveres on his own, only lets go when he can physically hold on no longer, by which time it is too late and he falls to his death. I need hardly spell out the moral for you. Not only can we achieve collectively far more than we can individually, but an endeavour may only be attainable if we don’t let go, if we work together and in harmony of purpose and action. Freemasonry allows us, encourages us, to conduct our campaign collectively. We can’t afford to let ego or self-interest intrude. As a brother once reminded me, speaking of a lodge where two of the brethren were at loggerheads, ‘When all is said and done, the lodge is greater than the sum of its several parts’.
‘Antients’ Grand Lodge, who wrote, in Ahiman Rezon, part of the Book of Constitutions: For human society cannot subsist without concord, and the maintenance of mutual good offices; for, like the working of an arch of stone, it would fall to the ground provided one piece did not properly support another. The keystone at the top is not called the ‘key’ for nothing – remove it and, no matter how big the other stones, or how many there are, the arch collapses. Is this to be interpreted as simple mutuality – help others in order to help myself? Well, I do prefer to remove the ‘myself’ from that equation. There is a lodge in London, and this is not an isolated example, whose members are working tirelessly to fund a hospice for the terminally ill in southern India. I know these brethren personally, and I know that none of them is doing this in the hope of some sort of recognition – it would be an insult even to suggest it. No, I prefer to say, without being a utopian idealist, that by working with one’s brethren towards a better world we can reach for the stars. We can create, through our precepts and the richness that is real Freemasonry, true goodness and harmony and light. Let’s realise our own potential, and see what a whirlwind we can, together, raise in Alaska. The sparks of divinity within each one of us were not put there for nothing. Article by W. Bro. Julian Rees whom SRA76 acknowledges to be the author. Our grateful thanks go to him. This article is copyright and should not be copied unless permission is given by the author. Julian's website can be accessed at this link. https://www.julianrees.com/
This principle was codified by Laurence Dermott, the first Grand Secretary of the 28
DID YOU KNOW? Question: Is there any documented account of the date or year when Masonry, as we know it today, was first practised? Answer: The essence of this question lies in the words 'Masonry, as we know it today'. Our present system was virtually standardized in England around 1813-1816, from materials that had been in existence since the 16th century, materials which had been gradually amplified, and later overlaid with speculative interpretation, especially during the second half of the 1700's. I believe it would be impossible to prove the existence of more than one single ceremony of admission during the 1400's. A two degree system came into use during the early 1500,s, and in 1598/9 we have actual Lodge minutes (in two Scottish Lodges) of the existence of two Degrees, the first for the 'Entered Apprentice' and the second for the 'Master or Fellow Craft' with evidence that they had been in use for some considerable time. Outside the Lodge, the Master was an employer and the FC was an employee; but inside the Lodge they shared the same ceremony, which was conferred only upon fully-trained masons. This point is very important when we come to consider the inevitable appearance of a system of three degrees. The earliest minute recording a third degree was in a London Musical Society in May 1725, and highly irregular. The earliest 29
record of a regular third degree in a Masonic Lodge is dated 25th March 1726, at the second meeting of Lodge DumbartonKilwinning, (now No.18 on the register of the G.L. of Scotland).
Question: Although my question is probably not of any practical importance, I should like to know at exactly what stage of the ceremony an Initiate becomes a member of the lodge? Answer: At first, my instinctive reply to your question was that an Initiate is a member of the Craft from the moment that he has sealed his obligation, but your question, though a hypothetical one, was so interesting that I felt it necessary to seek other opinions. I consulted several brethren whom I regard as experts on ritual matters but, as might have been expected, there was no unanimity. However, the majority opinion seems to be that if the ceremony were terminated for some reason before the obligation had been sealed, it would be necessary to start again, but that if it had been sealed, it would not be necessary for the obligation to be taken a second time and the ceremony could be continued from where it was broken off so that the Initiate should be regarded as a member of the lodge as from this point in the ceremony. You must understand that this is not an official ruling and if such a case arose, Grand Lodge would have to give a decision.
Question: What is the definition of 'Tenets' and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Principlesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;? Answer: Tenet â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The principal definition in the Oxford English Dictionary is `A doctrine, dogma, principle, or opinion in
religion, philosophy, politics or the like, held by a school, sect, party, or person'. Principle—The best definition for our purpose in the O.E.D. is a primary element, force, or law, which produces or determines particular results; the ultimate basis upon which the existence of something depends; cause, in the widest sense'.
`Landmarks', in our sense of the term, are something perpetual and unchanging.
From the above it would seem that 'tenets' and 'principles' could be in some respects alike so that a 'tenet' in certain instances might have the force of a 'principle'. For the sake of a sharper distinction, we may perhaps ignore this aspect of the definition, and rely more strongly on the definition of 'tenet' as 'doctrine or dogma'. The essential element of those two words is that they represent an idea, a belief, or a conviction, which cannot necessarily be proved, but is held by faith, and perhaps one of the best examples that one can give of a Masonic tenet is the doctrine of the immortality of the soul.
`Principles' may have their roots in natural law, or in ethics and philosophies which shape our code of conduct. But they may also be invented or adopted rules, or beliefs, which have their basic force as `principles' simply because we choose to acknowledge them as such.
The O.E.D. definition of 'principle' is a very strong one, 'a primary element, force, or law etc., and one might quote, as an example, the oft-repeated maxim, 'All men are equal in the sight of God'. This could well be a Masonic principle. In the Craft, however, the term has a more specialized significance. The Code of 'Basic Principles for Grand Lodge Recognition' illustrates this, e.g., No. 7: That the discussion of religion and politics within the Lodge shall be strictly prohibited. This item could very well have been a Rule in our Book of Constitutions. The Grand Lodge has made it one of the 'Basic Principles' of Free-masonry and this leads me to my summing up of the whole question.
`Tenets' are beliefs that we hold, even though they are beyond proof. They may be of our own invention, or inherited, but we do not question them because they are founded in our faith.
Question: Were the Pillars of Solomon's Temple made of brass or bronze? Answer: The Hebrew word which appears in connection with the story of the Temple Pillars in 1 Kings, Chap. 7, is 'nehoshet' and it is translated 'brass' in the Geneva Bible, and in the Authorized Version. Brass is an alloy consisting mainly of if not exclusively copper and zinc; in its older use the term was applied rather to alloys of copper and tin, now known as bronze. The brass of the Bible was probably bronze, and so also was much of the brass of later times, until the distinction between zinc and tin became clearly recognized. The use of bronze is believed to date back before 2000 B.C., in Egypt and the Near East, and it seems probable, therefore, that, despite the use of the word brass in the biblical account, the Pillars were made of bronze. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution
THE BACK PAGE The Masonic Fool The Fool is a card from the 22 Major Arcana found in a Tarot Deck. The history of the Tarot Cards dates back to the 15th century where they were found all around Europe and used for the playing of various games. It was not until the 18th century that the Tarot started to be used for divination. It was in the late 19th century that the deck most connected with Freemasonry and containing the most Masonic symbols arrived on the scene. Arthur Edward Waite, a Freemason and one of the creators of the Rider-Waite deck. It is also the tarot deck that most people are familiar with. In the deck, as an example of Masonic imagery, the High Priestess card which is second in the Major Arcana, is displayed with pillars on either side of her. The left one indicating the letter B and the right indicating the letter J. The Masonic reference is very clear to masons. At first glance the Fool card has no real noticeable Masonic connection. When you start to dig deeper though, the Masonic connections become somewhat clearer. In the Fool's hand he carries a white rose, a symbol of purity, much like a Master Mason's apron. It is also said that it is a symbol of freedom from baser desires. Perhaps a way of subduing his passions? Over his shoulder, the Fool carries his possessions. As it is depicted the bag is supposed to represent untapped collective knowledge. In other words, the Fool already carries the answers with him, he need only have the wisdom to look within. Most notably in the image, the Fool is about stroll over a cliff. Recently in a Masonic discussion this card was debated by several Brethren. There were some interesting thoughts that came out, about why the Fool was about to step of the cliff, as seen through a mason's eye. One of the thoughts that came from this discussion was the idea that the Fool was not actually stepping off into oblivion, he was actually taking a leap of faith. Although there was little motivation discussed as to why he was taking that leap, much of the group compared it with their entry into the Freemasonry. We come to the door of the lodge often with some level of a per-conceived notion; it is not until we enter the lodge, trusting in those around us (a leap of faith) that we are able to tap into the collective knowledge of the lodge and the fraternity. This is not to say a metaphysical connection, but a real tangible connection with the ideas of Freemasonry and the different view points of others into some of the hidden meanings contained within. In this sense it is a Masonic Fool, regardless of time or experience in the fraternity, who does not listen to the collective knowledge of those around him, who may see the symbols with a different take because of the varied experiences of his Masonic brothers. Until next month, Sourced from Today in Masonic History and adapted by SRA76. Keep the faith! 31 The Editor