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SRA 76

Volume 17 Issue 3 No. 133 March 2021

Monthly Magazine

Cover Story – Different Origins of English & Scottish Freemasonry Cover Story – The History of the Letter ‘G’ Our Duty to the New Mason Did You Know? The Plants and Animals of Freemasonry Lodge Fergusson St. James No. 566 Famous Freemason - André-Gustave Citroën The Old Past Master A Lodge at Work Masonic Ritual as an Educational Tool Who Was Jephthah? Did You Know? The Back Page – If

Main Website – The Apron and the Snake

In this Issue: Cover Story ‘The Different Origins of English and Scottish Freemasonry.’ This article looks at the origins of these constitutions, similar in many ways, but very different. Page 8, ‘The History of the Letter ‘G’. God or Geometry, or both? Page 10, ‘Our Duty to the New Mason’ Page 12, ‘Did You Know?’ Questions about the Craft. Page 14, ‘The Plants and Animals of Freemasonry’ Page 17, ‘Lodge Fergusson St. James No. 566. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 19, ‘André-Gustave Citroën’ Famous Freemason. Page 22, ‘The Old Past Master.’ “Work to Do”, Twentieth in the series. Page 24, ‘Reflections.’ A Lodge at Work Page 27, ‘Masonic Ritual as an Education Tool.’ Page 29, ‘Who was Jephthah?’ ”The renowned Gileadite general” Page 30, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 32, ‘The Back Page.’ If (a poem) In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘The Apron and the Snake’ [link] Front cover –A stock graphic of an entwined rose and thistle adapted by the editor for use here. 2


lodges, with their definite Craft traditions and practices, became transformed into the newer speculative bodies from which all our present Freemasonry descends. Scholars of the 'authentic school', such as Carr and here I quote the words of the present Librarian of the United Grand Lodge of England, 'found (in Scotland) undeniable evidence of the existence of lodges of operative stonemasons, lodges which were geographically defined units controlling the operative trade with the backing of statute law. They also traced undeniable evidence that these Scottish operative lodges began in the 17th century to admit non-operative members as accepted or gentlemen masons and that by the early 18th century in some lodges the accepted or gentlemen masons had gained the ascendancy: these lodges became in turn, speculative lodges, while others retained their purely operative nature.' (The Craft, p 18)

Before launching into the main substance of my subject I think it is only right to make clear that I would rightly be considered both foolish and dishonest were I thought to be claiming that this is to be the definitive and conclusive expression of opinion on this very important subject. I am making no such claim and indeed it would be impossible in a paper of this limited length to state all the evidence that could, or should, be produced to bring the matter to a satisfactory conclusion. All that I am seeking to do is to clear the pound of some possible misconceptions that have previously been regarded as the last word and re-stating some facts that may not have been fully appreciated in-the search for an adequate solution. By doing this I hope that we may begin to focus our attention on the remaining areas that need research and which may ultimately lead us to recognise fully the different origins Of English and Scottish Freemasonry.

Putting together all these facts, along with evidence that pointed to a 'Mason Word' and some known tokens of recognition. the case seemed made for a gradual transition from operative to speculative Freemasonry, at least in Scotland. Harry Carr died in the firn belief that this was the case and that what had transpired so clearly in lodges north of the border was no less the case in England His dissemination of that theory was so effective that many Masons still believe that the matter is settled once and for all. Sadly, despite great regard for Bro Carr, it has to be said that that theory is not the end of the story.

The very title of this lecture would, or course, have disappointed if not disturbed that doyen of all modem Masonic researchers, the late still-lamented Bro Harry Carr Meticulous in his studies as he was and vigorous, as well as entertaining, as he could be in his presentation of what he had discovered, the lasting conviction of his life, in this particular connection, was that Scotland and England were alike in their Masonic origins. For 600 years, he contended, we have evidence of how, slowly but steadily, the old operative stonemasons'

In 1988 a non-Masonic Scottish historian, David Stevenson, produced two books which were calculated to ripple Masonic waters. They were given very specific titles: one was called The Origins of Freemasonry, Scotland's century and the other The First 3

Freemasons. Stevenson was bound by historical evidence but was also unashamedly Scottish in outlook. Let us hear some of his own words:

Thus the freemasonry born in 17th century Scotland ... proved capable of being exported successfully. The development of Freemasonry in England in the 17th century is highly obscure, but the fragmentary evidence suggests that in the closing years of [that] century and the opening ones of the 18th it was transformed by an influx of Scottish influences, introducing for the first time permanent lodges, the degrees of entered apprentice and fellow craft/master, and the rituals of the Mason Word (though that term was little used in England). Thus many of the essentials of the freemasonry which developed so fast in early 18th century England derived from earlier Scottish freemasonry. English leadership of the movement was to develop and elaborate it in new ways (and indeed to give it the very name freemasonry). but to this day craft freemasonry bears clear evidence of its Scottish origins. (First Freemasons, p 11)

The legacy of the Medieval masons obviously contains much that is later found in freemasonry ... Yet (as most Masonic historians now readily accept) it would be misleading to claim that this was already freemasonry ... Moreover, there are major problems in linking this Medieval legacy directly to the emergence of freemasonry. The situation has [also] been unnecessarily complicated by two prevailing misconceptions. The first is the assumption that the emergence of freemasonry took place in England. a belief maintained in the face of the overwhelming preponderance of Scottish documentary evidence relating to the process, evidence which is often ... explained away ... and then used in an English context to make up for the lack of English evidence.

This was at least another well-reasoned and researched point of view and stated the position clearly. Before subjecting it to critical examination we must return to the other point Stevenson made regarding the nature of the Scottish Masonic development. It deals with events circa 1600.

The second misconception lies in assuming that freemasonry evolved gradually and steadily from the Medieval legacy in a supposedly continuous process. though this cannot be traced in the surviving evidence. (Finn Freemasons, p 3)

In 1583 a William Schaw was appointed Master of Works by King James VI of Scotland, supervising all building work undertaken for the Crown. In 1598 he was calling himself not just Master of Works but General Warden of all masons in Scotland and it is as such that he issued two codes of statutes in that year and the next. The effect of these statutes was immediate and significant. Not only did he affect the administration and control of each lodge but there is also a 'very strong case for arguing that he was doing much more, reviving and developing Medieval masonic mythology and rituals in a Renaissance atmosphere. But

It can thus be seen that already there are rifts in the 'authentic' theory and the idea that there was a steady 600 years of transition from operative to speculative Freemasonry can no longer be maintained. Yet despite the significant difference in view between Stevenson and Carr about the manner of development—and we must return shortly to that issue—there was one ground on which they both stood firm. What took place in Scotland was relevant to the process in England. Stevenson, however, was much more downright. He continues: 4

naturally this secret and esoteric side of his work was not committed to writing in his Statutes.' (First Freemasons, p 4)

example, the fact that the word 'Freemasonry' itself was of English derivation and that Scotland never had any Ancient Charges—it still supports the persisting view that England's Masonic origins were really derived from Scotland.

It was within months of the appearance of the first of these Statutes that we have the very minutes of Aitchison's Haven and Edinburgh Mary's Chapel which. were lodges of this new type. In 1600/1 Schaw also signed the first St Clair Charter which meant that William Sinclair of Roslin was acknowledged as the patron of all Scottish masons, a position re-affirmed in 1627/8 for Sinclair's son. Though that claim was questioned, and not asserted, in the latter part of the 17th century, it is worth noting that when Scotland's Masons filially agreed in 1736 to have a Gland Lodge like England, the first Grand Master chosen was a Sinclair of Roslin. (Roslyn, you surely do not need me to remind you, is the site of a chapel with a legendary Apprentice's Pillar.)

There are of course certain items of circumstantial evidence that seem to point to the same conclusion. The first record of a Masonic initiation in England is that of two Scottish generals at Newcastle in 1641, even though that ceremony was carried out by the Lodge of Edinburgh. One of the most often quoted examples of early Masonic catechism is that of the Edinburgh Register House Manuscript at the end of the century, whilst two of the earliest lodges recorded in England were operative ones in Alnwick, in the Borders, and Swalwell, on Tyneside. Again, the person considered most suitable for compiling a Masonic history and the appropriate Regulations for the new English Grand Lodge was a Scots divine who had belonged to an Aberdeen lodge, whilst we know that when Dr Desaguliers was engaged on a scientific visit to Edinburgh in the 1720s he had no apparent difficulty in either proving himself a Brother Mason or taking part in their ceremonies. Similarity of origin seems still more likely.

To sum up the Stevenson case: Whilst there was a residue or memory of medieval masonic lore and practices it was only with the 17th century that Scottish Freemasonry began to acquire a shape and tradition that would emerge a century later as the beginnings of speculative Craft practice. With the withdrawal of the guiding hand of William Schaw it is not surprising that some variety in lodge customs should have developed and yet, there is a noticeable similarity in essentials, despite the fact that there was no central governing body, and lodges were often fiercely and locally independent. Looking at the surviving sources it would appear that the Freemasonry which was emerging in England by the end of the 17th century was overwhelmingly Scottish in character.

Yet even when all this has been said and we acknowledge the comparative paucity of 17th-century English source material, there still remain some unanswered questions. The first one has to be this. Why, if the English Craft really derived from a Scottish initiative, was there in England this very persistent phenomenon of the Masonic Ancient Charges from at least the late 14th up to the 18th century when nothing of the kind appears in Scotland? Why, moreover, does any English Freemasonry of the 17th century suddenly appear as if it had come

That is a well-reasoned and apparently proven thesis but whilst it makes some allowance for English differences—for 5

from nowhere, with no obvious operative connections, with a preponderance of genteel, professional or trade members, and meeting in what are recognisable lodges? How can this apparently ad hoc attachment to a movement called Freemasonry be recognised by such a non-Masonic commentator as Dr Plot as an organisation that appears to spread across the nation?

and, cautious as he was in preserving his dual crown, he knew that little love was lost between his separate subjects. Charles I was inept in his treatment of his Scottish subjects and the Civil War in England did little to endear the two nations, despite some Protestant similarities. It is in this fraught context that we have to put the initiation of Moray at Newcastle and recognise that whatever the Scots might do m such a case was unlikely to be accepted automatically as a guide by English brethren. The restoration of episcopacy and even pro-Romanism under the Stuart Restoration did nothing to improve national relations, whilst the dispatch of the Stuart line from 1688 started a fear of Scottish reaction which was to last until the middle of the next century. To pretend, along with appallingly bad roads, that communication with Scotland was constant and influential is to misunderstand the circumstances of the time. In the 18th century anything beyond York was thought of as `Northern Britain' and that included the whole of Scotland. It was not until a Union of the two countries was imminent, or created, that real interchange of ideas and culture was developed. Desaguliers' visit to Edinburgh makes the point, whilst Dr Johnson's visit with Boswell was to cement it.

What, moreover, are we to make of even Dr Stevenson's admission that 'whereas freemasonry began in Scotland with the foundation of lodges around 1600, m England it began with individual initiates, sometimes deriving their ritual and secrets from English operative masons'? Where did that information come from? What do we make of his thither statement that 'whereas most Scottish lodges long retained close links with working stonemasons, who usually indeed still formed a majority of members ... the English lodges were founded by gentlemen enthusiasts who felt little or no need to seek legitimacy by developing links with "leg" stonemasons.'? (First Freemasons, p 160) It is when we make an attempt to grapple with these remaining, and yet essential, questions that we can perhaps begin to discern some of the features that suggest a different origin for Freemasonry in England as compared with Scotland. That Scotland's experience and understanding in these matters did have some influence on how English Freemasons conceived the Craft may be admitted. Interestingly, even Stevenson admits that this was at the end of the 17th century and not at its beginning. There is clearly no time or space in this presentation to reflect adequately on the attitude of Englishmen to the Scots from the time of Mary, Queen of Scots, to the later Stuarts. Even James VI of the Northern Kingdom had to become James I of England

What we have to face up to is the point well made by John Hamill in his book The Craft. Speaking of the ‘authentic school’ of researchers like Harry Carr, he says: `Above all they overlooked, or ignored, the fact that non-operative masonry was developing in England when the Scottish operative lodges began to accept non-operatives. If the Scottish operative lodges formed the medium of transition, how could purely nonoperative masonry already have existed in England?' (The Craft, p 19) 6

Perhaps the most significant difference to be noted as between early English and Scottish Freemasonry is that whilst it is clear that there were continuing and established operative lodges in Scotland, the 17th century saw the emergence in England of ad hoc or temporary lodges which met only for as long as their occasion for meeting existed.

Radicals and Conservatives, Royalists and Parliamentarians, landed gentry and men of business. In the midst of all this religious and political controversy there were those who yet longed for a `place of repose' (Plot's `meeting on the moors'?). where honest men could meet their counterparts even from opposing camps.

Once we accept that this is a major point of difference then we can begin to account for several pieces of evidence in 17th-century England that seem otherwise disconnected and confusing. We can appreciate why there are disparate dates for Freemasons visiting and existing in York. We can appreciate why Ash mole speaks of attending a lodge at Warrington which seems to be a `one-of occasion. We have evidence of a lodge in Chester though it does not meet regularly. We have the `Acception' lodge connected with the Company of Masons in London which also met irregularly. We might even begin to wonder whether it was precisely because they wanted to meet more regularly to develop their `system' that led the four pre-1717 lodges in London to ask for a Grand Lodge, when in York already it seems that Freemasons there had begun to consider a Grand Lodge of All England. Whether or not it was the fact that Scottish lodges did so meet that led to this development is still a matter for speculation. What is clear is that the development of Freemasonry thus far south. of the border had followed a different path to that north of it.

Francis Bacon was but one protagonist of this sort and the fact that he produced the ideal of Solomon's Temple must have suggested the kind of concept that others could build on. Freemasonry m England would hope to create just that kind of neutral meeting round which the Royal Society later enjoyed. That kind of social melee did not exist in contemporary Scotland. Secondly, even Dr Stevenson mentions that at this period `men hoped to unlock the mysteries of the distant past. But the search was not simply historical and scientific: in its essence it was a spiritual quest, and so purification and spiritual enlightenment were essential to success ; (First Freemasons, p 6) The effects of the Renaissance were also beginning to be felt in England and the emergence of new groups of landed gentry free to read, travel, and study, alongside even better-educated tradesmen and persons in the professions, caused circles of study and enquiry to be formed in which just such `searches of the past' could be pursued. We even have the evidence of one letter from an émigré German scholar who tells his gentlemen friends that they would do well to sit at the side, or even the feet, of some of their employed craftsmen and acquire their skill and their secrets. The seven liberal arts were being rediscovered. Do we perhaps need to learn much more than we already know about the `circles' in such houses as those of the Percys, the Herberts, the Cecils and the Sackvilles, to mention but a handful. Have

There are three other factors that have yet to be still more fully researched before we can come to any more conclusive judgement. The first reflects the tortured nature of English society throughout the 17th century. It was not just that there were conflicts between Englishmen and Scots. There were bitter feuds between Protestants and Catholics, Anglicans and Presbyterians, 7

we really exhausted what their family records could tell us? Or what about the diaries of the `city fathers'? Were there more occasional lodges than we have so far uncovered?

more useful construction work to be done. What at least seems much more acceptable today is the affirmation that the origins of Scottish and English Freemasonry were different. Exactly how different is the subject for more papers

Thirdly, we need to recognise that there may still be an untouched source in late 17thcentury England. The present received wisdom is that there are no such records to be uncovered and yet in 1911 the United Grand Lodge of England is on record as stating that undoubtedly part of the working accepted by the premier Grand Lodge was taken from existing operative practices. Did that mean Scottish operative working, through Dr Anderson, or was it an English source as well, or alone? Recent work of my own suggests that there was some kind of residual operative organisation leading to at least the lodges that appeared in York and Hull in the 18th century. We know of the operative influences between Teeside and the Border and we know something else. There is the fact that whilst it is true that the lodges that met in Wallington and Chester were made up largely of non-operatives, there were operatives in them. This does not mean that English `lodges' derived from operative ones but it does lend credence to the idea that an operative member or two could assist these gentlemen or traders in the right formation of the gathering which they were creating, for whatever occasional purpose. Even if these were new kinds of Masonic lodges they had to have some obvious connection with past or present lodge practice, otherwise why call them `lodges' and how could they be recognised as such?

Source – Did You Know This Too? Book by Neville Cryer


The “Letter G” is one of those Masonic symbols that is centuries old within the craft. The purpose of this article is not to prove where the symbol originated but to show how the meaning of the “Letter G” came to be the modern meaning. There is no wrong or right answer. The reader is left to interpret his own meaning. The commonly held belief is the “G” stands for “God” and “Geometry”. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras was the first to uphold geometry as a science, built his whole philosophy on numbers. He said “All things are in numbers” and “the world is a living arithmetic in its development – a realized geometry in its repose.” Of a like mind was the Greek philosopher Plato. When asked

I said at the outset that this would not be a definitive paper. By the very nature of our still limited knowledge it cannot be other than an investigation. What I hope I have done is to clear the ground still further for 8

how does God spend his time, Plato responded “God is always geometrizing [sic].” “Geometry rightly treated is the knowledge of the eternal.” “Geometry must ever tend to draw the soul towards truth.”

occurred if the original Hebrew symbol had been retained. But being there now, without the possibility of removal, we have only to remember that it is in fact but the symbol of a symbol.”

Brother Hextall points out that in every one of the hundred or more copies of old charges, or old constitutions, Geometry is placed first among sciences. Operative Masonry is nothing more than applied geometry. The ancient builder had no architectural handbook, blue prints or tables of construction. The operative mason’s only secret was his knowledge of geometric processes and how to apply them. It was natural he would hold his science in high regard.

Another issue that comes up over and over is the relationship between the Blazing Star and the Letter G. The Blazing Star appears throughout the 18th and 19th centuries and always in the centre of the lodge-room. Lodge clothes and tracing boards were always meant to be looked down upon on the floor and not hung on easels like we do now. Some of the earlier English drawings have the Letter G and Blazing Star separate. Gradually over time the two symbols were incorporated into one where “G” took on the meaning of God. This newly created symbol happened towards the end of the 18th century. Prior to this date, the Letter G in English ritual stood for “glory, grandeur and geometry.” Remember, the 18th century was a time of great changes in Freemasonry. Around 1730 in England there was a change from the two-degree ritual to the threedegree ritual. To make the three-degree system, the first degree, which was based on the two pillars of King Solomon’s Temple, was basically split into two degrees. The Fellow Craft degree, which was based on the five points of fellowship, became the third degree and the Legend of Hiram Abiff was added.

How did the “Letter G” come to stand for Deity is impossible to answer with any certainty because available evidence is almost non-existent. Freemason scholars believe that when Freemasonry became stagnant in the 17th century and few lodges remained, Masonry slowly converted from operative to speculative. A commonly held belief is that those new speculative Masons were well versed in the Kabbala. The symbolic system of the Kabbala centres around the Divine Name. According to Ancient Jewish traditions, Moses was given the real name of God for the Jewish people by the Almighty at the burning bush. The Ineffable Name, or Tetragrammaton is characterized by an equilateral triangle with the Jewish Yod symbol of God in the middle. In time “Yod” would be anglicized by modern innovators to the “Letter G.” Masonic scholar Albert Mackey states that “in my opinion, the Letter G, which is used in the Fellow Craft Degree, should never have been permitted to intrude into Masonry; it presents an instance of absurd anachronism, which would never have

As you can see, “The Letter G” has undergone many changes over the centuries. As a symbol of geometry it brings us back to the childhood of knowledge. As a symbol of Freemasonry it brings us closer to God, the Great Architect of the Universe, from the youngest Entered Apprentice, who sits in the North East corner of the lodge, to the Worshipful Master, who presides in the East. This article was sourced from Rhode Island Freemason Magazine by Brother, Roy Pruett, P.M.


more relaxed asking questions of a single advisor.


Here is a series of steps that might be followed. They need not all be carried out one after another; some might go on at the same time. This would help to whet the appetite of the new Mason, and it might involve some of your members who are looking for things to do. Step One: The new M.M. has already had his first move pointed out to him. The W.M., in giving him his copies of the Book of Constitution and the By-laws of his lodge, has recommended both to his most serious perusal and contemplation, as by the one he will be taught the duties he owes to the Craft in general and by the other those he owes to his Lodge in particular. As usual the Ritual is right, although probably the recommendation ought to be replaced by a directive. The By-laws should present little problem; usually they are brief, and he will see them in action at regular meetings and hear them freely discussed at the Committee. The Constitution may seem a little formidable, but some parts of it do not concern him immediately.

When he is made a Mason the Newly Initiated Candidate is exhorted to make a daily advancement in Masonic knowledge; this general theme is developed further in the F.C. degree. Thus it is only natural that the more earnest new brother, immediately after he is raised, should approach some grey haired ancient with the query, "How do I go about it?" Of course we all try to answer sincerely and helpfully, if we are asked. But all too often, I'm afraid, we don't "follow up," to make sure that our brother is getting what he wants. What if he's too shy to ask? What if his sponsors don't know the answers? What if they don't attend lodge too frequently? Wouldn't it be better to name a small committee of experienced brethren to look after the new Mason? Perhaps they would work best one-to-one. Or you might find that two candidates together would feel

Step Two: Help him to make proper use of the E.A. and F.C. copies of The Work. It is not enough to hand them to him and send him off to learn his stuff. He needs an enthusiastic Mason to sit down with him, talk things over and explain the abbreviations. Step Three: The booklets prepared by Grand Lodge are to be given to every new Mason after each degree. They are rather good, and not very expensive. They explain a bit about the work of each degree and serve as an elementary course in Masonry. Here again you need an interested brother to talk to him. 10

Step Four: After the candidate has proved his proficiency in the M.M. degree, he will be eligible to ask the lodge secretary to get him a copy of The Ritual. As he reads it he will no doubt come across words that are unfamiliar to him, so he should have a dictionary handy. Every word that he doesn't understand should be looked up at once; if he puts it off until later he won't do it at all.

There are also a number of books that can be recommended to the new Brother depending on the Constitution of his Grand Lodge. However, the warning to be heeded here is to remember the new mason has a lot to take in at this point, and there is no use in trying to flood his mind with too much at this stage. Nice and easy does it. Step Nine: Finally, help our young brother should expand his own library, again there are many sources, especially now on the internet and are readily available. Most constitutions have a Masonic Magazine available to buy, which are full of articles and interesting pieces, There are also old publications available free online each one of which is an education in itself, the list these days is endless and easy to access.

At this stage it is not necessary for him to learn more of the ritual than he already has done (unless a piece of has been assigned to him). It is essential that he understand the ritual. Step Five: He will doubtless be struck by the Biblical references in the ritual, and at this point a little judicious prompting on the part of his mentor may make him direct his researches into the Books of Genesis, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles and Ecclesiastes. What better base could be selected for the early stages of an education?

These are the steps. Don't try to hurry the new brother through them. Just take him as he is. We are all individuals, differing in interests, backgrounds, capabilities, and we will all progress at different speeds. Let him absorb as much as he can at his own rate. Challenge him, but don't overwhelm him. The new Mason is full of enthusiasm. Don't ask yourself, Can we afford time to develop a programme to meet his needs? or does my lodge have enough dedicated brethren to interact with him? These are the wrong questions. We should be asking, dare we do less than our utmost to harness his enthusiasm?

Step Six: When you assign a piece of ritual to him, he needs guidance and tutoring in how to memorize it and deliver it. It's a frightening experience the first time you "perform" in lodge, and no new brother should be forced to do it until he's had a chance to try it out on his mentors. Step Seven: You must teach the new member how to prove he is a Mason if there is no one to vouch for him. At some stage he will have to undergo a Board of Trial, and it will be less intimidating if he has some idea what to expect.

Adapted from an article in the British Columbia Masonic Bulletin for October 1977.

Step Eight: The student may now be said to have a fair amount of Masonic awareness, and he is ready to read some books. In our Scottish Constitution each new Mason is given a copy of Grand Lodge of Scotland Year Book, which has lots of reading in it. 11

Being ‘booked’ in the Town records at the beginning of apprenticeship. This was not a ceremony, only a registration.


Admission into the Lodge as ‘entered’ apprentice, about 2-3 years later.

Question: Is the second degree a spin-off from the first? When did it start; when is the first reference to it?

Admission as ‘fellow of craft’ in the Lodge, about 7 years later still, in the presence of the ‘masters’ of the Lodge.

Answer: The question is much more complicated than it appears to be. In England the Old Charges, beginning in c. 1390, are the earliest documents giving brief outline of the admission ceremony into a lodge. Until c.1650, all of them indicate the existence of only one ceremony, one degree. In the 1400s we have many legal decisions showing that in those days and apprentice was chattel of his master, and his services could be bought and sold in the same way as the master might buy and sell a horse or a cow. Because of these lawsuit decisions, I am convinced that in the days when there was only one degree, it cannot have been for the apprentice; it must have been for the fully trained mason, the fellow of the craft‘.

Becoming a Freeman Burgess of Edinburgh which, on payment of certain fees to the Town, entitled the F.C. to set up as a Master. The Freedom was usually acquired by apprenticeship, or heirship as the son of a Freeman, or by marriage to the daughter of a Freeman, with graded fees for each method. Thus the ‘fellow crafts’ in the Lodge acquired the status of Master. They did not take a third degree; the third degree system arose much later. The Edinburgh Burgess Rolls show that masons usually acquired the status of Freeman-Burgess, i.e. Master, within a year or two after they had been passed F.C. in the Lodge, so that the majority of them achieved all four stages, from Booking to Master in eleven or twelve years.

Please note that there is no evidence of secret modes of recognition until c. 1650 (though they probably existed in the mid1500s) and we have no details of the actual contents of any ceremonies until 1696.

The minutes show that the Lodge‘s membership was composed of E.A.‘s, F.C.‘s, and Masters, but the Lodge only conferred two degrees, E.A. and F.C. Within the Lodge Masters and Fellow-crafts were more-or-less equal, both fully-trained men. Outside the Lodge, the masters were employers and the F.C.‘s were employees; this was perhaps the main reason for the later evolution of the three degree system.

In the early 1500s, a series of Statutes of Labourers begin to recognize the status of apprentices in the mason trade. We have no English Lodge minutes in the 1500s, but in 1598 and 1599 we have the beginnings of two sets of Scottish Lodge minutes (the Lodge at Aitchison‘s Haven and the Lodge of Edinburgh, respectively) showing the existence of two degrees, ‘entered apprentice‘ and ‘fellow of craft‘.

So much for the background. When our earliest ritual documents begin to appear, in 1696, they describe the operative masons‘ system of two degrees, still in use at that time, the first for the E.A., and the second for the ‘master mason or fellow craft’. The E.A. ceremony of those days was a brief affair. After a certain amount of horseplay

The Lodge and Town records of Edinburgh are specially valuable, when they are examined together, they reveal that there were four stages in the trade career of a mason in those days: 12

‘to frighten him’, the candidate recited the obligation. Then he was taken out of the Lodge by ‗the youngest mason‘ (i.e. the last previous candidate). Outside, he was taught the sign, posture, and ‘words of his entry’, a kind of greeting to the Brethren which ended with the sign. Then the ‘youngest mason’ whispered ‘the word’ into the ear of his neighbour, and so on all around the Lodge, until it reached the Master, who gave it to the new E.A.

original E.A. degree. After the split it required much new material, i.e. the letter G, the Winding Stairs and the Middle Chamber. (2) The two-degree system ‘probably’ began in the early 1500s. The earliest record of the E.A. degree in the two-degree system in actual Lodge Minutes (at Atchison‘s Haven, Scotland) was on 9, January 1598, when: … Alexander Cubie was enterit prenteis to George Aytone… The first recorded conferment of the F.C. degree in the twodegree system was in the same lodge on the same day: …Robert Widderspone was made fellow of Craft in yet presens of (Eight names) all fellowis of Craft…and also ye said Robert hes payit his XXsh (illings) and his gluffis (gloves) to everie Maister.

The ceremony ended with a catechism of fifteen or sixteen questions and answers, and there was kind of a biblical footnote indicating that the E.A. degree of those days was concerned with two pillars of King Solomon‘s Temple. The second degree, for ‘master or fellow craft’ followed a similar pattern, but there was no horseplay. After the Obligation, the candidate went out of the Lodge with the ‘youngest master’ and learned the sign, posture and ‘words of entry’. He came back, made the ‘master sign’ (not described), gave the greeting and was entrusted with the ‘word’, which is not mentioned in the text. Two test questions and that was all. Without going into details, it may be helpful to add that one of the characteristics of the second degree of those days was a procedure which is described in texts as ‘five points of fellowship’.

(3) The earliest record of a third degree is in the minutes of a London Musical society (in which all the members were Masons) on 12 May 1725; but this was not a lodge and therefore highly irregular. The earliest date of a wholly regular third degree is in the minutes of Lodge Dumbarton Kilwinning, now No. 18 on the Roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Gabriel Porterfield who appeared in the January meeting as a Fellow Craft, was unanimously admitted and received a master of the Fraternity and renewed his oath and gave his entry money. At the foundation meeting of this Lodge in January 1726, Porterfield was recorded as a Fellowcraft. Two months later he ‘renewed his oath’, i.e. took another ceremony, ‘and gave his entry money’, i.e. he paid for it, and there is no doubt that this was his third degree.

We do not know the precise date when the three-degree system came into use; documentary evidence suggests that it may have been some time between 1711 and 1725. That system was achieved by a splitting of the original E.A. ceremony into two separate degrees, thus promoting the original ‘points of fellowship’ ceremony into 3rd place.

The evolution of our modern ritual and degrees is a fascinating study.

Now, in answer to your questions:

The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.

(1) Yes, you might call the second degree a ‘spin-off’, but it is actually a part of the 13

Eagle', when discussing the antiquity or a Freemason's badge. This derivation comes from the emblem carried by the early kings of Rome – an ivory sceptre surmounted by an eagle. This was later incorporated into the banner of the legions of the Roman Empire.

The Plants and Animals of Freemasonry

The Golden Fleece of classical mythology was the skin of a wondrous ram, guarded by a sleepless dragon. Jason and his Argonauts went after this prize. The journey was long and perilous but the dauntless heroes persevered and, after a series of adventures, eventually reached their journey's end to win the ultimate prize of their age. This timeless legend, which can be read as an allegory of life, contrasts vividly with the relatively modern Order of the Golden Fleece which was created by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy in 1429, at the time when he was ruling the Netherlands. In 1504 the Spanish Hapsburgs took over the country and the Order. In 1713, however it was newly instituted as an Austrian honour.

There are many reasons why a lodge has a particular name.

The Dove and Olive Branch.

Many inns or taverns have borne and still bear names which are wholly or partially those of plants and animals. Three of our founding lodges in 1717 were meeting at such houses in London: the 'Goose and Gridiron', the 'Apple-Tree' and the 'Rummer and Grapes'.

Of all fauna and flora related to a Craft lodge the dove and its olive branch are probably the most commonly seen. With few exceptions this is the emblem of the Deacons. It is when they are invested with their collars and jewels that 'the dove bearing an olive branch' has its only place in the ritual. The same emblem appears on top of a Deacon's wand.

It would take too much time and space to list the present-day lodges which have either inherited from such sources or have chosen for themselves a name associated with a plant or an animal. Some are: Oak, Walnut Tree, Arboretum on the one hand; Beehive, Lion, Swan on the other, these are but instances.

The symbolism originates from Holy Scripture, where we read that a dove was released from the Ark by Noah, but ; 'found no rest for the sole of her foot and she returned; the second time she came back and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off', while the third time she 'returned not again unto him.' (Genesis 8:8-12).

Roman Eagle and Golden Fleece. It should not be forgotten that an eagle is mentioned in Craft ritual, albeit the 'Roman 14

In this way, the dove and its olive branch carry the dual symbolism of the messenger (from the dove) as well as purity, peace and innocence (from the olive branch).

There are many aspects to the symbolism of acacia and, with other plants, e.g., rosemary, box, myrtle and willow, it reflects a belief in resurrection. Phoenix Lodge of Honour and Prudence, in its unique ritual, refers to acacia as signifying innocence or freedom from sin. It appears to bloom and flourish in its place as if to say: 'O, Death, where is thy sting? O, Grave where is thy victory?' and it thereby symbolizes immortality.

The fruit of the olive tree is also connected with masonic ritual in that its oil was used to pay certain of the workmen employed in the construction of King Solomon's Temple. It is also used in the Consecration of a new lodge, as the symbol of peace and unity.

A Necessity of Life The Acacia Corn, with wine and oil, was a weekly wage for some of the workmen at King Solomon's Temple. In the Holy Land it would have been more likely that the grain was sorghum or millet (Sorghum vulgare or Panicum miliacemn) but a wide range of cereals was grown.

There is a good deal of confusion over the shrub associated with the discovery of Hiram's grave but it is most probable that it would have been cassia and not acacia. The cassia plant (one species is Cassia acutifolio) was introduced into Europe in the early eighteenth century at the time when the ritual was developing. Samuel Prichard's Masonry Dissected (1730) and Anderson's 1738 Constitutions both mention cassia rather than acacia in relation to the grave. On the other hand the available French sources indicate that they had already settled for 'a thorny branch called acacia'. We cannot be precise as to when the change began but at the Union of 1813 it was settled that acacia should be the word for ritual use and, eventually, cassia was seen no more.

'An ear of corn near to a fall of water' is the interpretation of the test-word used by the troops of Jephthah to distinguish the Ephraimites after the battle on the banks of the River Jordan. The Hebrew words (Sihlet-Shabioth) used to distinguish friend from foe have two meanings: 'a flood of water' (not a 'hill') and 'an ear of corn'. Corn is used in the ceremony of consecrating a new lodge as an emblem of plenty. Under the Netherlandic Constitution a sheaf of corn stands in the lodge and seeds of the grain are cast for a different reason; as the ripe corn proves the germinal force of the sown seed so, in the same way, the life of a Master Mason should bear witness to the strength of the supreme principle which he is upholding.

It is worth mentioning that Acacia scyal is the Shittah (plural Shittim) of Exodus 25:10, the wood from which the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle were constructed. To some the Cassia is 'the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil' and 'the Tree of the Serpent'. The Egyptians revered the acacia and used it to make funeral wreaths. Legend connects it, with other plants, to the wood of the cross of Christ, his crown of thorns and the burning bush.

Enriched with—Lilywork Pomegranates


Both lilywork and pomegranates are named in the Bible in descriptions of the pillars outside the Temple (I Kings: 7 and 2 15

Chronicles: 3). The pomegranate (Punica granatlim) was widely grown in the Middle East in those days and it does indeed produce a large number of seeds. There are several references in the Bible and perhaps most interestingly is one in the Old Testament (Exodus 28:33). Here the robes of the ephod (of Aaron and other priests) were of blue and 'upon the hem of it thou should make pomegranates of blue, and of purple and of scarlet.

In a masonic pamphlet written about 1725 and often attributed to Jonathan Swift, bees and a beehive are discussed. By the seventeenth century brethren they were considered an emblem of industry recommending the practice of that virtue to all created things from the highest seraph in Heaven to the lowest reptile in the dust.' The beehive was regularly seen as a masonic symbol from the middle of the eighteenth century onwards, on tracing boards, certificates, jewels, glass and pottery. The Lodge of Emulation (now No.21) adopted it as its emblem more than two centuries ago and still uses it. But, at the Union of 1813, it was one of several symbols (others were the hourglass, the scythe and the ark) which were abandoned. It remains, however, as an emblem in Scottish Craft Freemasonry and many American rituals preserve explanations that had at one time been current in England.

The most likely flower adopted for the lilywork is the Egyptian Lotus. This was a sacred plant among Egyptians which they used to symbolize the River Nile, the giver of life (because their livelihood depended on its annual flooding). It is a water-lily, Nyniphaca lotus, with pink flowers that fade to white. Pomegranates and the lotus were commonly used (together) in Egyptian architectural designs and this style spread to the surrounding nations.

Conclusion It has been suggested that King Solomon's Temple was based on Phoenician designs for these, in turn, had been derived from the Egyptian pattern. Hiram Abif, the superintendent of casting, was a Phoenician through his father's marriage to an Israelite. It is therefore likely that the lilywork and pomegranates stemmed from Egypt. The white colour of the lilies, however, was probably introduced to reflect the white of religious tradition. White lily-work denoting peace seems to be a purely masonic idea.

The genuine symbols of our masonic Craft are there for all to see. It is often a good thing for each brother to contemplate them and, having done so, to work out his own interpretations and this I have to some extent practised for myself. We all, of course, learn much from the ritual explanations and can if we so desire turn to the writings of those who have made a particular study of symbolism. My own experience, as I have committed myself to paper, is that our symbols, in providing visual reminders of the lessons learned in lodge, enable a Freemason to carry those lessons into and so enrich his daily life.

Industry in the Lodge The jewel of the Secretary is two pens in saltire tied by a ribbon. The pens are quills, i.e., made from the primary wing feathers of a bird. There is probably no deep meaning to be abstracted from this other than to remind us that the Secretary uses a pen for recording the work of his lodge.

Article by By Bro. Nigel D. Brown Bro. Brown wrote a paper for Quatuor Coronati Lodge 2076 printed in Vol. 104, 1991 Transactions. This article is extracted from the Short Talk Bulletin longer article. The Bees and acacia graphic was adapted for use with the article by the Editor of SRA76.


Lodge Fergusson St. James No. 566

Bro Gilbert Wilson passed to the Grand Lodge above in July 1905. At the time of his death he was in his 24th year as RWM. He was laid to rest with full Masonic Honours and as well as Freemasons, family and friends his funeral was attended by several other Organisations, County and Parish Councillors, Members of School Board and Council Employees. Lodge Meetings had been in Local Inns until 1921 when the Lodge bought the Hall in the Back Road. Five years later a fire destroyed the building. The temple was rebuilt and formally opened by Sir Charles Fergusson. The Temple was consecrated on the 23rd August 1930 by PGM Bro Sir Aylmer Hunter Weston (a lifelong and very dear friend of Sir Charles Fergusson) assisted by Provincial Grand Lodge Office Bearers. The Temple is in use to this present day.

On the 18th December 1873 brethren from in and around the Parish of Dailly met in the Greenhead Hotel to discuss means of raising funds in order to establish a Masonic Lodge. They continued to meet every other Saturday night, and on the 9th September 1874, having raised the sum of £26/13/6d felt that they were now in a position to petition Grand Lodge for a charter. The petition was drawn up in accordance with Grand Lodge Laws and Bro James Lambie, a Past Master of Lodge Royal Arch Maybole No 198 went to Edinburgh and presented it to Grand Secretary. The charter was granted and was dated 5th February 1875 and under the title Lodge Fergusson Saint James Dailly No 566.

In the early years it was not uncommon for more than one degree to be worked on the same night. On occasion candidates were initiated, passed and raised at the same meeting. It was even known to have two meetings on the same night. The minutes for the 25th January 1902 record that the Lodge was opened at 5.30pm and the MMM Degree was conferred on six candidates. The Lodge was then closed. At 7.30pm the Lodge was opened in the EA Degree and the minutes of the earlier Meeting was read and approved. The Lodge was passed and raised and the MM Degree was conferred on one candidate. The Lodge was reduced and the FC Degree was conferred on another candidate.

The first meeting was held in the Greenhill Hotel on the 8th April 1875. On the 18th June 1877 saw the joint consecration of Fergusson St James No 566 and Lodge Bonnie Doon Patna No 565 in the Lodge room at Dailly. Sir James Fergusson installed the Office Bearers of both Lodges into their respective offices.

In the latter part of the 19th century and into the beginning of the 20th the Lodge was regularly taking part in the ceremony of laying of foundation stones, mostly in and around Maybole, Dailly and Girvan. 17

The foundation stone of the new Church Hall in Dailly was laid by RWM Bro Gilbert Wilson

Ceremony on the 31st January 1975 was carried out by MWGMM Bro Captain Wolridge Gordon and his Deputation from the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The reading and Three fold Blessing was carried out by Bro Rev R Stuart Loudon, Grand Chaplain and a Master Mason of 566.

The Lodge books, Minute Books, Treasurers books, Roll books and sederunts etc are all of great interest. The Treasurers books clearly demonstrate the Lodges attitude towards the basic principle of benevolence. There are many examples of payments being made to poor and distressed brethren, to families of brethren, widows and to various Masonic and Non Masonic Charities. One notable example was a £10 donation made to the PGL Special War Fund in 1914. At the time the donation was more that a quarter of the Lodges entire funds. The following year the names of eleven brethren who were serving with the Armed Forces were read out, three of whom were later to make the supreme sacrifice.

The year of the 125th Celebration the Brethren of the Lodge had much to be thankful to the brethren who preceded them. They remembered with gratitude their services and labours for the Lodge. We at 566 are proud of our heritage and traditions and look forward with hope and desire. There will be a succession of opportunities for the illustration and practice of high ideals, principles and tenets of our craft, for the pursuit of pure and unselfish aims, the relief of the distressed and needy and the maintenance and furtherance of our own fraternal relations.

The New Temple was formally opened on the 4th September 1930 by Sir Charles Fergusson who had recently returned from New Zealand. At the opening he presented the Lodge with gifts from Lodges in New Zealand, including Wardens Columns, a set of gavels, a framed photograph and a set of working tools which are still used to this day at Installation Meetings.

Let the example of our predecessors be transmitted pure and unsullied to further generations who will in time enjoy the same fellowship in their time as we are privileged to enjoy in ours. Above is from a History of the Lodge prepared by Bro John McMaster PM for the 125th Anniversary. (Pic of the Lodge below)

Apart from a three year period during the Second war when the building was taken over by the War Department for billeting purposes "The Back Road" has been the home of Fergusson St James No 566. The Jubilee and Centenary Celebrations were important watersheds in the Lodges History. The 50th Anniversary Meeting was attended by three Brethren who had been members of the Lodge since its inception including Bro John McCutcheon, the Lodges first ever candidate, having been proposed and initiated at the first meeting on the 8th April 1875. The Centenary Re - Dedication

This History of Lodge Fergusson St. James 566 was sourced from the Lodge Website. Please visit their excellent website at this link; here.


Famous Freemasons

André was an excellent student at school, and graduated from the Lycée Louis le Grand in 1894, however it is reputed that André was inspired by the works of Jules Verne and as a young man watching the Eiffel Tower being constructed for the World Exhibition that made him want to become an engineer and not an academic.

André-Gustave Citroën

After joining the army in the engineering division, and in 1900 Citroën graduated from the École Polytechnique in Paris. His mother had recently died and he decided to travel to Poland to visit relatives of his mother. It was during this trip he saw a carpenter working on a set of gears with a fishbone structure for driving water-driven machinery. He noticed that the gears were less noisy and more efficient, and André realised the potential of this gear arrangement if the gears could be made out of steel, and bought the patent for the gears from the man. This discovery in Poland would lead to the invention that Citroën is famous for throughout the world, the double helical gear, also reputed to be the inspiration of the double chevron logo of the Citroën brand.

André-Gustave Citroën was a French industrialist and engineer. Considered to be the Henry Ford of France, André-Gustav Citroën revolutionised the French motor vehicle industry in the early years of the 20th century. Citroën was born on February 5th, 1878 in Paris, France. The family name comes from Citroën's grandfather who had been a greengrocer and had adopted the name Limoenman which means "lime man. “Citroen’s father preferred the name Citroen which was Dutch for "lemon." He was the fifth child of Jewish parents, Levie Citroen and Mazra Kleinmann from Amsterdam. The family’s wealth came from the diamond trade but was lost after failure in a business venture in a diamond mine in South Africa. His father committed suicide when André was six years old. 19

In 1904 Citroën left the army and filed a patent for the double helical chevron gear to be made in steel. His first company was a small gear cutting business called, called 'Engrenages Citroen' in Fauburg St Denis when he introduced the 'logo' for his company as two double helical 'chevrons'.

it around. André took a leave of absence fro the gear factory, and soon his style of management and production turned Mors performance around and brought production up to 2000 cars by the end of 1909. By 1913 the production of cars reached 100 cars per month, a remarkable turnaround. It was during his last year while working with Mors, Citroën visited the USA and inspected the Ford Motor plant at Detroit. He noticed that the Ford plant was all on one level with plenty of space and light, unlike Mors which was spread over different floors. He quickly realised the benefits of this for mass production and he decided that he could dramatically increase the production of his gear factory by using this method, and in 1913 he returned to his own company from Mors and made the Gear Company a limited company, calling it 'Societe des Engrenages A. Citroen'.

1919 Logo

This emblem is still the internationally recognisable double chevron logo of Citroën cars. The company became very successful in 1905 a new company named 'Hinstin Freres Citroen & Cie' was formed. At this time, the French automobile industry was well advance and the requirements for gears was high. Soon André realised the need to mass produce gears to keep prices down and fast delivery and so invested in the latest upto-date machinery, and introduced new processes to increase production. This became very successful and the Citroën gears where being used in most French cars and was even used as the steering system for the ‘Titanic’ and the famed Rolls Royce assessed them for use in their automobiles.

In 1914 World War I began, and André was called back to Army service, as a Captain in an artillery regiment. Early on André realised that a shortage of ammunition was causing the Regiment huge problems in the face of the enemy. He set about devising a business plan to mass produce shell in the same way as he had done with the gear production. The plan was immediately accepted. The French Ministry of Armaments supplied Citroën with the funds to but land and in 1915 a massive lightweight factory complex was constructed. New machinery was imported from America, and soon 20,000 shells a day were being produced. The factory was employing more than 12,000 workers. At the height of the war, the factory was turning out more than 35,000 shells each day. As the war drew to a close and munitions were no longer required, Citroën started looking at other ways to use

In 1908 French car manufactures ‘Mors’ was in trouble, the depression had set in in France and the sales of Mors cars had dropped significantly, production had slumped to 10 cars a month. André Citroën’s reputation for streamlining production was well known and the president of Mors invited André to join the company and turn 20

this massive fully equipped manufacturing plant. André was an engineer, he was not a manufacturer of automobiles, nor a car designer, but his previous experience with Mors and his meeting with Henry Ford probably made it inevitable that he would look to become a car manufacturer. He may not have known much about the workings of a car, for this he would need to rely on others, but he could provide the concept, the production and the marketing.

A should be upgraded and put Model B into design development. In June 1921 the Model B appeared, it was provided with a 10CV 1450cc engine which made it marginally faster and like its predecessor it was fully equipped. The Model A continued in production in small numbers as the 'Sport' until December 1921. By 1922 the factory was producing over 300 Model Bs a day and reached some 500 cars a day before the production run ended in 1927.

In 1917 Citroën had designers who had designed a four-cylinder 3-litre 16 hp car. He built three prototypes but thought the car was too big. His idea was that mass production would be better suited to a smaller more economical car which would appeal to different classes. Other designs were investigated, until a Jules Salomon whom André had known during the war, produced a design for a simple four seater 1327cc sidevalve four cylinder car which André thought was ideal. The car weighed only 990 ponds and ran at 35 miles to the gallon, with a top speed of 40 mph. The car was to be called the Type A.

The next car to be launched was the Model C. This car was smaller and less powerful than the previous models. It had only two seats and a small 856cc engine. However, Citroën had a specific market in mind for this model, women. Various updates of chassis and body shape were available but all had the four-cylinder 856cc side valve engine and three speed gearbox. The colour was generally pale yellow and was soon nicknamed the little lemon, 'Le Petit Citron'. In 1926 a factory in Slough (UK) was opened to assemble the Model C’s. The factory assembled the chassis and engines made in France but the bodies were made in Slough, however they were not yellow, but British maroon. In all, over 83,000 Model C’s were manufactured between 1922 and 1926 when it was discontinued. Citroën made no more small cars until the introduction of the 2CV in 1949.

Within four months following the end of the war the Quay de Javel factory had been converted to automobile manufacture and a new name came into existence, 'S.A. Andre Citroen'. The Model A was put into production on the 28th of May 1919 and was launched in April with a massive advertising campaign. Orders of 16,000 were received within the first fortnight, and the break even target of 30,000 was reached before the first car left the plant!

In the early 1930's the Citroën automobile company was the 4th largest auto manufacturer in the world, however, the meteoric rise of André Citroën and the Citroën car company was severely affected by the depression from which André did not recover. Initial issues with a new model, the Traction Avant led to the company going bankrupt and being taken over by its top investor, the Michelin Company. Citroën’s

Five different body shapes quickly followed and production targets originally planned as 100 cars a day was reached at the beginning of 1920. In 1921, the production was 20,000, more that Peugeot and Renault put together. Soon Citroën decided that Model 21

finances had become overstretched, and this was not helped with him being a heavy gambler, he was losing his enormous personal wealth and the Company funds. By 1934 the Company was eventually not able to pay its bills, and one of the biggest creditors Edouard Michelin was invited to take over the running of the factories. André Citroën was legally required to retire and to take no further part in the running of the Company. Although still a relatively young man at 57 Citroen did not take well to retirement and became very dispirited. His health declined rapidly and on the 3rd of July, 1935 he died from stomach cancer. André Citroën was inducted Automotive Hall of Fame in 1998.



Work To Do

Details of André Citroën’s Masonic membership are sketchy; however he is on record as being a member of Lodge La Philosophie in Paris, France. However, amongst the main reference to him being a Freemason is found at this website which gives this source reference;

"I want some Masonic work to do!" announced the newly raised Master Mason. "I don't think I should be a member of this great fraternity and stand around idle." "That is very praiseworthy," responded the Old Past Master. "What would you like to do?" Reference Source:Hamill, John. Freemasonry : A Celebration of the Craft. JG Press 1998. ISBN:1572152672.

"Well, I don't know exactly. Maybe I could help in building a new Temple. Perhaps I could do some research work and write a book. Maybe there is room for me in some great Masonic educational work."

This article by the editor of the SRA76 magazine has been compiled from a Variety of sources freely available on the internet, some of which are; Brief History of Bozi Mohacek's 1921 Citroen 5CV " L'Escargot " by Bozi Mohacek Surrey Vintage Vehicle Society Wikipedia Today in Masonic History NSW & ACT Freemason magazine, Winter 2012.

"You aim high," answered the Old Past Master. "Such work is not always easy to find." "It's all I have been able to find," answered the first speaker. "That is because your eyes are not yet opened to the light," answered the Old Past Master. "Masonic work is everywhere. It 22

lies around loose ready to be done. You find it here in lodge, at home, on the street, everywhere."

to be here early and leaves late. He doesn't get paid very heavily for his work. Sometimes some brother stays and helps Jimmy do his work. Jimmy is always happy when he, too, can get out in time to hop into some one's car and get taken part way home.

"Oh, you mean charity. Well, I give according to my pocket-book," was the answer.

"Do you run an automobile? Somewhere within half a mile of you live two or three or four old Masons who find walking hard and street cars uncomfortable. They love their lodge, but they do not always come when it rains, because it is hard on their old bones to walk or take the trolley. Sometimes some brother thinks of them and calls for them and takes them home. The brother who does this rarely thinks he has done anything except afford transportation, but you have to be an old man and have a young one pay you a little attention to know how it makes their old hearts sing. I am an old man, and I know, although I have a car and a son to call for me, yet I like attention; I like to think some one doesn't think I am on the shelf. I like your asking me questions. I like to feel that I am some use to Masonry, even now.

"I do mean charity, but not pocketbook charity," answered the Old Past Master. "Masonic charity neither begins nor ends with money." "I wish you would explain what you mean. I don't understand...." "I will very gladly explain. Do you see Brother Eggleston over there?" "The old man with the ear-horn?" "Exactly. He is eighty-two years of age. He is very hard of hearing. He is also extremely fond of being talked to. It's a hard job to tell him anything. You have to shout. Yet Brother Eggleston always has some one talking to him at refreshment and in the anteroom. "Just behind him is Brother Palinski. He doesn't speak very good English. He isn't very rich. He is very shy. Yet he is a member of this lodge and a good one. Have you met his acquaintance? You need not answer. I am not inquiring what you have done, but just suggesting to you that he feels more at home and more Masonic when his brethren do not let him sit alone and unspoken to, because he is foreign, different, hard to talk to.

"You give, you inform me, according to your pocketbook. You smoke I observe, very good cigars. At Roberts avenue and Upshur street is a children's hospital. In it are many little children. Some of them belong to Master Masons. Not all of their parents can get there every day, or bring a toy to while away a tedious hour every time they come. The price of two of those cigars would make a Mason's child happy for a week.

"Jimmy is the Tiler of this lodge. He works pretty hard, does Jimmy. You and I and a hundred other fellows take off our aprons and drop them where we sit when lodge is closed. Jimmy has to gather them up and fold them neatly in the box. Jimmy has charge of the clothing and the jewels and locks up the charter in the safe. Jimmy has

"Last month there died a Mason of this lodge, who left a wife and five children. He left plenty of insurance. His wife doesn't have to go to work. She can support herself and her children very easily. No lodge action was necessary. But what a place for Masonic work! Those children now have no Daddy. 23

They have problems only Daddy could solve. No one can jump in and become a Daddy to them, but some Mason might try to ease that awful empty feeling, with his presence and his interest.

A Lodge at Work

"Wilkins, of this lodge, works at the electrical trade. He makes things with his hands; anything, everything. But mostly he makes wireless sets; a little radio apparatus that isn't expensive, but is better than can be bought for a few dollars. He puts in most of his evenings making them. The lodge supplies the material. The little sets go to the State Home for the Blind. I wonder sometimes, if the little head pieces do not speak Masonic words to those who listen to them so gratefully.

A Lodge is a certain number of Masons duly assembled, with the Holy Bible, Square, and Compasses, with a charter or warrant empowering them to work. Ask a brother how his lodge is doing, and his answer is very apt to be either that things are going well because there has been a lot of work to do or that the life of the lodge is at a low ebb because there hasn’t been much work lately. Ten to one, he is talking about degree work. There is no doubt that performing degrees is a vital part of the work of a lodge, but it is a common short circuit in our Masonic thinking to conclude that exemplifying our degrees constitutes the work of our lodge. Degree work is a means not an end.

"Do you know Filbert? Poor Filbert; it's an open secret. That's Filbert, over there with the young face and the snow white hair. He had an accident. It took a year for his strength to come back. His mind never was quite right, and isn't now. He loves to come to lodge. He isn't very bright, any more. He is just a watchman now, who used to be a bookkeeper. Filbert has an eighteen year old boy, putting himself through college. He has to work at odd times and nights and Sundays. He does everything he can; waits on table, cuts grass, runs errands, paints fences, anything. You might give him a job now and then; I think it would be regarded as work on your Master's Piece by the great Architect."

Another possible and closely related short circuit lurks in the word jurisdiction. In our everyday Masonic usage, this term signifies the geographic area from which a lodge draws its candidates. Just as the work of a living lodge embraces much more than doing degrees so there is more to the concept of a lodge’s jurisdiction than the place a lodge draws its candidates. The working of a lodge of Freemasons is a many faceted business which takes place, not just within a lodge hall or just among its members, but within the lodge’s jurisdiction of compassion and service.

"Oh, I hope it would... but what you have done for me just now, I know is work on your Master's Piece!" stammered the young Mason. "Indeed, my eyes were not open, but I... I begin to see the light!"

Suppose we find ourselves standing outside “Builders Lodge” in a place called “Needsville,” Here, according to our ritual, gathers a certain number of masons duly assembled, inspired by the Sacred Book and guided by the compasses and the square. They are, by a charter, empowered to workthat is they have the honour of labouring as

This is the Twentieth article in this our regular feature, ‘The Old Past Master,’ each month we will publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.


Freemasons. On reflection, we realize that Builders’ Lodge, like all Masonic lodges, exists even when there are no masons meeting in the building. It exists in the shared belief system of the brethren and in their united endeavour to give concrete evidence of their beliefs through their service to others.

compassion and caring. [These officers are the future masters in training. It is in leadership training, instruction on how to build an administrative team, and in schooling Masonic educators that our Grand Lodges play their most essential role.] Consider the extensive dimensions of the lodge’s mission! This labour falls into three categories all of which are interrelated and partake of the vision of the Craft.

Every Mason who has received his training in Builder’s Lodge should know that the dimensions of his lodge spread symbolically to the ends of the earth and that nothing short of universal compassion is the aim of the Fraternity. In more immediate terms, the dimensions of Builder’s Lodge spread across Needsville to the borders of the lodge’s jurisdiction. Jurisdiction defines a certain community of lodge members and wayfaring brethren alike. It is a community within the community at large, a community of the Craft, alive and operative.

(a) Care for the Masonic family (b) Serving the needy and building a better community (c) Training the builders “Take care of the widows and the orphans’ “this is the great charitable charge we have received from our operative predecessors. This noble charge still stands, but it has been expanded to the entire Masonic Family. Our obligations have enlarged with our growing conception of what we as Freemasons came here to do and as new needs have demanded. We feel it our wider calling to support the ageing members, the young Masons labouring to bring up their family amidst an enlarging circle of dangers, and our youth who may find their first introduction to the great beliefs of humanity within our youth organizations. Who are we as Masons if we do not look after our own? But there is more. What do we understand about our work if we curtail our mission within our own Masonic house? We come to work upon a fairer city of humanity; this is what we intend to do. It is our vision to bring a new era of hope and joy within our lodge’s jurisdiction of compassion and service. It is the result of our calling as builders within our given jurisdictions of compassion and service which constitutes the work of our lodges.

As in the case of the Masonic terms work and jurisdiction, the word “lodge” with its varied meanings may cause confusion. Your wife asks you if you will be at home this evening. “No” you answer, “I am going to lodge.” In this response “lodge” means a place and an event. You are signifying a communication of the officers and brethren at the lodge hall. Such usage indicates a partial manifestation of the lodge, but, in this last instance, “lodge” identifies an entity neither limited to a particular place or to a special event. Put simply, lodge meetings represent a vital and special function of the larger lodge which is the local community of Masons. The lodge hall houses the operating and training centre for this larger lodge. It houses the nerve centre, if you will. From this place of focus, the leadership of the Master, assisted by his officers and his committees, radiates outward and assumes the responsibility for “putting the Craft to labour” within the lodge’s jurisdiction of

We all like to see a large number of brothers out to our meetings, for, after all, fraternal 25

companionship is one of the great joys of Freemasonry. However, it is not the primary business, or even the business at all, of the master or his officers to entertain the brethren in an attempt to populate the “sidelines.” Lodges at one time may have served as places of entertainment, they may properly do so now, from time to time, for happiness is part of our business, but lodges are not primarily about “sidelines.” They are about mainlines of action and vision. Masons, even those who seldom attend lodge meetings, are duty bound to practice and to live Masonry within their own Needsville.

the Masonic enterprise, and who has the skill to set them to accomplishing this purpose for themselves. Perhaps we have not given enough thought to how much skill, how much informed art such leadership demands. [And this too must be primary in the concern and the services of a Grand Lodge to its lodges.] Perhaps we have not sufficiently considered how much sophisticated skill is demanded if we are to help create within the community that communication, networking, and coordination which is now required in the building of a better world. Certainly we all tend to forget that below all that we do, welling up and giving strength to all building endeavours, are those moral principles which illuminate and stimulate the Masonic vision.

Recently I had the opportunity to present a fifty year veterans medal. As so often is the case, the receiving brother began to apologize for not having come to lodge more often. When he was done, a young mason rose and said, “Don’t you apologize. I watched you all the years I was growing up in this community, and I wanted to be like you. You and your life are why I am here.” It is the master and his officers’ duty to see that the living of Freemasonry throughout the jurisdiction is not haphazard. Every member according to his time and his capabilities should be given some part to play in the work of the lodge, as it promotes the human conversation, as it conciliates true friendships, as it stands for justice and equality, and as it “restores peace to troubled minds.” It is from the “nerve centre” of the living lodge that such direction and leadership of the Craft must come. All this is implied in the phrase “a lodge duly assembled” - assembled, coordinated for the accomplishment of its work.

So now we return to where we began this exploration of a lodge and its work. We find ourselves realizing why our degree work is a vital means and not an end in itself. At the “nerve centre,” the officers and those members who possess the special gift of being ritualistic teachers assemble to set another man upon the degree journey that greatest gift which the lodge has to give a brother. One man at a time, heart to heart, mind to mind, the Craft builds its working force. The meaning which gives significance and purpose to the builder’s life and to his labours must be discovered; it must be journeyed after. This is the purpose of the degree journey, and this is the work of the degree givers, to share the old guideposts, to go in companionship as far as a brother can go, and to celebrate the new understanding and dedication found.

All successful lodges are operative lodges. Find such a lodge and you will discover leaders (or a leader) who knows how to bind the brethren in a significant expression of

The brethren of Builders’ Lodge have a vision to give to Needsville. In giving that vision, the brethren, themselves, will come to understand its immense value. Through 26

the work of the lodge which is going on within its jurisdiction of compassion and service, the brethren will be drawn back to that “nerve centre.” In that “sacred retreat of friendship and virtue,” they will find the quiet joy of renewal. When the Sacred Book is spread and the working tools displayed, there will be created a special place apart from the press of time and the urgency of life’s demands. It is a place we name “our lodge.” It is a place from whence we go out renewed and shoulder to shoulder to work again.

next to impossible, and it is not our intent to DWELL in the past. We can be reasonably certain, however, that the first speculative lodges inherited their modes and customs from the operative guilds and thus began their existence with a ritual sufficient for their needs--a ritual which probably provided for a ceremony of opening and closing and the administering of an oath of allegiance. This is understandable in view of the fact that medieval lodges opened with prayer, after which each workman had his daily labor assigned him and received the necessary instruction to complete the work in detail. We further learn that in or near that same period, an investiture with Masonic secrets, the building secrets, that is, was, perhaps, originally conferred in one of the abbey rooms near which the Catheral, or other sacred edifice was being erected, until the superstructure had so far advanced as to cover the church crypt, and offered a safe asylum for the craft to congregate in, for the purpose of working the rites appurtenant to the several Masonic degrees.

This is from our Regular feature of articles under the title, “Reflections.” Articles from all around the world from a variety of Constitutions and authors and adapted to use in SRA76. This article was written by Bro. Walter Macdougall and sourced from The Builders.

Masonic Ritual as an Educational tool

With the passing of time, the working tools of the operative craft became the symbols of the speculative, and in order that they might be understood and their significance properly related to the living of a life acceptable to God and in a more perfect relationship with one another, it became necessary to devise a means of instruction which gave rise to ritualistic form.

The subject calls for an appraisal of the place of the Ritual in the program of education, and implies that its future is, in some measure at least, dependent upon its growth and development, past and present. The inference, therefore, is that we begin at the beginning, and that while the intent is to think in terms of the speculative craft, we cannot detach ourselves from antiquity. We must necessarily begin with the operative guild which gave us birth.

As speculative Masonry grew and spread to other parts of the old world and eventually to America, its ritual became further enriched with allegory and symbols to the point where it became an art in itself, but never losing its original purpose and intent-that of imparting knowledge to the initiate.

Masonic ritual, in the broadest sense, incorporates any and all ceremonies or rites from the opening of the lodge to its closing, including the conferring of degrees. To trace the beginning in either particular would be

There have been times in the history of the craft, however, when ritualism became the 27

whole aim and end of Freemasonry. The effects of war, which made its mark upon society and life in general found no exception in the Masonic Fraternity. Lodges became likened to "mills in turning out Masons (or numbers), and the ritual suffered as a result, due partially to haste, and partly to indifference and ineffectiveness on the part of undedicated officers. Then, too, in America, there has been a tendency to lengthen the ritual to accommodate the socalled ritualistic orators, and a further tendency to exploit the ritual, for the amusement of the brethren at the sacrifice of the more important task of imparting knowledge.

We have already indicated the tendency on the part of many Grand Jurisdictions to initiate a program of candidate instruction, and it is our opinion that such instruction cannot divorce itself from the ritual as the basis and foundation of that instruction. As for its place in the future, it is our feeling that there are unexplored resources in the symbolism and allegory of our ritual commensurate to, and of about equal magnitude with the space age in which we live, resources which will help mankind to better understand his place in the world as a creature of one Almighty Parent, and endowed with powers beyond his most imaginative dreams. If we are to make men, through our ritualistic teachings, better able to deal with the problems of life in their relations toward the Supreme Architect of the Universe and their fellowman which is our major task in the building of spiritual temples, then we must utilize the resources at hand.

In more recent years, through various programs of candidate instruction, with the ritual as the foundation and basis of that instruction, there has been a growing tendency to restore the ritual to its proper place in the total program of Masonic education. Newly-raised Masons today have at their disposal a greater understanding and appreciation of the historically and lifemolding significance of the ritual, and the emphasis in rendition is gradually changing from the 'I' dotter and the "T' crosser to the more meaningful rendition which causes men to think, to feel, and to act.

To say that we have exhausted this field would be preposterous and indicative of Masonic ignorance, because, as any one of you sufficiently versed in Masonry very well know, there is no end to the great well of information which lies buried in the antiquity of our Order. The potential in space is limitless – so also is the potential in Masonic research.

This is not to condemn good ritualism. The preservation of ritual in its purest form is most important and imperative. Good ritualism is an honour; poor ritualism is always pernicious. Good ritualism is worth the best efforts and highest aspirations of any Master; poor ritualism is unworthy of any Master. Good ritualism is one of the great assets of a lodge and a potent advertising medium; poor ritualism is an efficient hypnotic.

Some of these are so obvious that we hesitate to call them to your attention. WHY CAME YOU HERE? To seek Good that makes us Men, and the love that makes us Brothers. WHAT CAME YOU HERE TO DO? To discover myself, and how to rule and use the strange powers within my nature, that the Rough Ashlar of Youth might be wrought into the Perfect Ashlar of Manhood.

However, our subject does not concern itself with ritualistic rendition, but rather the place of the ritual in an educational program. 28

WHAT DO YOU MOST DESIRE? To walk in the light, to know the Truth, to live in the glory of an illumined world, to ascend the Winding Stair of knowledge, to enter the Court of the Temple of Imagery where the symbols of God hallow our mortal life.


BY WHAT RIGHT OR BENEFIT? By the Right of a man to know the meaning of life, so brief at its longest, so broken at its best; and by the benefit of a need too deep for tears.

"The renowned Gileadite general", as we know him, was a highly complex character and a tragic hero in the true sense of those words. His story can be found in chapters 11 and 12 of the Book of Judges.

WORDS? Yes. But meaningful words that can be read into our symbolism and allegory.

He was illegitimate. His father had other sons who were born in wedlock but Jephthah’s mother was a concubine, his half-brothers refused to acknowledge him and made his life so miserable that he ran away and "lived rough" in the hills gathered a band of outlaws in Robin Hood fashion and carried on guerrilla warfare against all and sundry. This experience evidently taught him the principles of leadership and strategy. When the Ammonites started planning an attack on Israel the Gileadites sought Jephthah’s help and advice. Gilead, being on the east bank of the river Jordan, would be the first to bear an attack from Ammon. Originally Jephthah turned them down. "You all turned me out and refused me a living" he said, "and now you want me to help you?" Eventually he lead their forces on one condition – that after the war he would be acknowledged as their leader and chieftain for the rest of his life. The elders of Gilead had no alternative but to consent, so the battle against the Ammonites began. The result was an outstanding victory for Jephthah and his army.

And what of the even more obvious teachings left unexplored in our Ritual? The search for the Lost Word--the Rite of Destitution--The Altar--The Great Lights, and the Lesser Lights--the letter "G"-the Hiramic Legend. We could go on and on, illustrating where we have but scratched the surface in our program of education. But, behind, before and underneath it all lies the ritual, so rich and abundant in life-building, and soul-building resources as to defy the most searching and scholarly mind. What of the place of the ritual in any program of education? It is, as always, past, present and future, the foundation stone upon which we not only MUST build, but through the grace of an Omnipotent, Omniscient, and Omnipresent God, we are so privileged as men and as Masons. This Article was adapted from a thought provoking paper presented at the Seventh Annual Northeast Conference on Masonic Education and Libraries in 1962 by Past Grand Master, Aubrey l. Smith of Maine.

The Ephraimites, were asked to help fight the Ammonites, but said no. Jephthah’s was forcing him to face the Ammonites alone. He did not therefore see that Ephraim had any claim on the honours – or the plunder – of the war. The Ephraimites 29

threatened to set fire to Jephthah’s house. A battle inevitably followed this threat, and those Ephraimites who had crossed the Jordan to fight Jephthah were soundly beaten and began to retreat. This meant the Ephraimites to across the Jordan at one or other of the crossing-places or fords. Jephthah, detachments of his army to the ford to question every man who attempted to cross the river.

Question: Why does the S.W. give the S. of F. when he says "I present to you Bro..., a Candidate properly prepared to be passed to the second degree, W. Sir?" Why not a salute? Why any sign at all?

Forty-two thousand killed in this conflict seems an enormous number; someone has suggested that "forty and two thousand" should really be read as 40 and 2000 making a total of 2040, but the Bible clearly indicates the larger figure as does Josephus.

Answer: Originally the S. of F. did not have that name, but I will use it, to avoid confusion. We find evidence of it in some of our earliest ritual documents when it clearly served two purposes:


Having made a bargain with the elders of Gilead, Jephthah went on to make a bargain with God: If God would give him victory over the Ammonites, then the first creature to meet Jephthah on his way home would be offered as a burnt sacrifice. Jephthah was met by his only child, his darling daughter and dearest treasure. What could he do? God had apparently kept his side of the bargain. The noble daughter, on being informed of the situation, told Jephthah that of course he must keep his word, but she begged to be allowed a couple of months "to go up and down upon the mountains and bewail my virginity".

1. In c. 1700 and 1711, it was used as a Sign. 2. It was used as a mark of respect when addressing the W.M. In 1742, during the catechisms, if a Brother E.A., F.C., M.M.), could not answer one of the questions, he would rise, give the S. of F. and bow, and the question would go to the next Brother, in turn.

At the end of the two months she returned to her father who "did with her according to his vow". Does this mean that Jephthah really killed his only child and burnt her body as a sacrifice? Human sacrifice would have been against Israelite law. The comment "and she knew no man" has been interpreted as either "she died a virgin" or perhaps it implies that he father didn’t kill her but shut her up in solitary confinement instead. We shall never know for certain.

Many of our Masonic procedures can be traced back to the early 1700s, and despite numerous attempts at standardization, variations persist in different countries, in different 'Workings' and often from Lodge to Lodge even when they are supposed to be using the same 'Working'.

In 1730, one of our texts shows that it was used by the Wardens in the E.A. Degree, when addressing, or being addressed by, the Master. This practice may be much older than 1730.

In our modern English usage, the S. of F., despite its title, is not complete by itself; it is only a part of a 'threefold S.' But we still use it in two different ways; e.g. while the

Sourced from – STB Vol. VI No. 2 — February 1928


Candidate recites his OB., in whichever degree many of our Lodges use the S. of that degree but, in my experience, most of them use the S. of F.

period of his service, in the very household of his master. Unlike the household that many elsewhere in the world may know even today, this family setting would be quite limited; the craftsman, his wife, his children, and perhaps his unmarried sisters, even if their parents were dead.

Occasionally, these variations of practice may have been introduced by over-zealous Preceptors. More often they are inherited usages and, for that reason, they should be respected. I would always hesitate to say that one method is right and another wrong, and I hope that the information given here has answered the first question.

Placed in this situation eating, sleeping and spending his few hours of relaxation with those in this house, there had to be rules about how he should conduct himself in their company. Indeed there are still rules laid down to this day for those who become 'formal apprentices' in the Livery Companies of London These determine where the apprentice shall not spend his leisure time and how he will behave in the hours when not at work. In this little piece of obligation, therefore, we see a glimpse of what it was like to be an operative mason beginner. Of course he would have to be respectful to all his master's relatives, friends and clients; but the most serious matter was how to behave in close proximity to those he lived with for so long: his master's wife, his mother, his sister and child .

Why not a Salute? Your question implies that the Lodge is in the Second Degree. In that case, the E.A. sign would not be appropriate. But, unless the Candidate is placed with his back to the S.W., the Warden could not give the Salute of that degree in the presence of an E.A., even though he is properly prepared. That would explain the S. of F. Why any sign at all? Long standing custom demands a posture of respect when addressing the W.M. Question: In the obligation of one of the degrees we say '... and most strictly respect the chastity of those nearest and dearest to him in the person of his wife, his mother, his sister and his child' Why do we limit the range of a man's 'nearest and dearest' when surely all his family are included?

Question: What is meant by 'regular step'? Answer: Regular, in this case, means recognized or correct. The word implies that it must be made in the manner in which the candidate has been instructed. Indeed, the step is actually a part of the mode or recognition that follows it; hence the emphasis on the word 'regular'.

Answer: You are asking a very proper question and one that must surely exercise the minds of so many Freemasons in different parts of the world where the 'family' is very wide indeed. We have to recall that this part of the ritual is derived from a British medieval setting in which the apprentice mason came to live, for the

The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.



If Poem by Bro. David Law PM of Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge UGLE, transcribed from the Newsletter of the Internet Lodge, 2003. He suggests that this poem could be read out to the new Right Worshipful Master after his Installation at the Festival.

If you can play your part with those surrounding forgetting theirs and blaming it on you; If you can speak your lines in tones resounding, ensuring that the others do it too; If you can keep your past masters in order, yet let them feel that they have had their say, and know the moment to concede a battle so you may live to fight another day; ---------If you can find the time to visit lodges and see your Brother Masters in their chairs and steadfastly resist the great temptation to tell them how to run their own affairs; If you can keep your own lodge running sweetly with firmness and a little bit of guile and never once forget that you're the Master (but keep an eye on Province all the while); ---------If you can keep your wife from feeling lonely and keep the fires burning back at home because she's satisfied its one year only (at least you tell her so with quiet aplomb!); If you can do these things and many others, as well as having quite a lot of fun, you'll earn the approbation of your Brothers, and what is more – You'll be a genius Son!!" Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor 32