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Cover Story, Abou Ben Adhem Did You Know? The Origin and Duties of the Inner Guard Famous Freemasons – Arnold Palmer Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman No. 1324 Freedom and Constraint Rays of Masonry The Old Past Master I Go Seeking My Brethren Did You Know? The Plumb and its Uses The Three Great Lights The Working Tools of a Convivial Mason
Main Website – The King and the Craft
Volume 15 Issue 2 No. 116 February 2019
In this issue: Cover Story
‘Abou Ben Adhem’ The author of this piece takes an analytical look at the poem and asks whether of not Abou Ben Adhem would meet the criteria of becoming a Freemason.
Page 4, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 6, ‘The Origin and Duties of the Inner Guard’ Looking at the office of Inner Guard. Page 9, ‘Arnold Palmer’ Famous Freemason. Page 13, ‘Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman No. 1324. A History of one of our Old Scottish Lodges. Page 18, ‘Freedom and Constraint’ The Musings of Julian Rees. Page 20, ‘Rays of Masonry.’ “The Uneven Battle” Page 20, ‘The Old Past Master.’ “In My Hear”, third in the series. Page 22, The thoughts of Bro. Rabbi Raymond Apple. Page 25, ‘Did You Know?’ Page 26, ‘The Plumb and its Masonic Uses A look at the Junior Warden’s Symbol Page 29, ‘The Three Great Lights – A Poem.’ Page 30, ‘The Working Tools of a Convivial Mason.’
In the Lectures website The article for this month is ‘The King and the Craft.’ [link] Front cover – Stock picture from the Internet
Abou Ben Adhem
and would I advance his application to the Brethren for consideration of membership.
An Acceptable Candidate?
My immediate impression of Ben Adhem’s being informed that his name is not listed as one who loves the Lord but rather of one who loves his fellow man is not to say that he denies the existence of a Divine Creator. It is that his spirituality is focused on brotherly love. His dialogue with an angel demonstrates that he is not denying the presence of a messenger from God by claiming that he is only dreaming or suffering from a hallucination and by such denying God.
One of the lesser or minor Romantic era poets, Leigh Hunt [1784–1859], is best remembered for Abou Ben Adhem which passes from anthology to anthology. Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!) Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, And saw, within the moonlight in his room, Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom, An angel writing in a book of gold: — Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold, And to the presence in the room he said, “What writest thou?”—The vision raised its head, And with a look made of all sweet accord, Answered, “The names of those who love the Lord.” “And is mine one?” said Abou. “Nay, not so,” Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low, But cheerily still; and said, “I pray thee, then, Write me as one that loves his fellow men.” The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night It came again with a great wakening light, And showed the names whom love of God had blest, And lo! Ben Adhem’s name led all the rest.
As in all poetry, there are several interpretations to be found, either with the immediate reading of a poem, or later with an in-depth, analytical interpretation. I am choosing to interpret and analyse this poem based on Masonic values with the premise that if there was an application by Abou Ben Adhem to join Freemasonry, could I
The angel holds the poem’s most revealing symbol: the book of gold containing a list of people who love the Lord. Symbolically this means that those who love the Lord are worthy and valuable enough to belong in a book of richness, or as put into perspective by the simile, “like a lily in bloom.” People who love the Lord are alive, in bloom, flourishing, to say the least, in richness. But, how does one obtain this status? Originally Abou Ben Adhem wasn’t on this list. His response to finding this out was to pray. Many devout believers may take this poem too fast and too lightly arriving at the conclusion that prayer, which shows one’s dedication and love of the Lord, is the way to heaven or the book of gold. Two words throw this conclusion out: “fellow men.” Instead of praying to the Lord “write me down as one that loves his Lord,” Hunt makes the diction choice “fellow men” to problematize blind faith in a deity. The space between Abou’s prayer and the vanishing angel could easily serve to represent the day in which one can prove through their actions that they truly do love their fellow people on the planet. This is 2
why the next night Abou’s name is at the top. Instead of God, he loves his fellow people.
personal righteousness and responsibility by his devotion to the welfare and happiness of mankind.
This love of fellow people leads to God’s blessing. The angel carries not only the message of Abou’s placement on the list in the golden book, but the message that people worthy of God’s love, blessing, and pathway to heaven are the ones who don’t have superficial faith in a deity, but a faith that proves a perpetual kindness to people. Prospective applicants are to be provided with a copy of the Grand Lodge’s Declaration of Principles and Information for Applicants: Aims and Principles which state clearly the Masonic values of charity as being devoted to the welfare and happiness of mankind. It follows that benevolence teaches the good of others is a primary concern.
There remains one doubt regarding the meeting of the criteria by applicants which is somewhat ignored or downplayed. The pamphlet, Declaration of Principles states that applicants must acknowledge a one and caring Deity. Reinforced by the Grand Lodge Aims of Freemasonry we learn that all applicants need to express belief and acceptance in promoting “the Brotherhood of man under the Supreme Being” and “to render practical aid and assistance to the less fortunate members of the community.”
A strong message regarding communal values that instils the belief and action of a society being composed of individuals and the need to impress the principles of personal righteousness and responsibility in order to enlighten them in those things which make for the good of human welfare. These are the messages that we should be taking to applicants and following up with questions and dialogue regarding how the applicant incorporates these values in his daily life. Does our poetic applicant meet these criteria? The last stanza of the poem emphatically states that Abou Ben Adhem’s name led all others in receiving the Supreme Creator’s blessing based on his statement of loving his fellow men. What we do know, and hope to achieve in our dialogue with our applicants to have an understanding of, is by having a strong conviction of brotherly love, Abou Ben Adhem demonstrates the 3
To these statements and by reflecting upon the poem, one could agree that Abou Ben Adhem does meet the criteria of becoming a Freemason. By asking if his name is included on the list of those who love the Lord, Ben Adhem demonstrates his belief and faith in a Supreme Creator. If he was a non-believer, why would he ask and why would he even be curious? What Ben Adhem does not know is whether his name has been included on the list of the Elects. He accepts the presence of the angel and therefore does not deny the messenger of God. As we examine the application of those indicating an interest in joining the Fraternity, the need to become more cognizant of the connection between a stated belief in a Supreme Being and the willingness to act on brotherly love should become the focus of the interview. As the numerous attributes of God include being All Good, All Knowing, and All Powerful, then a person like Ben Adhem would be known unto God for his love of fellow men and not for any participation in a particular mode of religion or type of denomination.
As we are mortal, the task falls upon us during interviews of applicants, to understand better their stated belief in a Supreme Being and their commitment and dedication to the values of Freemasonry — in particular to that of brotherly love. Upon reflection, after an initial dialogue, we then need to make the best decision for Freemasonry prior to casting our ballot to accept or reject for the good of Masonry. This fictional applicant, Abou Ben Adhem, is presented in a positive view by the external actions of the Angel; appearing, speaking to him, and then returning to report with God’s verdict on the importance of actions conducted by his belief in brotherly love. This poem is an exercise I imposed upon myself to better understand applicants prior to reporting to the Worshipful Master of a favourable or nonfavourable report. The poem itself, and the statements made by the protagonist lends itself to additional exercises on the compatibility of Freemasonry to definitions of spirituality and what constitutes belief in a Supreme Being or even a discussion on the search for a belief in a Supreme Being by an agnostic who is honest in his statement about God when asking to join our fraternity Sourced from the Alberta Freemason June 2018 Bro Les Champ Condensed from a paper presented to Fiat Lux Lodge of Research No. 1980 on 11 April 2015
DID YOU KNOW? Question: Was the Fellow-craft degree mutilated to provide material for the Mark Degree? Answer. The Mark, as ceremony or degree, is quite a late innovation making its appearance during the mid-1700. Masons, without any kind of ceremony, were taking marks 150 years before the Mark came into use as a ceremony. The earliest Official reference to the Mason’s Mark is the Schaw Statutes dated 28 December 1598. They were promulgated by William Schaw, Master of Work to the Crown of Scotland and Warden General of the Mason craft. From this code of twentytwo regulations, I quote the thirteenth item, word for word, but in modern spelling. Item: that no Master of Fellow of Craft be received nor admitted without the number of six Masters and two Entered Apprentices, the Warden of that lodge (i.e. the Master) being one of the said six, and that the day of the receiving of the said Fellow or Craft or Master be orderly booked and his name and Mark inserted in the said book with the names of his six admitters…Providing always that no man be admitted without an essay (test) and sufficient trial of his skill an worthiness in his vocation and craft. This regulation required that F.C.’s and Masters were to have their names and Marks recorded on the day of their admission to those grades, but the custom had been extended to apprentices, during the next fifty years. It seems that the Schaw Statutes were intended to be used as 4
guidelines rather than law, and the minutes of that period reveal that there were innumerable breaches. At the Lodge of Edinburgh, Chapel, the first recorded admission of a Fellow-craft on 17 January 1600, was in the presence of an insufficient quorum of five Masters, and although the candidate had “done his deutie”…to the contentment of the dekin warden & maistris (which was the customary formula), no mark was taken by the candidate. This great old Lodge never kept a ― Mark Book: Occasional pages were set aside in the Minute Book with a dated head line, e.g.: Names of entered prentysis and their markes 1648; and this is followed by a list of ten E. A.s who were made E.A. in 1647, 1648, and 1649, with their marks appended. There are also eight names of F.C.s. whose E. A. date is unknown. The list then continues with E.A.s and F.C.s from 1652 onwards, with marks. There are separate lists of this kind for 1646, 1663, 1671(?), 1685 and 1690. Very rarely do we find records of the “mark” being paid for. The usual fee was “one Mark Scots money” approximately equivalent to one day’s wages of a trained mason. The minutes of Lodge Mother Kilwinning No. 0 also contain a large number of marks for both E.A.s and F.C.s but records of payment for the marks are comparatively rare, e.g.:”20 Dec. 1674. The said day, John Smith… was admitted and entered prentise and has payed to the box his bookeing money…and also has payed for his mark which is as follows…” Here, at Kilwinning the fee for registering the mark was “one mark Scots money”. 5
At the Lodge of Aberdeen, a handsome Mark Book was kept from 1670 onwards and it contains a list of the names and marks of all the Master Masons and apprentices of the Lodge in 1670, in the order of their admission, followed by a continuous list of later entrants, and a collection of regulations under the heading “Laws and Statutes for masons gathered out of their old writings”. Here again “one mark piece” is specified as the fee for taking a mason’s mark. It is important to add that during the 1670’s, the Lodge of Aberdeen already had a substantial non-operative membership, including two noblemen (Earls), a minister of religion, merchants and tradesmen. It is necessary to emphasise that throughout all the early minutes as well as those quoted above, there, there is never the least hint of any kind of ceremony accompanying the taking of a Mark. In those days when all the brethren attending lodge were expected to sing the Minutes, the Marks were generally used for that purpose. Doubtless they were also used for marking stones, perhaps for assessing wages for completed piecework, or as a check on spoiled stones, but a large proportion of the brethren never troubled to take the Mark. Until recent years the earliest known minuted reference to the Mark Degree was in the record of a meeting of the Royal Arch Chapter of Friendship, held at the George Tavern in Portsmouth, on 1 September 1769. It records that Thomas Dunckerley (a natural son of George 11- when Prince of Wales) brought the Warrant for that Chapter and “having lately rec’d the Mark” he made six of the brethren “Mark Masons” and “Mark Masters”. At that same meeting he taught them how to use the Masonic cipher (in which this minute is written) and
authorised them to make F.C.s into Mark Masons, and M.M’s into Mark Masons. Around 1965, the late Bro. William Waples, a zealous student and full member of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, acquired a copy of the 1723 Book of Constitutions, which had belonged to an unattached lodge at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. They had stitched in the book 28 pages containing manuscript notes. By-laws, etc. followed by some blank pages. On the last inserted page, which is the loose end paper, is the following: “Newcastle, January the 19, 1756—Then Being meet Part of the Body of the Lodge they taking it to their Serious Consideration. That no member of the Saide Lodge Shall be Made a Mark Masone without paying the Sum of one Mark Scots and that for the propagation of the Pedestal, as Witnessed the aforesaid Date by…Wardens: John Maxwell Master, Tos Provund, Robert McVicear.” This is the earliest known reference to the Mark as a ceremony. The final mason’s Mark recorded in the Kilwinning minutes was in 1766. In Edinburgh Mary’s Chapel, the final Mark was in 1713.
The Origin and Duties of the Inner Guard There is very little written about the Inner Guard when compared to other officers in the Lodge. One reason that could be considered is that masonically speaking the office of Inner Guard is of comparatively recent origin - 1816 being the first recorded mention of that office. For nearly a hundred years preceding this date the visitors would have been admitted and the candidates received in due form by the youngest entered apprentice or a brother appointed by the Junior Warden. It is interesting to note that the rank of Inner Guard is unknown in most American Lodges, where the Junior Deacon, under the command of the Junior Warden admits the visitors and receives the candidate. The office of Inner Guard is recognised in the English, Scottish and Irish lodges as well as most lodges overseas whose Masonic traditions are descended from these constitutions. The Word GUARD:
The Fellow-craft degree was not affected by the emergence of the “Mark Degrees”. THEY were a late speculative innovation, loosely linked to the F.C. degree simply because mason’s marks were originally prescribed for Fellow-crafts.
The name guard or guardian is evolved from the same origin as the word Warden. In Bernard E. Jones book “Freemason’s Guide and Compendium” we are informed that the word Wardian and Guardian were one and the same, and a scholar noted in 1605 that the French, Italians and others whose language comes from the Latin turned the “W” of such words as wardian into a single “U”.
The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.
I quote further quote from Bernard E. Jones book “because their alphabet hath no acquaintance with the W at all, but then to 6
mend the matter - they use before the U to put a G, and so of warden or wardian doe make guardian, of ward , guard-. Hence it arise that we call him that waiteth at the Towre , ‘one of the guard or ‘Guard’.” Thus it was explained that the Wardian, Warden and Guardian are all one, ‘a keeper or attender to the safety of that which he hath in charge’. The Inner Guard, then is in effect the Door Warden, and in some early lodges, he was at first a serving Brother under the control of the Outer Guard or Tyler, who was also a serving Brother. The first recorded instance in an English lodge where the use was made of a “Door Keeper” was in 1734 at the Old Kings Arms Lodge No. 28, where more than likely he was the youngest Entered Apprentice, and he would use a Trowel as his weapon. It was about the beginning of the 19th, century when the “Door Keeper’ or “Inner Tyler” began to be called the Guarder or Guard and it was not until about 1814 when there was official recognition of the actual office of Inner Guard. The Tylers Assistant There are a number of old minutes where it is recorded that the Inner Guard or Inner Tyler was in fact regarded as an assistant to the Tyler, and as a serving Brother he was, like the Tyler, entitled to receive an allowance for his duties. In the minutes of the Lodge of Honour and Friendship, Blandford, (ceased 1838) it is recorded a Brother was made an “allowance of one shilling for each lodge night and one shilling for every newly initiated Brother to take on himself the office of Inner Guard and to assist the Tyler - as he had been 7
admitted under a dispensation of the Provincial Grand Master and was initiated without a fee”. The Royal Augustus Lodge of Monmouth (erased 1830), it is recorded, had the office of an Outer Tyler, and a Junior Tyler. The office of Inner Guard is recorded in the 1816 records of the Lodge Love and Honour, No. 75 Falmouth. The United Grand Lodge of England authorised the Inner Guard’s Jewel - The Crossed Swords in 1819. In researching for this paper, one discovers that the weapon with which the Inner Guard as traditionally armed was in fact the pointed trowel and it would appear there is ample evidence to support a valid argument that the Inner Guard should continue to be so equipped today, particularly as the sword has traditionally been the weapon of the Outer Guard or Tyler. It would appear to be a rather strange decision that the United Grand Lodge of England made nearly 170 years ago when it seemed it broke away from the tradition when the crossed swords were adopted in the place of the Trowel for the Inner Guard. The Trowel -The Traditional Weapon
It would appear strange that in spite of standing tradition, our Craft appears to have overlooked the trowel in it’s ceremonial workings. Bernard E Jones suggests that the operative mason of old was largely a cutter and shaper of stone, whereas the trowel is a stone layers tool. There is no doubt at all that in the eighteenth century the use of the trowel was much more in evidence than it is now. In 1754 a Lodge Carmathen has recorded the purchase of five trowels and the
mending of twelve others, which seems to suggest that in the old lodge, trowels had a considerable part to play, but what part masonically we do not know. In the present day the trowel is used for the purpose of laying a foundation stone with masonic ceremonial where it is appropriate, as the as the only surviving link with operative masonry. The trowels used for this purpose are usually of silver, highly decorated and preserved as a memento for posterity, and are often to be found in a masonic museum. The trowel is still in use to this day in a few old English lodges, particularly in the cities of Bristol and Bath, where it has a place in the First and Third Degrees. Particularly in the Third Degree we are informed “the trowel is used for the noble and glorious purpose of spreading the cement of Brotherhood and affection which unites us in a sacred bond as a Society of Brethren, amongst whom no contention should ever exist”.
lodges which preceded them; it was the Tyler’s or the inner Doorkeeper’s weapon.
In the ritual of the First Degree, in the charge after initiation we hear “In every age monarchs themselves have been promoters of the art ; have not thought it derogatory to their dignity to exchange the Sceptre for the trowel, ….” This statement may be interpreted as referring to the ancient practice of arming the most recent Initiate, or junior Entered Apprentice, with a trowel as a means of keeping off all cowans and intruders.
There are some lodges in New Zealand where, reputedly, the trowel is a working tool of the Third Degree, and there are some lodges where it is also the Jewel of the Junior Deacon.
The Grand Lodge of Ireland, in 1769, decreed “that the design for lodge seals shall consist of a Hand and a Trowel. An Irish masonic crest of 1738 showing a hand holding a pointed trowel as a stabbing weapon, provides a key to the use to which the tool was put in the early speculative lodges and possibly in the old Operative
By Wor. Bro. Peter J. Smith United Masters Lodge No. 167 (NZ), Sept. 1988 Sourced from MOF Masonic Library Website.
In Some Irish lodges a flat of the trowel is extended to the Candidate to receive his gift when inviting him (in the Second degree) to give to the cause of masonic charity. The hand and the trowel are found on some of the earliest known jewels used by the ‘Modern’ Lodges. There are some lodges in England where the trowel is used as the weapon of the Inner Guard or Tyler. In the Royal Sussex Lodge, now extinct, a silver trowel was presented to the Inner Guard or Tyler. In the Lodge of Love and Honour No. 75, in Falmouth it is recorded in 1808 “that there should be two Tylers, Williamson to act on the door inside and Symons outside, Williamson should wear his badge of office, consisting of a Trowel”. That trowel is still worn by the Inner Guard of that lodge today.
The trowel has also been described as the implement of the Inner Guard, with which he is enabled to seal up the door of the Lodge Room, when all qualified brethren seeking admission have been admitted.
Famous Freemasons Arnold Palmer ‘The King’
When you hear the name “Arnold Palmer” what is the first thing you think of? Is it golf? Is it the refreshing mixture of iced tea and lemonade? Is it brotherhood and the countless years of service Bro. Palmer has given to Freemasonry? Or is it all of the above? Bro. Arnold Palmer has lead an incredibly active life, which brought him down many paths including Freemasonry! Born on September 10, 1929, Arnold Daniel Palmer was raised in Latrobe, Pennsylvania. Growing up he spent much of his time at the local country club learning how to play golf from the head groundskeeper, his father Milfred Palmer. In his youth he attended Latrobe High School, Arnold would go on 9
to attend Wake Forest College on a golf scholarship. However he did not finish due to the tragic death of his close friend, and Arnold left Wake Forest and enlisted in the Coast Guard, where he served for three years. A gifted golf player, Arnold Palmer’s golf career began in 1954, when he won the U.S. Amateurs Tournament. After his win he decided to play professional for a while, and spent 1955 touring the tournament circuit. During his rookie season Palmer won the Canadian Open, and would go on to dominate the golf scene for the next fifteen years. Palmer has seven major championships under his belt: four Masters wins (1958, 1960, 1962, 1964) one U.S. Open (1960) and two Open Championships (1961, 1962). Arnold appeared in the Master’s for the last time in 2004 after 50 consecutive appearances, and announced in 2005 that he would not be entering anymore tournaments. Arnold Palmer joined Freemasonry in 1958 in his hometown of Latrobe, Pennsylvania. He was raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason at Loyalhanna Lodge No. 275, where he remained active all his life. Bro. Palmer has been the recipient of many awards during his life, among which was when he received the distinction of the 33 Inspector General Honorary in the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and was invested with the Honorary Legion of Honour from Pennsylvania DeMolay. However, Brother Arnold Palmer has lead a far more interesting life than what can be packed into this short article. The saga of Arnold Palmer began when he was four years old, swinging his first set of
golf clubs, cut down by his father, Milfred J. (Deacon) Palmer, who worked at Latrobe Country Club from 1921 until his death in 1976, much of that time as both golf professional and course superintendent. Before long, Arnie was playing well enough to beat the older caddies at the club. He began caddying himself when he was 11 and worked at almost every job at the club in later years. The strongly-built young man concentrated on golf in high school, soon was dominating the game in Western Pennsylvania and twice won the Pennsylvania high school championship. He won his first of five West Penn Amateur Championships when he was 17, competed successfully in national junior events and went to Wake Forest University (then College), where he became No. 1 man on the golf team and one of the leading collegiate players of that time. Deeply affected by the death in an auto accident of his close friend and classmate, Bud Worsham, younger brother of 1947 U.S. Open Champion Lew Worsham, Arnold withdrew from college during his senior year and began a three-year hitch in the Coast Guard. His interest in golf rekindled while he was stationed in Cleveland. He was working there as a salesman and playing amateur golf after his discharge from the service and brief return to Wake Forest when he won the U.S. Amateur in 1954 following his second straight victory in the Ohio Amateur earlier that summer. It was during that period that he met Winifred Walzer at a tournament in Eastern Pennsylvania. They were married shortly after he turned professional in the fall of 1954 and Winnie travelled with him when he joined the pro tour in early 1955. They would have two daughters, Peggy and Ann. Mrs. Palmer died of cancer on November
20, 1999. Arnold and his second wife, Kathleen (Kit), were married in a private ceremony in Hawaii on January 26, 2005. Arnold Palmer was many things to many people...world famous golf immortal and sportsman, highly-successful business executive, prominent advertising spokesman, skilled aviator, talented golf course designer and consultant, devoted family patriarch and a man with a down-toearth common touch that made him one of the most popular and accessible public figures in history. His popularity and success grew with the tremendous golf boom in the latter half of the 20th Century to heights few ever anticipated and they have been recognized in countless ways over the years. Certainly each contributed to the other, a fact given recognition when he was named "Athlete of the Decade" for the 1960s in a national Associated Press poll. Before, during and after that great decade, the famous golfer amassed 92 championships in professional competition of national or international stature. Sixty-two of the victories came on the U.S. PGA Tour, starting with the 1955 Canadian Open. Besides the magnificent performance record, his magnetic personality and unfailing sense of kindness and thoughtfulness to everybody with whom he comes in contact have endeared him to millions throughout the world and led to the informal formation of the largest nonuniformed "military" organization in existence -- Arnie's Army. Seven of his victories came in what the golfing world considers the four major professional championships. He won the Masters Tournament four times, in 1958, 1960, 1962 and 1964; the U.S. Open in spectacular 10
fashion in 1960 at Cherry Hills Country Club in Denver and the British Open in 1961 and 1962. He came from seven strokes off the pace in the final round in that U.S. Open win and finished second in four other Opens after that. Among the majors, only the PGA Championship eluded him. He finished second in the PGA three times.
Arnold and a group of investors purchased the famed Pebble Beach golf complex on the California coast. He was also a tournament professional and member of the board of directors of Laurel Valley Golf Club, Ligonier, PA, with which he has been affiliated since its founding in the late 1950s.
Arnie's springboard to professional fame and fortune was his victory in the U.S. Amateur Championship in 1954. He turned professional a few months later. His hottest period was a four-year stretch from 1960 to 1963 when he landed 29 of his titles and collected almost $400,000 at a time when the purses were minute by today's standards. He was the leading money-winner in three of those years and twice represented the U.S. in the prestigious Ryder Cup Match during that time, serving in 1963 as the victorious captain.
Palmer was consultant to Golf Channel in Orlando, which went on the air on cable networks in January, 1995. Another important facet of his activities involved the Arnold Palmer Design Company, which continues to thrive headquartered at the Bay Hill Club. Since the mid-1960s, Palmer put his stamp on about 300 new courses throughout the nation and world.
It was also during this period that his rapidly-growing business interests got their start, through the impetus of Palmer himself and with the guidance and efforts of his business manager, the late Mark McCormack, and his wide-ranging organization. Arnold was president of Arnold Palmer Enterprises, a multi-division structure encompassing much of his global commercial activity. He was involved in automobile and aviation service firms over the years and was the principal owner of a car dealership in his Latrobe (PA) hometown. Arnold was president and sole owner (since 1971) of Latrobe Country Club and president and principal owner of the Bay Hill Club and Lodge, Orlando, FL, which he and a group of associates acquired in 1970. Bay Hill hosts the annual Arnold Palmer Invitational, on the PGA Tour. In 1999, 11
His modest business empire and golfing activities kept Palmer on the move much of the year, most of the travel in his Cessna Citation X jet aircraft. He was recognized in 1999 for his contributions to aviation and his Western Pennsylvania community when the Westmoreland County Airport at Latrobe was renamed the Arnold Palmer Regional Airport. He was a member of the Westmoreland County Airport Authority. Arnold lived in his hometown of Latrobe, a small industrial town in Western Pennsylvania at the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains some 50 miles east of Pittsburgh during the warm months of the year, but spent the fall and winter months at his homes at Bay Hill and at the Tradition Golf Club in La Quinta, California. He had numerous active and honorary memberships in clubs throughout the world, including famed Augusta National in Georgia, St. Andrews in Scotland, Pine Valley in New Jersey, Winged Foot in New York and Oakmont in Pittsburgh.
The golfing great was the recipient of countless honours, the symbolic plaques, trophies and citations scattered throughout his personal, club and business worlds, the epitome coming when he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George W. Bush in 2004 and the Congressional Gold Medal, passed by Congress and signed by President Obama in 2009. He has received virtually every national award in golf and after his great 1960 season both the Hickok Professional Athlete of the Year and Sports Illustrated's Sportsman of the Year trophies. He was a charter member of the World Golf Hall of Fame and a member of the American Golf Hall of Fame at Foxburg, PA, and the PGA Hall of Fame in Florida. He was chairman of the USGA Members Program and served as honorary national chairman of the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation for 20 years. He played a major role in the fundraising drive in the 1980s that led to the creation of the Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children and Women and subsequently the Arnold Palmer Medical Center in Orlando. A long-time member of the board of directors of Latrobe Area Hospital, he staged a major annual fund-raising golf event for that institution for six years that led to the formation of the Latrobe Area Hospital Charitable Foundation. Arnold Palmer was one of the first true celebrity golfers, known all over the world. Long before Tiger Woods, there was Arnold Palmer. He made the game of golf the most popular program to be shown on television with countless millions of viewers, and he was largely responsible for the popularity of golf for the last half century. “Arnold Palmer’s go for broke style of golf bolstered a legion of fans, coined by the press as Arnie’s Army, who lovingly
bestowed the title of “The King” upon him not only because of his prowess on the course, but more importantly because of his unfailing sense of kindness and thoughtfulness.” Brother Arnold Palmer's humanitarian awards are too numerous to mention, but here are just a few of them: Order of Eagle Exemplar, U.S. Sports Academy; Arthur J. Rain Award, Catholic Youth Association, Pittsburgh; Lawman Humanitarian Award, Los Angeles; the Theodore Roosevelt Award, National Collegiate Athletic Association; Outstanding American Award, Los Angeles Philanthropic Foundation; Sports Legend Award, Jr. Diabetes Foundation, Pittsburgh; Humanitarian Award, Variety Club International; and, The "Good Guy" Award, American Legion National Commanders. There is no doubt about it. Arnold Palmer is a "Good Guy," an outstanding Mason, and American hero. Arnold Palmer died on September 25, 2016 (shortly after his 87th birthday) while awaiting heart surgery. The article was collated from a variety of sources, the main ones being the Arnold Palmer website, Freemasonry for Dummies and the Scottish Rite Journal, my thanks go to them. Editor.
I’ve always made a total effort, even when the odds seemed entirely against me. I never quit trying. I never felt that I didn’t have a chance to win. Bro. Arnold Palmer. 12
Lodge Masjid-ISuleman No. 1324 “The Oily Lodge”
In this day and age Lodges all over the world, and of every Constitution, adopt a name of one sort or another. It could be the name of a place, a famous person or a building; along with its number it is a means of identification. The above Lodge is no exception and it takes its name from a famous area or district in Iran. The words "MASJID-I-SULEMAN" are Iranian and freely translated mean "Temple of SULEMAN", not to be confused with the Temple of Solomon which forms a major part of our Craft. It is, in fact, an old FIRE Temple, the ruins of which are situated on the middle of an area in which a rich oil field was discovered and exploited. The information, as told, was that the fire was in fact a small seepage of gas burning at this point and the peoples inhabit¬ing the area, many hundreds of years ago, erected an edifice of stone work around the fire and used it as a place off prayer to their Gods . Our story, however, starts in the 1890's in a wild and desolate country, largely unexplored, with the central plateau cut off from the coastal country of the Persian Gulf by the vast snow-capped range of the Zagros Mountains. These mountains are an extension of the Taurus and were in those days rarely trans-versed except by the nomads and their flocks on their annual migrations in search of grazing. Roads were 13
almost non-existent and transport was by horse, camel, mule or Shank's pony. As they left the torrid coastal plain and padded inland under the burning sun the pioneers in search of oil saw, drawing gradually nearer, a series of reddish-brown cliffs stretching right and left for hundreds of miles. From the summit, stretching away to the final unassailable fortress of the Zagros, they saw an endless geological litter of jagged foothills. The surface of the earth here is topsy-turvy as though some great cataclysm had turned it up on end. Over millions of years, as the earth shrank, its crust crumpling like the skin of a prune, the weaker parts gave way, and here ranges of mountains have been folded as though between the jaws of a giant vice. These were the "them thar hills" in which oil was to be found. It was, however, to be another eighteen gruelling years before oil was found and then against a background of international politics and intrigue. Man's quest for oil brought out many and ingenious methods for extracting oil from Mother Earth but one component, however, that no-one has ever been able to extract is politics, which were to remain with the oil industry in Persia right up to 1951. After many setbacks and disappointments, the drilling crews finally moved their equipment to a barren and inhospitable spot and began the all too familiar routine of setting up camp and equipment and began drilling for this elusive liquid called "oil" which, when found, was to change the course of the world. A mile or two from this inhospitable spot were the ruined walls and staircases of what was known locally as the Masjid-I-Suleman, or "Temple of Suleman", relic of a civilisation dead these 2,000 years.
Later they adopted this as the name of the place, and as M.I.S it has been known ever since. The pioneers of this bygone era were to be rewarded for their many setbacks and rigorous life for, on 26th May 1908, oil was struck by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, later to become the British Petroleum Company – Masjid-I-Suleman had come to life. At this point we may pause to consider not only the magnitude of this discovery but also what has proved to be one of the most significant dates in world history. The field discovered was developed sufficiently to provide the British Navy with oil during the 1914-18 War and the Allies, said Curzon at the end, "Floated to victory on a sea of oil." it is interesting to note that the well of F7 – Masjid-I-Suleman – was sealed off in 1926 after having produced 7 million tons of oil. An inscribed plaque beside the original site in Persia says "It is customary for those who have derived some benefit from this magnificent donation to doff the hat or curtsey in acknowledgement." The wellhead fittings were removed following the sealing-off of the well and these same fittings despatched to London where they were re-erected, for exhibition purposes, in the forecourt of Britannic House, home of the British Petroleum Company. Expansion was the order of the day in the early 1920's and personnel began to arrive in great numbers from all parts; by 1923 the numbers had swollen to include a goodly selection of Freemasons, mostly Scots. Those masons very quickly got together, discussed details and with the help of the then general manager–who was one of the founder members – submitted a prayer to
the Grand Lodge of Scotland for the formation of a Masonic Lodge in Persia. From this great discovery, the pioneers in this wild and desolate country, 3,000 miles from Scotland, lit another Masonic Light that was to burn brightly for the next 27 years. Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman, No. 1324 (S.C.), was regularly opened on lst December 1923, under a Provisional Warrant from the "Grand Lodge of all Scottish Freemasonry in India" dated 12th September 1923 and of Light 5923. The formal Consecration of the Lodge took place on 17th April 1924, under Charter dated 7th February 1924, from the Grand Lodge of Scotland. A building which had originally been a bulk food store for the oil company staff, and becoming obsolete at this period, was made available to the founders by the general manager. Modest alterations turned this building into an excellent Masonic Hall, one half of the building being furnished as the Temple, whilst the remainder was divided to give a committee room, a secretary's room, with storage space plus banqueting hall and kitchens. The problems of starting a new Lodge were both practical and administrative bearing in mind that the Brethren were nearly three thousand miles from Scotland and in a country which has often been described as a "Land of heat, sand and flies", with the very minimum of the basic amenities of life available. In the afternoons, learning from the Persians, the British staff used to retire to caves or cellars – you can see them in the hillside today –where the temperature dropped to 90°. All in all it was very much a man's life where everyone weighed in altogether. 14
In spite of the long hours on duty, the hard work involved in extracting the oil from the ground, and the heat, the Brethren found time to carry out the alterations required to their newly acquired Masonic Hall, order the equipment necessary for the Lodge and prepare for their first meeting. This ceremonial was carried out by representatives from the Grand Lodge of All Scottish Freemasonry in India, under whose jurisdiction Persia came, and M.I.S. were now ready under the terms of their Charter to make Masons. Five months later Lodge M.I.S. worked its first Initiation ceremonial. In Persia, the period between the wars was one of steady and peaceful advance and as Persia developed and prospered so did the Lodge. It may have been a rough and ready age, which it in all probability was, but is no doubt looked back on with nostalgic affection by the Brethren who are still with us today and "the Lodge" had now become part of their everyday life. Degree working was now the norm and in a land where unforeseen trials and setbacks were commonplace the Lodge meeting was where the Brethren could meet in harmony and peace and relax in the activities of the Lodge. After each meeting a "Banquet" was the order of the day for which the Brethren had to be properly dressed. Anyone can testify who knows that part of the world what it must have been like 50 years ago, to sit in full dinner suit in a place where the temperature could reach 110Â° in the shade at seven in the morning. The amenities of life, expected by and provided for the pioneers of today, simply did not exist and stiff shirt front, wing collars and tails would appear to go ill with a sun temperature of 170Â°, a total lack of air-conditioning or ice, and the certainty of "The Master's" voice whispering in your ear 15
"May I have a word with you," if you dared appear at the Banquet without a tie. All the catering was supervised by the stewards of the Lodge, including serving at the table. In addition to purchasing the usual furniture and regalia required for the Lodge the founders also purchased china, cutlery and glassware required for the proceedings after the meetings, one hundred pieces of everything being the original stock level. It must be remembered that one could not "pop round" to the nearest warehouse for items damaged or lost whether it be crockery or regalia. Everything required had to be ordered in and shipped from Britain and this could in those days take several months, hence the reason for carrying a high stock level. As one can imagine there was a considerable turnover in Brethren of the Lodge due to the very nature of the work, but in all the total membership of the Lodge in Persia was 293 Brethren and the Lodge Roll Book reads like a who's who of Grand Lodges, as Brethren affiliated from the English, Irish and American Constitutions. M.I.S. can therefore lay claim to being a truly universal brotherhood of man. Transfers, retirements and resignations were commonplace from what was now a large company and specialised industry but still the Lodge remained strong and harmonious. A feature introduced to the Lodge was the presentation of small Lodge jewels to Brethren who were required to leave M.I.S. either voluntarily or in the company's service. From the records it appears that a number of Brethren of the Lodge filled various offices during their sojourn in Persia but never reached the Chair. It would seem that these jewels were originally intended for presentation to those Brethren as some
recompense for their efforts in the Lodge during their stay there. As time marched slowly on there enters into the story a circumstance and a man destined between them to set in motion a train of events which proved painful alike to the Lodge and Persia. The circumstance was the ever-changing political scene in Persia and the man a curious fanatical nationalist figure. "Nationalisation" became the catchword of the day. In spite of politics, from which the Lodge had always remained aloof, it became apparent that the situation was deteriorating, eventually leading to the withdrawal of all European staff from the oilfields and pipeline stations. The end was now in sight and the Brethren of Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman were by this time facing up to the sad fact of having to close down the Lodge and return the Lodge Charter to the Grand Lodge of Scotland â€“ declaring the Lodge dormant. So began the heartbreaking task of packing up the books, funds and chattels of the Lodge for return to Grand Lodge. It is at this point in our story that tribute must be paid to the last secretary of the Lodge, Brother R. L. Cunningham, and to the Brethren left, for the meticulous manner in which the regalia, jewels, books and paraphernalia of the Lodge were preserved, packed and despatched to Edinburgh, where they remained in store for 23 years. All the equipment when inspected was found to be in absolutely perfect condition and was used on the day of the Lodge reponement. A number of the working tools are in fact silver and have since been cleaned and are beautiful. They now lend an air of charm and beauty to the Lodge working.
Amongst the Lodge effects the Brethren in Edinburgh found a beautiful Lodge banner. There are certain denominators common to all Lodges but the one item that is not common, especially in Scotland, is a Lodge banner. In this respect Lodge M.I.S. happens to be a rare exception. Its banner, whilst now showing distinct signs of age â€“ it is 51 years old this year (1975) â€“ is still a thing of beauty. It was presented to the Lodge in 1924 by one of the founder members, in the person of Brother J. L. Wright, the then fields manager. It is hand painted, in silk, and the most prominent feature of the whole work is the bold portrayal of the ancient ruins of Masjid-I-Suleman. The banner is further adorned with two pillars flanking the main picture on the left- and right-hand side. These pillars need no explanation in the Masonic sense. Across these pillars have been painted the names of the Past Masters of the Lodge for the first 20 years of its existence. From 1924 until 1951 it hung in the most prominent position in the Masonic Temple at M.I.S. immediately above the R.W.M.'s Chair in the east. In view of the distinct signs of wear and age of the banner at the time of going to press arrangements are in hand to have the banner completely encased in glass, in order to preserve it for posterity. The last meeting in Persia was held on Thursday, lst March 1951, and one can imagine the great sadness which must have prevailed at that meeting, for although negotiations were taking place between the British and Persian Governments, things were rapidly deteriorating and the Brethren of the Lodge must have now been resigned to the fact that they were meeting in the Lodge for the last time, probably never to 16
meet again; for many of the Brethren this was to be the case. The Brethren, having now faced the heartbreaking decision that the "Oily Lodge" was now dormant must have wondered if their Lodge would ever work again, for finally on 4th October 1951, the last of the British personnel were evacuated by the cruiser Mauritius and as she steamed slowly away up the river the greatest single overseas enterprise in British industrial commerce had ground to a standstill, along with Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman. And so ended an era of a Lodge, and the light that had burned brightly for 27 years was extinguished. It had been extinguished in practice only, not in principle, for that same light was to remain in the minds of a number of prominent Brethren who retained a firm but humble hope that that light so abruptly extinguished in 1951 would one day burn brightly once more. The scene now moves forward 20 years in time and to another wild and inhospitable part of the worldâ€”the North Sea. Geophysicists had long thought that the bed of the North Sea was similar to the strata of the Middle East and therefore could in all probability be oil bearing. Expansion was again the order of the day and personnel began to arrive in Scotland from all over, many having been in the oil industry, shipping and construction all their lives, while others were retired. Among these numbers was a goodly selection of Freemasons mostly from overseas Lodges working under the Scottish Constitution. A number of these Brethren having returned from overseas service and desirous of establishing a Masonic Lodge as a common 17
meeting ground, found the machinery and the blessing of Grand Lodge in the form of "The Books, Funds and Chattels of a dormant Lodge â€”Masjid-I-Suleman." An inaugural meeting was held in the library of the Grand Lodge of Scotland on 30th November 1973, at 10.30 a.m., at which the dream began to take form and become a reality. By unanimous decision Brother Wilfred Pate, a Past Master of the Lodge in 1943, was elected Chairman and Right Worshipful Master Elect of the Lodge in Edinburgh. As applications for membership had been received from all over Britain and as far away as Malaysia, it was decided that the Lodge should meet four times a year, preferably on a Saturday, which would be suitable to Brethren who were required to travel. A number of suggestions were made with regard to the dates of the meetings and it was unanimous that we should meet during the summer months to accommodate our overseas members as they were usually on leave in the U.K. during the British summer and it would give these members an opportunity to visit the Lodge periodically. It was also suggested that, as many of the Brethren would be travelling some distance to the meetings, it seemed very possible that they would bring their wives with them and that it would be unfair on the ladies of the Brethren to be left alone in a strange city while their menfolk attended the Lodge meeting. The committee were unanimous in their approval of the ladies dining with the Brethren after each meeting. This would not only allow the ladies to renew old friendships or make new friendships but more important give them a more active part in Masonic life. By this time it was all systems go for the reponement ceremonial of the Lodge and looking back it appeared that there were a
million things to do and not nearly enough time to do them in; however, with the assistance and advice of Grand Secretary everything was finally prepared and ready for the big day. The Grand Master Mason, Brother David Liddell-Grainger of Ayton, was to carry out the Ceremonial of Reponement and at 7.00 p.m. on Thursday, 2nd May 1974, the Grand Master and his Office-bearers entered the Chapel of St John and opened Grand Lodge in due and ancient form. The installation of the Master and Office-bearers was carried out by the Grand Master in a beautiful and dignified manner and he had a special word to say to each and every Office-bearer. It is appropriate to record here that the efforts of Brother Bob Cunningham in 1951 were recognised by the Lodge and Grand Lodge for at the Lodge meeting of 21st September 1974, Distinguished Service Membership of the Craft was conferred on him, an honour not given to many but richly deserved on this occasion. And so Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman became active again, 3,000 miles from and 50 years after its birth in Persia, with oil once more playing a major part in the reponement of the Lodge. It was the discovery of oil in Persia which was responsible for the consecration of the Lodge, it was the differences between nations over oil which were responsible for the close down of the Lodge and, in the fiftieth year of the Lodge, discovery of oil in the North Sea was basically responsible for the reponement of the Lodge in Scotland. Lodge Masjid-ISuleman can therefore be truly and affectionately christened "The Oily Lodge". This abridged History of Lodge Masjid-I-Suleman, No.1324 was written by Bro. Brother A.W. Marshall. Our thanks go to the Lodge No. 1324 whom the editor and the newsletter acknowledge to be the copyright owner of this History.
FREEDOM AND CONSTRAINT None can love freedom heartily but good men; the rest love not freedom, but licence. John Milton 1608-1674
In my experience of Freemasonry, we often ask ourselves about the nature of freedom in a Masonic sense. In former centuries we were known, not as Freemasons, but as Free Masons â€“ a subtle distinction you may say, but an important one. It implies that some Masons in those days were not free. Of course, in the language of stonemasons, that meant that some were not yet free of their apprenticeships, that they had still to work, first as Apprentices and then as Journeymen or Companions, to become free, to become Master Masons, free and responsible for their own work and experts at it. And in the language of speculative Freemasons today, this means that, although we call our most newly-made Apprentice a Free Mason, such a freedom is an indicator of what he may attain to, what he will attain to, once he has passed the second and third degrees. Then he will be a Master Freemason, mastering his own self and being freely responsible in a moral sense. Freedom goes hand in hand with its opposite â€“ constraint, restriction, delimitation. You, the readers of this short piece, are limited, delimited in your own Lodges: you are members of your own Lodges, and others, who come to share your companionship and love, are not members, but are members of their own Lodges elsewhere, delimited by that unit of which they are members. But of course your visitors to your Lodge are guaranteed absolute unity with you who are members. 18
You open your hearts to invite them to be one with you in this spiritual endeavour. And this is where freedom, in the Masonic sense, begins. You close the doors of your Lodge before you begin your proceedings. You shut off the outside world, in order to delimit yourselves, to contain the spiritual power, the energy that is generated by all of you, in opening the Lodge. But that can only be done by opening your hearts to each other, in a real way becoming free. So, in a paradoxical way, we have to limit ourselves, to close the door of the Lodge, in order to open our hearts, to be free. The real question posed by the first degree is, to what extent I will allow myself to be shaped by my own selfish impulses, and to what extent shaped by the new life offered through Freemasonry. When I am able to say ‘my impulse is to go this way, but I am being asked to give up selfish impulses, so I will go that way instead’, then that offers a real freedom, a freedom from selfish indulgence. In the ritual in my own Lodge, a candidate comes to the door to be admitted. The Tyler announces him with the words: ‘A poor candidate in a state of darkness, who has been well and worthily recommended, regularly proposed and approved in open Lodge, and now comes of his own free will and accord, properly prepared, humbly soliciting to be admitted to the mysteries and privileges of Freemasonry.’
The Master then asks the Tyler: How does he hope to obtain those privileges?
and the Tyler replies: By the help of God, being free, and of good report.
In another passage of ritual, from the first degree lecture, we hear the following exchange: 19
Q: Why are we called Free-masons? A: Because we are free to, and free from. Q: Free to, and free from, what? A: Free to good fellowship, and ought to be free from vice.
in other words, the search for moral improvement, in concert with our Brethren, frees us from material attachments, leaving our spirit free to ascend. What freedom is not, is illustrated by the quotation above from that greatest of English poets, John Milton: ‘None can love freedom heartily but good men; the rest love not freedom, but licence.’
If an individual exercises freedom to pursue his own selfish ends, and if by doing so he restricts or impairs the freedom of those around him, then that is not freedom: it is slavery. A terrorist is a slave to an ideology, an ideology perhaps falsely supposed to be supported by religion. Treacherously, it feels like freedom, because he no longer has to take responsibility for his thoughts and actions. No, my Brethren, real freedom is very far removed from the idea of individual freedom, an individual freedom exercised in such a way as to harm society at large. Real freedom, in this sense, is well expressed in the words of another great English poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley : ‘... that sweet bondage which is freedom’s self, And rivets with sensation’s softest tie The kindred sympathies of human souls ...’
In Free Masonry, at least, we give up aspects of the Self on initiation, in order to attain to a greater freedom, the freedom of the heart, and that freedom can be our real strength as Freemasons. Article by W. Bro. Julian Rees whom SRA76 acknowledges to be the author. Our grateful thanks go to him. This article is copyright and should not be copied unless permission is given by the author. Julian's website can be accessed at this link. https://www.julianrees.com/
Rays of Masonry â€œThe Uneven Battleâ€?
We deplore the inequalities of life, and especially do we dwell on the disadvantages that honesty suffers at the hands of dishonesty, and truth at the hands of falsehood. If the avowed enemies of Masonry expound a system of propaganda which foundation is falsehood, by what means can Masonry carry the struggle to a successful end? "Hitlerism" arrogantly disclosed its fiendish disregard for Truth, and boasted of its plan to make falsehood become "Accepted Truth" through constant repetition. Is not here the answer to our question- more clearly written into the pages of history than the strongest words? There was the temporary victory of evil and of falsehood. There is always the temporary victory of evil. It thus feeds the vanity of villainy and instills an intoxicated confidence which results in destruction. Masonry must fight the evils of our day just as it has fought through the centuries. Our only weapon is the Mason trained in the art of Masonry who lives, who speaks, who writes the Truth. The final victory will be through a force unknown to despots, the moral force of the individual, his great faith, his sacrificial deeds, his unwaning hope
In My Heart "Why really does a man become a Mason?" asked the Very New Brother of the Old Past Master. "I know the prescribed answer to the question, of course. And doubtless every man who makes it, thinks he tells the truth. But I think he often lies!" "Oh, no!" cried the Old Past Master. "He doesn't lie. Masonry doesn't make liars of men! But a man can tell something that isn't true without prevaricating about it, you know. You don't know? Oh, well, you are young. "You worked pretty hard today, didn't you? Of course. You always do, don't you? I thought I saw you over at the City Club this noon. Yes, I know that gang of chaps; fine fellows gather there every day for a couple of hours. Then you went up to the gymnasium, didn't you, and exercised for an hour? And you read the paper this morning before you went at your desk? That
Dewey Wollstein 1953.
accounts for about four hours out of eight, but you'd swear you 'worked very hard'! You don't mean to lie; you just forget, or disremember, or are so used to calling that a hard day's work you don't realize what an easy time you have! "'Tis the same way with the man who tells where he first became convinced he was to be a Mason! He means it, but he doesn't know or realize the facts. "Now, I've been a Mason for many, many years. I have seen men come and go and hope to, some more. And I'll tell you that most men do not seek Masonry 'because they have conceived a regard for the institution' or 'because they wish to benefit their fellowmen.' Most men become Masons because other men whom they know, are Masons, or because their fathers were Masons, or because they believe that Masonry means a certain patent of worth, or because they are curious, or even because they believe a Masonic membership will help them succeed. "But those are not worthy motives," cried the Very New Mason. "Perhaps not!" smiled the Old Past Master. "But we all do things from motives which are not worthy. You bought your wife a pair of theater tickets tonight and patted yourself on the back for being generous. Yet you know if you send her off to the theater with a friend she won't have a word to say about your coming home late from lodge! Do you call that a worthy motive? I call it a natural one, but St. Peter hasn't made a very large mark against your generosity score for the act! "Now it would be glorious if all men wanted to be Masons because of the wonderful 21
reputation which Masonry has among men. But if they did, Masonry wouldn't have nearly so much to do. And many men who become Masons for unworthy motives, remain to be taught to become very good Masons, indeed. I remember when I was twenty-one years old- bank clerk, I was- my boss said to me, 'Charlie, wasn't your father a Mason?' I said 'yes.' "Your father rose very rapidly in this business,' said the boss. That's all. So I applied for the Degrees. I didn't know it wasn't a worthy motive! I knew it as soon as became a Mason. And all my life I have wished I had had a better motive. But I didn't let my ignorance stop me from trying to be a good Mason. "Many very good Masons take certain parts of Masonry more seriously than they are intended to be taken. They are the chaps who think a misplaced word in the ritual is an anathema and the forgetter a criminal! They will tell you that any man who applies for Masonry for any other reason than a reverent awe for the Order and a humble belief in its wonder also commits a crime and should be excluded. It would be fine if it were so, but we'd have about one candidate a year if we held to any such interpretation of the law. "If I find a young fellow who wants to be a Mason because his father was, I say, 'Come on in and welcome home!' That's supposing he is otherwise all right of course. If I find a young fellow who says very frankly, 'I believe it will help me in business,' I don't condemn him to be a profane forever. I try to find out what he means. If he wants to use Masonry to bring customers to his store, I tell him to go and think it over and come back in a year. But if he says, 'Why, all the Masons are clean-cut, honest men and I need to know such men and a lot of them, that I, too, can be clean-cut and honest, and
it must help any man to succeed to be associated with clean-cut and honest men, and I want to succeed so I can bring up my boys to be good men too,' I can't see but that he is first class material, supposing he's all right otherwise, of course. "Look for the heart, boy, look for the heart! It's what's in the heart that counts, not what's on the lips. And that in my opinion, is what that question really means. "Where were you prepared to be a Mason?' means, what sort of feeling have you in your heart? If it's a good feeling, I don't care how you analyze it; he who has it is welcome. If it's a bad feeling, then I don't care what fine words he mouths, it's enough to keep him away. I have known more than one man who joined through curiosity and yet became an ardent Mason. I have known more than one man who slipped in to aid him in business, became Master of his lodge and be a good one, too! Usually that man is the most insistent that all candidates have what he calls 'a clean mind' about becoming a Mason! The man who has had a change of heart after he gets in is always the most insistent on the statutory answer to the question as to where the candidate is first prepared to be a Mason! To me it is both funny and a little pathetic. "My young brother, human nature is pretty much the same everywhere. Men are men in country and city, hamlet and metropolis. Most men make good Masons. A few make fine ones. Still fewer make poor Masons. Most men have quite human, ordinary, everyday reasons for wanting to be Masons. A few have fine reasons, a few have bad reasons. If the majority of men have just ordinary motives for becoming Masons, and yet the majority of men make good Masons, it's proof, isn't it, that Masonry is stronger
than the motive, and it can change a man to her standards? I've lived a long time and the longer I live the more sure I am of the fertility of the soil in almost all good men's hearts, to the Masonic seed, and so I don't care nearly so much now, as I did forty years or so ago, why they want to be of us or where they were first prepared! "Toleration, my brother, is a Masonic virtue. You'll feel that way too, when you've worn the apron as long as I have, and found, every year, as it grows closer to your heart, its strings of ritual and law and custom need bind less tightly." This is the third article in this our new regular feature, ‘The Old Past Master,’ each month we will publish in the newsletter one of these interesting and informative pieces by Carl Claudy.
I Go Seeking My Brethren There was an article in the “NSW Freemason” not so long ago with the heading, “Why does Daddy go to Lodge?” The author ruefully informs us that being a father is not only one of one’s most interesting experiences but it taxes human ingenuity in finding answers to handle the penetrating questions of even the youngest child. “Why does Daddy go to Lodge?” The answers might have a message, not only for our children and indeed our wives and friends, but also for the occasional detractor 22
whose questions are not quite so goodhumoured. I go to Lodge, suggests the author, because I like the society of people, because at Lodge I meet a representative cross-section of my fellows, each my peer. I go to Lodge because I learn of the problems of others; I aid them in solving those problems and they aid me to solve mine. I go to Lodge because there it is merit alone that determines my standing. I go to Lodge to come away a better man; not only do I become a better man, but a better husband and a better father. It’s all very true and, because every Mason is an individual, there is none of us who would not have an idea or two of his own to add, arising out of and expressing his own experience and perception of Masonic membership. For my part, accustomed as I am and we all are to calling each other “Brother”, I commend an interpretation of the story in the Bible in which Joseph, son and scion of patriarchs, is sent by his father on an errand. He meets a man who asks an obvious question – and gets an answer that reverberates through the ages. “And the man asked him, saying, ‘What seekest thou?’ And he said, ‘I go seeking my brethren’ – Et achai anochi mevakkesh” (Gen. 37:15-16). Who was Joseph? Why did his father send him on this particular errand? All we know suggests that from birth he was seen as an outstanding individual, a man who would 23
rise, slowly but surely, to greatness. His father treated him with special favour. Those who met him showed, by admiration or envy, that they regarded him as above the ordinary. Even his dreams suggested a future of great achievement. So Joseph, the man destined for noble deeds and historic achievements, must have been bitterly disappointed to have been summoned by his father to be a shammas, a messenger boy, and to carry out a simple, lowly, commonplace task. His brothers had gone off to tend the sheep; said Jacob to his son, “Go now and see whether it is well with the flock and bring me back word”. Yet the young man neither complained nor hesitated. Hinneni – “Here I am”, was his response. Off he went to find his brothers and check out the sheep. “I go seeking my brethren” – that was how he explained himself to anyone who asked. Et achai anochi mevakkesh – that indeed became his lifetime’s task; that, not some distant, impossible dream, became the destiny to which his decades were dedicated. Is not our century, as it nears its close after decades of dazzling achievements in every field of human endeavour, and of disasters that have devastated lands, lives and peoples, sorely in need of precisely the same lesson that ancient Joseph was taught by his father’s errand? Think of the vision splendid that motivated the foundation of the United Nations: a magnificent monument to momentary altruism! Has it succeeded in guaranteeing justice, peace and truth upon earth wherever man dwell? You might say that things could have been much worse. But I want to know why they are not much better.
Justice, peace, truth and other fine and noble ideals do not seem to have made really significant headway in the many years since 1945. In some ways, indeed, they have become even more difficult of achievement, because they have been exploited and twisted by so many parties and pressure groups that one is not even certain what they mean any more. The Joseph approach was never more pertinent. Dream the impossible dream, certainly; never let the vision fade. But learn that the way to fulfil the larger, grander ideals is to begin at grass-roots level. It has been well said that idealism, like charity, must begin at home. If there is to be peace in the great big world, it must begin with peacefulness in the micro-world. Says the Hebrew liturgy, Oseh shalom bim’romav, hu ya’aseh shalom alenu – “He who makes peace in His high places, may He make peace for us”. God Himself shows the way. To have peace in the high places there must be peace on the lowliest level, wherever human beings move and have their beings.
visions. It knows you cannot speak of brotherhood until you yourself have become a living example of being a brother, of feeling a brother’s pain and rejoicing in his success, of allowing no room for strife or dissension or the perpetuation of differences based on snobbery or status, of race or religion. The Mason says, Et achai anochi mevakkesh – “I go seeking my brethren”, and in an extended sense all human beings are his brothers. Why does Daddy go to Lodge? Because the Lodge symbolises the possibility of building a society, a civilisation, composed of countless clusters of human beings who do not always agree but can disagree agreeably, who do not always like each other but can love even the less lovable, who do not live each other’s lives but respect the other person’s right to be himself as he respects mine.
Australia is the pioneer of significant grassroots level initiatives – the Conflict Resolution Network, the Million Minutes for Peace, and others. Each in its own way seeks to create cordiality between people and groups and to think well and peacefully of each other and to be schooled in the resolution of conflicts. Indeed, conflict resolution can be one of the most creative experiences there is; it enables you to understand yourself as well as the other person and to improve relationships instead of letting them be blown asunder.
The strange, magnificent fact is that just as Masonry, through its allegory, symbolism, and familiar phraseology, is dedicated to the Joseph principle of bringing great ideals down to earth, so are there so many other fine movements in society that exemplify humanity, understanding and ethical dealing. We tend to forget how much good there is in people, and how many people are quietly getting on with the errand of making the world a better place to live in. We tend to forget how many good causes and worthwhile groups there are that promote the ideals of love and service. We sometimes tend, too, to be over-zealous in promoting the interests of our own group or cause, allowing strife and suspicion to get in the way of working with one accord.
Freemasonry has a unique contribution to make towards the realisation of the grand
Can we afford the luxury of internecine warfare? I do not believe Masonry 24
denigrates other movements, though there is occasional uninformed denigration of Masonry. There is so much we can do together to make the imminent turn of the century into a turning-point towards a secure future for all of mankind. Within Masonry there is so much we can do to strengthen our own attachment to its principles, our involvement in its activities, our living by its ideals wherever we go. A cynical comment in the Jewish sources suggests that when you are a hundred it is as if you were already dead and had passed from the earth. Masonry in NSW has no intention of courting that fate as it celebrates a hundred years of its United Grand Lodge. May its second century continue to be dedicated to the grand visions and committed to their realisation. We invoke the blessing of God upon our Order; may it ever find grace and good favour in His eyes. It is fitting that a programme of celebrations contains a religious component, enabling us, in words well-loved by every Mason, with all reverence and humility to express our gratitude to the Great Architect of the Universe and to pray that He may in His goodness continue to support our Order by cementing its members in love and unity and adorning them with every moral and social virtue. This talk was given by Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory, at the Great Synagogue, Sydney, 7 August 1988.
By Rt. Wor. Bro. Rabbi Dr Raymond Apple, AO RFD, Past Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales & the Australian Capital Territory. Click the name to go to his website.
DID YOU KNOW? Question: Where is the River Jordan? Answer: The longest and most important river in Palestine. It rises in the AntiLebanon Mountains in Syria, is some two hundred thirty miles long, empties into the Dead Sea. The river is mentioned in the Old Testament many times and in the New Testament fifteen times; it was the Jordan in which Jesus was baptized. In the Fellow Craft Degree it is important because of Judges XII: 5-6, descriptive of the Gileadites and the Ephraimites at the "passage of Jordan," in which verses also are the explanations of Shibboleth and Sibboleth. The statement that "; there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand" is considered to mean two thousand and forty, and not forty-two thousand. "Jubelum" is not a Biblical name, yet the character was an Israelitish workman on the Temple. Question: Whence came the name? Answer: Palestine, Phoenicia and Egypt had gods named Jah, Bel and Om, and India has Aum. To most modernists the apparent similarity between the names of Jubelum and his brothers and these gods is coincidental. Freemasonry has always suffered from a gradual change in words and names; the French for Pythagoras was Pytagore; when the name again crossed the Channel it became Peter Gower, who for years was a puzzle to antiquarians. There are many such corruptions; Nembroch for Nimrod; Euglet for Euclid; Aymon for Hiram! All to be found in ancient manuscripts of the Craft. Originally Ghiblim was a name for stonecutters. It gradually changed: Ghiblim, Giblim,
Gibalim, Chibbelum, Jublime, Jibelum, Jabulem, and lastly Jubelum. The names of his brothers are merely changes in letters and carry out the ritualistic idea that the three were blood as well as Masonic brethren.
The Plumb and its Masonic Uses
Question: What is the Lion of the Tribe of Judah? Answer: Judah was symbolized as a lion in his father's deathbed blessing. The lion was upon the standard of the large and powerful tribe of Judah. "Lion of the Tribe of Judah" was one of Solomon's titles. Christian interpretation of the phrase springs from Revelation V; 5: "Behold, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah ("Juda", King James version), the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof." The idea of a resurrection is curiously interwoven with the lion in all ages and was connected with resurrection long before the Man of Galilee walked upon the earth. In ancient Egypt, a lion raised Osiris from a dead level to a living perpendicular by a grip of his paw; Egyptian carvings show a figure standing behind the altar, observing the raising of the dead, with its left arm raised, forming the angle of a square. The Lion of the Tribe of Judah, considered as signifying a coming redeemer who would spring from the tribe, or meaning the King of Israel who built the Temple, or symbolizing the Christ must not be confused with the Lion's Paw which is a symbol of the Mystic Tie the bond between Masons, the strength which comes from unity. The Questions and answers from ‘Did you Know’ were collected from various constitutions across the world, and in no way reflect the views or thoughts of the editor and or his Lodge or Mother Constitution.
The plumb could possibly be one of the most overlooked implements of speculative masonry. In our rituals the plumb is the symbol of the Junior Warden. But just what is the plumb and what is its accepted usage? The plumb, as Masonry suggests in its rituals, is the instrument that reminds us to walk uprightly through our travels in both this world and the next. The plumb is also the Junior Warden’s symbol of his office, and it pertains to the work which he is charged to inculcate in his duties. The main job and purpose of the Junior Warden is to superintend the craft during both their labours in the lodge and during refreshment, which is any time that they are outside of the tiled recesses of the lodge. This instrument carries with it quite a bit of authority, as well as responsibility. The authority of the Junior Warden to watch over the craft at all times can be quite a daunting task indeed. When a brother falls into being intemperate in his consumptions of his passions, it is the Junior Warden who 26
must come to that brotherâ€™s side and whisper good council in his ear as to his errors. As Masons, and as quality men of the craft, we must always carry ourselves in the highest of standards of conduct, especially when in the eye of the public. When a brother falls into intemperance, this act can cast a negative light upon our beloved craft, thus soiling the good name of Masonry for all who observe his actions. This can never be allowed to happen. We must always be ever vigilant in our duties as Masons both inside the tiled recesses of the lodge and outside of those same lodges. The Junior Warden must also use the plumb when he looks at the process of bringing Masonic charges against another brother. For only by using the plumb as a guide can he hope to balance the duty of preferring charges on an accused brother against those of his conscience and the factual evidence. If he fails to look at the upright expectations and conduct that the accused brother has presented, then he has failed both his lodge and the craft in general. If the brother is upright, and the charges are found wanting, then the Junior Warden must exercise his good judgment, by the use of the plumb, and prefer not to bring the charges altogether. All of his actions must be to the greater good of Masonry and should be done with the aid of the Great Architect of the Universe. But how does the plumb connect us to the Great Architect of the Universe? We know that everything that we do, say and believe in the craft connects us to that great search for Masonic Light and wisdom. The plumb must be there to connect us to His will in some manner. As the plumb is and was used by operative masons to try perpendiculars, so must it be used to try our standings as well. The plumb must be connected to something above in order to adequately and 27
properly do its job. If not, then there is no true way to measure whether or not something is properly perpendicular, such as in the case of building a wall. The plumb that we use in Masonry should also be connected to the Great Architect of the Universe if we are in any hopes of being upright and correct men and masons both inside the craft and out in the societies we exist and live in. Only by being connected to the heavenly realms can we hope to have the anchor point upon which the straight line downward is defined. The other force that acts upon the plumb would be gravity. Gravity exists to keep things in place upon our planet, just as it brings the plumb down to the ground. This same gravity can also be inferred to in our Masonic labours as the Holy Book of the Law. The book of the law should be the earthly bound implement that connects us to the Great Architect of the Universe, for it is the written manner of his will which is to be communicated to us. That Great Light of the Holy Book of the Law, which is the Holy Bible in many lodges, grounds our faith and guides us in our practice as we travel through this mortal existence as we strive for the time when we will exist in the Great Lodge above. Thus, the Holy Book of the Law represents gravity and the plumb represents the life line with which we are connected to the Great Architect of the Universe. The plumb is also defined as an implement of rectitude. Rectitude is defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary as the quality or state of being upright. That would certainly define the actual use of the plumb, for it should measure a straight line perpendicular to the ground that lies below it. It also comes as no surprise that Masons are to be upright men and practitioners of the Craft, so this part of the definition rings true indeed. The dictionaryâ€™s definition goes
further to explain that rectitude is also moral integrity, righteousness or the quality or state of being correct in judgment or procedure. This can be viewed as alluding to the plumb in our own Masonic lives because Masonry teaches us that we should each be correct men and Masons, as referred to in the Entered Apprentice degree. This same state of being correct in our judgment should be looked at more deeply as to fully understand its intended meaning when relating to the usage of the plumb. As we depart our lodges, we are admonished to act by the plumb of rectitude. In order to act in this manner a Mason needs to understand that it is a charge not only to live correct and upright lives among the fellows and brothers we interact with outside of the tiled recesses of the lodge hall, but to also use correct judgment in all of our actions and procedures. This understanding can assist all mankind into looking at each and every interaction that comes about and to treat that same situation in a manner that would be ethical. Thus it can be inferred that the plumb admonishes all Masons to treat each other in a manner that is most ethical in all ways and means.
construction of the building, since it would cause the foundation to fail. Each of these tests is important to the overall completion of the building and to its ability to stand the test of time and the natural elements. When the plumb is used it enables the builders to see that the building should indeed be upright when other stones are laid on the foundation stone. This is also a test for the members of the Craft, since Masonry is built upon the foundation of the brethren who have come before us. If the foundation that the fathers of freemasonry dedicated were faulty, then the Craft would be doomed to suffer an ignominious and quick demise. But, seeing as how the Fraternity has lasted for quite a long time, we realize that the foundation upon which Freemasonry is built is strong. It is square. And it is upright. The symbols that have been selected by the Fraternity have not only stood the test of time, they enable us as Masons to look introspectively at ourselves through these same symbols. They enable us to look at how we treat each other and how we desire to be treated and they assist us in looking closer at the concepts that make up correctness and fallacy.
When a Grand Lodge dedicates or lays a cornerstone during its ceremonies, the plumb, among other operative masonry tools, is used. The cornerstone is tested by the square to make sure that its corners are true and square, the level to ascertain that the stone is indeed flat, and the plumb, which ensures that the stone has the correct sides which will lead to it being square when erected. This testing is done to be sure that the stone is good enough to be used in the building, since it is the foundation, or cornerstone on which the building is to be erected. If the stone fails to meet the requirements of any of these implements, then the stone must be rejected from the
In the writings of Albert Mackey, we see that the plumb should also be used masonicly to test ourselves as we interact in the world as to the concept of right or wrong. Mackey further writes that the true mason should look to the speculative builders, whose line was neither left nor right, but entirely straight. This concept can assist us in living our lives according to the several Masonic principles, especially when we are treated to things in our lives that can be seen as either prosperity or adversity. When things are going right, or we are prospering, it may be easier to keep the straight line. The plumb may not seem to be as useful to us at that point, since it is easier 28
to make the right decisions when things are going well. But when adversity rears its ugly head, and things can be made difficult, the plumb should also be there to remind us to stay true to the teachings and beliefs of masonry, lest we fall into conduct that would be unbecoming and would bring shame or embarrassment to the craft as a whole. This is the time when a brother’s character can be tested to the utmost degree. It is important to realize that the plumb is there, both in good and bad situations, to remind us to continue that straight forward and upright thinking and conduct which we inculcate as craftsmen. As we look at the understanding of Masonic symbolism, it should come to no surprise that the plumb can be seen in the aforementioned statements as a way for us to be constantly reminded to treat each other, and the world we live in, fairly, ethically and morally, ever looking to the Holy Book of the Law to give us inspiration from the Great Architect of the Universe. This could be the true meaning of the symbolism of the plumb in Craft Masonry. Even if it is not the utmost explanation of the plumb’s meaning as a symbol for Masonic Light, it should still be the inspiration for every good man and Mason to look to the east and reflect upon his own actions and conduct. For only by using these time-honoured and tested beliefs can we ever expect to truly live up to the honour that has been bestowed by being raised to the degree of Master Mason. The world, and the Craft as a whole, would be better served if we would each remember the simple use of the plumb and to act upon its deeper meanings and inferences. This will continue to make us better men and Masons. ‘The Plumb and Its Masonic Uses’ by Patrick C. Carr was sourced from the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Orient of Oklahoma
The Three Great Lights The Three Great Lights will guide our steps Through life's uncertain way, And bring us safe at length to see The bright, eternal day. The Holy Book our fathers read With undimmed faith, today Make clear our sight that we may know Its precepts to obey. With square of virtue, try our acts And make them meet the test; There is no other cause that leads To Islands of the Blest. Between the lines that represent The Longest, shortest day, Keep circumscribed by compasses That we go not astray. The Three Great Lights will guide our steps Through life's uncertain way, And bring us safe at length to see The bright, eternal day. (From The S. A. Masonic journal)
THE BACK PAGE The Working Tools of a Convivial Mason â€œI now present the working tools of a Convivial Freemason. They are: The Fork, The Knife, and The Tumbler. The FORK is an implement that enables even the most inexperienced Freemason to secure, at times by reaching across the table, the delicate and succulent morsels that adorn our Festive Board to delight the eye and stimulate the jaded appetite. This implement is used to convey these morsels to that aperture which has been specifically designed to receive them, and which reduces all nutriment to a common level. The Fork should always be used when partaking of Peas, which, if conveyed to the mouth with the assistance of the knife, often prove very elusive. The KNIFE, when properly ground and sharpened, is used to reduce all crude matter to a regular form, and assists us to dissect the anatomy of even the most venerable Rooster. The KNIFE teaches us to cut off no more than we can chew, and to limit our desires in every station of life, so that rising to eminence by merit we may live respected, and die regretted.
The TUMBLER enables us to ascertain and determine, with accuracy and precision, the quantity of liquor we find conducive to the preservation of genial joviality. As all TUMBLERS have not that mark upon them, commonly known as the Pretty, the skillful Craftsman will measure his tot with the aid of the two or three finger rule. The TUMBLER will only hold a certain amount of liquor without detriment to its surroundings, and it teaches us that we should ascertain, and never exceed, the limits of our own internal economy. 30
As we are met here this evening as Speculative, as well as Energetic and Operative, Convivial Freemasons, we also apply these tools to our morals. In this sense the FORK teaches us that we should not always sit down and await what we desire in life, but reach out, secure and retain it, profiting by our opportunities and assimilating the knowledge gained through our experiences. Nor should we forget that the little things in life should be looked after, lest they elude our grasp and are lost beyond recall. As the prongs of the FORK are all equal and mutually assist one another, being joined together in one compact structure, so we as Freemasons should stand together and practice those four qualifications that cannot be too strongly recommended to your notice: • Straightforwardness in our dealings with one another. • Sympathy for the failings of a Brother. • Good Temper in our differences and opinions. • Add Fidelity to the sacred Tie that binds us together. The KNIFE teaches us the value of assiduity, and the patience to cope with the many problems that confront us, so we are taught to take care of our mental and corporeal faculties. The TUMBLER teaches us the importance of moderation and temperance. As it has no graduated scale by which to measure its varying contents, the user must exercise his judgment as to the quantity of liquor he pours therein. As the TUMBLER will only hold a limited quantity without detriment to its surroundings so we should estimate our capacity so as not to confuse our mental and physical equilibrium. As the perfect TUMBLER always rings true, be it empty or full, so the perfect Convivial Freemason should always ring true after labour at the Festive Board. A cracked TUMBLER is despised and rejected by all. Thus the Working Tools of a Convivial Freemason teach us to bear in mind and practice the cardinal virtues of Temperance and Prudence, so that when we are summonsed to rise and drink the Tyler’s Toast, having partaken of the good things provided by a bounteous Providence for our enjoyment, we may depart homeward with the gratifying testimony of a contented mind, a clear brain, and equal poise.
The Editor of the SRA76 magazine in sourcing this has slightly adapted the article and included the graphics. (If anyone has any working tools parodies like this, please let me know!)
Until next month, Keep the faith! The Editor
The Monthly Masonic Magazine of Lodge Stirling Royal Arch No. 76.