FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep Variables:​ Some of the significant differences between recipe variables are the different rise times and their dough amounts. Basically each dough had a bake time. Some were twenty minutes and the other was forty. Also each bread had different ingredients and different recipes/ steps for each one. Question: ​How do different leavening agents affect the outcome of a bread recipe? Hypothesis:​ If I add yeast to the bread recipe, then there will be carbon dioxide bubbles that will make the dough rise. Control Group: ​The control group is the yeast bread because most bread use yeast to make the dough rise so, since we are doing yeast we are not going to be changing anything to the dough.

BAKING SODA (Experimental #1) Ingredient

Calculations

3 1/2 cup all-purpose flour, plus extra for dusting

N/A

1 teaspoon sugar

N/A

1 teaspoon baking soda

N/A

1 teaspoon salt

N/A

1 1/2–2 cups buttermilk

N/A

Revised Amount

HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2) Ingredient

Calculations

Revised Amount

10 cups flour

10/3 = 3 1/3

3 ⅓ cups flour

4 t0 4 ½ cups of water

4/3 | 9/2 * ⅓ = 1 1/2

4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water

3 ½ teaspoons of salt

7/2 * ⅓ = 7/6

1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt

¾ cup starter

¾ /3 = 1/4

¼ cup starter

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep

COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3) Ingredient

Calculations

Revised Amount

1/3 cup sourdough starter

N/A

N/A

1 scant tablespoon salt

N/A

N/A

1 - 1 1/2 cup water

N/A

N/A

3 1/3 cup white flour

N/A

N/A

DENNIS’ SOURDOUGH (Experimental #4)

Ingredient

Calculations

Revised Amount

1 tablespoon active sourdough starter

1/2=

½ tablespoon

75 grams (1/2 cup) all-purpose flour or bread flour

½/2=

¼ cup

75 grams (1/3 cup) water

⅓/2=

⅙ cup

1 tablespoon salt

1/2=

½ tablespoon

525 grams (2 1/2 cups) water

2½/ 2=

1 ½ cups

700 grams (5 1/2 cups) all-purpose flour or bread flour

5½/2=

2 ¾ cups

Variable

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep Dough rise time

60 minutes

No rise time

15 - 60 minutes

4 - 24 hours

4 hours

Oven temp.

450 F

450 F

400 F

400 F

450 F

Bake time

25 - 35 minutes

45 minutes

1 - 3 hours

30 - 60 minutes

55 minutes

Dough amount

½

Observation

Control Group

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

Height

2 ½ inches

3 ½ inches

3 inches

1 inch

6 ½ inches

Smell

Fresh bread smell

Pancake smell

Slightly sour smell

Sour smell

Very sour smell

Appearance (holes, airiness)

Thick crunchy crust

No pockets, flaky crust

Thin crust, soft inside

Large pockets, softer crust

Not fully baked, crisp crust

Texture

Hard/soft

Soft

Medium soft

Soft

Soft/raw

Other

Dark crust

Tan crust

Light crust

Light to golden crust

Golden to dark crust

Overall, my hypothesis was correct the yeast you add the more your dough will rise. I had yeast bread so it was the control group. The bread came out to be 2.5 inches high and had a thick crunchy crust. In our experiment for our bread we had our leavening agent as the yeast. The other breads were baking soda, homemade: commercial, dennis, sourdough. The two types of leavening agents are biological and chemical. The reason why we need leavening agents are because they make the dough rise and inflate. When adding a leavening agent bubbles occur filled with carbon dioxide and make the dough fluffy so the bread is soft and light.

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep Nutrition FactsFlour: Calories - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 250 = 1,000 100 x .25 .25 Carbohydrates - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 55 = 220g 22g x .25 .25 Fat - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Protein - .25 = 2.5 = .25x = 7.5g = 30g 3g x .25 .25 Yeast: Calories - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 31.5 = 31.5 21 x 1 1 Carbohydrates - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 4.5g = 4.5g 3g x 1 1 Fat - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 0g = 0g 0g x 1 1 Protein - 1 = 1.5 = 1x = 0g = 0g 0g x 1 1 Salt: Calories - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0 = 0 0 x .25 .25 Carbohydrates - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Fat - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Protein - .25 = 1 = .25x = 0g = 0g 0g x .25 .25 Daily Percentage: ● ●

Calories 1,000 = 50% 31.5 = 1.57% 0 = 0% 51.57%

● -

Carbohydrates: 220 = 11% 4.5 = 0.22% 0 = 0%

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep ●

11.22%

● ●

Fat: 0 = 0% 0 = 0% 0 = 0% 0 = 0%

● ●

Protein: 30 = 1.5% 0 = 0% 0 = 0% 1.5%

Graph-

​Materials: -

Spatula Knife Large Mixing Bowl

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep -

Plastic Wrap Timer Oven Mitts Cutting Board Pencil/Paper Ruler Measuring Cup

Yeast Procedure: ●

Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means about 105°F. Mix and stir everything together to make a very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds. ● Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or plastic wrap. ● Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2 hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days. ● When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit. ● Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log. ● Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top. ● Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or longer. ● If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while the loaf rests. ● When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3 times, making a cut about 1/2" deep. ● Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on the rack beneath. ● Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes. ● Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag at room temperature. BAKING SODA (Experimental #1) Baking Soda Procedure: 1. Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep 2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together. 3. Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your fingers outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together, adding more buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will become heavy. The dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky. ● When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches thick and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet. ● Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when tapped on the bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your bread is done is to use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches 195-200 degrees. HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2) ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and another ½ cup of water. When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more flour, salt, and water. Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl Mix well Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt Knead well for 10-15 minutes Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test Make the dough into a loaf Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked

COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3) Commercial Sourdough Procedure: 1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together. Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a moist bread dough. 2. Knead the dough until it passes the “window pane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch

FOOD Unit 2: Cooking Action Project #2 Prep between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow light to pass through. 3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours. 4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp knife or razor blade. 5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F (use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing. DENNIS’ SOURDOUGH (Experimental #4) Dennis’ Sourdough Procedure: ● Make sure your sourdough culture is active ● Make the leaven (overnight) ● Test that the leaven is ready ● Dissolve the salt ● Mix the leaven and water ● Add the flour ● Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours) ● Mix in the salt ● Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours) ● Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes) ● Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls ● Shape the loaves ● Transfer to the proofing baskets ● Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge) ● Heat the oven to 500°F ● Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens ● Score the top of the loaf ● Bake the loaves for 20 minutes ● Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes ● Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes ● Bake another 15 to 25 minutes ● Cool the loaves completely

Prep worksheet sr
Prep worksheet sr
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