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Collocations

Michael McCarthy Felicity O'Dell .

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Contents Acknowledgements To th e stu de nt (a nd th e teacher)

3 4

Learning about collocations 1 2 3 4 5

What is a collocation? Finding, recording and learning collocations Using yo ur dictionary Types of collocation Regist er

Grammatical aspects of collocations 6 7 8 9

Inten sifying adverbs Ever yda y verbs I Everyda y verbs 2 Eve ryday verbs 3

highly unlileely, utterly ridicu lo us, strongly object make a mistake, d o your best, do damage go bald, become ex tinct, fa ll ill have [un, take action , pa y a compliment

Special aspects of collocation 10 Synonyms and confusable words 1 II Synonyms and confusable words 2 12 M etaphor

close a m eeting, antique [urniture, on ly ch ild gain power, achieve your goals, defeat an opponent SI/1/11Y sm ile, ideas flow, heat ed discussion

Topics: Travel and the environment 13 14 15 16

Weather Tra vel Co untrys ide Towns and cities

strong w ind, blanket of fog, river b ursts its ban ks tiring jo u rney, aisle seat, fa mily-ru n h otel surrounding co u ntryside , well worth see ing lin ed w ith sh ops, sprawling city, uo lume of traffic

Topics: People and relationshi ps 17 18 19 20 21

People: character and behaviour People: physical appearance Families Rel ationships Feelings a nd emot io ns

have a vi vid imagination, los e you r patien ce slender waist, im m aculately groomed distant co usin, ex pecting a baby, stable h ome casual acquaintance, lo ve at first sight lasting happiness , worried sick, emotiona l w reck

Topics: Leisure and lifestyle 22 23 24 25 26 27

H ouses, flat s and ro oms Eati ng a nd drinking Films a nd books Music Sport Health and illness

m o ve into a flat, spacious living room nourishing m eal, spoil your ap petite, dying of hunger film critic, go o n the stage, renew a library book give a per formance, go o n to ur; str um a guitar go sn owboarding , take a penalty catch a co ld , uigoro us exercise, be taken ill

Topics: Wo r k a n d stUdy 28 29 30 31

Co m p uters Study and learning Work Bus iness

forward a m essag e, e-mail b ounces d o resear ch , attend a lecture, first d raft high-powered jo b , hand in your n otice set lip a business, launch a product, rival company

English Collocations in Use


32 Academic writing 1: giving opinions 33 Academ ic writing 2: stru ct uring a n a rg ument

k ey facto r, challenge a theory, carry out research make referen ce to, argue co nvin cingly, research suggests

Topics: Society and institutions 34 Laws a nd punishments 35 C rime 36 ews 37 Money 38 War and peace 39 Global problems

break th e law, bend th e rules, fair trial harden ed crim ina l, juvenile crime, tackle crime hit th e h eadlines, hold talks, tak e hostage sq ua nder m oney, p rice soars , go cheap wa r breaks ou t, resto re o rder, call a truce irreparable damage, eradicate poverty, earthq ua ke hits

Basic concepts 40 Time 41 Sound 42 Di stance and size 4 3 C o lo ur a nd light 44 Te xture 45 Ta st e and smell 46 umber a nd frequency 4 7 Movement and speed 48 Change 49 Ways of spea king 50 Wa ys o f w alking

save time, ungodly h ours, from dawn till dusk break th e silence, excessive noise, almighty bang within co m m u ting distance, painfully thin bright co lo ur, beam of light, sh ed some light on choppy sea, soft pillow, ice melts frag rant perfume, have a taste, smell danger significant number, come to a total of, rare species prompt payment, painfully slow, los e y our balan ce make an adjustment, break" a habit, change th e subject brief chat, raise a subject, d rop a hint pace up and down, w ander aimlessl y, falt ering steps

Functions 51 Starting a nd fin ishing 52 Talking about success and failure 53 Talking about cause and effect 54 Remembering and sensi ng 55 Agreeing and disagreeing 56 Ta lking about beliefs and opinions 5 7 Deciding and choosing 58 Claiming and denying 59 Liking and disliking 60 Praising and criticising

Key Index

2

English Collocations in Use

126 159

promising start, bring something to an end make a breakthrough, fail miserably cause alarm, adverse effects, have a major impact vaguely remember, blot o ut a m emory, have a feeling settle a dispute, agre e to differ, heated argument firm ly believe, colou r someone's judgement arrive at a decision, ha ve second th oughts, tough choice make th e point that, contradictory evide nce have a liking, state a preference, take offe nce offe r your congratulations, speak highly of


VVhat is a collocation? A

A co lloca t io n is a pai r o r gro u p o f wo rds that are ofte n used together. These combina tions sound na tura l to na tive spea kers, but stude nts of English ha ve to m a ke a specia l effo rt to learn th em because they a re often d iffic ult to g uess. Some co m b ina tions just sound 'wrong' to native s peakers of English. For example, the adjective fas t collocates w ith cars, but not wit h a glance.

We say ...

We don't say ...

fast cars fast food

<ft'iElt cars <ft'iElt food

a quick glance a quic k meal

a a

~

I

glance

~mea l

i

Learning collocations is a n important pa rt of lea rn ing the vocab ula ry of a lang ua ge. Some collocations are fixed, o r very strong, for example take a p hoto, where no word o ther than take collocates wi th photo to give th e same m ean ing. Some colloca tions are m ore o pen, w he re severa l d iffe rent w o rds m a y be used to g ive a s imi la r m ean in g, for exa mp le keep to I stick to th e ru les. H ere a re some more exam ples of collocations. You m us t make an effort and study for your exams ( OT t:I-tt a n effort) D id yo u watch TV la st n ight? (NOT loolE .H TV) T his car has a very powerfu l en gine. It can do 200 km an hour. ( OT ~tfOllg engine) There are some ancient monuments nearby. ( OT 'llHique monuments ) Someti mes, a pa ir of wo rds ma y not be absolutel y wrong, a nd people w ill und ersta nd w hat is meant, but it ma y not be t he natura l, norma l colloca tion. If someone says I did a few mistakes they will be understood, but a fluen t speaker of Englis h wou ld probably say I made a few mi stakes.

B

Compounds an d idi oms Compoun ds are un its of mea ning forme d wi th two or m o re wo rds . Someti mes the words a re wr itte n se pa ra te ly, so metimes th ey ha ve a h yphen and so met imes th e y are wri tte n as on e wo rd . Usua lly t he meaning of t he compo un d can be g uessed by k n o w ing the meaning o f th e individual words . Some examples of com pounds are car park, post office, narrowminded, sho el aces, teapot. It is not a lways easy to separate collocations an d compounds a nd, where they a re useful for learners or an important part of the vocab u lary of a topic, we includ e some compounds in th is boo k too. Idi o m s are groups of words in a fixed order that have a meaning t hat cannot be guessed by knowing t he meaning of th e individua l words. For example, pass the buck is an idiom mea ni ng 'to p ass respo nsibi lity fo r a p ro blem to a nothe r person to avoi d d eal in g wi th it oneself ' . We d eal wi th id ioms in d etai l in the bo o k English Idioms in Use in t his series.

C

Why learn colloca tions? Learn in g co lloca t io ns is a good idea because th e y ca n : a ) giv e yo u th e m o st natura l way to say so met hing: smoking is strictly forbidden is m ore natural than smoking is strongly forbidden . b ) give yo u a lte rna t ive wa ys of saying so meth ing, which ma y be more colo urful/expressive or mo re p recise: ins tead of repea ting It was very cold and very dark , we can sa y It was bitterly cold and pitch dark . c ) im prove yo ur sty le in writing : ins tea d of saying po verty causes crime, you can sa y po vert y breeds crime; in stead o f sayi ng a big meal yo u ca n say a substantial meal. You may not need or wa nt to use th ese in informal co nversa tions, but in writing they can give yo ur text m ore va riety a nd m ake it read better: th is boo k incl udes no tes about fo rma lity wherever th e collocations a re especiall y formal o r in fo rma l.

6

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 1.1

Read A and B a nd answer th ese qu estions. I What is a colloca t io n? 2 Which o f th ese w ords d o es fas t colloca te with: car, fo od, glance, m eal? 3 Which o f th ese a re co m po u nds: co mputer, narrow-minded, teapot, ancien t m onumen t; car park? 4 \Vha t do w e call ex p ressi o ns like pass the buck: and be o uer the m o on?

1.2

Make ten colloca tio ns from th e w ords in th e box. an effort ancient engine forbidden powerful pitch

1.3

cold breakfast make have make meal watch substantial TV

Learning colloca tio ns will m ak e yo u r English so u nd m ore natural. Learni ng collo cations will hel p yo u to ex p ress yo u rself in a va riety of ways. Learning coll ocati ons will help yo u to write better English. Using collo ca t io ns properl y will ge t yo u better marks in exa ms. You will not be und erstood un less yo u use collo ca t io ns p roperl y.

Put th e ex p ress io ns from th e bo x into th e co rre ct category in th e table below. a st orm in a te a cup live mus ic mak e a mi stak e valid passport heavy snow pull somebody's leg

compound

1.5

dar k monument

Are th ese sta te men ts about collocations tru e o r fal se? I 2 3 4 5

1.4

bitterly m istakes st rictly

collocation

checkpoint key r ing teapot bitterly disappoin t ed

idiom

Underl ine th e collocations in this text. When I left un iversity I. made a decision to take up a profession in which J could be creative. I could play the guitar. but I'd never written any songs. Nonetheless I de cided to become a singer-songwriter. I made some recordings but I had a ra ther heavy cold so they didn't sound good. I made some more, and sent them to a record company and wa ited for them to reply. So, while I was waiting to become famous. J got a job in a fa st-food restaurant. That was five years ago. I'm still doing the same job.

English Collocations in Use

7


Finding, recording and learning collocations A

F inding collocations There a re tw o main ways in w hich you can fin d collocations . • You ca n train yo urself to notice them w henever you rea d o r listen to a ny t h ing in En glish . Lo ok a t the colloca tions that a re worth lea rn ing from th is sho rt text in English. Alter giving Mark a lift to th e a irpo rt. Cat hy made h er way home. What an exciting li fe he led ! At tim es Cathy felt desperately jealous o f him . She spent h e r time doing little more than tak ing ca re of him and the children. Now her siste r was getting d ivorce d and would doubtless be maki ng demands o n her 100. Ca th y had promised 10 give her sister a call as soo n as she go t home but she de cided 10 run herself a bath first. Sh e had a sharp pain in her side and hoped that a hOI bath might ease t h e pa in.

I

G et into t h e habi t o f maki ng a no te of any go od collo cations you com e across in any English t ext you r ead.

• You ca n find them in a ny good learn er's di ctionary. Fo r ex a m ple, if yo u lo ok up th e w ord sharp yo u will find so m e o f these collocations: a a a a

B B

sharp sha r p shar p sharp

pain bendlturn contrast/difference/dis tinction rise/ in crea se/dro p

W he n yo u lo ok up a new word make a point of noting it down in seve ra l diffe re nt co llo catio ns.

Recording collocations The best w ay to record a colloca tion is in a ph ra se or a sentence showi ng how it is used. Highlight th e colloca tion b y underlining it or by using a highlightin g pen. For exa m ple: I d on 't ha ve access to th at kind o f sec re t informati on . Or: J im gave me a very useful piece of advice.

C

Learning collocations Learning colloca tio ns is not so different from learning an y voca b ula ry item. T he key th ings are to : • regu larl y revise what yo u want to learn • practise us ing what yo u want to learn in contexts that are m eanin gful fo r you personally • learn collocations in groups to help yo u fix the m in yo u r memory. You m ight g ro u p together collocations re la t ing to the same topic. Or you might g roup colloca tions ba sed o n th e sa m e w ord, for ex a m p le: I must find a way to help him . Can you find your way back to m y house? I lea rnt the hard way tha t Jack can't be trusted. Plea se tell me if I' m ge tting in yo u r w a y. You m ust give way to traffic from the left. I' ve tried every possible way to get him to change hi s mind.

8

English Collocati ons in Use


Exercises 2.1

Unde rline 11 collocations in this text.

""!:l fri.wd. Betl1 i s cUspu~ worrLed. abou.t. hu son oJ:. tI1e moment.. He wo.nt.s to enrol on 0. coarse. of some sort. b«t. j v. st. c.o.n't. moJ::e 0. d.eci-si.on abou.t. whoJ:. to st.v.~ . I g(}..ve Betl1 (}.. ri.ng o.nd. we ho.<i (}.. long d1oJ:. o.bou.t. i.t. lMt. night.. She s~ he 'd. like to st.v.~ for (}.. d..e9ree bv.t. ~ (}..fr~ he won't. meet tI1e requiremencs for v.niNus~ ent.ry. Betl1 tI1i.nks he shou.l<i tiD 0. coo. rse i.n Mo.no..gement. because he 'd. like to set. v.p h~s own bv.si.ness i.n tI1e fv.wre . I o..gree<i tI1oJ:. tI1oJ:. wou.l<i be 0. w~se choice, 2.2

Match th e b eginn ing of each senten ce on the left w ith its en d ing o n th e right. I She's ha ving

2 She 's taking 3 She 's g iving 4 She's making S She's doing

2.3

her duty. a lecture. a party. a n exa m . good p rogress.

Correc t the eig h t collocatio n er rors in this text. Use a d icti ona r y to help you if necessary. In the m ornin g I ma de so me work in t he ga rde n, th en I spe nt a rest fo r a bout a n h o u r befo re go ing o ut to have so me shop pi ng in tow n. It w a s m y siste r's birthda y and I wa nted to do a special effo rt to coo k a nice meal fo r he r. I gave a look a t a new Thai cookery bo ok in the boo ks ho p a n d d ecid ed to bu y it. It ha s so me totally easy recipes and I m a na ged to d o a good impression with my very first Tha i meal. I th in k my sister utterly enjoyed her bi rt hday.

2.4

Look a t this entry for the verb lead in the Cambridge Advanced Leamer's Dictionary. What collocations could yo u learn from this entry? U n d erl ine or highlight th em. Then write one new sen ten ce for each of them . ICONTROLI 0 IIi :dl verb [l or T) (led, led) to control a group of people. a country. or a situation: I think we've

lead

chosen the right person to lead the exp ed i tion. 0 I've asked Gemma to lead th e discussion. 0 Who will be leadi ng th e inquiry into the accident? • lead sb by the nose INFOR MA L to control so meone and

make them do exactly what you want them to do

·

See al so Un it 3, Usi ng yo ur d ict io na r y.

I .

Use a dictionary to find three or four other good collocations for each of these words: desperately pain wise run W rite the collocations you find in an appropriate way in your vocabulary notebook.

English Collocations

in Use

9


3

Using your dictionary A good learn er's di ctiona ry wi ll give you info rma tion o n colloca tio ns . So meti mes th e informa tio n is high lig hted in so me specia l way. In o the r cases, th e exam ples used in the dictionary include th e most common collocations. In the Cambridge Advanced Leamer's Dictionary (CA LD), common a nd useful collocation are given in bold type. Loo k a t the CALD entry fo r the wo rd pain a nd note ho w useful colloca t io ns a re highlighted in bold.

pain 0

/ p e rn/ noun [C or uj 1 a feeling of physical suffering caused by injury or illness: Her symptoms included abdominal pain and vomiting. 0 Are you in ( = suffering from) pain? 0 She was in constant pain. 0 These tablets should help to ease the pain. 0 I felt a sharp pain in my foot . 0 He 's been suffering various a ches and pains for yea rs. 2 emo tional or me ntal suffering: It 's a fi lm about the pains and pleasures of parenthood. 0 The parents are still in g rea t pain over the death of their child. • a pain (in the neck) INFOR MA L someone or something that is very annoying: That ch ild is a real pain in the neck.

CD-RO M ve rs io ns of di cti ona ries a re useful because you ca n usu all y search fo r a lo t mo re info rmation ve ry qu ickl y indeed. T he CA LD CD- RO M has a specia l butto n la be lled ~~~~~ in man y entries. C lick ing o n th is button gives yo u a list of colloca tio ns . H ere a re th e ve rb colloca tio ns for pain . The dictiona ry a lso gives adjectives a nd nouns w hich a re used wi t h pain .

I

I

Collocations

pain Verbs

ex perience I feel I suffer pain I experienced chest pains and d izzin ess.

alleviate I ease I lessen I rel ie ve I soothe pain A ho t bath may help to rel ie ve t he p a in .

ca use I inflict pa in He d elibera tely inflicted pain on his p up il s.

complain of pa in She cam e in co mpla in ing o f stomach pains.

pain su bsides As the pain subsided, I began to relax.

be racked with pain He is em aciated and ra cke d w ith p ain .

A good dictionary wi ll also tell yo u if a colloca tion is for ma l o r informa l. For example, CA LD in dica tes tha t to take somebody up on an offer is a n informal collocation (accep t an offer wo uld be a more for mal a lte rna tive ).

offer 0 l ' oL ;)'1 @ l 'u : .fi'l·1 noun [Cj when someone asks you if yo u would like to have something or if yo u would like them to do something: "If you like I can do some shopping for you. " "T ha t 's a very kind offer." 0 I must say the offer of a weekend in Barcelona quite tempts me. o INFOR MAL One day I'll take you up on ( = accept) that offer.

I .

I0

When you buy a dictionary, make sure it gives good. clear info r m at io n about collocations.When you look up words, if you don't know the collocations, highl ight them in your dictionary o r transfe r them to your vocabulary notebook.

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 3.1

Answer th ese qu esti ons a bou t collo ca tio ns a nd dicti onari es. How does the Cambridge Advanced Leamer's Dictionary show colloca tio ns? So, which five collocations with pain can you see in t he ro p box on the opposite page? Why is a CD- Rom dictionary particularly usefu l? What happens if you click on the Collocations bu rron w hen using t he Cambridge Advanced Leamer's Dictionary CD- Rom? How does the Cambridge Advanced Leamer's Dictionary indica te that a collocation is info rmal? Look at the dictio nary th a t you norma lly use. Do es it indica te collocations? If so how? Look up pain in your own dictionary. W hich of th e co lloca tions o n t he left-h a nd page does it either highligh t or illustrate in exa mple se ntences? Does it show any o the r interes ting collocat io ns fo r pain? Look up t he noun offer in your own d ictio nary. Wha t colloca tions ca n yo u find? Does the di cti o nary indicate w he t he r the colloca t io ns are for m a l/informa l? If so, ho w ?

I 2 3 4

5 6 7

8

3.2

Put th e ex p ressio ns from th e b o x into th e co r rect ca te go ry in th e tabl e below. to suffer pain to alleviate pain to be racked w ith pain to cause pain to complain of pain to ease pain to experience pain to feel pain to inflict pain to lessen pain to relieve pain to soothe pain pain subs ides

maki ng others experience pain

3.3

the experience of being in pain

making pain go away

Look in a good learner's d ictionary. W h a t collocatio ns do yo u find there for the word ac he?

I

Look up two or three word s that yo u have recently le arnt. using a go o d learner's d ict io nary. Write down an y int e resting collocations that are shown fo r those words.

English Collocatio ns in Use

II


4

Types of collocation There a re m an y d ifferent types of collo ca tions . H ere a re so me exa m p les .

,,--_ A

Adjectives and nouns otice adj ecti ves th at a re typ icall y used w ith pa rtic ula r nouns. J ean a lways w ears red or yell ow o r so me o ther bright colour. We had a brief chat about th e exa ms but didn't ha ve time to d iscu ss them properl y. Un employment is a m aj o r problem for the gove rn men t at the m oment. Improvin g th e health se rv ice is a not he r key issue fo r govern ment.

B

Nouns and verbs otice how no u ns an d ve r bs often go togethe r. T he exa m p les below a re a ll to d o wi th economics and b usi ness. T he economy boomed in th e 19 9 0s. [the eco no my was ve ry strong I The company has grown a nd no w em ploys 5 0 m o re peo p le tha n last yea r. The company has expanded a nd now ha s branches in m ost maj or c ities . The two companies merged in 2003 a nd now form o ne ve ry large co r po ra tio n . The co m pa ny lau nch ed th e prod uc t in 2002 . [introduced th e product] The price increa se poses a probl em for us. [is a problem] The Internet has created o pportuni ties for o u r bu siness. [brought new o p po rtu ni t ies ]

C

Noun + noun T here a re a lo t of colloca tio ns wi th th e pattern a . . . of . . . As Sam read the lies about him, he fel t a surge of anger. [literary: a sudden angry feeling] Every parent feels a sense of pride w hen the ir c hi ld d o es w e ll or wins something. I felt a pang of nostalgia when I saw the o ld photos of the vi llage where I grew up;

D

Verbs and expressions with prepositions Some ve r bs collocate wit h particu lar p re positio na l exp ress io ns . As J ack w ent o n stage to receive his gold m ed al for th e judo co m pe ti tio n yo u cou ld see his parents swelling wi th pride. [lo o king ex t re mely proud] I was filled with horror w hen I rea d th e newspaper report of th e ex plosio n. When she spi lt juice o n her new ski rt the little g irl burst into tears . [sud den ly started crying]

E

Verbs and adverbs o rne ve rbs ha ve particular a dve rbs which regu la rly colloca te wi th them. She pulled steadily o n th e rope a nd he lped hi m to safety. (pulled firm ly and evenly] H e placed th e beautiful vase gen tly o n th e w ind ow led ge. ' I lo ve yo u a nd wa nt to m arry yo u,' Derek whispered softly to M a rsh a , She sm iled proudly as she lo oked a t th e pho tos of her ne w g ra ndso n.

F

Adverbs and adjectives Adjecti ves o fte n ha ve particula r a d ve r bs wh ich regularl y colloca te w ith th em. They a re happily married. I a m fully aware t hat th ere are serious pro blems. [I k now we ll] H a rry was blissfully unaware tha t he was in danger. [Harry had no idea at all, often used abo ut something u n p leasa nt ]

I2

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 4.1

Complete each se ntence with a collocation from A. 1 2 3 4

4.2

Come to my office ten min utes befo re the meeting so we can ha ve .. . Wi th her lovely dark hair Uma looks best when she wears . .. In yo ur essay on the influence of TV, don't fo rget to d iscuss th ese ... There is some crime in o ur town but it isn 't .. .

Replace the underlined words with a collocating verb from B. I 2 3 4

We are goi ng to introd uce an exciti ng new p rod uct in Ju ne. The economy was extremely high 20 years ago. The new university t hey are planning wi ll p ro vid e a lot of job opportunities. There are always some p ro blem s when tw o co m panies join together b ut I t hink it will be worth it in the long run . 5 The increase in oi l prices certainly c reates a pro blem for us. 6 The company got bigge r and has now a d ded c hi ld ren 's clothing to its product range.

4.3

Choose the correct feeling from the box to complete each sen tence. anger

2 3 4 5 6

4.4

tears

nostalgia

pride

pride

M o st o lder people feel a s ligh t pa ng of as th ey th ink back o n th eir schoo lda ys. Ca rla's fa ther was filled wi t h w he n he saw th a t she had d yed her beautiful black ha ir blonde. \X' hen Paul saw ho w ha rshl y th e poor were treated by the wealthy landowners he felt a surge of . Swelli ng w it h , Da n wa tched his daughter pick up her violin and pl a y. When she saw her exam results, Kate burst into . If peop le have a sense of in their town, they are more likely to beha ve well th ere.

Look at E and F and choose the correct adverb to complete these sentences.

2 3 4 5 6

4.5

horror

Perh aps it 's a good thing th at Ken 's un aware of w hat peo ple rea lly think of him. I am a wa re t hat th ere wi ll be proble ms wha tever we d ec id e. Nadya smiled as she wa tc he d t he child ren playing happily in the garden. My g randparents have been married for 45 years. Place th e glasses in the box - they' re very fragile. in Anna's ear tha t he wou ld always love her. Pau l whispere d

Which of the sections A-F on the opposite page would ea ch o f th ese collocations fit into ? 1 2 3 4 5

ma ke a d ec isio n bl issfull y happy tread ca refully a su rge o f emo tio n ac u te ly emba rrassi ng

I .

6 7 8 9 10

roa r wi th la ugh ter a key fac tor prices rise a g inge r cat burst into song

Make ~ page in your vocabulary notebook for each of the types of collocations listed on the opposite page .

English Collocations in Use

I3


5

Register Often, collocati ons rather than indi vidual words sugges t a particular register. For example, phrases usin g pretty m eaning fai rly so u nd inform a l w he n used with negative a d ject ives (p retty awful , pretty dreadful , pretty dull ), and are typical of spoke n English .

A

Spoken English H ere are some m ore colloca tio ns whi ch a re a lmost exclusively found in spoken Eng lish. I'm b ored st iff l in this lesson!

I'll ha ve a think about it and let yo u know.

You badl y need a haircut !

G ive me a ring ? when yo u get home. ?'

I .

'I

' -::

2g ive

'extremely bo red

B

I ~

me a phone call

Formal English Some collocations are typical of formal English and are m o st lik ely to be fo u nd in a n o ffic ia l, o fte n legal, context, suc h as in notices. • Passengers must ' n ot alight from the bus wh i lst it is in motion . •

[get off th e bu s]

C

Cyclists must d ismount he re

[peopl e wh o go o nto so rneo ne's land o r enter th eir building w ithout permission will be ta ken ro co ur t]

[get o ff th eir bicycles]

Please dispose o f" unwanted it em s i n t he receptacle ? provided

'throwawa y used fo r sro ring o r putt ing o bjects in 2co nt a iner

Newspaper English Some colloca tio ns - parti cularl y o nes th at use sho rt , dramatic w ords - a re found m ainl y in newspapers. In most ca ses th ey w ould not normall y be used in everyd a y con versation . C O M PUT ER FACTORY TO AXE JOBS

[ma ke staff redundant ]

AIRLINE SLASHES PRICE S

[cuts prices drast icall y] POLICE QUIZ 16-YEAROLD IN MU RDER EN Q U IRY

POLICE CRACK DOWN ON SPEEDING

[starr deal ing with ir in a more severe wa y] FLU O U TBR EAK HITS SOUTHER

D

GOVER ME T SPENDING WILL ROCK ET TH IS YEAR

[ask qu estions I

EUROPE

Bus in e ss English Some collocations a re c ha ra cte rist ic o f business Engli sh . to to to to

14

su bmit a tender [p resent a d o cument offering to d o a job and stat ing th e price ) raise capital (get m oney to put into a business I go into partners hip with someone [agree to sta rt o r run a business wi th someone] start up a b usiness

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 5.1

Underl ine form al (F) or in formal (I) collocations in th ese sen te nces (o ne per se n tence) and p ut F o r I in the brackets at the end. I 2 3 4 5 6

5.2

Cycl ists sho uld d ismount befo re crossi ng th e footbridge. ( ) ever di spose of batteri es a nd sim ila r items b y throwing th em o n to a fire. ( ) The stu dents were a ll bored st iff by th e lecture. ( ) Passen gers m us t a ligh t fro m th e b us thro ug h the rear d o or. ( ) The grass badl y need s c utti ng. ( ) Plea se place a ll used tick ets in th e receptacle provid ed a s you lea ve th e build ing. ( )

Underli ne typi cal new s/m edi a collocations in th ese new sp a per clips. I

OIL COMPANIES SLASH PRICES The re wa s good news for motorists tod ay as pump pr ices we re lowered by the major oil co mpa nies.

2

D ETECTIV ES QU IZ BUSINE SSM A N OVER MISSING TEENAGER Senior detectives int ervi ew ed a man w ho has been named as prime suspect in the case of a missing 18 year-old who is feared to have been abducted.

4

3 - - - - - - - -...- - - -

FLOOD S HIT CENTRA L REGION

Towns and villages in the Central region were battling against floods tonight as heavy rain continued.

CAR FIRM TO AXE 200 JOBS T he Presco ca r firm has announced that 200 workers will be made redundant at its Kento n factory. The job losses are the result of falling profits.

5.3

Rew rite th e he adlines in exercise 5.2 using colloca tio ns m ore typ ical of o rdinary co nversatio n, as if you w ere telling a fri end th e news. Start each a ns wer w ith ' Have you heard .. . ?' Use a di cti o nary if necessary.

5.4

M a tc h th e b egin ni ng of each se ntence o n th e left wi th its endi ng o n th e right to make typical co lloca tions u sed in business English . I 2 3 4

5.5

We raised They su bm itted They went into We sta rt ed up

partnership to develop a new range of products. capital to ex pa nd th e business. a busin ess to su p p ly sports eq ui p men t to schools. a tender for th e new sta d iu m .

C hoose a form al o r info rm a l collocation as ins tructed a t the end of each sen tence. Use a d ictionary if necessary. I 2 3 4 5

Sh e was dead I ex trem ely keen to meet th e new d ir ector. (in fo rma l) We sho uld be boarding th e air craft I getting on th e plane in about ten minutes. (fo rm a l) Mr Trotter paid for I bore th e cost o f t he repairs. (fo rm a l) I withdrew from I dr opped out of my university course after a year. (in fo rma l) The president launched into I em barke d upon a d etailed ex p la na tio n of hi s poli c ies. (in fo rm a l)

English Collocations in Use

I5


Intensifying adverbs In Englis h th e re are lots of o t he r ways of sayi ng very or very milch . For ex a m p le , w e can u se words s uch as highly, utterly, bitterly, deeply. The se a lte rn a t ives co llocate stro ngl y with s pecific w ords, a n d o t her co m b inatio ns often so un d un na t u ra l.

A

Highly collocations

comments

(un)likely unusual successful competitive profitable effective controversial r e co m m e n d e d

Highly is used with so me probability wo rds (likely, unusuaQ.With the exception of highly controversial it usually combines with very positive words. Extremely can also be used with all the opposite adjectives except recommended'i,

It is hi ghly unl ikel y that I'll fini sh m y w ork o n time . J ill's h ighl y un u su al b eha v iour beg an to w orry h er p arents .

B

Absolutely, utterly collocations

com m e nts

ridiculous stupid im p o ssib le wrong alone appalled convinced devastated miserable

Absolutely and (slightly more formal) utterly combine

with adjectives w ith ve r y ex treme meanings where we can't use very . For example, we say absolutely/utterly exhausted, not 짜eI')' exhausted, whereas we say very tired , but no t 8I3s81t1[e~' or -..Iy tired. O fte n, but not always, these wo rd s have negati ve connotations.

It w a s a n a bsolutely stup id com me nt to make . T he w ho le are a w as utterly devas tated a fte r th e ea rth q ua ke.

c

Bitterly, deeply, ridiculously, strongly word

collocations

comments

bitterly

disappointing/disappointed resent criticise regret complain cry weep

carr ies a feeling of deep sadness; used slightly more in writing than in conversation

deeply

ashamed concerned shocked committed moved affected hurt (of feelings) regret care religious unhappy

collocates mainly with wo rds associated with feelings; used slightly more in writing than in conversation

i

ridiculously cheap expensive easy low high long short small large early

suggests something extreme, which seems unbelievable or unreasonable

strongly

collocates with verbs, particularly verbs that relate to having an opinion

oppose influence believe deny recommend support condemn suggest feel argue object

I w a s b itterl y disap pointed wh en I failed the exa m . Professor McDellvit was a lwa ys d eepl y com mi t ted to h er stude nts . Th e restaurant wa s r idicul ousl y expensive. I don 't think w e 'll go the re aga in. I w o uld st ro ngly reco m m end that yo u learn a forei gn langu age .

16

English Collocations in Use

I

I

i

I


Exercises 6.1

Choose an adverb from the box to replace very in each of these expressions. utterly

strongly

bitterly

1 very ashamed 2 very c hea p 3 very co n trovers ia l 4 very stu pi d 5 very successfu l

6.2

ridiculously

highly

deeply

6 very disa p point ing 7 ve ry opposed 8 very r id icul o us 9 ve ry easy 10 ve ry conce rned

Use a coll o cation from exercise 6 . 1 to co m p lete each of these sentences. 1 T he flight from London to Ro me w a s . It o n ly cost 20 e uros . 2 So me pe o p le lo ve her new bo o k, o thers a re very angry abo ut it . It is . 3 Hi s fa the r was a pa c ifist a ll his life a nd w a s .. to war. 4 The exam results we re .. for the whole class . \'lIe had all expected to do much better. 5 \'Q'hen I real ised how much m y se lfish beh a viour ha d upset everyone, I was 6 In th e 19 9 0s she ran a( n) .. co m pa ny whi ch m a d e o u tstanding profits. 7 Eve ryo ne go t more tha n 95 % correct in the test; it was .. . .. re m a rk 8 Yo u m us t apologise im mediately. It w as a( n ) to make. 9 She has a lways been .. a bo u t th e environ ment a nd would lik e to w ork fo r a conse rva tion age ncy. 10 Tha t yo u shoul d even think th at I wo uld steal money from you is .. ! Yo u m ust be crazy!

6.3

In ea ch o f th ese sets of phrases, o ne is not a co rrect collocation . Cross o ut th e incorrect o ne. I 2 3 4 5

6.4

strongly recommend strongly influen ce strong ly love strongly dislike highl y ed uc a ted hi g hl y p rofitabl e h ig h ly unusu al highly ex ha usted bitte rly regard bitterly regret bi tte rly resent bitterly criticise abso lutely convinced absolutely tired absolutely devasta ted absolutely absurd deep ly un ha ppy d eeply religious d eepl y successful deeply committed

In this sho rt text, th e writer has ofte n mi su sed th e wo rd stro ngly. Correct th e wro ng collocations using adverbs from th e box. Use each a dverb o nce on ly. bitterly

str ictly

deeply

utterly

GROUND

Eve ryo ne w as co mpla ini ng st rong ly wh en th e y heard about the new plan . People we re strongly shocked to hear th at child ren w ould be stro ng ly fo r bid den to use th e sports gro u nd and mo st people were stro ngly o p posed to th e new rules. Eve n people wh o normall y ne ver ex p re ssed an o pin io n were st ro ng ly appalled by the proposals. English Collocations in Use

17


7

Everyday verbs I This unit d eal s with m ake and d o, two v erbs th at many learners have probl ems with . If you re me m ber th a t th e basic m e an ing o f m ake is about p roducing somet hi ng a n d th e ba sic m e a n in g of do is a bout p erforming an action, t h e n th e co lloca t io ns o n thi s p a g e ma y seem mo re logical.

A

B

Make collocation

exam ple

make arrangements for

The school can make arrangements for pupils with special needs.

make a change / changes

The new manager is planning to make some changes.

make a choice

Jill had to make a choice be tween her career and her family.

make a comment / comments

W o uld anyone like to make any comments o n t he talk?

make a contribution to

She made a useful contribution to the discussion.

make a decision

I'm glad it's you who has to make the decision , not me .

make an effort

Joe is really making an effort with his maths t his term .

make an excuse

I'm too tired to go o ut tonight. Let 's make an excuse an d stay at home.

make friends

Karen is ve ry good at making friends.

make an improvement

Repainting the room has really made an improvement.

make a mistake

They've made a mistake in our bill.

make a phone call

I've got to make some phone calls before dinner.

make progress

Harr ie t is making progress w ith all her sch oolwork.

Do collocation

example

do your best

All that matters in the exam is to do your best.

do damage

T he storm did some damage to our ro o f.

do an experiment

We are doing an experiment to test how th e metal reacts w ith water.

do exercises

We'll do some exercises practis ing these coll o cations tomorrow.

do someone a good turn / do someone a favo ur

Sco uts an d guides are supposed to do someone a good turn every day.

do harm

C hanging th e rules may do more harm than go od.

do your hair

No. I'm not ready. I haven't done my hair yet.

do your homework

My son has t o do his homework straight after school.

do th e ironing/sh opping/ wash ing, etc .

I'll do the washing if you do the ironing.

do some work

W e 'll do some work o n our project and then we 'll go to the cinema.

I .

18

N otice all th e patterns that you can see in these tables. For example, make a comment. m ake an excuse an d make a contribution to a discussion are all connected w ith saying things. Noticing connec tions like this may hel p you to re me mber the co rrect collo cat io n.

English Collocations in Use

I,

I


Exercises 7.1

Use a co llocation w ith make and a nou n instead of th e underlined w ords in each o f these co nve rsa tions . Miriam: Rosa: 2 Kim : Todd: 3 Ja ne: J ill: 4 Bro na : Aaron : 5 Pet e: Clare: 6 Fran : G loria:

7.2

T he bill says we've had three d esserts. We o n ly had two . T he wai te r must ha ve bee n mista ke n. It's so d ifficu lt. Should I take the job or not? I kno w it 's d ifficult. But you ha ve to deci de one way o r th e o the r. Can yo u a nd Brian come to di nner o n Saturda y? Yes, w e'll ha ve to a rra nge to ge t a babysitter, but it sho u ld be OK . D id yo u hea r a bo ut t he ai r tra ffic controlle rs' str ike in th e USA? Yes. W/e ha d to cha nge o u r tra vel iti ne ra ry bec ause of it. Ca n I ha ve ch ips and ric e with m y lunch? 0, yo u ha ve to c hoose, c hip s o r rice, bu t not both . Do yo u intend to spea k a t th e m eetin g? Yes, I hope I ca n cont ri b ute to th e d ebate.

Choose the correct co llocation, do or ma k e. 1 Di d th e fire d o I m ake mu c h dama ge to t he facto ry?

2 I hate doing I m aking m y homew o rk at th e la st m inute. 3 Yo u must d o I m ake an effo rt to w o rk hard er. 4 Did yo u do / m ak e an y w ork a t t he w eek end? 5 We a re t ryin g to d o / make im prove me nts to th e syste m for registerin g. 6 Do yo u th ink it w ould do I make a ny harm if I cu t so me lea ves o ff th is plant ?

7.3

Yo u are d esignin g a quest ionnaire fo r yo u r schoo l magazin e. Com plete ea ch qu esti on w ith do o r m ake.

ALWAYS SOMETIMES

NEVER

1 Do you always your best to be on t ime when meeting a friend? 2

Do you ever

3 Do you you to 4

the cooking at home? ex cuses if someone asks a big favour for them?

Do you ever negative co mments about you r friends' ha ir, clothes, etc?

5 Do you find it easy to

friends?

o

Give yo urself three poin ts f o r 'alw ays', two for 'so metim es', o n e f or 'n ever' . Turn the page t o fi nd out how nice you really are .

English Collocations in Use

I9


8

Everyday verbs 2 G et is a very common ve r b in Engl ish, but it is not alwa ys a p pro p ria te for talking a bo ut c ha nges . ore a lso a ltern a t ives to ge t w h ich ca n improve yo u r style.

A

Go, not get Go is used for c ha nges in people's personality, a p peara nce a nd ph ysical abi liti es: People go mad/bald/grey/blind/deaf. Go is ofte n used for sud de n, usu a lly nega tive, c ha nges: H e was very e m barrassed and his face went re d. Sud den ly th e sky went very dark a nd it sta rre d to ra in . Go ca n a lso be used for slower colou r c hanges: The pages of th e bo ok had go ne yellow over th e yea rs .

"-----

B

Turn, not get Tu rn o fte n collocates w ith colo u rs : The sky turned go ld as th e su n set. \'<'hen the tomatoes turn red, the fa rmers pick th em a nd se ll th em. The news gave his m ot he r suc h a s hoc k tha t her hair turn ed w hite ove rn igh t.

C

Get a n d become G et and become can often be used w it h th e same colloca tions, but become is m o re formal an d is th ere fo re more a p pro p ria te in essays: She gave up smo ki ng w hen she became pregnant. I would like to become involved in ra ising m oney fo r cha ri ty. T he sa me is tru e for colloca tio ns with adj ectives suc h as angry, bo red, excite d, de pressed, upset, impatient, violent : H e became depressed afte r h is wi fe's d eath .

Become, not ge t, is used with th e foll owing: ex tinct, (unipopu lar, h omeless, [amous . O ur lo cal bak er's has become famo us fo r its appl e tarrs.

D

Alternatives to get and become She fell ill a nd w as taken to hospital. Eve ryone fell silen t wh en th ey heard th e shoc king ne ws. As my fa ther grew older, he spe nt less tim e wo rking. The no ise grew louder a nd soo n w e reali sed it w as a plane a p p roach ing.

E

Overusing and misusing get H ere are so me sentences from stu dents' essays where get is wrongl y used.

, 20

sentences with get

more appropriate alternatives

I was able to get new friends .

I was able to make new friends.

A year ago he got a heart attack.

A year ago he had/suffered a h e a rt attack.

If I get a child of my own one day ...

If I have a child of my own o ne day ...

I was getting crazy.

I was going crazy.

In june. I got a baby. james.

In june. I had a baby. james.

English Collocations ;n Use


Exercises 8.1

An swer these questions using collocations from A and B. 1 Wha t can happen to men as they get o lder ? (C lue: T hi n k of thei r hair. ) 2 What can happen if you a re embarrassed ? (C lue: Think of your face .) 3 Wha t can happen if yo u get bad news? (C lue: T h in k of your face o r hai r. ) 4 \X'hat ca n ha p pen to the pa ges of a newspa pe r afte r a lo ng time? S W ha t happen s to st ra w be rries as the y ripe n? 6 T he po et J ohn Mi lton lo st his eyesight at th e end of his life. What is anot her way of sa ying t ha t ? 7 The composer Beethoven lost hi s hea ring a t th e end of his life . Wha t is another wa y of saying that? 8 At t he end of Sha ke speare's p la y, Ham let lo ses his mind . What is another way of sayi ng th at ? 9 If it is abo u t to ra in , w ha t might happen to t he sky ?

8.2

Lo ok at C , 0 and E opposite. Correct these sen tences. 1 Dinosau rs got extinct tho usa nds of years ago. 2 When I ge t marrie d, I'd like to ge t lots o f c hi ld ren .

3 Ja net fell d epressed after fa iling her fina l exams . 4 H amid has a lways d reamt of ge tti ng famous.

S Wo uld yo u be interested in growing in vol ved in this p roject? 6 More people have got home less this year th a n in any previous year. 7 My sister got a baby las t wee k . 8 My grandfa the r got a heart a ttack last winter.

8.3

Repl ace each usc of get w ith a verb from th e b o x . be come

fall

be co me

gro w

have

make

A s !:IOtA get oLd.er, !:IOtA 'LL begin to (.(nclusto.ncL !:IOtAf parent.s bettu . Getting angf!:l wi.tl1 tnem oJ.!. tne time cLoesn't. hel.p . YOtA Ill~ not. want. to go to s(.(llllller camp when none of !:IOtAf fri.encLs wiLL be tnere, b(.(t. !:IOtA f paren t.s /enow !:IOtA wiLL soon get new fri.encLs tnere . Y0tA WOtAuL oJ.!. ho..ve gone on 0.. fo..rniLy hoti.d.o.y toget.ner if !:IOtAf gfancLrnotner ho.cLn't. got. iLL, b(.(t. S(.(fe!y !:IOtA co.n (.(nclusto.ncL wh!:l tn~ cLon't. want. to l.ea.ve h er. Y0tA 'LL feet 1ll(.(d1 more S!:llllpo..t.nefu:, to !:IOtAf parent.s ' feetings when !:IOtA get 0.. d1i.Ul of !:IOtAf own!

8.4

Com p lete th e coll o cations in th ese se ntences . 1 I th ink I'd go if I had to put up with such a ter rib le boss! 2 It was a w onderful su nset. T he s ky gold a nd we sa t on th e te rra ce enjoying it. brown now 3 O nce upon a time the w all s w ere probably crea m b ut they ha ve a nd badly need repainting. 4 When I sta rt g rey, I'm d efin itely going to d ye m y ha ir. S As th e headmast er w alked in to th e hall , th e children a ll si lent. 6 The noise on th e stree t louder and 1 lo oked o u t of the window to see wha t w as happen ing. ill wh ile she is abroad. 7 M y g ra nd m ot he r is a little a frai d of 8 I was so em ba rras sed t hat I bright red . English Collocations in Use

21


Everyday verbs 3 A

Have o te th at th ese ver bs colloca te wi th have ra t her th an a ny o t he r ve r b (e.g . get or m ake ).

B

collocation

example

have an accident

Mr Grey h ad an accident last night but he's OK now.

have an argument / a row

We h ad a n a r g u ment / a r o w about how to fix the car.

have a break

Let's have a break when you finish th is exercise.

have a conversation/ch at

I hope we'll have time to have a chat afte r the meeting.

have difficulty

Th e clas s h a d d iffic ulty understand ing w hat to do.

have a dream/nightmare

I had a nightmare last night.

have an expe r ience

I had a frightening experience the other day.

have a feeling

I h ave a fe eling that something is wrong.

have fun / a good t ime

I'm sure you'll have fun on the school trip.

have a lo ok

T he teacher wanted to have a look at what we were doing.

have a party

Let's have a party at t he end of term.

have a problem / problems

Ask the teacher if yo u have problems with the exercise.

have a t ry /go

I'll explain what to do an d then you can have a go/try.

Take Hi, Jean, We're so glad we decided to t ake a holiday here. Yesterday we took a trip to the mountains. First we took a train to a little town and then we took a bus going to va rious villages and got off when we saw one that we took a liking to. Of course, we were taking a risk as we d idn't know exactly what we'd find there. But we were lucky. Some kids took a n intere s t in us and

I

showed us some great places.

I We took a lot of p hotos .

Have you done anything yet about your job'? la t a ke a c hance ~nd lea.ve if I were you. No point m staymg somewhere where the boss ha s ta ken a dislike to youl Take ad va nta ge of being in LO~don - there are always plenty of Jobs there. You'll soon find something else, 50 ta ke a ction that's my advice! Good Juck! ' Ellen

c

22

Pay collocation

example

pay attention

You must pay attention to t he teacher.

pay a compliment

I was trying to pay he r a compliment but she misunderstood .

pay yo ur (last) respe cts

At a funeral people pay their last respects t o the person who has died.

pay tribute [formal]

W he n Jack re tire d, his boss made a speech paying tribute t o all he had done for the company.

I

T he re are other common verbs in English w hich have strong and possi bly surprising collocations. Notice an y t hat yo u find With . for exam ple , break , fall, run an d take.

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 9.1

Co m plete th e qu esti ons usin g co llocatio ns fro m A o p posite.

2 3 4 5

6 7 8

9.2

Yo u want a friend to look at a letter yo u ha ve wr itte n before yo u se nd it. ? YO U: Co uld you You want to know wh y yo u r tw o friends a ren 't speak ing to each o t her. YOU: Wh y aren 't yo u speaking to Rosa? Did yo u ? A friend comes to school on crutches with a bandage round her head. YOU: What happened? Did yo u ? You want to know if a friend did lots of enjoyable things on t heir recent holida y. YOU: H o w was the holiday? Did you ? You are havi ng a mee ting with some colleagues . You think it is t ime to stop for half an hou r o r so. YO U: Sha ll we ? A friend has just bo ught a new bicycle . You'd like to ride it to see what it's lik e. YOU: ice bike! Can I ? You want to talk informally to your teacher about what to do next year. YOU: \'ÂŤhen yo u' re free, could I ? A friend is trying with difficulty to read yo ur addres s, which yo u have just written down for them . YOU: \,ÂŤha t's t he ma tte r? A re you ?

C hoose th e co rrect co llo ca tio n . She had / to ok / paid atte ntion to w hat I told he r and started working hard er. I had / made / to ok o ver a hundred photographs on my trip to Antarctica . She made / paid / brought me a nice compliment yesterday. I go t / made / had a bad d ream last night and woke up sw ea t ing. The President made / galle / paid t rib ut e to all the people who had sup po rted him. I got / took / had a liking to o u r ne w teach e r t he mome nt I met her. I galle / m ad e / had a fee ling I ha d me t Ric ha rd before, but I cou ldn't re member where. I went to Do uglas Farnham's funera l to giue / take / pay my last respects to a fine man. I think I'll tak e / make / d o a c hance a nd leave my flight booking till the last minute. I ma y get a ch eaper ticket. 10 Shall we m ak e / get / haue a party for J a ne ? She's leaving th e sc hoo l next week. I I We need to make / get / take action im mediately ! 12 I had / got / too k a feeling tha t he was tryin g to hide something from me. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9.3

W h ich colloca tio ns in th is text co uld b e re placed b y collocatio ns w ith take in stead o f the verbs u sed ?

Next time you go on a trip to the coast, why not get the train? Why suffer endless delays in long traffic jams? And why run risks when you're t ravelling travel by tra in and arrive safely. What's more, if you decide to have a hol iday in the capi ta l city, you'll have a more relaxing t ime if you go by ra il. Or why no t pa y a sur p ri se visit to an old friend during an off-peak time? Call now and make use of o u r spe cial offers.

0800347655 English Collocations ;n Use

1

23


Synonyms and confusable words I A

Common sy nonym p a irs T he (a) an d (b) w o rd s in eac h pa ir in the tab le have sim ila r m ean ings. So me ti mes either word ca n be used in a se nte nce to give the same mea ning, b ut in th e collo ca t io ns belo w only o ne w ord is possible.

B

synonyms

(a) example

(b) example

(a) close (b) shut

The chairperson closed the meeting at 4.30. [We cl ose m e e ti n g s/dis c u ss io n s/ c onferences. etc.]

She was very rude. She sa id 'S h u t your mouth!' [impolite way of telling someone not to speak] A dentist might ask you to close your mouth. Shut is generally more inform al.

(a) start (b) begin

It was a cold morn ing and I could not start my car. [Start. NOT gegift. is used for engines and vehicles.

Befo re the un iverse b e g an. t ime and space did not exist. [Begin is preferred in more formal and abstract contexts.]

(a) big (b) large

It was a b ig d ecision to make . There were some big problems to solve.

r wanted the sweater in the large s ize but they o nly had medium.

(a) end (b) finish

T he film e n d e d with the he ro dying . Th ey e n d e d t heir relationsh ip a year ago . [End here means decide to stop.]

I haven't fini shed my homework yet. [Finish here means complete.]

G roups of words with similar meanings Words mea n ing 'old' I me t a n o ld fr iend th e o the r da y. It's a very o ld building. She stud ied ancien t history. In ancien t tim es, life was very hard. This shop se lls antiq ue furniture. Sh e coll ects antique jewellery. [old a nd valuable] I helped a n elderly pe rson who was trying to cross the road. [elderly is m ore polite th an old]

Words meaning 'with no o ne o r no th ing else or with nothing simila r' Do n na is a single parent; it 's diffi cult for her to w ork full tim e. H e lives in a ve ry lonely p lace/spot up in the m ounta ins. At firs t I fel t desperately lo nely when I m o ved from London to th e cou ntrysi de. I live a lo ne, but I d on't lik e tra velling a lo ne; it's nice to be with so meone. There w as ju st o ne so lita ry figure o n th e o therw ise deserted bea ch. [one person on th eir own] Sh e was the sole survivor o f th e c rash . Eve ryone e lse di ed. [onl y su rv ivo r] I a m a n only child; I someti mes w onder wh at it w ould be lik e to ha ve a b rother or sis ter. This is a u niq ue occasion, wi th th ree past Prim e Minist ers a ll togethe r in one room .

C

24

Other synonym pairs syn onym s

(a) example

(b) example

(a) charge (b) load

I need to charge my phone . [used for bat t eries. electrical items]

They loaded th e lo rry and drove away. [used for cargoes. lo r ries. vans . ships. etc. an d fo r weapo ns]

(a) injure (b) damage

Three in ju red p eople were taken to hospital after the accident. [co llo cat es with words to do with people]

The shop tried to sell me a damaged sofa but I noticed it just in t ime. [collocates w it h words for things]

(a) gr ow (b) raise

In th e so ut h the far me rs grow cro p s. [collocates with crops. plants]

In the north th e farmers mostly raise cattle. [collocates with an imals. children]

English Collocatians in Use


Exercise s 10.1

C hoose the correct co llocatio n. The d entist told m e to sh u t / close my m outh . I d idn't kn ow w hat to do w he n I go t into m y ca r a nd co u ld n't start / begin th e engi ne . I want to bu y a sweater for my dad . H e needs o ne in a big / large size. I ha ven 't finished / ended my essay yet. I can't d ecide how to finish / end it. At w ha t time do you plan to sh ut / close the confere nce? All societies d eve lo p the ir own stories about ho w the worl d started / began. It's far too big / large a pro blem fo r you to solve o n your own . It's never easy to finish / end a rela tio nship.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

10.2

Look at B. Com p lete each ph rase with a word m ean ing either ' o ld ' o r ' a lo ne'. 1 2 3 4 5

10.3

a fig u re o n t he ho rizo n a shop se lling fu rn iture to be an child the survivor of th e acciden t to stu d y history

6 7 8 9 lO

to live . to fee l d espe ratel y to ca tc h up wi t h su p port for a home for

. friend s parents people

Correc t th ese se n te nces. 1 Wer e man y people d am a ged in the ea rthq ua ke? 2 Single parents g ro w ing c hi ld re n wi thout a pa rtner's suppo rt are entitled to financ ial help fro m the governmen t. 3 M y mobi le isn 't worki ng . I need to load th e battery. 4 She has a lo t of bea utifu l elderly jewellery. 5 \'{I'hen we moved house, two men hel ped us to charge the van . 6 Tha t's not news - it's an tiq ue histo ry! 7 I d on 't kn o w how to charge a gun, let a lo ne fire one. 8 I' ve never been very success ful at ra ising plants.

10.4

Which o f th e coll o cations o n th e oppo sit e page d o th ese pictu res illustrate?

3

4

I

(I.e.

5

6

look up big an d large in a good learner's d ictio na r y o f English and see wh at other collocations it suggests for th em.

English Collocations in Use

25


Synonyms and confusable w ords 2 Verbs connected with gain ing, winning and achieving o te th ese typ ical colloca tio ns connected w ith 'gai ning ' o r 'achievin g '. verb

collocates with

example

comments

gain

power. control. access

The socialist party gained control o f the National Asse mb ly.

Gain is often used with abstract nouns relating to political authority.

gain [formal]

a reputation. publicity. recognitio n. an advantage

Her paintings gained recognition thanks to a major exh ibition in New York.

Gain is often used with abstract nouns that suggest benefit to the

win

an award. a prize. a medal. a match

He won a medal in the 2004 Olympic Games.

Win is often used in co ntexts ass ociated with competitio n.

w in

a battle. a war. an election

The conservative party won the 1994 General Election.

W in is often used in contexts associated with fight ing.

earn

a salary. money

I earn $21 lO a month.

You earn money by working for it

make

a profit. money

T he company made a profit last year.

You can make money by investing etc.â&#x20AC;˘ not just by working.

ac hieve

success. your goals. your aims

It's difficult to achieve success in international sport.

Achieve is use d ma inly with abstract

a team. an o pponent

He defeated his opp onent in the tennis final.

You win a match but beat/defeat a n opponent. Defeat is more formal than beat.

beat! defeat

B

'gainer' .

nouns.

Other words that are o fte n c o n fused

You'll need to take w arm clothes w hen yo u g o to A las ka . (NOT etti"t7' )

I alwa ys ca rry m y m obile phone whenever I go o ut . (N O T wetti')

She was wearin g a hat. (N O'T t:l'lFf )' i lit; )

H e kin d ly offe re d to ca rry m y su itcase for me .

She's wearing a dress. ( OT ~ )

H e 's using a laptop.

Notice how spend is used when talking about time and money. We spent three days in the mountains. It was wonderful. (NOT ~ ) If you buy a big car you'lI have to spend more money on petrol. (NOT ;;se) Last night I spent two hours watching TV. (NOT ~) I s p e n t an hour looking for the keys before I found them in my bag. (NOT ~ )

26

English

Collocations in Use


J

Exercises I 1.1

Look at A. Use a verb from th e box in the co rrect form to complete ea ch collocation . achieve

beat

earn

gain

ma ke

w in

1 2 3 4 S 6

I don't have ambitions to a lot of money, I just want to be ha p p y in life . Jack has alread y a ve ry good reputation as a ta lented lawyer. several prizes for her singing. Kim has It is important to have goals even if yo u do not always them . Chris a lot of money when he so ld some o ld sha res o n the stock exchange. In the tournament H a nn a h a ll he r opponents and the gold medal. a very good salary. 7 Nowadays J o h n an a dvantage when several of his opponents had 8 In the cycle race, Henrik punctures. I 1.2

Lo ok at th e p icture a nd answer th e q uest ions. I 2 3 4

What What What W ha t S What 6 What

11.3

is is is is is is

the t he t he th e the the

woman wearing? woman carrying? wo man using ? m an wea ring? ma n carryi ng? man using?

Correc t th e nin e collocation errors in this pa ragra ph. Last year I got a new job and sta rted gaining a lot more money. I real ised I could afford to use more money on my holiday than I usually do and decided to pass a month in Austral ia . I knew it would be hot there and so I wouldn't need to carry warm clothes with me . In fact, I used a t-shirt and jeans all the time I was the re . I carried a hat all the time too , of course. to protect me from the sun . It was fantastic there. I passed a week sightseeing in Sydney and th en stayed the rest of the time travelling round the country. I even did my life long ambition of st ro king a koa la.

11.4

C hange th e underlined w ords so that each sen tence has th e opposite meaning. 1 2 3 4 S

11.5

The Democratic Party lo st th e election . T he rul in g po wer ha s lo st co ntrol of th e situation . O ur team w a s d efeated in th e ma tch . I ~ a lot of mo ney last m onth. Our co m pa ny m ade a.loss last year.

Com plete th ese questi ons. Then a nswer them. 1 2 3 4 S

Where d id yo u yo u r last holida y? H ow much m oney did you last w eek ? What d o yo u a lways w ith yo u when yo u go out? H a ve yo u ever a t roph y ? What ai m w ould you parti cu larl y like to in life?

English Collocotions in Use

27

_


Metaphor If so meone uses a m etaphor, th ey use a w ord in a way tha t is sli g htl y differe nt from its basic m ean ing . For example, t he first m ean ing of 5 11I/1/ )' is connected wi th th e w ea th er, so we talk abo ut a su n ny day. H owever, 5/11111 )' ca n a lso be used in ex p ress io ns like a su n n y sm ile, th e ch ild re n's su n n y faces to m ean happy; in these colloca tio ns 5 /1 111/ )' is used in a metap ho rical w a y. M etaphors a re more common in w ri tten tha n spo ken English a n d o fte n ha ve the e ffect o f sou n d ing quite poet ic.

A

Light and dark Light in English is associa ted w ith happin ess. So a face shines w it h p lea s ure and eyes sh ine wi th exc ite ment or d el ight. If sorneo ne's face lights up o r t hei r eyes light up, t hey show that th ey sud d en ly fee l happy. If an atmosphere lightens o r a mood lightens, it be comes m o re re lax ed o r chee rfu l tha n it was. Da r kn ess is assoc ia te d w ith unhappiness a nd nega tive fee lin gs. Dark though ts are g loomy or siniste r o nes a n d dark days o r dark times are un p leasa nt times to live th rough . If so rn eo nes fac e darkens o r the ir eyes darken o r so meone's expression darkens , then we kn o w t hat that perso n is u nhappy, o fte n because th ey a re feeling angr y.

B

C

Water collocation

example

comment

ideas flow, conve rs ation flows

It was a ve ry successful meeting. The ideas flowed .

Flaw suggests that things progress easily, w ithout effort.

a flo o d I flo o ds of tea rs,tears st reaming down someone 's face

T he little girl was in floods of tears. Tears were streaming down her face.

Both of these metaphors about tears suggest t he girl is crying a lo t.

people pourlstream somewhere

People poured o ut of t he hall at t he e nd of the lect ure .

Pour and stream suggest lots of people moving smoo t hly.

people trickle

Pe opl e t r ic k led into the concert hall.

Trickle suggests a few people moving slowly.

a stream of visitorsl t raffic

T he re was a s t ream o f tra ffic o uts ide o ur ro om all night.

Strea m suggests continuous movement.

Fire and heat \Vo rds assoc ia ted with fire and hea t o fte n suggest a nge r in Englis h . A heated d ebate, a heated di scussion o r a heated co n versa tio n is o ne in whi ch people d isagree in a n a ngry way wi th ea ch o the r. If yo u say tha t so me o ne ha s a fiery temper, yo u m ea n th at they ofte n get sud denly a ngry. The w ord flare m eans show a bright light ill the dark . If yo u say tempers flared , you m ean that people became a ng ry w ith each o the r. Simi larl y viol ence flares up and troubles flare up. T hese all m ean that problems w h ich existe d in th e pa st sudden ly becom e . . se rio us agam . H o w ever, nor all m etap hors relating to fire suggest a nger. If yo u feel very em barrassed , you cheeks b urn w ith embarrassment. A blaze is a ve ry bright fire. \Ve ta lk a bo u t a blaze of glory o r a blaze of publici ty m ea n in g there is a lo t o f it an d it is specta c ula r.

I 28

W he n you are reading English, try to notice metaphorical uses of language. This w ill help you to see how familiar wo rds can be used in e xt ra , interesting ways .

English Collocations in Use


12

Metaphor If so meone uses a m etaphor, th ey use a word in a wa y tha t is s lig h tly different from its ba meaning. Fo r exa mp le, the firs t mea nin g of SIl Il1IY is connecte d wi th th e w ea th er, so we tall abo ut a su n ny d a y. H o w ever, S II II1IY ca n also be used in ex p ress io ns lik e a su n n y sm ile, the ch ild re n's su n ny fa ces to m ean ha ppy; in th ese colloca tions sunny is used in a m etaphor ical w a y. M etapho rs a re mo re co mmon in wri tten t han spoke n English and often ha ve the effec o f sou ndi ng quite po etic.

A

Light and dark Ligh t in Engli sh is assoc ia te d wi th happin ess. So a face shi nes wi th p lea sure and eyes shine with exc ite ment o r d el ig ht. If so meo ne's face lights up o r t heir eyes ligh t up, they show that th e y sud denly fee l happy. If an atmosphere lighten s o r a m ood lightens, it becomes mo re re laxed o r c heerfu l th a n it was. Dar kn ess is asso ciated w it h un ha p p iness a nd negative feelings. Dark thoughts are g loo my or sin iste r o nes a nd dark days o r dark times a re u npl easa nt tim es to live thro ugh. If so rneo nes fa ce darken s o r th e ir eyes darken o r sorneo nc's expression darkens, th en we kno w th at that perso n is u nh a ppy, o fte n because th ey are feeli ng ang ry.

B

C

Water collocation

example

comment

ideas flow, conve rsation flows

It was a very successful meeting. T he ideas flowe d .

Flow suggests that th ings progre ss easily. w ithout effort.

a flo o d / flo o ds of tea rs, t ears streaming down someone 's face

T he little girl was in floods o f tears. Tears were strea mi ng down he r face .

Both of th e se metaphors about tears suggest the gir l is crying a lot.

peo ple pou r/stream somewhere

Pe op le p o u r e d o ut of th e hall at the en d of t he lecture.

Pour and streom suggest lots of peo ple moving smo o thl y.

peo ple tri ckle

Peo ple tric k led into t he concert hall.

Trickle suggests a few people moving slo wly.

a stream of visitors/ traffi c

There was a stream of traffic o uts ide o ur ro om all night.

Stream suggests continuous movement.

Fire and hea t \Vo rds associa ted with fire an d heat often suggest anger in English . A heated d ebate, a heated di scu ssion or a heated conversa tio n is o ne in w hic h peo p le d isa gree in a n angry wa y w ith eac h ot her. If yo u sa y th at so m eo ne has a fiery temper, yo u m ea n th at th ey o fte n get s ud den ly a ng ry. T he w ord flare m ea ns show a bright light ill th e dark . If yo u say tempers fla red , you m ea n that people became a ngry wi th each o t her. Similarl y violence flares up and troubles flare up. T he se all mean th a t p ro blems w hich existe d in th e pa st suddenly become . . se rio us agai n. H o w ever, not a ll m eta p ho rs re la ting to fire sugges t anger. If yo u fee l ve ry em ba r rassed , yo ur cheeks burn with em barrassmen t. A blaze is a ve ry brig ht fire . \Ve talk a bo ut a bl aze o f glory o r a blaze of publicity m ea n ing th ere is a lo t of it and it is spe ctac ula r.

S

When you are reading English, try to notice metaphorical uses of language. This will he lp you to see ho w familiar wo rds can be used In extra. interesting ways.

28

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 12.1

Use a w ord fr om th e bo x in th e co rrect fo rm to com p lete each co llocation. Use each w ord once o nly. shine

I 2 3 4 5 6

12.2

dark

light up

sunny

lighten

dar ke n

I co uld te ll M aria was in a good mood by the smile on her face . The little boy's eyes when he saw his daddy ap proaching. Let's put some happy m usic on to the a tmosp he re . Everyone's too serious. My grandpa re nts lived through th e d a ys of civil wa r from 19 3 6 to 19 3 9 . The g irl's eyes wi t h excite ment as s he prepared for th e pa rty. M r Ga rnha rn's ex p ress io n a s he w as to ld th e terribl e news.

Rea d th ese remarks by d ifferent people, then a nswer th e qu esti ons. J aso n: Thomas: Emma : Paul a: Rob: Yvon ne :

I was in floo ds of tears. It was such a sad film. An hour before th e match th ere was already a trickle of vehicles entering th e ca r pa rk. I ha d a heated conversation wi th H e lena the o ther day. I d idn 't think th ere'd be m uch t ra ffic to d a y bu t the re w as a steady stream of ve hicles o n t he m a in high w a y. Tempers flar ed, I'm a fra id, a nd mine was o ne of th em. Eve ryone w as po ur ing o ut of th e stadi um as I drove past. nam e(s)

I W ho saw a lot of cars! 2 W ho go t very angry indeed!

3 W ho saw a lot o f people all at o nce! 4 W ho had a d isagreement o r arg um ent!

5 W ho saw a sm all num be r o f cars ! 6 W ho cried o ver something!

12.3

Put th ese words in o rder to m ake sentences. I 2 3 4

12.4

Answer th e quest ions. I 2 3 4

12.5

with I c hee ks I em ba rrassment I burn ing I were I M y c ity l up I has I in I ca pi ta l I flar ed I th e I Viol en ce flowed I T he I dur ing I di scussion I id ea s I th e di vorce I was I fo ot bailer's I The I publicity I surro u nded I famous I a I b y I b laze I of

Wh a t is m ost lik ely to be fiery: (a) sorneone's intelligence (b) someone's temper? Which is th e m ost typical collo ca tion: a blaze of (a) tem pe r (b ) g lo ry (c) joy? W hat is m ost likel y to be heated: (a) d iscussions (b) c hee ks (c) trou bl es ? Wha t is most likel y to fla re up: (a) lo ve (b) interest (c) violence?

Use a dictionary to find collocations u sing these w ords in a m etaphorical w ay. I bright

2 w arm

3 cold

English Collocations in Use

29


13 A

Weather

It's been

Talking a bo ut the weath e r 11;',; great. here, Have had unbroke n sunshine ' ever eince we a rri ved. We're having a wonderful time - wough in We middle of we day it',; juet. too scorching hot.2 1;0 do anyt.hing put. lie on W e peach soaking up t.he sunshine) . Thie i,; we life! Anna

o n ly su ns hine, no clouds in th e sky ex t re mel y hot ) en joyi ng th e s uns hine I

2

B

C

pwrmg

tooith rClin oJL

<io.y. In ftu.t. I've never seen

SlAcn

totTcnt:U1L rClin~ I It's fruzi.ng cold. in tI1e twt - ",e oJL got scaked, to tI1e s~in 5. £ vUlj hoJ.f hou r ",e l.oolc out of tI1e twt hopi.ng for ... bre4J< in tI1e cLoIAd.$ . In vClinI We'r e going to (l. hoW next ~e<Lr1

It r"i~ he""ill::l all ~al::ll::lester~.al::l b"t it·s ~Y!::j a the "'-O""'-!...t. -rI1e.e's th.ci<l. . cloL<.~ , ho",£h. .t certai""'l::l loo~ l. i<I.t rai""6. ~ite " stro"'0 wi~ is blow."'0 tor' 4.\0\< gla~ we b,o"gh W"Y\O\< clothes'

a"'"

~ hea vy ra in 5 very wet 6 looks as if it is go ing to ra in

Weat he r cond it ions I

collocation

example

comm ent

weather deteriorates [opposite: im pro ves]

The weather is likely to deteriorate lat er on today.

Deteriorate is qu ite forma l - the w e ath er is g e tting w o r s e is more informal.

th ick/dense fog patches of fog/mist a blanket of fog [literary] fog/m ist comes down [opposite: lifts]

There is t h ick fog on the mo torway. T here are patch es of fog o n the east coast but t hese sho uld lift by mid day.

Patches of fog/m ist are small areas of fog/m ist. wh e reas a blanket of fog/mist is thicker and more extens ive,

strong sun [opposite : weak]

Avoid going on the beach at midday when the sun is stro ngest.

heavy rain (NOT 5tf'eflg rain) driving rain

Ro ad conditions are difficult becau se of the driving rain.

driving rain = rain falling fast and heavily

heavylfresh/crisplthick/ driving snow

The s n o w is lovely and c risp this morn ing.

crisp snow hard

hard frost

There will be a hard frost tonight.

opposite of a hard frost frost (N OT a seff frost)

high/strongllightlbiting w inds the w ind picks up [opposite: dies down] the wind blows/w histles

The w in d was light this morning but it 's picking up now and w ill be very strong by the evening. The w ind was whistling through the t re e s.

biting winds = very cold w inds If the wind picks up. it gets stronger.

= snow that is fresh and = a light

Extreme weather

FREAK' STORMS DEVASTATE SW Yest erday freak weather conditions hie the so ut h -w est of Eng la nd . Gale-force winds] caused a lo t of damage to property. A n u m b er of buildings were destroyed. roofs were torn off and fences were blown down . Sev e ra l rivers burst their banks",

, very unusual o r un expected 2 st ru ck, badl y affected 30

English Collocations in Use

) ex tre mely st ro ng wind s ri vers flooded

~


Exercises 13.1

Look at A and B opposit e and complete these weather collocations.

I 2 3 4

13.2

5 6 7 8

c ns p patches o f stro ng a biting

a hard to rre ntia l unb roken a blanket o f

. .. . .

Lo ok a t A and B opposite. Change the underlined words so that each sentence has th e o pposi te m eaning.

1 Ther e was a ligh t wind yes te rday. 2 The win d pick ed up in th e even ing. 3 The w eathe r is like ly to improve tomorrow. 4 It w as sco rc hing hot he re yes te rday. 5 Ther e ma y be so me ligh t ra in later o n toda y. 6 The mi st came down a t abou t mi dda y.

13.3

Replace the underl ined words in this letter with collocations from the o p pos ite page. I wish I'd worn a warmer jacket. There's a ve ry co ld wind. At least it 's not rain in"3 heavily today.

I g ot extremely wet yesterday. I wish I was sunbathin"3 o n a Med iterranean bea ch.

13.4

Answer these questions about the co llo ca tio ns on th e opposit e page. I What mi gh t make a rive r b u rst its ba nks? 2 What ca n yo u probabl y see if so meo ne says, ' It loo ks lik e rai n' ? 3 What kind o f w ind is a freak w ind? 4 Is it hard er to' dri ve if t here's d en se fo g or if there are patch es of fog? 5 What kind of w eather co nd itions ha ve yo u got if th e ra in is desc ribed as driving ra in ? 6 If w e ta lk a bout seve re wea the r condi tions hitting or striking a n a rea, w ha t kind of image is create d ? 7 What, apa rt fro m w ind, ca n blo w o r w histle ? 8 \X'h ich of th ese ve r bs suggests most d estructi on a nd w hich least ? T he sto rm destro yed / da maged / devasta ted th e town.

13.5

Lo ok up th ese words in you r d icti onary. N o te d own two m ore collocatio ns fo r eac h o ne. wind

¡ I â&#x20AC;˘

ram

snow

Q I,',','

',', 1,'

Eithe r listen to the weat he r forecast on an English language TV or radio channel or go to the we bsite www. bbc.co.uk/weather. (You can enter the name of your own country to get information about the weat he r there .) Make a note of any other use ful weat he r collocations that you find.

English Collocations in Use

3I


14

Travel Travel, journey, trip Lo ok a t th ese e- mai ls a nd note th e d ifferent collo ca t io ns for travel, jo u rney a nd trip . _8e

=

Jane, Have you made your travel arrangements for the sales conference yet? If you want a good travel agent, I can recommend Atlas World. They specialise in business travel. Their number is 2587996. They're very helpful. Rickie

_e8 Hi Mel. I'm finally here after an extremely tiring journey! The flight was three hours late. they lost my luggage, then there were no taxis at the airport. I hope my return journey ' is better! I'm at the Hotel Rex, room 1305. tel: 98774 5. Give me a call. Simon

, The o p pos ite of retu rn journey is ou twa rd journey.

B

Hi Karen, I know next week is a business trip, but you must do some sightseeing toowhile you're here. I suggest we tal< a day trip to Canamuca on the Sunday. It's about two hours by car, and we can take a boat trip to theisland ~ the middle of the lake and have lunch there. Looking forward to seeing you on Monday. Safe journey2. David

2 said

to

so meo ne wh o is a bo ut

to

mak e a jo

Janine, I got some travel brochures with details of camping trips. Want to meet for lunch to look at them? One of them is in Chile. but it's a long overnight journey from thecapital to get there, so maybe we should look nearer home? Nice to dream of holidays during work time! Lorna

Flights These collocations are all ra ther formal o nes co n nected wi t h flying: Pal a ir offers excellent in-fl ight entertainmen t, w it h the latest film s a nd music. The in -flight magazine incl udes m aps a nd information a bo u t m a jor ai r po rts. [ann ouncemen t by a cabin a ttenda nt] La d ies a nd gentlemen, we' ll s ho rtl y be la nd ing at D ublin Airport. Plea se fa sten yo u r seatbelts. The passenger boarded the plane on t ime, but it was delayed ta king off and she mi ssed her con necti ng flight in Amsterda m . D omest ic flights are o fte n m ore ex pe ns ive th an internati onal o nes. [flights with in a coun try] Do yo u normall y prefer a windo w seat o r a n ais le sea t w hen yo u fly? We m an aged to ge t a charte r' flight; it w as half th e price o f th e sche d uled ? flight. 'flight on a plane rented for special use 2regular flight orga nised by th e com pa ny which owns the plane T he wea t her en ro ute is fine, and we a nticipa te a sm o o th flight! to Stockholm today. 3T he o p posi te is a b umpy flight

C

Accommodation We stayed in a sm a ll, famil y-run hotel. The Pa no ra m a is a ra th e r run-down hotel in a back street near th e city ce nt re . The Pal ace is a lu xury hotel o n th e main sq ua re o f Porto Aleg re. As a stu dent, I ca n't afford to stay in smart hotels. I a lways ha ve to lo ok fo r budget accom modation. [ve ry chea p I I'd a d vise yo u to m ake a reservation before yo u go. T he hotels nea r the beach a re ve ry popular and get full y bo oked during th e su m mer.

32

Eng/ish Colloca tions in Use


Exercises 14.1

Complete each sen tence with trip, travel or journey, I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

n

14.2

I' ll get some brochures today and we can start planning o u r holi day. John is away on a business a ll week. It's a ra ther difficult overnight to the mou ntains but it's welI worth it. I prefer to arrange my hol id a ys myself ra ther th an use a age nt. O n Saturday we went o n a day to a n inte res ting o ld castle. from Seou l to Lo s Angeles ? Wa s it a tiring On summer weekends we often used to go on camping . Do you use a special firm to arrange busi ness fo r your staff? Do you make your own a rra ngements or d o es yo u r secre ta ry do it all? I hope your flight is on time tomorrow. Safe ! See you at the ai rport.

Com plete th ese sen tences . I We couldn't a rese rvation; all the hotels were booked . 2 As I've got lo ng legs I us ually ask for an seat on a long flight, but on the flight to ew York I had a seat and I got a grea t view of Man ha ttan as we ca me in, even th ough I didn't have m uc h leg-ro om. 3 We're o n ly sc he d u led to ha ve a bo ut hal f a n ho ur in Du ba i, so I hope we d o n 't m iss ou r ......................................... flight. o n th at a irli ne; th ey have th e 4 T hey seem to ha ve mu ch better in -flight la tes t films a nd yo u can p lay video ga mes. their seatbel ts before take-off and landing. 5 Passengers must 6 Passengers wi th seats in rows one to 25 are now invited to the plane. -down and we were very disappointed. 7 The Principality H otel was ra ther 8 You can spend a lot of money and stay in a hotel or you can look for budget .

14.3

An swer th ese questions about travel co llo catio ns , I 2 3 4 5 6 7

14.4

What is the o p posi te of a smooth fligh t? W hic h of th ese two ki nds of flight do most people prefer and why? W ha t d o we cal l a flig ht w hich is not a cha rter fligh t ? W hat d o ai rl ines often p rovid e fo r passen gers to rea d ? \'<'ha t is th e d ifference betw een a business trip and business travel? What is the opposite of outu/ard journey? If a hotel is family-run, is it especially trying to attract families as guests?

\'<'rite about 100 words d escribing a recent personal tra vel ex perience. Us e th e colIoca tio ns from this unit.

I

Next time you fly. look at the signs at the airports yo u pass through. w hich are often in English as well as the local language(s). Find and make a note of t hree useful collocations.

English Colloca tions in Use

33


15

Countryside Writing about the landscape From my room I look out over the surrounding countryside. It's very different from the fam iliar la n d scaf e I see from the windows at home. At home it's a gentle lan dscap e 1 with o p e n fie lds . Here it's a bleak landscape with rocky m o untains in the distance. I 2

a landscape with noth in g extreme or th rea ten in g abo u t it fields un interru pted b y woods o r h o uses Yesterday we followed a path down to the lake.As we turned a corner, we caught a glimpse of3 a kingfisher standing in the water. John tried to take a plcrure" of it but it c aug h t sight of us and flew off.A little further on we rounded a bends and St John 's Abbey came into view.The Abbey fell into ruin" about three hundred years ago. Although it lies in ruins, it is well worth seeing as it stands in a dramatic setting on a steep slope beside a fast-flowing river with mountains towering 7 above it.

3

saw fo r a m o m en t

~ ta ke a pho ro

S 6

t urned a co rne r beca me a ru in

7

m ounta in s risin g dram aticall y

The cottage is in some wonderful uns poi lt counrryside'' on the edge of a dense forest". Unfortunately the trees block the view of the snow-cove red mo u ntains. It has a little garden with a stream at the end of it. The stream w in d s 10 through the forest. They wanted to build a t imber factory here but the local people said that it would destroy the countryside and, fortunately, their campaign to protect the environment succeeded. 8 9

B

34

countryside th at ha s nor been cha nged b y industry o r m odern building s th ic k fo res t 10 m a kes lots of be nds, d o esn't flow in a st ra ig ht lin e

The language of tourism collocation

example

uninterrupted view

From most rooms the re are uninterrupted views of the castle. [nothing blocks the views of the castle]

panoramic view

From the top floor restaurant diners have a panoramic view of the countryside. [view over a very wide area]

spectacular view

From the balco ny there is a spectacular view of the mountains. [ve ry dramatic view]

enjoy/adm ire a view

We stopped for a few minutes to admire the view.

breathtaking scenery

The area has some breathtaking scenery - mountains, cliffs, lakes. [extremely striking and beautiful views]

do minate the landscape

The castle dominates the landscape fo r miles around. [can be seen from a long way away]

beach stretches

A beau tiful beach stretches for miles along the coast.

sandy beach

The hotel has its ow n sandy beach.

secluded beach

You'll love the secluded beaches. [without many people]

go lden sands

You can wander for miles along the golden sands.

peacefu l/tranqu il countryside

You can quickly go from the hustle and bustle of the town to the tranquil countryside. [formal]

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 15.1

Lo ok at A. Complete th e collocations to fit these pictures.

2 ~~~~~

ea r t he lak e there is a n o ld house th at . rui n about a h undred yea rs ago. It sta nds in a lo vely landsca pe, surro u nded by fields. a foot pa th alo ng th e river fo r a bou t th ree kil ometres. In the d ista nce 2 We m oun ta in s. there were snow 3 We wa lked th rou gh a forest; it w as ve ry d ark a mo ng th e t rees.

15.2

Correct the underlined collocation errors in this paragraph. A chain of ~ mountains runs down the east of the country. The Wassa River. the country's biggest, dances slowly from the northern mountains to the sea. Even in summer it is a sour landscape, with its dark, stony mountains and its cold streams. But for me it is the family landscape of my childhood and I am happy that the government has decided to guard this environment. It is a dramatic set which is a lot worth visiting for anyone who likes spectacle views.

15.3

C ho ose the correct collocation. I We made / took / put a lo t of photogra p hs because it was such a beautiful d a y. 2 As I returned / turned th e co rner I made / caught / to ok a g limpse of the house through the trees. 3 A long sanded / sandy bea ch reached / ran / stretched fo r m iles in front of us. 4 Unfo rtuna te ly, the new hotel b lo cks / jams / st ops the view of th e castle.

15.4

Complete this co llo ca tio n web for countryside.

adjec tive mean ing 'bea utifu l because it ha s no t bee n cha nge d o r da maged by peop le'

adject ive me a ning 'peaceful , quiet'

co u ntryside

s urro undi ng Exam ple: a djec tiv e meaning ' lying a round it'

verb mea ning 'da ma ge somet h ing so bad ly that it no longer exis ts o r cannot he used "

15.5

Replace the words in brackets in each sentence with one w o rd which collocates wi th th e underlined word. I It's a beautiful to w n and the co unt rysi de (w hic h is all a ro u nd it ) is e ven m ore bea ut ifu l. 2 T he to w er (is th e most impo rta nt and vis ible thing on ) t he landsca pe. From the top o f th e tower, yo u get a view (w hich a llows you to see a very wide stretch ) o f the su rro u nd ing area . 3 T here are lo vely beaches (w ith ve ry few peo ple on them ). 4 We tra velled th rough some sce ne ry (w h ich was extremely exc iting and beautifu l). 5 From th e w in dows of o u r villa we had views (w hic h were co nti nuous, wi th out an y o bsracles . ) of th e la ke s a nd m ou nta ins. English Collocations in Use

35


16

Towns and cities D e sc rib ing towns and cities fo r vi sitors

A

Look at these extracts from a magazine article about tourist cities.

The city skyline is a wonderful mix of old and new, and the city itself has a lot of busy, narrow cobbled' streets. The old town is a conservation area and it has a lot of quaint? old buildings dating back to the city's foundation in the 1500s. I 2

made of a reg ul a r pattern of stones attractive because of being unusual and especia lly old-fashioned

Doradella Street has a lot of upmarket) shops and rather pricey", sometimes overpriced, restaurants, but not far away is the Genasia district, where you'll find restaurants which offer good value and a more relaxed atmosphere. ) for people with expensive tastes expensive, in a negative sense

4

Royal Avenue runs from north to south, and is lined with shops. Behind it, the streets are full of lively bars and fashionable clubs. The pavement cafes and shops of Luna Square are pleasant but very expensive.

As you drive into the city, the tree-lined avenues of the residential areas are soon replaced by the high-rise flats of the inner citys. Then come the imposing buildings of the Parliament and government departments. 5

B

central part of a city where poorer people live and where th ere are often social problems

Town s and cities and t he ir pro ble m s Here are some descriptions of the more negative aspects of towns and cities. Some of the inner-ci t y a r eas are an urban wa steland I and are somewhat dangerous for visitors. In fact so m e streets have become n o-go? areas. wit h hi gh crime. Many streets are s t re w n with litte r and there are numerous run -down ) buildings . There are some doprf ved" area s rou nd t he city ce ntre w ith huge social proble ms. Th e industrial z o n e s wh ich lie on the edge o f the city are grey and po llu ted. a city area w hich is empty and in a bad condition where the police and other authorities are afraid to enter ) in very bad condition 4 not having the things that are necessary for a pleasant life, e.g. enough money, good living conditions I

2

Triope is a sprawlingS city with burnper-to-burrrper f t r a ffic all day long. The exhaust fum e s can be a nightmare.The volume of traffic has increase d in recent years and the incessant roar" of trucks and buses makes the city centre an extremely noisy place. The comfortable suburbs'' away from t he city centre contrast sharply with the poor shan ty towns" one se es on the way to the air port. 5 6 7

8 9

36

sp read over a la rge a rea (slig htly neg a t ive ) so many cars and so cl o se t hat they are a lmost touching each other very loud noise which never sto ps a place from which many people travel in order to work in a bigger town or city very poor houses made of discarded materials (e.g . tin, cardboard, plastic, erc. )

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 16.1

Wh ich o f th e co llocatio ns in A opposite do these drawings illustrate?

16.2

Which o f th e collo cations in th e bo x ha ve a p ositi ve m eaning (+) a nd wh ich ha ve a negative m eaning (-)? re laxed at mo sphe re imposi ng building

16.3

over-p riced re staurants urban wa ste land fashio nable clu b run-down buildings

no-go area

Answer th ese qu estions u sing collocations fro m th e o p posite pa ge. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

16.4

lively bar shanty town

\X'hat mi ght prevent yo u from slee ping in a house nea r a busy m o torwa y? Ex ha us t fum es will ge t w orse if what increa ses? What is th e o p posi te of a restaurant wh ich is good va lue ? What kind o f a rea with poor, home-made houses co uld certainl y be ca lled a d epri ved a re a ? If an area is very interesting hi storically, what m a y it offi ci all y be call ed? What is another way of saying an expen siv e restaurant? W hat do w e ca ll blocks of fla ts w hich have man y sto reys, perhaps 20 o r more? What adj ective co uld be used a bo ut an attractive and perhaps sligh tly unusu al o ld bu ilding?

Ma tc h th e b egi nn in gs of each sen te nce o n th e left with its ending on the right. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I .

It is a sp ra w ling It is full o f upmarket There was bumper-t o -bumper I ge t as t h m a from th e terrible ex ha us t I live in a re sidential Some of the more d eprived The main street in town T he mai n street is lined On th e outskirts are so me industria l The st reets were stre w n

"

tra ffic all th e w a y to t he ai r po rt. runs from th e castle to th e r iver. zo nes an d so me large supe rma rke ts. with sho ps a nd cafes. cit y covering an e no rmo us area. with litter. area but work in th e c ity centre. areas are not far from the city centre. fumes in the c ity centre . sho ps , which are too ex pe ns ive for me.

Find a description in an encyclopaed ia. tou r ist broch ure o r guide book of a city that yo u know well o r are int eres t e d in. Make a no t e of any inte res ting collocatio ns that you find there.

English Collocations in Use

37


People: character and behaviour Yo u r m o n t h of b ir t h and yo u r c h aracter January

You are good company I but you may have a selfish streak 1

February

You have an outgoing personality and a good sense of humour,

March

You are highly intelligent with a razor-sharp mind.

May

You set high standards for yourself and are fiercely ) loyal to your friends.

June

JUly

You have a vivid imagination. but you tend to lose your temper too easily.

April

August

peopl e enjoy being with you you sometimes act in a se lfis h way 3 st ro nge r th an extremely â&#x20AC;˘ quick decisions S d o what yo u say yo u will do, keep YOll r promise s

October

.,

You have a tendency to make snap declslons".

You are good at keep ing secrets and never bear a grudge 6 . You fi nd it hard to keep your making a fool out of you 8. You can be brutally honest? and

December sometimes hurt others' feelings . 6

7

8 9

.1

resent fo r a long time bad things others have done to you n or get a ng ry t rying to deceive or trick yo u honest in a w ay that ma y hurt

Behaviour: verb + noun collocations collocation

exam ple

com m ent

play a jo keltrick

The child ren played a joke on the te acher by hiding under the ir des ks before she came into the ro om .

NOT ffiftl<e a jokeltrick

ta ke a joke

Fort unately, the teacher co uld take a joke and didn't punish them .

= didn't mind a joke being played on her

swallow your pride

Jane swallowed her prid e and admitted that she was wrong.

= she did it even th ough it was embarrassing for her

throw a ta ntrum

The child threw a tantrum when I wo uldn't buy him any sweets.

manne r

= beh aved in a very uncontrolled

lose yo ur patience

Finally I lost my patience and shouted at he r.

= lost my te mper, became angry

come to te rms with

N ick has found it hard to come to terms with his illness.

= accept so mething psycho logically

reve al your true character

Jack's failure to support her has certainly revealed his true character.

opposite = conce al/hide your true character

I

Associating these collocations with people you know may help you to lea rn the m.

38

--

November temper? if you think someone is

2

B

-

Although you can be painfully shy in social situations, at work you give the impression of being supremely confident.

You have a strong sense of September responsibility and always keep your wordS.

The best aspect of your personality is the way you always put others first.

I

-

English Collocations in Use

I I


Exercises 17.1

Which of the collocations in A describe negatives aspects of character?

17.2

Add the missing words in th ese letters to a magazi ne where readers are discussing their and others ' chara ct ers. You a re so m etim es given the first letter. I know that I _ _ a tendency to ............................... a grudge, but I just can't forget something bad a friend d id to me recently. and doesn't She has a selfish s care sometimes how much she . my feeli ngs. I am finding it increasingly hard to k my tem per with her. But perhaps it might be better to 1.. my temper and let her know how I really feel? Silvia M . others 2 I have always tried to first and not to th ink of myself. I believe you sho uld not lose your p with your friends, b ut if someone seems to enjoy a fool out of you in front of other people, do those rules of friendsh ip st ill apply? Stefan P. 3 I'm a little shy, though not p . shy, b ut sometimes I think I the impression that I'm u nf r ien d ly. How can I convince people t hat I'm good c . and worth getting to know? Tom W.

17.3

5 My boyfriend has a really friendly, 0 .__._ .... personality and a great .. ..._ of humour. He 's _ int ellig ent and has a _ ...__.__...sharp m ind. The perfect man. We've been together now for a year, and I like him a lot, but don't love him any more. Should I be b . honest w ith him and tell him? Lyd ia T. 6 I th ink a fr iend is destroying h ims el f with drugs. I feel a .._ _ _._.. o f re sponsibi lit y towards him. He has al ways be en loyal to me in good and bad f _ t imes, wh ich is a wonderful a of his personality. I feel I ought to contact the police or social services, but I don't want to make a s decision which I'll regret later. Gary J.

Com plete 8 's remarks in th ese co n vers a tio ns so that they m ean m ore o r less th e sa m e as A's, using collocations from th e opposite page.

2 3 4 5

17.4

4 Should J talk about personal matters to my closest colleague at work? She is not very good at secrets and she has a very v...............................â&#x20AC;˘ imagination. She always promises not to tell other peo p le, but I'm not sure she always her word . Jan H.

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Bob's fo u nd it hard to acce pt psycho logica lly t he fact th at he's no w d ivorced . Yes, he's fo u nd it ha rd w it h his new situation . Kevin 's problem is he ca n 't laugh when peo ple pl a y jokes on him . No, it 's t ru e. H e jus t can 't , can he? Well, Sa ra's be hav io u r last n ight ce rtainly showed the truth about her. Yes, it ce rtai nly . She a lways ha s ve ry high ex pectat io ns of both hersel f and her child ren . Yes, s he a lways .. Sa m sta rted sc rea m ing a nd sta m pi ng his feet wh en I t ried to put him to bed. W/e ll, rwo -year-o ld s ofte n ..

Look in yo u r dictionary. C a n yo u find an y other co lloca tio ns I 2 3

.

where too rd has t he m ean ing of promise? w he re temper relates to be haviour? wh ere sense of .. . re la tes to a n as pect of c ha racter ? English Collocations in Use

39


People: physical appearance Words describing people's physical a ppe a r ance Read these qu otati ons taken from essays w here stude nts w ere as ke d to d escrib e the ir famil y m embers. My lather has a round face. with chubby I cheeks and a droopy2 mo ustache. My mother has a more fo inted face and a straight nose. My y (~ u n g~ r ~i Sl e r is more like my Iarhe r. She has an oval face and an upturned nose. My older siste r IS like a model. She has a slim figu re and a sle n d e r 4 waist. She has a lovel y complexions and beautiful s leek'' , shoulderle ngt h ha ir. and she 's always immaculately groomed ", I Ie el so ordina ry next to her - I've gOI coa rse8 ha ir and rather broad hips. hut she always says I look nice. I fat in a pleasant and attractive way 2 long and hanging down heavi ly ) shaped like an egg 4 attractively slim (a rat her formal, poetic wo rd )

S

6 7

8

th e na tu ra l colou r a nd quali ty of a person's skin smooth and shin y her ap pea rance is alwa ys tidy a nd looked after \\' great care ro ug h, a nd not smo ot h or soft

My fat her an d my two olde r brothe rs are all well-built? w ith broad shoulders. My fath e r is going bald but he still has a ve ry youthful appearance for so me o ne w ho is ove r fo rty. My b rothers both have thick hair and bushy '? eyebrows. My yo unge r brother is o nly tw o - he's just a tiny toe !' . but he's ve ry cute. My mo th er's s ide of the family mostl y have dark hair - in fact my m other ha d jet-black hair- '? w he n she was younger, before she went grey - but o n my father's s ide som e have fair hair and some have ginger l ) hair. have strong, attractive bod ies very thic k II a sma ll ch ild 9

10

B

12 complete ly blac k 13 a red or o range-brow n colour; used of people's hair

Mo r e c o llo ca t io n s describing appearance A s ho rt , dumpy w oman w a s se lling flowers a t a sta ll o n th e st ree t co rne r. [sh ort a nd quite fat w oman; used m ore often o f w ome n th a n of m en ] A portl y gentleman a ns we re d th e d o or. [fat a n d ro u nd; usuall y used of m idd le-a ged a nd o ld er men ] A lanky yo u th w a s sta n d ing a t th e st ree t corner. [ta ll and th in a n d tend ing to move a w kwa rd ly) I w ouldn't lik e people to see m e w ith d ish evelled hair a nd dirty clothes. [ve ry untid y; used of people's hai r a nd a p pea ra nce )

H e bears a st riking rese mblance to h is fat her. [lo o ks re ma r ka bly like] T he lad y w ho entered the ro om ha d a very striki ng appearance. [unusua l a p pea ra nce, in a po siti ve, a ttractive sense i

I .

40

So metimes wo rds are very restricted in w hat they can collocate with.T he colour ad jectives blonde , ginger an d auburn I are o nly used o f people's hair (not. for example, their clothes or other objects). W he n a word has restrict e d collocatio ns, make a special note in your vocabulary notebook. ' re dd ish brown

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 18.1

Put th e wo rds fro m th e bo x into th e 'fat' o r 'thin' colum n, th en answer th e q uestio ns . portly

lanky

slender

dumpy

18.2

Wh ich words could be used to describe so rneo ne 's waist? Which word is lik el y to be used o f a rather physicall y awkward yo ung person? Which ,word means 'fat but in a pleasant way'? Which w ord is more likel y to be used to describe a man rather th an a w oman? \X'hich w ord is more lik el y to be used to describe a woman rather th an a man?

Look at B. Then match the adjectives in the first box below with the nouns in the second box. bushy cheeks

18.3

chu bby

'thin' words

'fat' words

1 2 3 4 5

slim

tiny

oval

moustache

st riking

broad

sh oul ders

hair

dro o py

chubby

eyebrows

dishevelled

re semblan ce

tot

face

Fill the gaps with appropriate collocations. You are sometimes given the first letter(s ). I hadn't seen W ill since he was just a (1) t t , so I was surprised to see t hat he w as now a tall young man . He was (2) im gr , -bl ack, smart and elegant. He was w ith a pretty young woma n w it h (3) j.. ha ir and a (5) 1.. co m She coul d ha ve (4) shou lderbeen a mode l, she had such a (6) st r ap He had his arm round her (7) s wa W ith them was a (8) po g , who looked as though he enjoyed good food, and who was probably he r f ath er. W he n I introduced myself to Will, he smiled . 'Of course, I remember you: he said . 'Yo u used t o work with my father. But y o u haven 't aged at all! You h av e a much m ore very (9) y a t h an my father now does. Dad has (10) g rey.' I fe lt very pleased w h en he said that; h e obviously d id n't notice I was b eginning to (11) ba ld . Everyone li k es to th ink they lo ok youn g when they get older.

18.4

Use the wo rds fro m th e box to fill th e gaps to give contrasti ng meanings. round

1 2 3 4

coarse

H er hair's not She has a n Her mother ha s a M y hair is so

I

,

upturned

fair

pointed

straight

dark

sleek

, it's q ui te , in fact it's al most black. nose but her brother ha s a nose. face but her father has a face. a nd ugl y; Sa lly's is so a nd lo vely.

Find a description of the hero or heroine in an English novel or short story. Note down any interesting collocations that you find there.

English Collocations in Use

4I


9

Families Family relationships Sociologists talk a bo ut nuclear a nd extended families. A nuclear family is just parents a nd c hi ldren. An extended family is a wide r network including g ra nd pa re nts, cousi ns , etc. Close relatives a rc th o se like parents, c h ildren, brothers or sisters. Distant relatives arc people lik e second cousins [th e c h ild re n of a co us in of yo ur m other o r fath er] or d istant co usins. C lose/i mmed ia te fami ly refers to people wh o a re yo u r nearest b lo o d rela tives: I d on't ha ve much close/im mediate fami ly. Sh e 's a d ista n t co usin o f m in e; she's not a blood relative. Close can a lso be used to mean th a t the relati onsh ip is a ve ry stro ng o ne : \Y/e are a ve ry close fami ly. or W/e a re a ve ry close-knit fami ly. T hese a djectives a lso colloca te w it h family: loving, respectable, dysfunctional (unhap p y, not worki ng in a health y way] Simon ca me from a respectab le family, so M a r y's parents felt ha p p y a bou t th e ma rriage. So meone's late husband/wife is o ne wh o ha s d ied . An es tranged [fo rm al ] husband/wife is o ne wh o lives in a di fferent place a nd ha s a diffi cu lt relationship with th eir hu sband/wife. They ma y be ha vin g a trial separation a n d ma y eventua lly decide to ge t a d ivorce. In so me ca ses it can be a b itter/acrimonious divo rce . [full o f a nge r, arguments and bad feeling] A person 's ex-h us b a nd/ex-wife is a man/woman that she/he used to be ma rri ed to . C h ild re n wh o se parents ha ve se pa ra te d o r di vorced a re said to co me from a broken home. If the ir fam ily is a strong, lo vin g o ne it ca n be ca lled a stable ho m e. If it is a poo r o ne, not ha ving the th ings th at a re necessary for a pl ea sant life, suc h as enough money, foo d o r good living co ndi t ions, it ca n be ca lled a deprived home. A confirmed bachelor is a ma n w ho see ms to ha ve no inte ntio n of eve r m arryin g.

B

42

Parents and children collocation

example

comment

start a family

They are hoping to start a family soon .

NOT

~

have children

I'd like to have three children.

NOT

get

expect a baby

Soraya is expecting a baby.

NOT '" BiÂŁ lfeF) a baby

have a baby

Jill had her baby yesterday.

NOT

the baby is due

The baby is due next week.

= expected to arrive

get

a family

children a baby

single parent/mother It's hard being a single parent.

may be eithe r unmarr ied o r divorced

raise / bring up children / a family

Raise a fam ily is more com mon in US than in UK English.

Helen had to bring up four young child ren on her own.

apply for custody of The father applied for custody of the give/grant [formal] children, but the judge gave/granted custody custody to the mother.

custody: the legal right or duty to care for a child after its parents have separated or died

provide for your family

Nick works very long hours to provide for his family.

= to earn enough money to suppo rt

your fam ily

set up home

We live with my mum now, but we'll set up home on our own soon .

= to start an independent life in one's own flat or house

English Collocation s in Use


Exercises I 9.1

Fill the gaps in this old man's memories about his life with words from A.

fami ly as m y g ra nd pa re nts a nd a couple of aunts and an I grew up in a n ( I ) uncl e, who w as a (2 ) bach elor, lived with us. \'(fe sa w a lot of our (3) relatives as well as o ur close o nes . I think that families tended to be much more (4) th en - we talked to ea ch other m ore a nd did things together more. I'm su re there a re fa r more (5) famili es now th an th er e used to be - yo u kn ow, where parents hardl y spe nd a ny time with th eir children, o r with each o ther - and a lot of parents who are divorced. M y (6) wife, who di ed two yea rs ago, used to say th at it is not fair on child re n to let th em grow up in (7) homes.

19.2

Look at B. Correct th e six collo ca tio n erro rs in this yo u ng woman's plans for the future.

19.3

Match the two parts of these collocations. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

19.4

app ly for get es tra nged nuclear p ro vid e fo r dista nt set u p t ria l

C ha rles a nd I are hoping to beg in a fa mi ly soo n . \'(fe both w ant to ge t lots of children . Ideall y, I'd lik e to ha ve my first baby next yea r, wh en I'll be 25. M y siste r is w a iting a baby now. It's coming next month. She's going to be a so le parent and it 'll be hard for her to g ro w up a child o n her o w n .

co usin se pa ra t ion c us tody hom e wi fe fa mi ly your fami ly a di vo rce

Answer these questions. I 2 3 4 5 6 7

Wh o d o you ha ve in yo u r immediate fa mi ly? Do yo u ha ve much contact w ith yo ur di st ant re la t ives? If so, w hen? Where d id yo ur pa rents first set up home? Wh ich would most chi ld ren prefer to live in, a nd why, a stable home or a deprived hom e? What collocatio n means the same as to be pregnant? Can d ysfunctio na l families also be respecta ble ones? What can be put befo re th e words wife and husband to indicate that they are no longer ma rried to someone ? 8 What is a m ore for ma l a lterna tive fo r give custody?

19.5

\Vrite a paragraph about your own family using as man y as possible of the co llo ca tio ns from this unit.

I

Read some English language women's magazines and note down any other inte re sting family collocations th at you find .

l~

_

English Collocation s in Use

43


Relationships A

Fr ie n d s h ip H ere a re so me com mo n colloca tions re la ti ng to friends and friends h ip .

B

collocation

ex ample

comment

make friends

When yo u go to un ivers ity yo u wi ll make a lot o f new friends.

N OT At.<! fr iends (a common stu dent erro r)

strike up a frie ndship Jack struck up a friendship w ith a girl he met o n holiday.

=start a friendsh ip

fo rm/develop a fr iendsh ip

Juliet formed a lasting friendship w ith th e boy she sat next to at primary sch ool.

NOT fflftlte a fr ie ndship

cement/spoil a friendship

Spending several weeks on holiday together has cemented their friendship .

a friendship gro ws

We we re at sch o ol together, but our friendshi p grew afte r we 'd left school.

= = grow =ge t stro nger

close/s pecial fr iends mutual frien ds

I'm glad that our ch ildren are su ch close friends , aren't you!

mutual friends friends that yo u share w it h someone else

a casu al acq uainta nce

I don't know Rod we ll.W e 're just c a s u a l acquaintances.

=someone you know a little

have a good relationship w ith someone

Anna and Marie have a very good relationship.T hey love doing things together.

NOT have a

ke ep in contact/ touch

W e mu st keep in contact w he n the course e nd s.

oppos ite

cement strengthen spoil have a bad effect on

=

FelBt:ie fl I FelBt ieR5 w ith

=lo s e

contact/touch

Mo r e than just go od friends A lo ve s t o ry

I fe ll madly in lo ve with Anton from t he moment I met him. It was ce rta inly love at first sight. I knew at once that he was the love of my life but at first I w as no t su re if my love was returned or not.W it hin a few days . however. he had told me that he was desperately in love w ith me too. A couple of weeks later. we realise d th at we wanted to make a commitment to each other and. when Anton asked me to marry him. I immediately accepted his proposal. I'm sure we w ill always love each o t her unconditlonally '. Neither of us would ever consider having an affa ir? w ith someone else. I

2

44

lo ve th at is to ta l an d d oes not change regardless of wha t yo u or th e object of yo ur lo ve does ha ve a sex ua l relationship w ith someone o utsi de ma rriage

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 20.1

Look at A. C hoose an appropriate word to complete each sentence. I 2 3 4 S

6 7 8

20.2

Ka y is quite a s hy person a nd finds it hard to friends. a good relationship? Do Paul a nd Sophie Sa m is a lw ays up friends hips w ith people he m eets o n trains a nd plan es. I hope th eir di sagreement over the bill w on 't th eir friend ship. It's amazing, wh en yo u meet someone new, how o fte n yo u find that yo u have so me ................................. fri ends. Ap pa re ntly, people most o f their cl osest friendships when th ey a re yo u ng. I wo u ldn 't ca ll Gra ham a clo se frie nd , m ore a casua l . \Y/e d id n 't reall y lik e eac h o ther a t firs t, but o u r friendship as w e go t to k no w each o the r be tte r.

Make nine collocations out of the words in the box. Use each of the words once onl y.

a

a

a

commitment friendship someone's

affair contact

in

keep

proposal special

return str ike

an first

at friends

lose

make

sight

up

Answer th ese ques tions abo ut the collocations on the opposite page. I 2 3 4 S

20.4

have love

love

20.3

accept contact

Wh ich Wh ich \Y/h ich Wh ich Which

ve r b suggests th at friendsh ip can be see n as a p la nt ? coll o cati on suggests th at lo ve is close to be ing crazy? collo ca tion fro m th e lo ve story m ea ns agree to m arry someo ne] colloca tion means the sa me as special [riendsi coll ocation m eans the sa me as k eep in co n tact w ith ?

Comp lete th ese q ues tio ns. Then answer th em. 1 Have yo u ever fallen in lo ve at first ? a commitment tha n 2 Do yo u think it 's true t hat men are more re luctant to w omen? in lo ve for th e firs t time ? 3 How o ld w ere you wh en yo u 4 Do yo u think it is possible to ha ve o ne person wh o is th e lo ve of yo ur ? S H a ve you eve r been in lo ve with so meone wh o has not yo ur lo ve? an 6 Do yo u think th at m en o r w omen a re m ore lik ely to be tem pted to affa ir?

20.5

Look up th ese w o rds in yo u r dictio nary. each o ne. lov e

friend

friendship

o re down tw o mo re good collocations for

relationship

Eng/ish Collocations in

Use 45


Feelings and emotions Feeling happy Look a t these m essages in cards sent to Brian a n d Helen o n their wedding da y. collo ca tio ns in bold. r;~~a '"

aM H de "'. Have a g~eat clatJ. I ~II\.OW tJot.<'Ll be bllssft.c.lltJ I h"l'ptJ ogether:

S ~ l'l<.O '"

very/ex tre mely

I

B

a sta nda rd wa y o f referring

Deo.r HeLen GIYld.. B r~ , We. nope. mCUTL0.9e. brings !:l0\.( wang happi.ness _ JoJ: e. GIYld.. MarLa.. . aM H de",_ w~th love aM best wishes h"l'ptJ OCCCls~O"". I.{lI\.Cle e;~~c

r;~~a '"

To Brian and HelenBest; wis hes 1;0 t;he happY couple 2, J ack 2

o re the

to

0'" th~s

a newl y married co uple

Feeling sad and upset In th ese letters to th e problem pa ge o f G o od Life m aga zine, useful collo ca tio ns a re in bold. Dear Good Life, My grandmother died six months ago and I've felt desperately sad and deeply depressed ever since. Is this normal fo r a 26-year '0Id? Karen Young Dear Good Life , I felt a great sadness when I had to say goodbye to my friends at the end of our three years in university. The fa rewell part y was such a sad occasion . What can I do? My life feels empty without them . )0 Hart

Dear Good Life , I was bitterly ' disappointed recently when a friend let me down badly. How can I express my disappointment to her without appearing silly or childish? I'm not very good at showing my feelings. Yolanda Reed Dear Good Life, I failed an exam recentl y and it was a huge disappointment to me. Now I'm feeling increasingly anxious th at I' ll fail the next one. In fact I'm worried sick. What should I do? David Wright

' dee ply disappointed is also co mmo n

C

A nge r and emotion T he re is mo unti ng [growing] anger over the new ta x, a lo ng w ith widespread condcmnarioi of it (a lot of people in m an y different places ha ve con de m ned it ]. It ha s es pecia lly aroused feelings of resentment among professional pe ople. I lo st m y tem per and w a s see th ing wi th anger wh en she ca lled m e a n idi ot. II sud de n ly became ve ry a ng ry ] D ivorce is a h ighl y emotional ex pe rie nce fo r a ll th o se invo lved . It 's ha rd not to give a p ure emo tio nal response. The em o tional in vol vement o f both parti es is inte nse, a n d th e emo tio nal impa ct on children is huge. [these are rather formal co lloca t io ns ] J ack w a s a n emo tio nal wreck [in formal : in a bad emotiona l sta te] after h is g irlfriend fin ish ed w ith h im.

I 46

This page gives a number of synonyms fo r very/really/t erribly and for big, wo rds which learners so me ti mes use too much. Make a special note of the m .

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 21.1

How many words meaning very or ex trem ely can you remember from the opposite page? Use them in stead of ve ry or ex trem ely in these senten ces . I 2 3 4 5 6

21.2

I was very di sappointed. (g ive two answers) Jess is a ve ry emotional individual. She felt extremely sad . H er childhood was extremely happy. I was ex t remely worried . She felt verv depressed.

Improve the sty le of these e-rna ils b y replacing the underlined words with collocations from the opposite page.

Delete

Rep ty Reply All

fo rw"rd

Print

DearJames I haveto tell you that there is ~ condemnation and ~ angerover the news that the company pension scheme is to be closed down. The issue has brought out strong feelingsamong the staff. I am personally becoming more and more anxious that the situation might get out of control, and ask you to act immediately. With best wishes, Joanne Withers Staffrepresentative

21.3

2

DearJoanne, I too am M!..2! anger over this pension question. I tried to showmy disappointment over it to the Board, but they simply dismissed the issue and that just made me extremely angry. I feel ~ let down. I shall continue to do what I can. Yours sincerely, James Horgan (Resource Manager)

3

Gareth, You probably know I didn't get thejob I applied for. It's a ~ disappointment. Christina

4

DearWinston, I felt a !2ig sadness when I heard of Patrick's death. Will you be going to the funeral? It will be such a sad l!!i!!g. won't it? Pamela

Answer the questions. I 2 3 4 5

Give tw o exa m p les of a hap p y occasion. What phra se can refe r to tw o people w ho have ju st got ma rried? What a d ject ive colloca tes wi th ha ppi ness to mean ' wh ich continues for man y yea rs'? What other noun m ean ing ' effect' ca n collocate wi th em otional? What is a n info r ma l way of saying I was ex tre m ely worried?

I

Go to the Cambridge University Press website at www.cambrjdi:e .oq: and enter the word temper in the Search Cambridge Dictionaries box.Then click on Look it up. If you cannot use the web. look up temper in a good dictionary.What collocations can you find in add ition to lose your temper!

English Collocations in Use

47


22

Houses, flats and rooms Finding somewhere to live Look at t hese notices on a university notice-board. Usefu l colloca tio ns a re in bold .

o o

S~oy\:-Lt.t

I

accolMtMCGlati.o"" avalla te v..far uvcivers.ltlj' RD0W:f a.,.Gl s.t ....Glt.O -fU'ts. . Tel: '3 5 .44.

â&#x20AC;˘ Are you looking to m ove into a flat or hou ee next. term'? The Harmer Agency has a wide range of suita!>'e accommodation . Call ue on 4446677. Newfy'!>uilt apartment availa!>le SOOn. 5pacioue acco.mmodation. fu lly -fitted kitchen). Off-road pa rk ing . To leI: furnished or unfurnished. Would sui t Single academic Or ma l:ure 5l:udenl:. Tel: 3215786.

can be rented for sho rt periods of tim e sma ll flats design ed for on e per son ) kitch en th at is a lrea dy equipped with modern cooker, washing machine, cupboards, ere. I

2

B

D e s c rib ing you r house/flat/room In these e-mails peop le are describing their living accommoda tion .

~ Hi Mave, Luke and I have just moved into our dream home. II's a big old fcur-storey house. Irs got a spacious living room which has a wonderful view of the park, and a cosy study where we can both work. And there are some lovely li ght. airy bedrooms which overlook the garden . There is a separate basement flat , which we might tum into a granny flat for my mother. And if we want to add an extensi on I there's room for that too. It needs to be completely refurbished, but Luke and I have always wanted to do up2 an o ld house. Come and visit. Love, Julia I 2

Hi Julia. You're so lucky! I'd love to move out of my awful oneroom flat. Irs in such a dilapidated building . You go intoa draughty hall , down a chilly corridor and into this really cramped room. I want to buy a place of my own but there's a shortage of affordable housing here and I dont want to take out a big mortgage. I'd love to see your house. I hope you'll invite me to your house-warmlnq party. Big hug, Mave

we can also say build a n exten sion = build an extra room or rwo onto an ex isring house repai r, repai nt a nd decora re (a hou se)

Collocations with home She left home to go to unive rsity, but moving away from her family made her feel homesick. Peter's back fro m a year a broad. H is fami ly a re th row ing a pa rty to welcome him home. (To a g uest wh o 's ju st a rrived) Come in a nd make yo urself at home w h ile I fin ish ge tting d in ne r rea dy. [relax a nd m ak e yo urse lf co mfo rtab le ] I haven't lived in Oxford for long but I already feel at home there.

I' d like to b uy a second home near the coast. [house used only for weekends, holidays, erc. ]

48

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 22.1

An swer these questions using collocations from A. I What kind of accommodation would suit a student who has no furniture of his own? 2 \XTh a t kind of accommodation would suit someone who is only going to be in a place for three mo nths? 3 Wha t pa rt of tow n wou ld you want to live in if you wanted to be somew here where there are lots of p rivate ho uses a nd no facto ries or other work pl aces ? 4 W hat k in d of accommoda tion wo u ld s ui t a yo u ng si ng le person w ho w ould p refer to live a lone ra t he r th a n to sha re? 5 If accommoda tion d o esn 't h a ve its own ga rage, w ha t else m igh t it ha ve to make life easier for ca r-owning residents? 6 If you a re moving into a new unfurnished ho use, but don't need to take a washing machine, cooker or fridge with you, what does the house have?

22.2

Lo ok at B. Match th e beginning of ea ch senten ce on th e left with its end ing o n the righ t. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

22.3

We want to turn our garage into a Jill has invited me to her ext w eek I ha ve to m o ve out of Karl mak es a business o u t o f d o ing u p O u r be droo m overloo ks O u r house needs to be com p le te ly I hope that o ne day I'll have a pl ace of The bank can hel p if you want to take o u t a

C o r rect the collocation er rors in these se nten ces . I 2 3 4 路5 6 7 8 9 10

22.4 22.5

house-warming party. mortgage. my own . granny fla t. my flat. t he garden . ol d ho uses. refurbis hed .

We live on a busy road, but we' re lucky because we have off-road park. Gemma has moved off from her old flat and has now got a new place in Walville Street. We're building an expansion to o ur house which will give us a bigger kitchen. The flat is totally furnis hed, which is good because I have no furniture of my own. She had to ge t o ut a b ig m ortga ge as t he house was very expensive. T he re is no b uya b le h ousin g for yo u ng people in t h is a rea; prices are ridiculously high . N ew people ha ve ente re d into th e house next d o o r. I have n't me t the m yet. It 's a ve ry spa tia l a pa rtment w ith a h uge living room an d a b ig kitchen . T he flat is accessib le to rent fro m t he firs t of March onwards. My brot her and his wife live in a windy o ld cottage.

Replace the underlined words w ith collocations from the o p p osite page. Complete these sen te n ces u sing collocations from C opposite. Jane's been away a w ho le year and now she's back . We s ho u ld h a ve a party to

rne home you've always im agi ned could be wa iting for yo u at Highdale Cottages. All cottages let you see the River Marn. Ideal for an yone seeking a hoyse y sed only for weekends or holidays in the area . Telephone 3340251 for appointments to view.

2 O ur so n lives at home rig ht n o w b ut he' ll be 2 1 soon . H e'll finish un iversit y a n d then he'll p ro babl y . 3 I've lived h ere almost a year no w and I' m rea lly beginning to 4 I' ll leave th e keys to my flat wi th t he neighbour. Just go in and 5 Jane th ought she wo u ld miss her friends and family when she started her new job in Ro m e b ut she soon foun d she ha d no time to . English Collocations in Use

. .

49


Eating and drinking A

Talking about types of food In eac h o f th ese co nve rsa tions, useful collocations are in bold . To m: Ne lly:

Kid s ea t fa r too mu ch junk food. Yeah, but it's hard to ge t th em to eat no uri sh ing m eal s '. They think th ey're boring. , mea ls which ma ke yo u hea lth y and strong

Fran: Jim: Fran:

H a ve yo u tried th e new su pe rma rke t yet ? Yes. The fresh produce? is excellent, a nd th ey have a big o rgan ic foo d sec tio n. Mm, yes . I ac t ua lly think th eir ready m eal s) a re good too. 2 foods produced from farmi ng, e.g. dai ry produce, ag ricultu ra l produce; pron o un ced I' pro dj u:s/ ) meals a lrea dy pr ep ared o r wh ich just need to be heated q uickly before ea ting

Liam: Todd:

I can't believe foo d a d d itives" a re good fo r o ur long-t erm health. 0 , a nd I th ink p rocessed fo o ds! in ge ne ra l a re probabl y bad fo r us, not to mention GM fo ods"! ~ substances added to food to improve its taste o r a ppea ra nce or to preserve it 5 foo ds w hich are cha nge d o r tr eated as part of a n ind ust ria l o peration 6 gene tically mo d ified fo od s

The res ta u ra nt was leavi ng perishab le fo od? lyin g round o utsi de th e fridge, and some people got food poisoni ng so th e authorities closed it down. Terry: O h d ear. 7 foo d w hich goes ba d qui ckl y, e.g. cheese , fish Gai l:

B

Eating and drinking Lo ok a t this info rmation o n ea ti ng o u t fo r visi tors to a town .

o te th e colloca tions in bo ld.

Whether it's a light meal or a substantial I meal you're looking for, whether you want a slap-up meal' , a gourmet) meal or just tasty, home-cooked food, there's something for everyone in the Old Port restaurant area . Enjoy good food in a pleasant setting. ' large

2

un us ua lly large a nd good

) high -qu a lity

J a ne an d Ron a re in th e Old Port resta ura nt a rea lo o ki ng fo r so me w he re to ea r. J a ne: Ron: J ane:

Ron:

Let's find a ca fe and have a q uick sna ck. And I cou ld rea lly d o wi th a refresh ing dri nk. I'm d yin g o f hunger! I need a sq uare m eal. I know yo u ha ve a health y a p peti te, b ut you ha d a hearty b reakfast on ly three ho urs ago! \Vell, ho w a bo ut ha vin g a soft drin k a nd a bag of crisps no w, a nd a proper lu nc h later? C ris ps wi ll o n ly spoil your appetite . Look, th is rest a u ra nt looks good a nd th e set men u is reasonably priced . Let's go in. W e say international food /cuisine, N OT " s piel ,oiel e food/cu isine . A C hines e/ Mexican/ Fre nch meal is what you eat in a re stau ra nt. When referring in genera l to the food of a country or cultu re we say Chinese/Mexican/French food/cooking/cuisine.

SO

English Collocations in

Use


Exercises 23.1

Match the words on the left with their collocations on the right. I 2 3 4 5

23.2

set food junk ready fresh

additives food produce men u meals

Co m p lete these sentences using th e collo ca tio ns from exercise 23.1 to fill the gaps. I . such as a rtificial flavou rs and colouring can ca use allergies. 2 . ma y be unhealth y, but it's q uick and easy a nd fills you u p. 3 People who don't have much time to cook often buy . from the su permarket. 4 It 's a lways bette r to b uy instead of canned o r frozen food s. 5 T he is usually c heaper t han ordering dishes separately in a restau ra nt.

23.3

Read these remarks by different people, then answer the questions. R ich ard: Archie: Poll y: Ken: Suz ie: ma:

I' ve got so me cheese a nd mil k. Is th ere a fri dge here I co uld put th em in? I feel so hungry! I ca n't believe it! I' ve been sic k a nd m y sto m ac h is ach ing. Must be so methi ng I a te. 0 m atter how m uch I ea t, I a lways wa nt m ore. All th ese vegeta bles ha ve been grown without a ny chemicals at a ll. I a lways e njoy m y foo d a nd lo ok fo rwa rd to it . name

I Who has organ ic food ? 2 Who has an insat iable appetite ?

3 Who has perishable food? 4 Who has a he althy appe tit e?

5 Who has food poison ing? 6 Who is dying of hunger?

23.4

Replace the underlined words with suitable collocations from th e o p posite pa ge.

2 3 4 5 6

Foods w hic h a re changed o r treated as pa rt of an industrial operation m a y dama ge our hea lth in the long te rm. So me people a lways have t hree fu ll. satisfyi ng mea ls a da y, but I prefer a large breakfast an d th en a sma ll m eal around m id day and a more sizeable m eal in the evening. T here a re some overpriced resta u ra nts in the city centre, but down at the beach, there a re some nice, not too expensively p riced ones. O n m y birthda y m y pa rents too k me o ut fo r a big . good meal. They wanted to go fo r a ve ry high qu ality m eal but I sa id I'd p refer so me t hing m ore o rdinary. Iced tea is a d rink th at cools yo u a nd m ak es yo u fee l less tired on a hot d a y, and is pro bably better fo r yo u than no n-alcohol ic drink s suc h as cola or lemona de. Let me ta ke yo u o ut to dinner on yo u r bi rt hday. Or wo uld yo u prefer a m ea l prepared a t ho m e ? I co uld m ak e di n ne r fo r yo u a t m y pla ce.

English Collocatio ns in Use

5I


24

Films and books

A

Talking about films and books When a new book o r film comes o ut, newspapers will review it . T he people w ho review th bo ok/film a re called book review ers / film critics and they wri te b o ok/film reviews. If they d on't like a book/fil m th ey g ive it a bad review . W/e can say tha t a no vel o r film is based on a true sto ry . We say th at a b o ok/film captu res an atmosphe re or t hat a b ook/film d eal s with a topic. W/ e talk abo ut th e opening/clo sin g scenes of a film a nd the o pening/closing chapters of a boo k. We tal k abo ut th e b eginning a nd end of a b o o k/film ( O 'T ~ a nd fut.i.4 ). If every t hi ng w orks o ut we ll fo r th e central characters, we say th at the bo ok/film has a happy endin g. You ma y recommend a book/film th at yo u enjoyed to a fr iend . If a lot of peo ple ha ve e njoyed it, it is hi ghl y recommended.

B

Just about films and acting I' ve never had a ny d esire to go on the stage I m ysel f bu t I'd lo ve to p roduce a film . I thin k historical dram as w ork parti cu larl y well o n th e big screen? a nd I'd lo ve to make a film a bo ut Viki ngs in Britain. There'd be p lenty o f o p po rt u n ities to use specia l effects) during ba ttl e scenes. I' d want th e male lea d" to be pla yed by H ug h Grant, w hil e ico le Kidm an co u ld ha ve th e femal e lea d . Sea n Pen n co uld pla y th e rol e of a Viki ng wa rrio r and I'd like J udi Denc h to tak e o n a cameo roles. I'm sure th a t, as a lw ays, she w ou ld gi ve a n exce llent performance. M y d rea m is to make a film th a t w o u ld be nomi nated for an O scar", Of co u rse, I'd a lso lik e it to be an immediate box-office hit", pla ying to full houses'' w orldw ide. I become a n actor S sma ll but spec ia l part 2 the cinema 6 put o n th e officia l list of peo ple in th e film wo rld wh o ma y receive a specia l prize (a n Osca r) ) po werful visua l effec ts, often crea ted usi ng technology 7 extre mely successful wi th a udiences 4 ma in ma le part 8 cinemas/thea tres with no empty seats O ther strong colloca tio ns are cast a film [select the actors for a film ], star in a film , shoot a film , m ake a film .

C

Just about books collocation

example

be e ngro ssed/abso r bed in a book

Sal was so eng r o ssed/abso r b e d in h e r boo k that she d idn't hea r me.

com pulsive read ing

Many people find art icles about the pri vate lives o f film stars c o m p u lsive r eading. [so inte re sti ng yo u can't sto p reading]

be dtime rea ding

I don't th ink a ho rror sto ry make s go o d b edtim e reading.

an easy read

Detective stories are good fo r trai n journeys as th ey're an easy read .

ta ke out / borrow / re turn / renew a library book

You can t ake out/borrow six library books at o ne t ime .You sh o uld r e t u r n your library boo k tomorrow. I'm goi ng to r e n e w my lib rary book for ano the r wee k.

flick/skim th rough a book

Mo na flicked/skimmed t h r o u g h t he book without reading it in detail.

beaut ifully w rit t e n

The book is beautifully written - I high ly recom me nd it.

C r it ics review books an d films, NOT eFiÂŁieise them. To criticise a book o r film means to say negative t hings about it. Rememb e r that yo u watch television , NOT see television, but you can see o r watch a film or programme o n t e lev isio n. W e usually say see a film at the cine ma. 52

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 24.1

Use co llocatio ns fro m A opposite ins tead of the u nd er lined w o rd s in this con versatio n . T he co nversation has no errors, bu t the changes w ill im prove it. M atthew: Lorna: M atthew: Lo rn a: M atth ew :

Lorna : M atth ew: Lorna :

24.2

H a ve yo u rea d th at new bo ok that has ju st a p pe a red a bo ut Ireland? N o , I d on't go to bo oksh ops a nd I d on 't read articles di scu ssing new bo oks. What's it ab out? Well, it co ncerns th e Irish War o f Ind ependence. It's very authentic and it manages to !.!ive th e a tm osp he re o f Ireland at th e beginning o f th e 2 0th century. Is it ju st hist orical facts , th en? 0 , th e m ain people are two b roth ers wh o ha ve d ifferent o pi nio ns a bo ut th e war a nd th is di vid es th eir fam ily. In th e first ch apters th ey're happ y a nd d o eve ry t hing together, but by th e last cha pte r th ey have become ene m ies . Mm, it so u nds a bit d epressing to m e. \X'ell , it ce rta in ly d o esn 't finish in a happy wa y, but I lik ed it, a nd it 's recomm ended ve ry much b y all th e c ritics. So, a book with a plea sant sta rt a nd a sa d fini sh. o t for me, I'm afraid. I prefer th e o p posite .

Complete the crossword . 2

1

3

4

5

D own I ro le m eans 'sma ll b ut specia l part in a film/pl a y' . 2 The film w a s for an Oscar but it didn't win . 4 It was an am a zing film a bo ut space travel, w ith fa ntastic specia l .

6

7

24.3

Match th e w ords in th e b o x o n th e left wi th th eir co lloca tions on the right. full big bedtime box-office female

24.4

Across 3 I was co mplete ly in m y bo o k and did n't reali se ho w late it had got. S An a lte rnative to 3 across. 6 H e wants to go o n th e H e 's a lwa ys wanted to be a n actor. in 7 Wh o pla yed th e m al e Destination Satu rn?

screen lead

hit

reading house

Complete th ese collo cations. I 2 3 4

shoot / sta r in / make a renew / borrow / return a flick / skim th ro ugh a compulsive / bedtime

I â&#x20AC;˘

¡

. . . .

Online bookshops. for example. Amazon. often have m ini-reviews and descriptions of books and DVDs. Find a review of a book or film that you know and note down any inte re sti ng collocations in it.

English Collocations in Use

53


Music D e s c rib ing music Lo ok a t these mu sic revi ews a nd note th e collocations in bold . Bloom Music f r o m th e Cent re of the Earth (Palm reco rds 234655) New arrivals on the rock music scene , Bloom are already making a b ig im p act. If you're looking for backg round music, then this is not for you, but if you wa nt m usic to b last out fro m ' your h i-fi and annoy the ne ighbours, then Bloom's debut 2 album, with tracks from the ir li v e performance at the De laya Stad ium, may be just what yo u wa nt.

-.. -... -......

-.-

. ....

Jo h n n y MacRoy Songs we lo ve d (K ase Phonog raph 488792) For fans of ea sy Iistening 3 and catchy" tunes, t h is is all yo u need . In fact it's so relax ing you m ight j u st fall asleep. MacRoy g ives a sentim enta l performance of these old love songs . At 47 , he's not exactly a pop idol but his adoring fan s w ill love it .

_ • • eI. _ _ • •

__ • • • •

__ •

The Ox b ridge Symphon ia British classics old and n ew (Ro t or Records 775537) Hauntin~ melod ies and the occas ional v irtuoso performance from it s two solo ists mark this collection of popular British classical music, wh ich aims to ca pt u re a w id er audience for the classics and to promote Brita in 's musical h eritage. Roger Crow co n d ucts t h e orchest ra. Cro w h imself composed two of the pi eces, hence the CD title. Good birthday present for your u ncle and aunt. But if you 're a real classical music lo ver, save your money.

-.. -.......

.,

••

-.. -..

BUST-OUT WITH JOLA V BLAZE MAMA (Presto 58843) Bust -out's new double CD fe atu re s'' Jol a V, a young rap7artist from M iami. Jola u sed to be with Chicago hip-hop band Frenzy, but went 8 5010 in 2004. The band have re mixed four tracks from earlier albums and Jol a's uptempo" numbers just add to the excitement .

Th e Di v id e A mphibian (Fo no Corp 332 1978) Th is is a rock symphony, an extraord inary piece of m usic. After their massive hit in 2004 with Megalith, the ir reco rd company has released t h is CD hoping for another b ig hit. The band t hem selves wrot e t he music. They have a huge fo llowing and are due to go on tour later th is year.

so und ex tremel y loud 2 presented to th e p ublic fo r th e first tim e 3 mu sic th at is nor serious o r di fficult ~ pleasa nt an d easy to rem ember I

5 6

7

8 9

B

extremely skilful incl udes as a n important parr rock mu sic in wh ich rh ym ed lyrics a re spoken over rhythm tracks mad e a new vers ion of a musical track pla yed at a fast beat

P lay ing music

I've tak en u p th e g u itar. I' ve had three lessons so far.

I sa w M artin str u m mi ng a guitar the other d a y. I didn't know he could pla y. H e can't. H e ju st lik es people to th in k he can . He's got no

musical ta lent whatsoever.

54

Eng/ish Collocations in Use

That's grea I lo ve live m us ic. What can you pla y? \X'e ll, the first week was all about tun ing th e in strument. I've got to pl a y a pi ece for my tea cher next w eek.


Exercises 25.1

C h ange th e underl ined w ords u sing collocations from A so that ea ch sen te n ce has the o pposite meaning. 1 The band's last CD wa s a minor hit. (g ive two answers ) 2 There are some great slow numbers o n this new CD . 3 The band has a small following o f dedicated fans . 4 Music was plaving quietly Qn a C D player when 1 ente red th e house, S M aria Plu rosa gave a pQQr performance of H ed e r's violin concerto last nigh t.

25.2

Co rrect th e eigh t collo cation errors in thi s paragraph. The fir st one is done for YQ U. For all folk music ~ Johnny Cop pin's new CD, The Long Harvest, published last week, will be a great addition to their collection. Bob recently got sol o after five years with the folk band Blue Mountain. He is proud of the musical inheritance o f his native Kentucky.Tracks 3 and 7 comprise his old friend Wiz Carter o n guitar. With this CD Coppin says he hopes to co ntro l a wi der audience for fo lk music. His excellent living pe rfor mance at the recent Lo ckwood Folk Festival suggests he has a good chan ce o f succeeding. He makes a tour next month. Don't m iss him .

25.3

lovers

2 3 4

S

6 7

8

What word ts ) mean ... ? 1 2 3 4

S 6

25.4

1

music tha t is playing while YQU are doing something else a nd nor really listeni ng to it ? mu sic that is nor complicated or difficult to listen to? a PQP musician who is a very big star with man y fans? a type of performer wh o spea ks rhymed lyrics o ve r rh ythm tracks? to tighten o r loosen the strings of a n instrument till they ma ke the correct n ote ? a wa y of pla ying a g ui ta r by m oving you r fin gers ac ross th e stri ngs ?

Co m plete th ese se n te n ces with sui tab le collo cations . Hundreds o f fa ns w ere waiting for Sha rni ra to co me o u r of th e co ncert ha ll. The o rc hest ra gave a w onderful o f some p op ul ar classics . It was a very tune; YQU o n ly had to hear it o nce and YQ U were singing it . I'd lo ve to .. a musical in strument bu t I d on't ha ve time. S It is o ne of those m el od ies which YQ U nev er fo rger, SQ bea u tif u l, ye t SQ sa d . in the fam ily; a ll th e chi ld ren pl a y a n ins t rument. 6 There's a lot of mu sical

I 2 3 4

j

QW, for twenty th ou sand d ollars, w ho wrote Beetho ven 's Fi fth Sym p ho ny ?

English Collocations in Use

55


Sport A

Do, play and go The ta ble below g ives examples o f co m mo n sporting co lloca tio ns with d o, play and go. You do

gymnastics. judo. weightl ifting. aerobics. yoga. wrestling. circuit trai ning. archery. athletics

You play

games. badminto n. billiards. hockey. bowls. rugby. golf. (ta ble) tennis. cric ket, base ball. chess. darts. cards. dominoes

You go

fishing. ski ing. bow ling. cycling. skateboarding. surfing. snowboard ing. ha ng-gliding. climbing. hill walking. sailing. jogging. swi mming

You ca n al so say you go to aerobics/judo/yoga/karate - this m eans th at yo u go to a class in thi s spo rt. Learners often ma ke mistakes with some common collocations connected w ith sport. Make a point of learning t hese commonly used collocations . • You do or play spor t. (N O T ffiftl<e sport) • You do exercises. (N OT ffiftl<e e xercises) • You play computer or o the r games. (N OT <Ie games) • You h ave/playa game of cards. (N O T ffiftl<e a game) • Yo u go skiing. (NOT ffiftl<e ski ing) • You do a c t ivit ie s. (N OT ffiftl<e o r I'FBEt ise activities) If you are a serious sportsperson, yo u w ill certainly practise your sport. but that has a specific me an ing. which is to do somethi ng again and again in o rder to get better at it, in other words to train. If you are a fo o t balle r you might practise taking a p enalty. for exa m ple.

B

W in n ing and losing Sports men a nd spo rtswo me n want to win matc hes, not lose matches . But yo u ca n't w in all th e tim e! Sometim es a team o r pla yer deserves to win, bu t get s na rro w ly defeated/beaten. Before th ey go in for / enter a competition, athletes trai n hard. They probabl y attend/do at least five training sessions a week . They a re lik el y to put up a figh t to gain/get a place in the next stage/ rou nd of the competition. O f course, a spo rts pe rson's ultimate a im is to break the world record in th eir spo rt . If th ey succeed, th ey set a new world record a nd beco me a world record holder. They are su re to come up agains t fierce/intense competition as th ey try to achieve th eir ambitions. Sometimes th ey a re sa tisfied if they just achieve a personal be st. Some spo rts people so desperately want to wi n that th ey take drugs to en h a nce their performance. Th is will be d isco vered wh en th ey fai l a drugs te st .

C

Fo o t b all

You can pl a y o r ha ve a (football) m atch / game (o f football). It m ight be a home o r a n away m atch d epending o n whether yo u ' re pla yin g on yo ur team 's home ground or no t. The aim is to score a goal. Players m a y ta ckl e an opponent to t ry to take possession of th e b a ll". If yo u tackle in a n illegal wa y, yo u fou l your opponent. This w ill lead to th e referee b lo w ing h is whis tle a nd an o p po nent taking a penalty o r taking a free kick. If so meo ne isn't pla yin g very w ell the manager ma y d ecide to drop th e p layer fro m th e team o r bring on a su bs ritu te". Both teams hope that they will have taken th e lead! by half-time. I

56

get th e ball

English Collocations in Use

2

replac e one pla yer with anoth er

3

be in a winning position


Exercises 26.1

Look at A. Co m plete th e sentences with do, play or go in the correct form.

New Sports Club Opening Next Week You can

judol

You can

badminton!

You can

swimming!

You can

weight liftingI

You can

circuit train ing !

You can

table tennis !

You can

skateboarding!

You can even

In fact, you can

26.2

almost any sport you can think of. 50 join now l

Look at Band C. Make ten co llo ca tio ns b y matching a word from the box on th e left with a word o r phrase from the box o n th e right. personal blow bring on fail enter

26.3

darts!

the lead best a substitute a record a whistle

set achieve train enhance take

a competition your performance a drugs test hard your ambitions

Look at th e error warning. There are six verb + noun errors in this e-mail. Find and co rrec t th em.

oel~te

Reply

Reply All

f orw.rd

Pr .:.:: '" .:.::'

_

Hi, Jose, Do you fancy coming on a sporting weekend with me next month? It sounds great - would make a change from playing computer games. You can make lots of different activities. You could even do fishing, I think. You can't go skiing at this time of year but you can make water skiing, if you like. Everyone has to make general exercises first thing in the morning and then you can make whatever sport you like, more or less. I've never practised badminton so I think I'm going to do that. Then in the afternoon I'm looking forward to the chance to practise my tennis serve with their professional coach. Please try to come! Giorgio

26.4

Com p lete the coll ocations in th is re po rt of a ru gb y match . Cambridge were happy \0 (I) their last match 6 :0 . Oxford. the o p p os in g team. put up a good (2) and some people thought the y (3 ) \0 win. They were fearless in (4) their opponen ts. but every time they took (5) . of t he ball, Cambridge managed \0 win it back . Cambridge have now (6) a place in th e next (7) of th e com petition. They will undoubted ly come u p against some fie rce (8) Howe ve r, the y h a v e a lready managed to (9) an int e re sting w orld re cord b y h a ving fo u r m em b ers o f th e same family in their w inning team!

I

Make a section in your vocabulary notebook fo r you r own favourite sport. Find an English language website connected with that sport. Write down any useful collocations you notice there .

English Collocations in Use

57


Health and illness A

Verb collocations referring to illnesses and injuries In m ost eve ry day situa tio ns yo u can use th e verbs get o r have with the names o f illn esses, bur yo u will im p rove yo u r written sty le if yo u ca n lise th ese alternative verbs and expressions. verb

common collocations

example

catch

a cold. the flu. a chill. pneumonia

I got soaking wet and c a u g ht a cold .

contract [formal]

a disease. malaria. typhoid

Uncle Jess contracted malaria while he was working in Africa.

develop [formal]

(lung/breast) cancer, diabetes.AIDS, arthritis. Alzheimer's disease

My grandfather developed Al zhe im er's disease and could no longer remember things or recognise people.

suffer from

asthma. hay fever, backache

She has suffered fro m asthma all her life.

have an attack of

bronchitis. asthma. hay fever. diarrhoea

She had an attack of hay fever and was sneezing non-stop.

be diagnosed (lung/breast) cancer. AIDS. leukaem ia. autism w ith suffer / sustain [formal]

B

He was diagnosed with lung cance r and died a year later.

(ma jor/m inorlse rious/head) injur ies

The driver s u stai ned serious head in ju r ie s in the crash.

Fitness and good health Lo o k at th is magazine q uestion naire a nd note th e collocations rela ting to fitness .

Are you in good shape? I D o yo u take regular vigorous exercise? 2 D o yo u eat a balanced d iet?

0

0

3 Do you ca re a bout healthy eating? 0 4 Do yo u follow a personal fitness programme? 5 D o you a lways stick to yo u r programme? 0 6 In general. have you kept fit o ver the last two years?

C

0 0

~~~~~

Talking about sickness and pain M y po or friend Gi na is term in a lly ill. [She w ill di e soon. ] She suffers excrucia ting/u n bea rab le pain m ost of th e tim e. Appa rentl y it's a n incurable illness th at run s in her family. Paul a n noys everyone a t work . H e rakes d a ys o ff eve n for th e m o st trivial/mi nor ailmen ts. It's a serio us illness, but probabl y not life-th rea ten ing. Fo r a few d a ys it w as acutely/intensely pai nful , but no w it 's just a dull ache. M y doctor p rescribed me so me ta blets a nd th ey relieved/a llevia te d the pain. Lorna w as ta ken ill th e o the r d a y. She's in ho sp ital. They're not su re w ha t it is yet. I had a heavy cold a nd a sp litting heada ch e, so I wasn't in a good m ood. [the o p posite of a hea vy cold is a slight co ld] In accide nts, wa rs, etc.â&#x20AC;˘ things get d a m a g ed and people get injured: T he ir c a r w as slightly d ama g e d but luckily no one was injured.

58

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 27.1

Look at A. Match th e verbs a nd ex p ressio ns o n th e left with th eir collocations o n the right. I 2 3 4 5 6

27.2

sus tai n co ntract hav e a n a ttac k o f d evelop be d ia gn osed wi t h ca tc h

Use th e ve rbs and ex p ressio ns in th e left-hand column of exercise 2 7.1 in st ead o f the verb get in th ese newspaper ex tracts. Many mus icians who get arthritis experience the tragedy of no longer being able to play their instrument.

2

27.3

diarrhoea a cold breast cancer m in or inj u ries typh o id a u tism

More than 50 passengers on the flight got moderate or severe diarrhoea. Medical officials suspect the in-flight catering was responsible.

3

5 To get cancer is the most frightening experience. and people often need intense counselling to cope with it.

4 ---------Millions o f people get malaria each year in poorer countries, and drugs to treat it a re in sho rr suppl y.

Mr Tay lor esca pe d wi th bruises. but ex perts say he was lu cky not to ha ve go t serious inj u ries. 6 Patients often get pneumonia while in hos pita l. In fact, experts now think hospitals may be the worst place to be if you are s ick and weak .

C o m plete th e collo cations. You are given th e first letter o f th e mi ssin g words . illness fo r m o st people, but it can be 1... t... for e lde rly people wh o a re w eak a nd w ho ha ven't been vaccina ted . ill o fte n prefer to d ie a t home su rro un ded by th eir lo ved Patients wh o are t o nes. ache in m y ba ck tooth. I hate goi ng to the I'm not in pa in, it's ju st a d d entist's. The children ha ve a b di et, w ith lots of frui t a nd vegetables and onl y a few sweet things now and th en . Turn that music d own ! I' ve go t a s head ach e! You sho uld n't w aste th e d o ctor's t im e with 1.. ailments. Get something at the c hemist's in st ead. I need to a do pt a proper fitn ess p ro gramme a nd to s to it to get into sha pe aga in. I w as in good s a yea r ago b ut then I became a bi t la zy. now will be beaten one day if scientists co ntin ue to Di sea ses which a re i make prog ress with drugs a nd ge ne tic sc ience. My aunt was t... ill wh en s he w as o n holida y. Ap pare ntly, she w as in e pain. Luckil y she had t ra vel insurance. I bel ieve in h ea ti ng an d I try to do v exe rc ise eve ry o the r d a y. My d o cto r p m e a new drug to a m y ba ckache. It w orked! I too k a day off work yes te rd ay. It was nothing ser io us , just a s cold . Flu is not a s

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

II 12

I .

Ifyou have not already done it. complete the quest ionnaire at B opposite. If you think you need to change your habits. make a note of it, e.g. Toke more vigorous exercise!

English Collocations in Use

59


28 A

Computers E-mail and the Internet Look at these conversations where people are asking for assista nce a t a n Intern et cafe. Customer: Assistan t:

B

Customer: Assistant:

H o w do I g o online ? You're already con nected to the In tern et . Do yo u wa nt to send e-mail? No, I just wa nt to browse the w eb for a while. O K, jus t o pe n the sea rch engine o r enter the web address a nd press 'ente r'.

Customer: Assist ant: Customer:

I ca n't access my company's w ebsite. Ca n you he lp? H a ve yo u put in th e co rrec t address? Yes, I' m su re I ha ve.

Customer: Ass istant: Customer: Assista nt:

H o w d o I rep ly to this e-mail? So rry, I'm not ve ry good with co mp ute rs . That's O K. Just hit 'reply', th en compose your message, then press ' send'. T hen ca n I forward the message to m ysel f a t m y home address ? Yes. M a ke s ure yo u enter th e right a d d ress, o r th e e-mail will bounce [co me back]. Let me know if you wo uld like a hard copy of your e-mail and I'll show yo u ho w to print out your work . [a copy o n paper]

Customer: Assista n t :

Wha t do I do if I want to downl oad this picture? You have to sa ve it to a disk. I can se ll yo u o ne if yo u d on 't ha ve one.

Customer: Assistant:

Can I se nd an attachment wi th this e-mail? Yes, yo u click here a nd then attach the file.

Customer: Assis tant:

I'd like to visit a cha t room. Is tha t OK? o pro b lem. Select this option he re. T he n just as k if yo u need m y he lp.

Some advantages and disadvantages of computers today + +

+

+

+

+

C

On the web you can access information on any subject you wan t to. As well as getting useful e-rnails, yo u also receive a lot of sp a m . [junk e-mails] Good web design is mak ing it easier to na vigate websites. [find yo u r way round I Comp uter criminals are ge tting better at hacking into o ther people's computers. [illegally going into o the r people's co m p u te r files] Peo ple a re maintaining the ir web pages be tter, so informa tion is kept up-to-date. Computers still cras h and you ha ve to waste time re-installing your programs. Broadband connections a re wi dely avai la ble now. This makes online shop ping much easier. Whenever you need to do something really important at work, the com p u te rs seem to be down. [not be work ing] Burning a CD is a quick and easy way to back up your work. It is ve ry easy to accidentally delete or erase a file. [ger rid of / destroy a file] Being a ble to hold records on compu ter m ak es it m uch easier for businesses to keep track of customers and of o rders.

Mobile phone technology M y new mobile 's g reat. I lo ve using predictive tex t no w. T he screen is sma ll bu t it di splays images brilliantl y. I' ve got some fantastic ri ng tones. I can record short video clips and send th e m to my frie nds and I can access my e-rnails o n it . I' ve downloaded some new games w ith great graphics on it. I use it a ll th e time but I hardl y ever m ak e ca lls o n it!

60

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 28. 1

Look at A. Match th e w ords o n th e left with thei r colloca tio ns o n th e right. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

28.2

It is very impo rtant fo r we bs ites to be m aintain ed I ha ck ed into. Sam spends hou rs every eveni ng accessed I co nn ected to the Intern et. I d on't crash I receive as m uc h spam as I used to . Is it a n easy w ebs ite to navigate I reinstall? H ow ca n I b l/ TII I ente r a C D on this com p uter? It's a goo d id ea to keep a hard I fas t co py of a ll impo rta n t docu men ts . Be ve ry carefu l no t to select I delete yo u r w ork. Do yo u d o a lot o f com pute r I online sho p p ing?

Answer this computer qui z using co llo ca tio ns from th e o p pos ite page. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12

28.4

a file o n line to the Intern et a c hat room the web a websi te an option th e web address a message

C ho os e th e co rrect co lloca tio n. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

28 .3

browse be connecte d enter access compose a ttach go vis it se lec t

What m a y you ha ve to d o with yo u r computer p ro grams if yo ur comp uter cra shes? What must yo u d o regularl y so yo u d on't lo se th e d o cu m ent yo u a re work ing on? W hat m us t yo u be ca refu l not to d o accidenta lly? What sho ul d you c hec k if yo u' re not a b le to access a web page you want to look at? W ha t is Coogle? If yo u d on't p ut the right ad d ress o n a n e- ma il, w hat w ill happen? H ow do yo u repl y to a n e- mail th a t yo u have received ? If yo u w a nt to get a pic ture from the Inte rn et a nd save it to your o w n computer, what d o you have to d o ? If yo u want to se nd a message yo u ha ve rece ived on to so meone e lse, what d o yo u d o? If yo u wa nt to e-mail a docu ment to someone, what d o you normally d o ? If yo u wa nt to w ork o n a d ocu m ent a t home, whe re will you e-m a il th e d o cument? What fea tu re o n a m o bil e p hone a llo ws yo u to tex t someone m ore rapidl y?

C o m p lete th ese sentences. t H er phone has got a very irritating to ne. 2 H as yo u r comp ute r go t a broad ba nd ? on compute r these 3 Some people think th at to o m an y records a bo u t us are d a ys. into th e Penta gon 's m a in compute r? 4 Did yo u re ad about th at teen ager wh o m y e-rna ils when I a m away fro m ho rne. 5 I want a mobile ph o ne that w ill let me 6 M y sister e-mai led me this wond erful video of her new bab y. 7 This computer sc reen has g rea t resolution a nd so di spla ys ve ry wel l. th e right answe r, A, B, C or D. 8 In this computer exercise yo u ha ve to

I â&#x20AC;˘

¡

Go to the website of the make of computer o r mobile phone that yo u us e. Select a page that interests you - pe rhaps something about a new product. Make a no te of any int ere st ing collocations that you see there. English Collocation s in Use

6I


Study and learning A

A lt ernatives to do a n d get You ca n im prove yo ur written style by using a lternative collo ca t io ns in stead of d o and get. expression with do/get

alternatives

do an exam

I have to sit/take an exam in bio logy at the end of t e r m.

do research, do a research project

O ur class carried out / conducted a research project int o th e history of our school.

do a course

I decided to enrol on / take a course in computer programming.

do a degree/diploma

She studied for / took a degree in engineering.

do a subject (e.g. law)

I studied/took history and economics in high school.

do an essay/assignment

All students have to write an essay/assignment at the end of term .

do a lecture/talk

Pro fesso r Parkinson gave a lecture on the Ame rican C ivil War.

get a degre e/diploma

He obtained / was awarded a diploma in Town Plann ing in 1998.

get a grade

Her essay received / was given an A-gra de.

get a qualification

You will need to obtain/acquire a qualification in social work.

get an education

The country is poor; only 27 % of child ren receive a basic education.

, I

I

Don't confuse pass a n e x am w it h s it/take a n exam. Pass means to be succe ssful in an exam o r test. Say 'I d id my ho mewo r k', NOT ' I ......Ie my ho mewo r k.'

B

Lo ok a t th ese co nve rsa t io ns between a tea ch er and stu de nts. mo re fo rma l collocations to repea t w ha t each student says. Student: Teache r : Stude nt: Tea ch er: Stu de nt: Teac her: Stu dent: Teache r: Stu d ent: Teac he r:

C

ore how th e tea ch er uses

Do we ha ve to go to a ll the lectures to do the course o r jus t yo u rs? You m us t a ttend a ll the lectu res to complete the co urse. Excuse me. Where will next wee k's class be? In th is room ? o . ex t wee k 's class will be he ld in Ro om 4 05. \'<'hen d o we ha ve to give yo u our essays? Yo u have to hand in yo u r essays on Friday. \'<'hen d o we ha ve to send in our universi ty applications ? You ha ve to su bmit your application by December 1sr. \'<'ha t do I hav e to d o if I want to lea ve the course ? If yo u w ant to wi thdraw from the course, yo u have to go to th e College Office.

Mor e co lloca t ions con nec t ed with study and learning Do yo u keep a voca bu la ry notebook? It 's a good w a y of reco rding new collocations. I did th e first dra ft o f m y essay last w eek a nd th e final draft this week . I ha ve to hand it in tomorrow. Then th e tea cher gives us feedback a fte r a bo ut a w eek. We d on't ha ve exa ms at m y schoo l. We ha ve continuous assessment. [syst em w he re th e quality of a stu de nt's w ork is judged by pieces of co urse w ork and not by o ne fina l examina tio n I The lo cal technical college provides tra in in g fo r yo u ng people in a va riety of professio ns. After seco nda ry sc hoo l, 30 % of th e population go on to higher/tertia ry ed ucation, a nd 20% o f a d ults do so me so rt of furth er ed ucation course durin g th eir live s. Does yo u r government reco gnise foreign qu alificati ons for school teachers?

62

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 29.1

Replace all th e uses o f d o or get in this paragraph wi th more interestin g words. I have three daughters. The oldest one did a degree in economics at Bi rming ham University. She got- her bachelor's degree last year and is now doing some research on t-axa tion laws in different countries. The second one is doing a cou rse at Newcaet.le University. She's doing hletory, She loves it, though she says she has to do far too many assignment-soMy yo ungestdaughter is still at school. She's doing her school-leaving exa ms in t he sum mer. She'll go to universit-y next year if she get-s good enough grades in her exams. S he wa nt-s W do sociology and t-hen get a social work qualification. My daughters a re all gening a m uc h bet-te r education than I ever had.

29.2

C o m plete these questi ons. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

29.3

C ho ose t he correct coll ocation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

29.4

What homework do w e have to toni ght? In wh ich m onth d o stu d ents usuall y th eir fina l ex ams in yo u r cou ntry? Who d o we ha ve to our essays in to ? Who is roday's lectu re o n Sh ak espea re? What d o we need to do if we want to from the course ? ? In w hich room is the translation cla ss going to be H a ve yo u don e th e first o f yo u r essay yet ? Do yo u prefer exa ms o r co ntin uo us ? D o yo u a lways to a ll yo u r lectu res? Does the co llege tra ining in computer s kills ?

I' m happy to sa y that yo u have all sat / ta ken / passed yo u r m aths test. Will th e teacher give / pr ovide / make us som e feedba ck o n o u r essa ys ? The un iversity agrees / recognises / takes the scho o l-leav ing exa ms of m ost other countries. It isn't compulsory to assist / atten d / listen all the lectu res a t this uni versity. How long will it ta ke you to co m plete / carry ou t / {lllfil yo u r d egree? You must submit / send / write yo u r application in before th e end of June. Several stu d ents have decided to withdraw / go / leave th e course th is yea r. I want you all to write / h old / k eep a vocabulary notebook.

Answer the se questi ons about ed uca tio n . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

At what a ge d o c hild re n in your country sit th eir final sc hoo l exams? H ow long d o es it take in yo u r country to d o a d egree in medic in e ? Give o ne a d va ntage you thi nk contin uo us assess ment has over tradi tional exams . Wha t so rt o f feedbac k might a teacher give a st ude nt w ho has jus t give n a presentation in class ? Give one a dva n tage for a learner o f Eng lish o f d oing homew ork. Wha t ad vice about keepi ng a vo ca b ula ry notebook w ould yo u g ive to so meone sta rti ng to lea rn English? Wha t is t he difference between furth er ed uca t io n and h igher o r tertiary ed uca tio n ? Wha t wo ul d you ex pect to be th e difference between the first draft of a n essay a nd th e final draft?

English Collocations in Use

63


Work Jobs, career and work ro carry a fulfilling job a demandi ng Job _ _ _\

a highpowered job l /

10

~ stead Y ? Job ro offer someone a job

\-

out work

to supervise

~ ~rk

to

com p lete_WO R ~ro work .

ro apply for a job

work

availab le ro start wor k

a permanent job

Note we say ha ve a job,

OT ha ve a

/

~ IOSelY with

ro take on work

~.

a n im po rta nt jo b to sta rt a ca ree r ) a ca ree r starts to become very successful I

ro wreck/r uin ro embark

so rneone's career

on a career'

at the height/peak \ / to have a career in of your career ~ her career_ CAREER ~mediCine)

2

lasted ... / ro climb the career ladder

\ \

a brilliant career

. .

a career takes off]

a pro rmsmg career

B

Job adverts Do you have a good knowledge of the fashion industry? Do you have experience in sales? Are you a good team player' ? Are you looking for a stimulating working environment? Would you like to be an integral part of a close team? We can offer you job satisfaction and generous benefits" Vacancy must be filled) within three weeks.

For further details, phone 08965 439820.

C

, a perso n wh o co-operates well with o the r people 2 good rewards for work - nor just sa lary but a lso perhaps a company ca r, good ho liday enti tlement, etc. ) th e job must be offered to so meone and accepted

Things you might do at work Bell a has a jo b as a PA. Ba sicall y her ro le is to take charge of her boss, w ho is no t a very o rga n ised person, an d m ake su re not h ing goes wrong. She m a kes appoi n tmen ts fo r her boss a nd she m ak es su re he keeps hi s appo intments. She spends a lot of ti me a n sweri ng th e phone a nd fieldin g tel ephone ca lls ' o n hi s behal f. Wh en he r boss ha s to tra vel, she makes the reservations fo r h im . Wh en her bo ss ha s to gi ve a p rese n tation , she m akes a ll the prepa rations th a t a re req u ired , including m akin g photocopies of any papers t hat he needs. She arr anges m eetings for him an d she takes th e minutes? at the m eet ings. Bella is a ve ry w e ll-orga n ised person . Sh e keeps a record o f everyt hi ng she d o es a t wo r k and se ts herself targets. She d o es her best to achieve her goa ls. Every m orning she m akes a list of everything she needs to d o . Toda y the firs t thing o n her list is ' H a n d in m y n otice' )! But she's nor go ing to take earl y retirement. She's got a new jo b wh ere she w ill be the bo ss and wi ll ha ve her o w n PA. , dealing w ith a ll the ca lls she ca n handle herself an d o n ly p urri ng th e most urgent o nes through to her boss 2 keep s th e o fficia l record o f a meeting ) resign, inform her bo ss she 's plan nin g to stop working fo r him

64

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 30.1

Complet e the sentences wi th work, job o r career. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

30.2

I took on too much last month a nd cou ldn't finish it a ll. A t th e peak of her she was m an aging a sa les force of 200 people. Dani el Robertso n's in ed uca tio n la st ed a lmost four deca des. I ha ve a ve ry d emanding , b ut I en joy it, n o ne t heless. At the m o m ent w e a re ca rr yin g o ut o n th e design o f th e new sta d iu m. The sca nda l ru ined hi s a nd he ne ver w orked in th e stock m a rket aga in . I' m going to a p p ly for a in a su pe rma r ke t. She had a lo ng a nd brilliant in show business. At 20, she got her first stea dy ................................. in a sma ll reg ional theatre, b ut it was in 19 6 8 th at her rea lly too k off w hen she was offere d a part in a TV se ries.

Lo ok at th is jo b a dver t, then lo ok a t th e sho rtl ist of candidate s belo w. R an k th em in order o f su ita b ility fo r the job, from 1 (m o st su ita b le ) to 3 (leas t suitab le) , and give yo u r reaso ns .

The Carlsson Group: Marketing Manager The Carlsson Group is looking for a Marketing Manager with relevant qualifications and at least five years' experience in sales and marketing . A competitive salary and generous benefits are available for the right candidate. You must have a good knowledge of current markets, be available to start work at short not ice, and must be a good t e am player. This is a h igh-powered and fulfill ing job for anyone w ish ing to embark o n a care er in sen ior management. The company w ishes to f ill the vacancy im me di a t e ly.

1-3

ap plicant

reasons

Kevin Marsh, 21. just left university with a degree in management. Likes working in teams. wants a satisfying job. Unemployed at the moment. Nurdan Ozbek, 35, worked in international marketing for seven years. Degree in Business. used to working under str ess and meeting deadlines. O ne month 's notice required in present job. Nuala Riley, 28, six years' experience as editor for a large publisher. Extreme ly adaptable,excellent relations with colleagues.Three months' notice required.

30.3

Match the begin ni ng o f each se n tence o n t he left wi th it s en d ing o n the right. I 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 0 .4

She ha s se t We're m aking I a lways keep J ane will take I ha ve to give H e never achi eved H e fielded

a p resenta t io n to m y colleagues. the m inutes a t the meeting. m y pho ne ca lls wh ile I took time off. some d ifficul t ta rgets fo r us all. h is goa ls in hi s ca ree r. m y a p pointments. p repa rations fo r the sa les conference.

What d o th e collo cations in b old in th e text b elo w mean? Us e a dictionary to help yo u . Kik a sta rted o u t in a d ead -end jo b in a ja m facto ry b ut she ended up wi th a glitterin g career on th e stage, a career span n ing five decades. She is q uoted as saying ' Sta ge acting ma y not be a pa rticu la rly lu crative jo b b ut it has to be o ne of the most rewa rdi ng jo b s in the world.' Eng/ish Collocatio ns in

Use

65


Business Going in t o business Interview er: H arr is:

Inte rview er: H arr is:

Interviewer: Harri s:

Inter view er : Harris: I 3 4

5 6

Wh en d id you firs t go into b u siness ? I se t up a sma ll busin ess se lling office sup p lies in 19 8 9, filin g syste ms, office eq ui p me nt, th at sort of th in g . In 1991 I w ent into p artn ership w ith myoid fr iend, J ames Britten . We m ad e a lo ss for t he first two yea rs , but then th ings got better a nd we've mad e a profit m o st years ever since. But th ere ha ve been bad tim es too. In w ha t way? Well , during th e eco nomic recession o f the ea rly 19 9 0 s, a lot o f sma ll businesses w ere going under ' , a n d I thought o u r busin ess wo u ld fo ld ", but we survived. A ll aro u nd us, sma ll firm s we re go ing bankrupr' , Bu t in 19 94 we w on a con t ract, d espite st iff co mpetitio n, to su p p ly th e lo cal govern ment offices, a nd tha t was a n im po rta nt m oment fo r us. We to ok o n sta ff and ex p a nded . A n d we were pro ud t hat w e had create d jobs fo r lo cal people at a t im e w hen un emplo ym ent was h igh . Ou r sa les fig u res improved steadily, and soo n w e had a n a n n ual turnover" of more than ten m ill ion pou nds. So what's th e sec ret o f yo u r success ? Well w e're quite ca u tio us . For in stance, w e a lw ays ca rry outS m arket resear ch before laun ching a new product. But a lso, we se t a hi gh value on cu stomer se rvice , es pecia lly after-sales ser vice. But a t th e en d of th e d a y, r unni ng a success fu l business is a co m b ina t io n o f hard w ork, lu ck and intuition . Fina lly, th ere a re ru m o urs th at yo u m a y float the co mpan y" on t he stock marke t. At t he mo ment we ha ve no intention of going public ", and people shouldn't believe every t h ing they re a d in the newspapers !

fai ling fina ncially 2 close beca use of failu re un a ble to pay debts, so th e com pa ny's property is so ld by order of a court of la w amou nt of busi ness a company does in a yea r t he fo rma l equivale nt wou ld be co nd uc t market research and 7 start selling shares in a business or co mpany for the first time

Mor e business collocations Owing to th e eco nomic c risis, many sma ll firms ceased trad in g . [closed t h eir business] , T here is cu t- th roa t competition in the mu sic in d us try th ese d a ys. [very severe competition ) M arket fo rces ha ve ca used m an y facto ries to close as businesses move overseas. [forces not influen ced by gove rn me nt that d ecide price levels in a n economy) O u r lo cal d ressm aker h a s go ne o u t of busin ess. Peo ple buy ready-made clothes these da ys. H er clot hes bo utiq ue is d o in g brisk business si nce th e sho p p ing ce ntre was re novated . Business is b o oming for Internet- ba sed travel compa nies as mo re people book travel online. [b usi ness is d oing extremely we ll] She resign ed a n d we nt to w ork fo r a ri val com p a ny. I st ruck/d id a d eal w ith the ca r sa les ma n a nd got a 15 % d iscou nt fo r cas h . It's q ui te d ifficult so meti mes to balance the budget beca use of increased costs. O u r com pa ny ha ve put in a b id fo r t h e n ew leisu re centre con tract. [offered to do the work fo r a p arti cular a mo u nt o f m oney) Re me m be r, the collo cat io n is do business, N O T fflfll<e business:We're doing a lot of business in Asia these days .

66

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 31.1

Look at A. Complete these co llocatio ns . I 2 3 4 5

31 .2

to to to to to

a company on the stock market a new product a profi t bank rupt into business

6 7 8 9 10

to to to to to

in to part nersh ip m arket resea rch p u blic up a business a lo ss

Match the newspaper headlines 1-6 with the topics of the stories a-f. I BUSINESS GOES UNDER 2 STIFF COMPETITION FOR LOCAL FIRM 3 B USI N E SS BOOMIN G I N T HE AR EA

4 JACKSO 'S STRIKE SUCCESSFUL DEAL WITH JAPA 5 ICE CREAM COMPANYTO BE FLOATED 6 PAPER COM PA NY EXPECTED TO FOLD

a) a company w ins a promisi ng ne w contract b) a rival com pa ny is ca us ing probl ems c) a firm is going to se ll sha res for th e first time d ) a com pa ny ha s ceased trading e) a com pa ny m a y go o ut of bu sin ess f) local com pa nies' sa les figu res are lo ok ing good 31.3

Choose the correct collocation. l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 1.4

Ou r com pany sets a high ualue / price / cos t on afte r-sa les se rv ice. Competitio n to earn / win / ach ieve th e contract was strong / stiff / hard. You need a wi de ra nge o f ski lls in o rder to work / TlIIl / go a successfu l business. H o w long ha ve you been doing / making / getting business with China for? The an n ual takeover / overtake / turnover / ouerturn of our company is growing rapidl y. It 's my job to weigh / ba lance / add the budget. We've pu t in a ve ry competitive offer / bid / deal so I hope we'll get the job. We've been doing rapid / stiff / brisk business all morning.

Fill the gaps in this local magazine article. Jan Vickers now (1) a successful b icycle company in the town . He set it (2) ten years ago to cater for students and he has done extremely well. He (3 ) a lot of rental business with the tourist trade at loca l hote ls. In his first year of operations he (4) a loss, but his sales (5) for his second year showed an upturn and he has never looked back since. Indeed you could say that (6) is currently booming as he has just (7) .

a n im p o rt a nt n ew cont ra ct wi th a chain o f fit ne ss centres. There w a s st iff (8) but Ja n (9) in a b id w hich w a s more attractive than a nyt hin g that (10) . compan ies could offer. So, t he dea l w a s (11) As a resu lt Jan's company is plann ing to (12) 20 new jo bs. When asked to e xpla in t h e (13) of h is success, Jan puts it down to his company's emphasis on after-sa les ( 14) .

Choose an article from the magazine Managem ent Today. some of w hich are available o nline at www.c1ick mt.com/pu blic/home/. Make a no t e of an y interesting collocations yo u find.

M r Da ffy got ve ry few cus to me rs after he decided to fl o at h is busi ness . English Collocations in Use

67


Academic writing I: giving opinions Reviewing the work of academics Look a t these extracts from reviews in academic journals. In this latest book, Marina Kass g ives an acco unt of Karl Marx 's philosophy and provides evidence to support the claim that Garpov ser iously misinterpreted Marx. In addition, the book offers a concise/ summary of the present state of Marxist ph ilosop hy.

In 1998. Lucas Georgescu published t he results of his groundbreaking researc h on genetics. His latest paper also makes a significant contribution to the field . He sets out some powerful arguments which will shape ' our t hinking for years to come. I

influence

2

Partridge strenuous ly defends her theory, which has come under atta ck recently in several journals. She argues that the Prime Minister played a central role in the political crisis of 1811, and goes into great detail to support her argument.

sho rt a nd clea r Nathan Pee l attempts to establish a connection between mobile phone use and physical damage to users' brains. but he does not offer irrefutable proof] and the statistics do not show any significant trends.

] abso lute proof, impossible to prove wrong

B

S t a ting thi n g s strongly and less stro n gl y The sentences below ex p ress opinions, either strongly or less strongly. Strong e x p r essio ns o f opinion The invention of the steam engine was t he key factor in the bi rth of the industrial revo lutio n. The events of 19 54 are a perfect exa m ple of how political leaders ma ke misj udgements that have serious lo ng-te rm effects. This is a clear illustration of the im portance of a stro ng monetary policy. L es s st ro ng ex p r essio ns of o p in io n T he figures offer a tentative ex pla na tio n of the causes of acid rain pollution . [an ex p la na tion g ive n b y someone wh o is no t totall y ce rtai n th at it is th e co r rect expla nation] T he sta tistics broadl y su p po rt the view th a t th e eco nomy is hea d ing to w a rd s recession .

C

Other general academic collocat ions T he re is a strong te nden cy in the work o f so me ling u ists to suggest tha t spo ken la ng ua ge is inferio r to w ritten la ng uage.

\VIe must first gather evid ence, th cn ca r ry o u t a d etailed st ud y o f a ll the factors th at pla ya part in socia l co ndi tioni ng. You ca n not ex pect yo ur cl aim to be a cce pte d if you ca n not offer su p po rti ng evi d ence. Simon H art challe nges th e theory of socia l change put forward by Pro fesso r Kemp. It is im po rta n t in aca dem ic wri tin g a lways to a ckno wl edge yo u r so u rces. If you fail to do th is, yo u w ill com m it plagiarism. [use anot he r person's idea or a part of the ir wo rk and pretend th at it is your own]

We do research or carry out researc h. NOT .....Me research . Someone puts forward a t he o r y or proposes a theory. NOT

68

Eng/ish Collocations in Use

~

a theory.


E.xercises 32.1

Look at A and answer the qu estions. I 2 3 4

32.2

W hich Which Whic h Which

collocations coll ocati ons collo ca tio ns collo ca t io ns

suggest th at th e wri ter a d m ires Geo rgescu 's w ork? indicate th at Pa rtrid ge 's work has not bee n acce pte d by eve ryo ne ? sugges t th at M arin a Kass focuses o n fac ts? suggest that a t ha n Peel is interested in a na lysing socia l sta tist ics ?

Rewrite ea ch sen te nce using th e w ord in bracket s, so that it keeps the sa m e meanin g. The exa m ple o f M rs Brown clearl y illus tra tes the need fo r better m edical serv ices in th e a rea . ( ILLUST RAT IO ) 2 A docto ra l th esis must a lways m ak e it clear w here it got its info rm a t io n . (SOURC ES) 3 Dr Ka h n's resul ts provide clear evi denc e that o ur th eo ry is correct. (IRREFUTA BLE) 4 T he a rt icle begins b y concisel y su m ma rising th e back g round to th e research proj ect. (CO NCISE)

5 T he bo ok interest ingly d escribes th e life of M a rx as a young man . (ACCOUNT) 6 J a net's th eory has been a ttacke d recentl y in a nu mber of journa ls. (COME)

32.3

In B so me collocations are presented as ex p ressi ng an o pi nio n in a stro ng way. \Vhich co lloca tio ns in th e texts in A al so express a n o pinio n in a stro ng w a y ?

32.4

Match th e w ords in th e b o x o n the left w ith th e words that th ey co lloca te w ith on th e rig h t . play set convinced come

32.5

people's t hinking a contr ibution out a study by sorneone's a rgument

make ca rry go shape

un der attack a part out an a rgumen t into detail

C ho ose th e co rre ct co lloca tio n .

Kell y ha s written a fascinat ing st u dy 01 how earl y people o rigin a lly got to Au stra lia . He presen ts so m e ve ry ( I) powerf ul /mighty arguments 10 su ppo rt hi s th eory. He o ile rs plen ty 01 (2) persuading / supporting evidence 10 hack up hi s ideas. He has a rather st ro n g (3) trend / tenden cy to (4) test / challenge others' theories too aggressively. h ut in general t his is a (5) groulldbreakillg / irrefutab le research pa pe r which w ill (6) form / shap e thi n ki ng lor some time to co m e .

32.6

Com p lete this table with co lloca tio ns for th e nouns list ed. Use a dictio nary to help yo u if necessary. The first lin e is completed a s an example. verb

adjective

n oun

to publieh

an o ut 5t a nding

article research expe riment th e ory survey

English Collocations in Use

69


Academic writing 2: structuring an argument Organising the text H ere a re some useful colloca tions fo r organising o ne's argu me nts. Adv e rbs in En g lis h fall into tw o main categories : th ose e nd in g in -Iy (e.g. softly) and those with o ther endings (e .g . we/~ .

In this cha p te r. I d raw a distinction between societies whe re democracy has developed slowly and those where it came about quick ly o r sudden ly. But we also need to t ake i nto consideration the economic history of La t in Ame rica as a wh ole.

B

Later , I shall make refere nce to the work of Georg i Perelmutter , a leading figure in the field of zoology.

Chapter 3 raises important questions about the need for transport planning in rap idly growing urban environments. It also touches on issues such as pollution.

This chapter makes a case fo r re-examining th e assassination of President Kennedy in the light of evide n ce which has emerged since 1963.

Reinforcing arguments Look a t these extracts from un iversi ty lectu res and no te the collocations. Many st ud ies have attempted to assess the significance o f di et in th e pre vention o f ca nce r.

Wa stov la ys emphasis on exa m in ing th e vira l first three yea rs o f a c hi ld 's d evelopment.

These sta t istics len d support to th e vie w th at a ttitu des to th e en vi ron men t are chang ing fundam entall y. So me economists hold firmly to th e belief th at a certain leve l of u nem p lo ym ent is in evitabl e.

C

More collocations for referring t o argu ments The book The Eye of the Universe draws an analogy I between the birth of the universe and a lollery. It also draws parallels? between the formalion of new stars and the birth and death of flowers. It presents the case for a complete rethinking of how we understand space. The author, Patrick Rivaux, puts fo rward the arg ument thaI the universe is as it is because we humans are here looking at it. The author takes up I adopts the pos ition that Ihe universe cannot have any beginning or end, and states his opinion that we can never understand the universe using the human ideas of time and space. He argues convincingly] that the universe has a unique nature. He draws attention to new research which suggests that other universes may also exist alongside ours. He briefly summarises" the views of leading physicists and mathematicians, disagrees profoundlyS with some of them and draws the conclusion thaI science alone cannot solve the mystery of the universe.

makes a comparison between things which have simila r featu res, to hel p explain an idea says that so methi ng is very similar to so me thing else ] argues in a way th at ma kes peo ple be lieve tha t something is t rue or right 4 expresses the most im porta nt idea s in a short and clea r form 5 d isagr ees very stro ng ly o r in a n ex treme way I

2

70

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 33.1

Loo k at A a nd fill the ga ps in this a rticle a bou t collocations. Co llo ca tio ns in Eng lis h ( I) into a number of different categories. In thi s article I should like to dra w a (2) between 'ordinary' collocation s and those that are so fixed th at the y ca n be called idioms. Although m y main focus is o n 'ordina ry' collocations, I s ha ll a lso to some extent (3 ) idioms into co ns ide ra t io n too. I plan to (4) a number of questions about learning co llo ca tio n s in a foreign or se co n d language. I shall attempt to answer these questions referen ce to the work o f the leading writers in the field . M y b y (5) intention is to make a strong (6) for a m ore intensive focus on collocation in the language learning process. I shall also (7 ) on issues such as pron unciation.

33 .2

Look a t B and C and co m plete th ese co llo ca tio ns . I th e s igni fica nce o f a factor 2 argu e so meth ing ve ry ................................. 3 an anal o gy 4 su p po rt to a n a rg u me nt 5 put an a rg u ment

33.3

6 7 8 9 di sa gree 10

firm ly to a beli ef a tte ntion to a new trend em phas is o n o ne factor w ith someo ne a conclusion

C hoose the correct co llocatio n. I This paper prop oses / presents / offers th e ca se for t he co m plete re vision o f th e th eory. 2 Rec ent research hints / explains / suggests that Jackson 's theory o f econo m ic d e velo pment is flaw ed . 3 The a u tho r o f th e bo ok adopts / ada pts / affects an unusual po siti on o n th e top ic. 4 The writer of th e a rt icle ex plains / stat es / d eclares his o p in io n very clearl y. 5 The a rti cle concludes by b riefly / shortly / precisely su m m a rising th e ma in po ints that th e a ut ho r wi sh es to put across. 6 T he writer does / d raw s / creates so me interesti ng parallel s between life now an d life in th e Middle Ag es. 7 I k eep / take / hold firml y to m y bel ief in th e importan ce of basic h u m a n rights. 8 The book rises / arises / raises some key q ues t io ns but fa ils to deal wi th t hem in a sa tisfacto ry manner.

33.4

Correct th e nin e collocation erro rs in th is review of an academic article.

Kerr takes in a controversial position in his latest article. He gets forward the argument that differences in behaviourbetween the sexes can be explained totally by the genes. He attempts to do a case for educating boys and girls separately in their primary school years. He argues, occasionally persuadingly, that both sexes would benefit from

I

this. He pulls attention to recent research which, he claims, makes support for his argument. However, he fails to draw a number of important factors into consideration. He also gives no reference to the important work of Potter and Sinclair in this field. I am sure that I will not be alone in disagreeing highly with many of his conclusions.

Look up the words theory , research and argum ent (wi th its aca demic meaning) -in a good learner's dictionary. Make a note of any othe r int ere sti ng collocation s that you find.

English Collocations in Use

71


Laws and pun ishments A

Ve rbs that collocate w ith law o bey/observ up ho ld/enforce break

\Y/e must a ll observe th e la w a t a ll tim es. [fo rmal] People wh o refuse to o bey th e law sho ul d be p u nis he d . [less fo rma l) A new law has been introduced/passed fo r bid d ing th e use o f m obile phones wh ile driving. T he company a cted w ithin th e law as regards th e rights of its e m p loyees. (fo rma l) It is th e job of th e poli ce to uph old/ enforce th e law. [m ak e su re th at people o bey th e law ]

B

Noun and verb colloca t io ns T he new law forbid s/prohibits smoking in a ll pu blic pla ces. [t he la w d o es not a llo w ] T he rul es permit/allow members to bring g ues ts into th e club o nly at w eekends. These rules/regulations a p p ly to a ll stude nts, not just new ones. [the rules are for) If we follo w th e rules, a t least 20 peo ple must be present a t th e meeting. [do w ha t th e ru les say) T he regulations require/stipulate th a t a ll stu de n ts m ust regi ster for th e co u rse. (forma l: the rul es say that J We ha ve to comply with th e regulati ons conce rning th e testing of eq u ip ment. [forma l: do w ha t the rul es say ) I hope w e ca n bend th e rules a nd let her tak e the exam on a nother day. [informal: break the rules in a w a y th a t is not consi dere d im po rta nt)

C

72

Pu n is hm e nt s collocation

example

car ry out an inve stigati on

Po lice are carrying o u t an in vestigation into a major theft in a factory in Woodvale.

appear in court

The trial starts today but th e w itnesses will be appearing in court tomorrow.

go o n trial

George Ar t hu r Lode. accu sed of murde ring his w ife. went on trial today.

reach a verdict

T he jur y are expected to ta ke several days to reach a verd ict.

a fair trial

It now seems im po ssible t hat Harold G raves ca n rece ive a fair trial. given the media publ icity su rrounding his case.

be severely punished

That judge believes that all shoplifters should b e seve re ly p un is h e d .

pay/face a heavy fine

People who park o n double yellow lines face a heavy fine .

face the death penalty

If he is found guilty of m urder. he w ill have to face t h e dea th p e n a lty.

act as a deterrent

Peo ple often support the death penalty because they say it acts as a deterrent.

suffer the consequences

Anyone who comm its a crim e has to s u ffe r the consequence s.

a harsh penalty/sentence

So me judges are more like ly to give harsh sentences than others.

a hard legal battle

After a h a rd le g a l battle . she won compensat io n fo r the ac cident.

w in a case

You will need a very good lawy e r if you are go ing t o have any hope of winning you r case.

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 34.1

C ho ose th e correct verb from A to fill th e gaps in this paragraph. Use ea ch verb once onl y and put it in the correct form. In law-abiding societies ordinary citizens are usually happy to ( I) or (2) the law. But there are also rather different societies where most people feci th at it is no t such a serious matter to (3) the la w. In such places. people d o n ot seem to (4) the la w a n d eve n th e m o st h on est o f citizens does not expect always to (5) wi t hin it. Th e rul e rs of such societies have no difficult y in (6 ) or (7 ) new laws but the police have co nsiderable problems when it comes to (8) or (9) those laws.

34.2

Match the beginning of each sentence on the left with its end ing on the right. I 2 3 4 5 6 7

34.3

The ru les apply T he rul es prohibit T he rul es a llow stu dents The regulations stipulate Most studen ts follow T he a utho ri t ies bent A ll st udents must comply

with the regulations. to a ll students in the college. th e rul es to a llow Mary to submit her co ursework a little la te. to book college guestrooms at w eekends. th e use of mobile phones in class. that coursework must be handed in on time. the rules without too m a n y complaints.

Put th ese events in a crime story in order. a ) A numbe r of witnesses appear in court. b ) Bill Sikes goes on tria l. c ) Bill Sikes is found guilty. d ) Bill Sikes is severely punished . e) Bill Sikes robs a bank . f) T he jury reaches its verdict . g ) The police carry o ut an investigation.

34.4

Ans w er these qu esti ons using one of th e co llo ca tio ns fr om C o p p os ite . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

34.5

What d o es every la w ye r in a t rial hope to do? What does every wro ngly accused person who appears in court hope to receive? \Vha t do t he police do after a major crime is committed? \Vha t may happen to people in some countries if they are found g uilty o f a very se rio us c ri me lik e m u rde r or terrori sm? H o w migh t the dea th pe nalty hel p to prevent serious crime? What does th e jury have to do at the end of a trial? W hat kin d of p unishments does a hard-hearted judge giv e? Wh a t kind of fine migh t a judge impose if th e offence is q uite serio us?

R ewrite each sentence u sing th e word in bracket s, so that it k eeps th e sa me meaning. I 2 3 4 5 6

Everyone must observe these regul ations. (CO:>.tPLY) All citizens must o bey these rules. (APPLY) T he jury fo und th e accused gui lty. (REACHED) The police are investigating the bank robbery. (n VE TIGATIO r) O u r co m pa ny wo u ld never break the law. (ACTS) The rul es proh ib it ea ting a nd dri nking in th e classrooms. (ALLOW STUDEr-rrs)

Eng/ish Collocations in Use

73


Crime Talking about criminals o re th e colloca t io ns in th ese new s cl ips . The Judge, Mr Newell, said that Hickey was a hardened criminal ' who had committed 12 serious offences. He ordered tha t H ickey should serve a sente nce of at least IS years in prison. I

The Justi ce Min ister said t hat th e men were not political prisoners but w ere common crtrninals! who had committed acts of terrorism. 3

low class crim ina l, nega ti ve term

so meo ne wh o has co mm itted a lot o f crimes The judge said it was vital that anyone with a crimina l record" should not be able to get a job where large sums of m oney were placed in their care. Charles Amw o rth, 26 , had served two years in a prison for young offenders ten years ago before working for the bank.

Th e lawyer fo r th e prosecut ion. M r Arthur La rc h w ood. sta te d that Henry Banks w a s a lready a co nvicted c rt rn tna f? when he was a ppoi nt ed chairma n of the com pan y but th a t nobo dy kn ew this fact . He had a conviction for rob be ry dating ba ck to 198 6 . 2

B

someo ne declared officia lly in a co urt of law to be guilty o f a crime

~

list kept by t he police of sorneone 's .

.

previ ous c runes

Politicians on crime Politici ans ofte n m ak e speeches about c rime. H e re are some ex tracts fr om recent o nes. " In the fight against c rime w e w ill no t jus t target se rio us crim e, bu t a ll c rime, includi ng street crim e a nd vehicle crime, so tha t the st ree ts will be sa fer for eve ry o ne ."

" If so me o ne breaks into your h o use, ste a ls yo u r car, o r robs yo u in th e street, th en of co u rse you fee l society ha s let yo u d o w n . T hat's w hy we' re d eterm ined to tackle crime. " " We a re d o ing eve ry t hi ng in o u r power to co m b a t crime. T he cri me rate ha s come down, and t hat is beca use w e ha ve put I0 ,000 m ore pol ice office rs o n th e streets a nd fo c used on ju venile crime ' , because th at is w here th e problem begi ns." I cri me relating to young per sons not yet o ld enough to be considered ad ults "This govern me nt is d oing very little to fight c rime. \Ve ha ve a ll had some ex pe rience of th e recent crime wave in o u r cities, whether it is petty cri me? or m o re serio us offe nces." 2 crime not consid ered serio us w hen compa red with so me o the r c rimes "The crime figu res are th e wo rs t si nce 19 9 5. We ha ve had a sp a te ? o f burglaries in this pa rt of th e city, vehicle th eft, drug abuse a n d so on, a n d pol ice ha ve re po rted a sta ggering in crea se in th e n u mber of ac ts of mindless va nd a lism . It is tim e the pa rty in power did so me t h ing." 3 large number of eve nts, es pec ia lly unwanted o nes , happen ing at abo ut th e sa me time Don 't forget the difference between steal and rob.A person steals something. e.g. He stole a car I some money. but robs someone or an in st it ut io n, e.g. She robbed an elderly person I a bank. Steal is often used in the passive, e.g. My car was stolen.

74

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 35 . 1

Find a co lloca tio n in A that match es ea ch d efin iti on. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S

35.2

a sc hoo lch ild who co mmi ts a crime someone wh o ha s been found gui lty of a crime in a co u rt of law someo ne wh o has co m mi tted a lot of c rimes to spe nd time in prison as p u n ishment to d o somet hi ng that is against th e la w someone w ho is im p riso ned for w hat th ey be lieve so meone w ho has comm itted a crime (a di sa ppro ving ter m ) a d o cument sta ti ng th at so meone ha s been found g ui lty in a cou rt of la w.

Matc h the headl in es fro m a lo cal newspaper w ith the firs t lin es o f th eir stories . 4

2

DRUG ABUSE SCANDAL

3 PEftY CRIME COII"IIIUES

5

PENSIONER RO BBED

6 CRIME FIGURES OUT TODAY

a) SO-yea r-o ld M ar ian ne Roberts had her ho use b rok en into and so me money a nd jewellery stolen while she was as leep in front of the TV la st night. b ) An increasing n u m ber of young peo p le a re ge tting involved in crimina l activity according to a report publish ed yes terday. c ) So many cars have rece ntly been stolen in the c ity tha t the police are launching a special ca m paign to ta ckle th e problem . d ) A d etai led rep ort o n crime in th e UK is to be publ ish ed later toda y. e) Sma ll-sca le robberies rem a in a sign ifica nt p robl em in th is a rea and police are concerned th at th e pro blem m a y soon become m ore se rious . f) A number of TV cele b ri ties ha ve been named as ha ving a tten ded a pa rty w here illegal d rugs were being o penl y used. 3 5 .3

Fill in th e ga ps in this paragra p h . by Police arc co nce rne d a bo ut th e gro w ing number of offe nces th at a rc being ( 1) yo ung peo ple in o ur town. T hey say th at inc reasing num bers of youngsters are (2) . into people's ho uses or (3) their ca rs. Ind eed , police claim tha t it is probably yo ung (4) w ho a re to blam e for th e recent (5) of burglaries in our town. Pol ice a re pro posing a special campaign to (6) th e problem and are asking against (8) crime. for the public's suppo rt in this (7)

35.4

Answ er th ese questions. 1 Wo ul d you feel p leased or worried if t here were reports of a crime wave in your area?

2 What so rts of c rime migh t be considered as petty crime? 3 If th e poli ce a re targeting se rio us c rime, w ha t a re th ey d o ing ? 4 W ha t word cou ld re place tack le in th is sentence? The police are doing all th ey can to tackle petty crime in the cit)' centre. 5 What d o es th e ph rase an act of terrorism mean ? 6 \X'hich of t hese words could complete the ph rase a spate of . . .: robberies, young offenders, drug abuse] 7 Give an exa m ple of mindless vandalism. English Collocations in Use

75


News A

B

Collocations about new s papers collocation

example

a (news) story breaks

The singer was out of the country when the story about his w ife broke.

news comes in

TV newscaster : News has just come in of an earthquake.

news leaks out

Alth o ugh the two stars tried to keep their relationship secret, news of it soon leaked out.

hit the headlines

The scandal is expected to hit the headlines tomorrow.

make headlines

A dramatic story like t hat will make headlines world-wide.

front-page headline

The scandal was the front-page headline in all the newspapers.

the latest news

The latest news from the earthquake zone is more hopeful.

be headline/front-page news

Any story about the Royal Fam ily will be headline/front-page news in Br ita in.

it e m of news

The main item of news today is the earthquake in Bro skva C ity.

run a story [pu blish a story]

T he Daily Times recently ran a story about an affair between a famous ro ck star and a poli t ician.

flick through the newspape r

He flicked through the newspaper as he didn't have time to read it properly.

The language of news stories

I

MINISTER GIVES THE GO-AHEAD TO PLANS

ANTI-SMOKI G CAMPAIG

In a surprising turn of events last night. the government agreed to plans for the development of the City. Interested parties I will hold talks throughout the week.

The Minister for Health toda y o utl ine d plans for a nationa l anti-smo king campaign. T he government intends to launch the campaign in the new year.

people or gro ups who ha ve a connection wi th a pa rticular situa tion, event, etc.

T O U R I S T TAKE N CAPTI V E

MINISTER Q U I T S Th e Art s Minister has re signed after o n ly six months in the top job. He has attracted attention over his controversial decision to re -introduce charges for museum entry.

PEACE TALKS EN D IN FA ILURE Peace talks between the Eastern Liberation Army and the government of Karavia broke down last night. Civil war is now likely.

A tourist was take n hostage when rebel troops seized co ntrol of St Pips Airport last n ight. The government has lo st co ntrol of the area . Our reporter in St Pips is ke e p in g a close watch on the situation and we shall be keeping you informed as the n e w s develops.

LIGHTNING STRIKES A building caught fire when li g htni n g struck a farm in Hampshire yesterday. Fortunately there was no loss of life.

Note that we say the latest news, NOT the IMt news.

76

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 36.1

Com plete th e collocations in these d escriptions of TV program mes. ' Pick o f th e week' means 'most highly recommended programmes for the week'.

Monday 7.0D-7.30pm BBC1

Tuesday 8.15-9.00pm ITV2

Wednesday 10.25-11.25pm OTV

Thursday 8.0O-S.45pm KTV3

Friday 9.15-9.55pm MBC

Saturday 6.3D-7pm QSRTV

Sunday 5.3D-6.30pm LAK3

36.2

The news from the world solo balloon attempt in this 30-minute documentary with live pictures from the balloon. Through the Window: a unique look at the private residences of the celebrities who headlines around the world .

.

Last year, rock star IzzyArbuttJe was news. But where is he now? Jo Prees investigates the star who became a very private person. When news out that singer Millie Logan was seeking a divorce from Hal Daker, no one believed it. Millie tells her own story. The Deenazon drug scandal which the headlines last year left a story 10,000 people with health problems. A major newspaper daiming that scientists had not done propertests. But who was to blame? The famine in Geura was the headline on every major newspaper last year. But what is life like for the people of Geura now? Next Sunday, European Heads of State will summit. It could contain important developments.

a news conference to end their

Complete the crossword . Across 1 The pa rties cou ld not agree a nd the ta lks broke . 4 The plan got the -a hea d yesterda y. wa tch on the dollar-euro 6 We must keep a exchange ra te. 7 Big news sto r ies do th is. Down 2 The Minist er o utli ne d for a new un iversit y funding system . 3 I d on't reall y rea d the newspaper, I usually jus t ......... th roug h it. S There w a s an interes ting news ......... in th e lo cal paper yes terday.

36.3

Com plete the collocations.

2 3 4

S 6

In a ho rrific of events, ten peo ple w ho were tak en hostage have been m urd ered in cold blo od. We wi ll yo u info rmed as more news in . control of the capital of Jalamaa las t n igh t . Meanwhile, five Rebel troops police o ffice rs w ere ca ptive by rebels in th e so uth of the co u nt ry. Lig htning a house yeste rd ay wh ich im med ia te ly fire . The gove rn ment will talks wi t h a ll parties to try to end th e st rike. C ha rles Ankram is to qu it th e job of perso nal a dvise r to the Presid e nt. H e d ecision to cu t next yea r's health budget. recentl y o bjected to a The government has a ca m paign to clean up th e co u ntrysi de. English Collocations in Use

77


Money Spending money H ere are so me ve r bs w hich often colloca te with mo ney. collocation

meaning

example

spend money (on)

give money as payment for something

Juan spends a lot of money on travelling.

save money

keep money for use in the future

We're saving a little m oney each month to buy a new car next year.

waste/squander money (on)

spend money in a bad way; squander is stronger and is only used about large sums of money

Sara was t ed/squande red all her money on clothes and fast cars.

change money

exchange one currency for another, e.g. dollars for euros

You can ch ange some m oney at the airport.

throw money around

spend money in an obvious and careless way on unnecessary things

IfJim keeps on t hrowing his money a ro un d like that. he soon won't have any left.

throw money at

spend a lot of money, possibly more than necessary, trying to solve a problem

The government think they can solve the problem by th rowing m oney at it.

donate money (to)

give money to help society in some way The business d onates a lot of money each year to charity.

Prices M an y colloca tio ns including th e w ord price a re connected w ith he ight. Prices ca n be high or low. If t hey a re ve ry low, th ey m a y be ca lled (usua lly b y a dvertise rs ) rock-bottom prices. Prices ma y increase, prices go up and prices rise. If they go up ve ry fa st we say th at prices soar. O cca sionall y prices go down. If yo u say th at some t hi ng is reasonably priced , yo u think it is neither too c hea p nor too ex pe ns ive . Ca lling somethi ng a ridiculous price m a y mean it is much to o c he a p o r much too expe ns ive .

C

G etting money H enry a nd hi s brot he r grew up in a fam ily where money was alwa ys tight '. H enry hoped that wh en he w a s grow n-u p, m o ney w ould be never be in short su p ply fo r h im. H enry's b rother onl y w anted a steady income but H enry w a sn't interested in ju st earning a good sa la r y, he wa nted to mak e big money", to be serio us ly rich ). H e sta rted making mon ey at sc hoo l wh en he sold the sa n d w iches hi s mother had m ad e h im to o the r c h ildren . H e a lso wo r ke d in hi s sc hool holida ys to earn money. H e p ut thi s mo ney in a ban k account and hardl y ever made a withdrawal" from it. W hen he left sc hoo l, he raised enough money th rough the ba nk to bu y h is first sho p. H e got a really good deal! beca use he fou nd a sho p that was going cheap", By the tim e he was twenty he ha d a lready made a sm a ll fortun e? th ough, of cou rse , m o st of h is money was tied Up8 in h is bu siness. I there wasn't much mo ney 2 info rma l: a lot of mo ney ) info rma l: very rich 4 took mo ney out of the bank S informal: go t a bargain 6 in fo rmal: selling fo r a lo w price 7 ma de a large a mo unt of money 8 not avai lable fo r spendi ng becau se it wa s needed for his busi ness

78

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 37.1

R ea d these re marks b y differen t people, then answer the q uestio ns. Brion y: Philip: Anthony: M arianne: C a t he rine:

I se nt 100 euros to t he Children's Fu nd for th e Developing World . I w on 100, 000 d oll a rs o n the lottery a nd bought stu p id, useless things. I have almost noth in g left now. I w ent into th e bank w ith 1,000 euros a nd came o u t with the equivalent in Au strali an d oll ars. The ga rde n was in a te rrible mess after th e sto rm . I paid a ga rdene r a lot o f m oney to sort it o ut but he d idn't see m to m ak e it an y better. I put 5,000 euros in an account whic h gi ves 4 % interest. name

I Who threw money at something! 2 W ho saved money!

3 W ho donated money! 4 Who squandered money!

5 Who changed money!

37.2

Com p lete th ese sentences using co llocations fro m B opposite. Use each co llocation once only.

2

3 4 5 37.3

In March 1998, com p ute r chip prices we re aro und 150 d oll a rs. In September 1998 th ey . were 850 d o llars. In just six m onths prices had An airline is offering a return flight fro m London to ew York fo r just 50 dolla rs . At firs t s ight this seems like a , as man y people on th e sa me flight will be paying 1,000 d o llars o r mo re. Gi ven th at m ost first-class hotel s w ere c ha rg ing 300 d oll ars a night because of th e fes tiva l, . a t 275 d oll ars our fo ur-sta r hotel see me d H and -h eld computers are no w se lling a t prices because th ere 's so much co m pet itio n . One that cost 250 d ollars a yea r ago now cos ts o nly 70 . C a r prices d o w n last yea r, but the y will probabl y aga in before t he e nd of th e year as stee l becomes m ore ex pensi ve.

Choose th e correct collocation.

2 3 4

5 6 7

Bank a ssistant: Ca n I help you, Madam? C us to me r: Yes. I'd like to take / get / make a withdrawal from my accou nt please. Ba nk M ana ger: Is you r co m pa ny ge tting / making / taking mo ney ? Busin ess c ustomer : Yes. We a re in profit. So I ha ve a firm / st eady / stro ng income. Teenage son : Dad, will yo u lend m e m oney to bu y a car? Father: Well, money is rather slim / hard / tight a t the m oment. Ask yo u r mother. J ak e: These ca meras a re n 't as ex pe ns ive as I th o ught . Fran: That's because th ey use film . They're going / asking / giving c heap rig ht now because everyo ne is bu yin g di gital cameras, wh ich a re rid iculo usly ex pe nsive because th ey are in such low / short / little sup ply. George: W/e ne ed to bring up / rise / raise money for th e new club house. Any idea s ? J o e: Well, w e could ha ve a ch ildren's spo rts d a y an d ge t a ll th e pa rents to contri bu te . You must ha ve m ade a slight / slim / small fortune when yo u sold yo u r house. M ick: Kathy: Yes, I did, but the m oney is a ll clo sed liP / tied lip / pack ed lip in th e new one. Oscar: I gu ess Zara is making big / large / huge money with her Intern et busin ess. Erica: Oh yes , she 's ab solutely / utterly / seriously rich now. English Collocations in Use

79


VVar and peace A

W ar Wh en war broke out" my grandfather join ed t he arm y . War wa s declared o n h is 25t h birth d ay. He d id n 't want to go to war but he had no choice. The governmen t w er e send ing tro o ps to t he so uth w here t hey expected fierce fig h t ing . A t first t here were just minor incidents b ut so o n it deve loped into all-out war2 â&#x20AC;˘ M y g randfather has to ld me how terrifi ed he wa s t he f irst ti m e he came within firing ran g e 3 of the en em y. They saw him and opened fire 4 but he wa s a b le t o escape. A couple of hi s frie nds, though, we re killed or ta ke n p r isoner . A fter several mont hs o u r army went into action in the fi rst decisive battl e of the w ar. The battle ra ged S fo r several da ys. My g ra nd f at he r sai d he hated be ing invol ve d in fightin g the w ar an d that the o n ly armies we should have shou ld b e pea cekeeping forces . He can ne ver f orget th e horrors of war, an d he be li eves that we m ust do ev eryth in g we can to avert'' war in the future. I agree.

suddenl y started a complete/total war 3 th e d ista nce wi thin which th e enem y cou ld hit him by firing their guns 4 sta rted shooting s the barrie was very viole nt 6 pre vent so mething ba d from happening I

2

B

C

Pea c e collocation

example

bring abo ut peace

It will be no easy ta sk to b ring about peace in the area.

negotiate a peace agreement

It can be useful to invite a neutral country to he lp negotiat e a p eace agreement.

call a truce/ceasefire

Although a ceasefire h as b een c a lle d fo r the d ura t io n of the peace negotiat ions. ho pes of its success are not high.

sign a (peace) treaty

At the end of the war. all the countries invo lved s igned a peace t reaty in Paris.

lasting peace

Hopes for a lasting peac e are. unfortunately. fad ing fast.

peace activist

Pe a c e activists around the world staged a series of massive demonstrations against the war.

keep the peace

Afte r the war was over. U N tro ops were sent into the troubled area to help keep the p e ace there.

restore order

Soldiers we re sent in to resto re order after the uprising.

W a r expressions in everyday language The police fought a run nin g b attle with fo otball ho oli gans in th e town ce ntre. The people o f th e village pu t up a heroic fight against th e construction of th e new motorwa y, but finall y lo st the battle. The bank robbers d idn't o ffe r a ny resist ance when th e po lice surro u nded th em. The President is figh ti ng fo r hi s life tonight in th e C ity hospital afte r a ma jo r o pe ra t ion.

I 80

Some collocations connected w ith war and m ilitary act io n are also us ed in a bu siness or polit ical cont ex t. e.g. a price war. to fight crime. a w a r on crime.

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 38.1

Use a word from th e box in the correct form to complete the extracts from news broadcasts. go

horrors

jo in

avert

fight

open

rage

T he p resi dent said he is ready to to w ar agai nst Colloca nia , H e sa id he had do ne eve ry thing po ssible to ..................... . war, but now th er e w as no a lte rna tive.

The army w ill co ntin ue to ........................ th e war agai ns t th e dru g barons. The presid ent sai d th at yo u ng persons wh o th e army m ust expect to figh t to defend th eir cou n t ry. T hey wo u ld expe rie nce the of w a r, but t hey must be b rave.

in th e 2 A two hour battle Raguni di strict today a fte r troops ........................ fire o n rebel posi tions.

38.2

Rewrite the sent ences , replacing th e words in bra ckets with co lloca tio ns fro m th e o p pos ite pag e. 1 The war between Adverbia and C ollocania (sta rted) in 198 3 after a di spute o ver territory in th e no rt he rn province. At first th ere were just (sm a ll events) but it soo n turned into (a fullscale war). T he war ended after (a battle which finally decided the course of events ) in 1987. 2 There was (ve ry violent fighting ) in the capital city yesterday. United ati ons (fo rces wh o will maintai n peace ) are ex pected to enter t he city as soon as (t he armies sa y th ey will stop firing at each other). 3 Forces sent in to (m a ke the peace continue) in the troubled regi on o f Phrasalia had to (ru rn back ) after they came (w ith in the firing distance ) of rebel artillery. 4 The Sorna k Repu bl ic today (officia lly sta ted that it was a t war ) against Hobrania, 5 Armed troops were sent in to (b ring order again ) after the riots and viol ence of last week . 6 Even though the tw o s id es (p ur the ir names to a document officially stating that th e war was at an end ) la st July, fig hting ha s started again and hopes for (a peace which might continue for a long time ) are fading . 7 As more of our soldiers were killed or (ca pt ured a nd put in prison ), (peo p le who w ere actively promoting pea ce ) o rganised demo ns t ra tio ns agai ns t the unpopular war. 8 Representatives of the two sides are meeting in Zurich in an attempt to (m a ke peace ) in the t rou bled regio n . It is hoped t hat they will (ha ve negotiations and a gree the derails for peace) w hich both govern ments can accept .

38.3

Correct the co llo ca tio n errors in th ese sen tences. 1 2 3 4 5

38.4

T he pol ice fo ug h t a w alk ing ba ttle wi th a gro up of violent d emonstrators. I feel we are missing th e battle to pe rsuade the management to increa se o u r sa la ries. The students made u p a heroic fight against the plan to increa se course fees. I was surp rised th at th e M an a gem ent Commi ttee sent no resistance to o ur demands. A tiny baby with a rare heart condition is fighting his life in th e General Hospital tonight.

Use yo u r dictionary to find two more collocations for each of th ese words.

army

I

soldier

battle

weapon

to fight

peace

Look at the Peace section of the Un ited Nations website - www.un.ore/peace/.Makeanoteof any interesting collocations that you find there.

English Collocations in Use

8I


Global problems A

The environment Look at these extracts from letters to a n internati onal maga zine. Your article on c ll rna re c h a nge was excellent. Rising se a levels and th e increase in greenhouse gases I are the result of our actions, We a re d isturbing t he ecological ba lan ce everywhere. as can be seen in th e decrease in fish s roc k s - in the oceans. I

2

gases w hich cause the green ho use effect, especia lly carbon dioxide the number of fish

We must accept tha t we have seriously d e pl eted' t h e o zone la yer in the tasr few decades by our selfish actions. Embracing green politics ma y be our best hope in the long te rm . Inn we need urgent short -term measures too. S

Cro ps fail yea r afte r yea r in SU int: o f the poorest pa rts of the world. This has brought d e vasr a t lng'' famine s lO some regions and equally devastating flo o d s to others. We call these na tu ra l d isasters. but it is human beings who arc causing them.

II is dear that we must t a c k le pollutio n before it is la te. Ex haust fumes lrom millions 01 vehicles and the burning 0 1 fo ss il fuels 3 are causing Irre parable" damage 10 ou r environment. lOO

3 4

B

fuels suc h as gas, coal and oil which ca nno t be repaired (a lso irreversible)

reduced so mething in size o r amount, especia lly supplies of energy, money, etc.

6

ca us ing a lot o f damage o r destruction

Pove rty Lo ok at this radi o interview with Pa scal Delrio, an international expert, talking a bout poverty. Interviewer: Delrio:

Mr Delrio, d o you believe we can solve th e problem o f w orld po verty? I a m more o pti m istic now th an before. Millions of pe ople ha ve succeede d in esca ping po verty in th e last decade, but it is also true that in some regio ns, more people than ever are living bel ow th e po verty lin e, and we must help t he se people to lift th em o u t of poverty. Interview er: But ho w can we achi eve that ? Delrio : I accept that there is no sim p le so lu tio n. The w idening gulf" between rich a nd po or in some countries is often du e to external forces beyond th eir control. Some of th e most depri ved regions ha ve large populations living o n th e m argins o f so cie ty, and it is for these spe cific groups that w e ca n d o m ost. Interviewer: But poverty is not just an issue for d eveloping cou ntries, is it? Wle ha ve thou sands slee p ing rough? every night in cities lik e London and ew York, and street chi ld re n in a lot of big cities around the world. Delrio: I agree, and I accept th a t children and adults w ho liv e on the st reets are in d esp erate need , and tha t these so c ia l conditions breed crime. But so much d epends on th e global econom y. Right now, we ha ve a golden opportu nity to co m b a t poverty. Perhaps we cann ot era d icate? p o verty a ltoge the r, but w e can certainly a llevia te" po verty, and that is o u r challenge. Interview er: Mr Delrio, thank you very much. I an important difference between th e ideas, opinions, o r situa tions o f two gro ups of people 2 in the open, without shelter 3 get rid o f completely 4 make less serious

C

Other global problems Thousands of people see k p ol it ical asylu m in o the r co u nt ries eve ry yea r. M o st a re ge n uine asylum see ke rs, but some are econo m ic m igra nts lo oking fo r a better life. Hundred s o f pe ople too k to th e streets to dem onstrate about th ird-world debt repaymen ts . A te rrible ea rt hq ua ke hit th e region last yea r. The d eath toll was massive. The sexu a l ex ploi ta tio n o f ch ild ren is a wo rld-wi de problem, as is ch ild labour.

82

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 39. 1

Com plete th e colloca tions. 1 2 3 4 5

39.2

.

6 7 8 . 9 10

people wh o rough a massive to ll to be in d esperate . to peo ple ou t of pove rty below the po verty .

Match sen tences 1- 5 wi th sentences a-e.

2

3 4 5

39.3

a rise in th e numbe r of asylum to deplete th e ozone . bad socia l cond iti o ns crime inc reasi ng a mou nts of greenhouse a golden to co m ba t poverty

The re w as a big protest aga ins t c hi ld labour. T here is new evidence of a widen in g gu lf be tween the wea lt h y and more d ep rived secto rs of so c iety. The re has been so me sma ll success in tac kl ing m arin e pollution. The problem of st ree t c hild re n in big ci ties has become a global crisis. A spo kesperso n for one o f the biggest c ha r it ies sa id access for economic mi g ra nt s shou ld be ma de easier.

a) T here is so me evi dence to s uggest th at fish stocks are beg inning to rise sligh tly in th e o rrh Sea. b ) Peo ple wanti ng to co me to th is cou ntry to escape poverty s ho u ld be welcomed . c) Large numbers of peo p le too k to th e stree ts yesterda y to demonstrate agains t the increas ing em ployment of c hild re n in appa lling co nditions. d ) A wo rldwide stu dy o f yo u ng people who slee p rough has ra ised un ive rsal a la r m. e ) Fig u res published toda y indicate t ha t the di vide between th e rich and th e po or is ge tt ing bigger.

Fill in th e ga ps in this a n nouncement. Enviro n m en t Concern is a new magazine for people int er est ed in (1) politics. The first issue includes an article on what happened to local crops when the earthquake (2) . Santa Graziela last year. Another feature looks at the problems which (3) repayments are causing for (4) . countries and how this affects people who li ve on the (5) of society there. We appreciate that there is no simple (6) to the problem of poverty in t o day's w o rl d but we have asked four experts what they wou ld do to (7) poverty. Their answers make st imulating read in g.

39.4

Answer th ese q ues tio ns abo ut th e co lloca tio ns in A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

What w ill happen if cro ps fai l in a n im porta nt agricultural area? a rne two foss il fuel s. a rne three types of natural d isa st er. What mi ght a d eva statin g flo od d o to a n a rea? What co uld govern rnen rs do in res ponse to a devastatin g famine? What a re g reen pol it ics co nce rned wi th? What is th e ca use o f rising sea -levels ? Why a re exhaust fumes an increasing problem?

I â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

There are many article s on global problems in the New Internationalist magazine. Choose one from their website (www.newint.orl:D and note an y interesting collocations that you find. Th e magaz ine also has special articles writt en in an easy style fo r learners of English. G o to its Teaching Global Issues page . English Collocations in Use

83


Time A

Collocations using t he w o rd time I

collocation

example

comment

spend t ime

I s pent so m e time in South America w he n I was younger.

NOT ~ in this context - though you can say things like reading passes the time.

wa ste t ime , save time

Do n't do it like that. You're w a s t ing t ime.You'll save t im e if you do it like this .

Spend, waste an d save are often used with money as well as tim e.

tell someone th e time

Can you tell m e the time, please! I left my watch at ho me.

NOT tell the

fre e/spare time

What do you like to do in your free/ s pare ti me!

Both expressions refer to the time when you are not wor king.

have time to

I'm sorry, I didn 't h a ve t im e to do my homework.

Compare:Jo d oesn't h ave time for lazy people. [has no patience with]

make time fo r

The doctor's very busy but he 'll try to make time fo r you .

Make here has a simple mean ing of create .

kill t ime

W e got to the airport very early, so we had a meal in the restaurant to kill (some) time.

to fill in the time while yo u are wa iting to do something you have planned

take you r t ime

No need to hurry - you can take your t im e .

This mean s you can be as long as you wish .

bang/dead /r ight

The train left b ang/dead/rig ht on time.

Exa ctly on time - the first two are very informal.

on time

~

H ere are so me o the r useful ex pressio ns relating to time. We ha d a good/great tim e a t th e party. I O T ~ a grea t t im e ] j a yanrh i had the tim e of her life in Bra zil. You r a ttit ude to w ork m a y cha nge a bit as ti me goes by / as time passes. I co uld n't fini sh th e exa m because I ran o ut of tim e. You 'll be so rry b ig ti me fo r spea ki ng to m e lik e th at! [in fo rma l: ex tre me ly]

B

Past and future The past few w eeks ha ve been reall y difficult for Tina 's two grow n-u p chi ld re n . T hey' re both a t uni versit y writing di ssertati ons. H er son 's is o n early 2 1st century fiction whi le her d aughter'S is about life in p re histo ric ti m es - she's not interested in th e recent past a t all. They a re both w ork ing ve ry hard. They are nearl y finish ed but t he re a re lots of las t-mi n ute things left to d o. They se t th eir al a rm s for five o'clock and get up as soon as th e a la rm goes o ff. They w ork from d a wn till dusk ' and indeed someti me s th ey stay up unti l the sm a ll hou rs", T ina ca n 't wait until they stop w orking suc h ungo d ly hours). It 's taking th em ages to com plete th eir w ork but Tina is su re it will eve ntua lly all be worth th eir w h ile". She is sure they both ha ve a great fu tu re ahead of th em. Sh e thinks th ey w ill both ge t good aca dem ic jobs in th e not too distan t futu re. Of course, no o ne ca n k now w ha t the futu re ho ld s, but I hope she is right. I all da y 2 2, 3,4 am ) unrea sonably late or ea rly hours ~ worth th e tim e spen t

84

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 40 . 1

C o m p lete th e collocations in th ese advertisements for leisure a ctivit ies. o

W hat do yo u do when you 're no t working? If you want to spend you r ( I) . time in pleasa nt. relaxing surro undings. why not (2) some tim e at the Haven Hea lth Centre? Slow down. (3) . youl" time . (4) t ime for you rself in you r busy world.

o

Don't (6) lime writing appointments on your calendar! You can (7) valuable l ime by using Timemate, the new software from Compcorpus. Justenter appointment details and Timemate will automatically text you on your mobile phone to remind you. You'll arrive (8) . on l ime for every appointment and neverbe late again. 0

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40.2

Correct th e collocatio n erro rs in these sen te nces. I 2 3 4 5 6

40.3

I w a s hopin g to finis h m y di ssertation la st yea r b ut I ran off tim e. It 's hard work learn ing a lang ua ge but I' m su re yo u' ll find it 's w ort h th e wh ile. Les spe nds a ll t his t im e a t th e o ffice - he 's t he re fro m dusk till dawn. As a teacher I ofte n wo nde r wh at th e fu ture has for my p u pils. D id yo u spe nd a good ti me o n hol id a y? I d id n't have tim e fo r doi ng th e ir on ing last night.

Complet e the seco nd part o f ea ch conversation with a co llocation usin g th e words in brackets.

2 3 4 5 6

40.4

C a n you (9) . me t h e t ime. ple ase! How often do people as k you this and you can't answe r! N ev e r again! Just press the 'tim e ' button on the new Boza mobile phone an d the cor rect time is yours!

Ada m : Sa lly: Ahmed : Inez: Jud ith: Mark : Hugh : M ary: Ruth: And y: Will is: Teresa :

Don't fo rget, ev ery body. We ha ve ro ge t up a t 5a .m . ro m orrow. Well, w e'd berrer a ll (ALA R ~ tS) Did yo u en joy your t rip ro M a la ysia ? Yes. It w a s fa nta sti c. I had (l.IFE) I th ink as you ge t o lder yo u c ha nge yo u r a ttitude rowa rd s yo u r parents. Yes, I th ink yo u learn ro resp ect th em mo re as (BY) You must co me a nd vis it us so m e time. Do n 't keep putting it off. Yes. I'll try ro co me a nd see yo u in th e ( oT/D ISTA l'.'T) Yo u we re late for w ork th is m ornin g ! (Off) Yes. I didn 't w ak e up. T he a la rm d id n 't So nia w as stu dy ing till 2 a .rn . aga in la st night. Yes, she a lways stays u p work ing un til (S~ IA LL)

Find tw o collocations for ea ch of these w ords in yo u r dictionary. day

hou r

clock

minute

English Collocations ;n Use

85


Sound It was a lovely place for a picnic.There was a little b abbling! stream and birds were s ing ing in the trees.Then we heard the patter of rain on the leaves above us. Sadly. it was turning into a typical British summer's day.

Sounds in nature Look a t th e s e ext racts fro m short sto r ies. At first there was an eerie I si lence. th e n there

2

was a rumbl e of thund er in th e d istance. Soon t he wind was w h istli ng t h rou gh rh e trees and we co u ld hear t h e waves c ras h ing on the beach . The storm had begu n. I

low, continuous n oise of water flow ing over sto nes No sound broke the silence of the wintry landscape. Then suddenly two sh ots rang out and we heard the piercingJ cry of a dying bird. The hunting season had begun.

strange in a frig h tening and m yste rious way

) h igh , lo u d and un pl ea sa nt

Everyday sounds collocation

deafen ing, ear-spl itting

sound. noise (use d as a countable noun)

We hea rd me e a r-s p littin g/d e a fe ni n g sound/noise of th ree huge military aircraft passing low over ou r heads.

excessive

noise (used uncountably)

People who make e x c e ss ive noise after 10 p.m. are very antisocial.

background

noise

When you work in a big office yo u get use d to constant background noise .

muffled I

sound

W e could he ar the muffled sound of mus ic fro m me flat above us.

shrill2

voice . laugh

Marie has such a shrill voice . I can 't listen to he r fo r lo ng.

raucous)

laughter

I could hear raucous laughter coming from me party next door.

dull

m ud

T he heavy box fell off the shelf on to me carpet with a dull thud .

graring"

noise. soun d

The big o ld iron door made a g r a t ing n oise as it opened.

lo ud/almighty

bang, ex plo sion

Suddenly the re was a loud / an al mig h ty b ang. me lights we nt out an d sm oked poured from the back of the TV set.

roar

t raffic

I couldn't sle e p w ith me consta nt roar of the t r a ffic outside my w indow.

mu sic/radio

blare (o ut )

machine I

2 )

example

5

hu m , w hirr

Loud mus ic wa s b laring out of me radio in me kitchen. 6

As we talke d to the facto ry owne r, th e m a chin e s humm ed/wh irred in the background.

made qui eter/or less cl ear (e .g . b y the walls ) loud, h ig h sou nd th a t is u n p lea sa nt or painfu l to listen to loud and unplea sant

~ harsh , unpleasant so u n d 5 6

make a conti n uous low so und make a low, soft, c o ntin u o us so u n d

Verbs and sounds A person can give a s ig h, a laugh, a loud c ry, a cry o f pain/surprise/alarm, a gasp, a groan . A perso n, anima l o r t hing ca n make a s c r a t c h in g/c1ic k in g/r ustl in g/c r ack lin g so u n d . 86

English Cal/ocation s in Use


Exercises 4 1. 1

Look at A. Choose the correct collocation. M y friends a n d I w ent ca m ping th is w eek end. We put u p o ur tent in a lo vely spot besid e a ( I ) babbling / whistling stream. T he birds were (2) piercing / singing a nd it felt g rea t to be so fa r fro m th e noi sy tra ffic of the town. The wea ther w a sn 't very good but it w a s co sy listening to th e (3 ) rumble / patter of rain o n the roo f o f th e tent. When it eve ntua lly stop pe d there was (4 ) an eerie / a piercing silence a ll around us. T he silence w as sud de n ly (5 ) b roken / closed w hen a shot (6) crashed / rang o ut. So meone wa s shooting rabb its.

41.2

Are these noises loud or so ft ? Write L (lo ud) or S (soft) after each collocation. I 2 3 4 5 6

41.3

a d ea fening so u nd a dull thud music blar ing o u t a m achi ne w hi rri ng raucous laughter a sh rill vo ice

7 8 9 10

a n a lmighty bang an ea r-s p litt ing no ise a ma ch ine hummin g so meone giv ing a sigh 11 lea ves ma k ing a rustling so u nd 12 a m u ffled sou n d

Match each statement 1-8 with a response a-h.

2

I think th o se pe ople might have had too much to drink.

a

Yes, it really is too much to pl a y suc h loud music after midnight.

Did the group react negativel y to the news that the flight was d ela yed?

b

Yes, I thought I hea rd a rumble of thunder in th e d istance.

3 Our neighbours really make excessive noise, 1 think . 4

1 hate it wh en chalk makes that horrible noise on the board.

c ( Yes, she gave a cry o f pain .

d Yes, the roar o f th e traffi c kept me awake most of the night. e

Yes, you ca n tell by th eir rau co us laughter.

f

Yes, I was wok en b y w ha t so u nded lik e a loud explo sion .

g

Yes, th ey a ll gave a groan o f di sappointment.

5 1 think this wonderful w eather is going to change so o n . 6

It's a comfortable hotel but it's a bit noisy, isn't it?

7 Did yo u hear that almighty bang in the middle of th e night?

8 Did the chi ld react when s he had th e

h Yes, it's a ho rr ibl e g ra ting so u n d , isn't it?

inj ection?

4 1.4

Answer these questions. 1 What is m ore lik el y to m ak e a dull thud - a person fa lling o ut of bed o nto a ca rpeted

2 3 4 5

flo or in the room above yo u o r a hea vy m etal bo x fa lling o nto a sto ne flo or? Who is more likel y to have sh rill vo ices - primary sc hoo lch ild ren o r o ld age pens ioners? If waves are c ras h ing on th e beach, a re th ey more likel y to be little wa ves o r big wa ves? If you hear a pi ercing cry, is it more lik ely to be from a m ach in e or fro m a b ird ? What is m ore lik ely to make an ea r-s p litting n oi se - a group of motorb ikes roa r ing pa st or a large w aterfall in a fa st-running ri ver? English Collocations in Use

87


Distance and size A

B

Distance collocation

example

a considerable/long /short distance from

The hotel is a c o n si d e rabl e distance fro m the beach. [qu ite a lo ng way]

within commuting/ walking distance

We have to live within commuting d istance of my husband's office. [where it is possible to travel to work every day]

coverltrave l (a distance of) x kilometres

On our cycling tour we managed to cover (a distance of) about 40 kil o m e t r e s a day.

far-off/far-flung places

Bill is always t rave lling to far-offtfar-flung places. [dista nt]

at clo se range

I've never seen a me m ber of t he royal family a t such close r ang e before. [so near]

ne ighbouring town/ cou ntry/area

Many people w ho work here actually live in neighbouring towns.

,

Little, small and large We ta lk a bo u t low prices, low wages, lo w levels. ( OT ~) We say sm a ll quantities, sm a ll numbers, sm a ll amounts, a small increase. ( OT titf.k.) The o pposite is la rge quantities, large numbers, large amounts, a large increa se. Similarly, we talk about problems or objects being on a large sca le or on a sm a ll sca le: If you are walking in the mountains you need a large sca le map. The UK has similar problems to the USA, but on a sm a lle r scale. In informal spo ken English we o ften use little after another adjective to make it so u nd more friendl y, e.g. poor little Joe, dear little dog, nice little ro om . Little can also mean young, e.g. little brother [informal : yo unger brothe r, OT ~ brother; the opposite is big brother). Sometimes little o r sm a ll s uggests th a t something is n ot very importa nt, e.g. a little problem, I' ve got a lot of little thin gs to do, to make so me o ne lo o k sm a ll, to make sm a ll talk [ta lk socia lly, a bo ut unim po rtant subjects] .

Other size collocations W/e can ta lk about fat books an d slim b o oks as well as fat people and slim p eo p le. Onl y people (no t books) can be plump or sk in ny or painfully th in . We use a gre a t deal o f ( OT ~ or ~ ) in contexts like this: She should be able to help you because she has a gre a t d eal o f time / a grea t d eal o f m oney I a g rea t d eal of en ergy / a great d eal of enthusiasm . Major and minor often collocate wi th words relating to problems or points in an argument, e.g , major/minor difference, maj or/minor change, major/minor effec t, major/min or difficulty, major/minor point, major/minor issues, major/minor fa ctor. Take care w ith th e different collocatio ns that go w ith tall and high. W e talk about t all people. tall trees. tall buildings, but high mountains. high prices. high interest rates. high heels. high tide. high jump. Make a no te of any collocations with tall or high as yo u no tice them .

88

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 42 .1

Look a t A and complete the collocations in th ese sho rt travel te x ts. Tassia, and the n t owns of Hiol and Gebja, were all damaged during the civ il war b ut have been rebuilt.

2

T he roa ds in Baxa a re bad, so don 't expect to in a day. Petro l sta tions ten d to be a c yo ur fue l level.

more tha n 50 or 60 mi les d istan ce fro m o ne a nother, so wa tch

3 If you love heading for -f1 ung destinations in farof a small group, then Safetrek Holidays could be what you are looking for.

places. but in the safety

4

Within di stance of ou r h otel was th e Alfa ma Bird sa nctu a ry, w h ere w e were able to see a w onderful varie ty o f birds a t ran ge .

42. 2

C ross o ut th e five co llocatio n errors in th is text a nd write th e correct wo rds in the righthand co lum n . T he first one has been done fo r yo u. Althoug h we had a J.itt1e increase in our pay

small .................................

las t month, we sti ll earn ve ry sma ll wages. We have not had a big deal of hel p fro m the union, and ta ll prices mea n th a t life is not easy. Luckily, we only have a small level of inflation at the mo ment.

42.3

C ha nge the und erl ined words so that each sen tence has th e opposite meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S

42.4

Ci lia is having some minor difficul ties at wo rk. She was wearing red boots wi th low hee ls. The company ma n ufactures these components on a small scal e. We have had low interest ra tes for the last th ree years. It's qui te a fat book. There were small quantities of oil in th e ta nks. I had to share a room with my big brother until I was ten. Jane is shorter tha n her mo ther.

Answe r th e qu estions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9

What adver b beginni ng wi th 'p' colloca tes wi th th in ? Do w e norma lly say 'a plu m p bo ok ' ? W hat do we ca ll th e ma ximum level of the sea on a beach or in a ha rbour? Which ad jective usua lly collocates wi th peop le, t rees and buildings: high or tall? Which wo rd co u ld fill the gap? T ha t poor child loo ks los t. \Vh ic h word co u ld fill th e gap? Dave has a grea t of enthusiasm. Which wo rd co uld fill th e gap? I' m no good at making talk. \Vo uld we say 'Could yo u help me d o some sma ll th ings before dinner?' If you owe th e bank money, w hat k ind of interest rates do you prefer? English Collocations in Use

89


Colour and light D escribing colours Lo o k a t these letters to H om e making maga zine, asking for advice a bo ut colo urs. I lo ve bright colou rs. I have a bright yellow jac ke t a nd I thi nk th e co lour goes well wi th my br igh t gree n tro user s. But my bes t frie nd th ink s the colours clash. She says I shou ld get some yellow trousers to ma tch th e jacket. Wh o is right? K . Wi llia ms (M rs)

W ith black jean s th e co lo ur a lways fades after tw o o r th ree washes . Is th ere a ny wa y to stop this ? A. Lac ey ("'Is)

M y clothes a re so d u ll, and I a lways wear subdued 2 colours. M y fa vo urite is dark green. H o w can I add a tou ch o f colour to my wa rdrobe wi t hout spend ing roo much money? B. Grey (M r)

I put a pai r of re d socks in th e washi ng mach ine wi th m y w hite shirt a nd m y pale.' blue shorts and the co lo ur ran .

E. Jin (j'vIr) I

B

a light col ou r that is not bright o r st ro ng

2

not ve ry bright

Describing light Look at these ex t ra cts from short stories, where the writers describe d iffe re nt kinds of light.

flickered and Bert ram cou ld see a lmost nothing, hut su dde n ly a po w e rf u l beam of light shone into th e room a n d a poli ce o fficer ente red, wit h a torch in h e r hand .

A ray of sun light fell on his face and w oke him up. It was six a .m. Soon the glare of the su n wou ld make it d ifficult to see h is way across the desert. He must get to the village at once.

It w as pitch dark when she left the house, but by the time she arrived at the beach. the fai n t glow of dawn was visible on the horizon. The sky was t in g e d w ith gold.

A bove he r, th e sta rs twinkled in th e night sky. Then she sa w a pinpoint of light in the dista nce. As she w alked to w a rd s it she rea lised it was a man on a bicycle coming towards her.

It h a d grown d a r k , th e ca nd le

C

Colour and light: metaphorical collocat ions T he la w about re- using p ictures from the Inte rn et seems to be a g r ey area. Ian uncl ear area ] The trip to Brazil ce rtainly added colour to our rather boring lives. M y bro ther cares a lot about green issu es a n d ha s volunteered to d o conservation w ork . The government tried to blacken hi s name beca use he was c ri tical o f th eir policies. [destroy h is re p uta t io n I I'm hoping Hilary can s h ed/ t h row so m e light on what happened at work yesterda y.

[explain] M y siste r's ill ness cas t a shadow over o ur ew Yea r fa mi ly reunion. [mad e it less h a p p y/chee r ful ] J im h a s a lways been under the sh a d o w o f hi s s uper-intell ige nt sister. [got les s attention I

90

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 43 . 1

Look at A and choose the right collocation to complete ea ch o f th ese se n te nces. 1 Sh o ck ing pink, lime g ree n and orange a re very and I pe rsonall y prefer to wear m ore . .. 2 I think I'll w ear m y d ark blue swea te r a nd th ose g rey trousers. The ................................. w ell together. 3 \X'h e n I was hed m y red a nd whi te foo tball shi rt, the and it's rui ned now! 4 I d o n't th ink it is a good idea to wea r a purp le to p w it h o ra nge tro users and red shoe s th e terribl y, in m y o p in io n . S I lik e t hat red brooch o n yo u r black d ress - it a d ds a lo vely 6 M y so n a lways wa shes new jea ns so th at t he th e m .

43 .2

Matc h the two hal ves o f each collocatio n. 1 2 3 4 S

6 7 8 9 10

43 .3

a candle a beam pitch a faint a star pale green a grey cast blacken

d a rk g low area someo ne's name of lig ht a sha d o w green flicke rs twinkles Issues

R ewrite ea ch sen te nce usin g th e w ord in bracket s, so tha t it keep s the sa me meaning. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

43.4

before he w ears

The pol ice a re lo o king for someone who can explain how th e accident happen ed. H e has a lw ays been in a n inferio r position to his wo rld-fa mous fa ther. (SH ADOW) In the cast th e sky ha d so me golden shades in it. (Tlr-.:GE) J o e's c razy be haviou r ce rtai nly brighten s up o ur dull office. (COl.O UR) Very b right su n can m ak e drivin g di fficult a t th is tim e of d a y. (G l.ARE) She wa lke d u ntil th e fire was just a little light in th e di stance. ( PI POI IT) Da rkn ess w as fa lling and J ill began to fee l a little afraid . (G ROWl, G) The newsp apers seem to be tryi ng to d estroy th e m inister's re puta t io n. ( Bl.ACKEN)

(SH ED)

ow a nswer th ese qu est ions ab out th e co llocations in exercise 4 3 .2 1 Wh a t pro bab ly ca uses a cand le to flick cr ? 2 A beam of light is ofte n used abou t th e hea d lights of a car or th e light of a to rc h. Wh at sim ila r phrase is used a bo ut su n lig ht? 3 Wo uld you use pitch black to describe sorneone's hair o r the nigh t? 4 If yo u see a lig ht as a [aint glo w is it likely to be far awa y or near to you? S Wh a t is t he d ifference in m eaning be tween sayi ng th at a star shines an d a star tu/iuh lesi 6 W hat kind of iss ues are g reen issues? 7 Wh a t d o yo u fee l about something if you say t ha t it is a grey a rea ? 8 What so rt of thing m ight cast a sha dow over a specia l ce leb ra tion? 9 If M a rk accuses Karen of ' b lackeni ng h is name', what has Ka ren donc? 10 If so me th ing adds colo u r to sorneo nc's life o r to a sto ry, w ha t happe ns to the life or rh e story ? English Collocation s in Use

91


Texture A

B

Adjectives and their opposites for describing t e x t u re s adjective + noun

opposite adjective + noun

example

dry hair

greasy hair

You need to wash g reasy hair more o fte n than you need to wash d ry hair.

dry skin

oily sk in

This cream is good for d ry s k in - that one would be better for oily s k in .

rough skin . smooth skin . surface. complexion surface. complexion

Use this cream and the r o u gh ski n o n your han ds w ill soon become smooth.

smooth water. sea

choppy or rough water. sea

I hope the sea w ill be s m o o th today - I hate rough seas.

smooth road. flight

bumpy road. flight

The outward flig ht was very b umpy. I hope the return flight is smoo ther.

soft pillow. bed. ground

hard or firm pillow. bed. ground

I'd much rather sleep with a firm p illow than a very soft p illow.

tender meat

tough meat

It's delicious ly tender m eat - how did you cook it ! My steak is always t ough.

sha rp pencil. knife

blunt pencil. kn ife

This p e n cil 's bl u nt - I can't work unle ss I have a good sha rp p enci l.

Verbs relating to textures Whe n th e tem peratu re ge ts wa rmer, ice melts but snow m elts o r sno w tha ws. As tim e goes b y, fru it goes soft a nd brea d goes hard . A voice so ftens or hard en s [gets more friend ly o r ge ts less frien d ly] an d a n a tti tude so ftens or ha rd ens. (gets less seve re o r ge ts m ore severe I

C

Other texture words with their collocations HAVEYOVR PHOTO$ PRINTED HERE MATT FINISH OR GLOSS FINISH I

TRY OUR YOGURT - smooth, creamy texture delicious with finely chopped2 cucumber. coarse grain 3 sea saltand crushed garlic.

NAT URA L HAI R PROD UCTS for b eautifu l glossy hair.

â&#x20AC;˘

CLEANO POLISH will get rid of those marks on paint and wallpaper made by g reasy h a n ds and sticky fingers. Buy some today.

I You ca n pa int yo ur walls using either m an paint o r gloss paint. G loss pa int a nd gloss pharos ha ve a shinier finish th an matt. 2 cut into sma ll pieces, o pposi te w ould be coarsely chopped 3 large grai ns of sa lt rather than sma ll o r fine grains

D

Metaphorical uses of texture words If things go smoothly, they go w ell. If so meo ne ha s a sharp tongue , th ey say unk ind th in gs. If yo u' re in a difficult posit ion, yo u ca n say th at yo u' re in a sticky si tuation . [in forma l] Coarse jo kes are vulga r jokes, jo kes in bad ta ste. Velve ty sky is d ark a nd d eep with a beautiful soft smooth quality lik e th e cl oth ve lvet.

92

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 44.1

Can yo u rememb er the pai rs of ad jectives a t A o n th e o p posite page ? C ha nge the und erl in ed words to their opposite meaning. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S

44. 2

Use collocations from the opposite page to co mplete the second speakers' a nswers.

2 3 4 5

44.3

I always prefer to slee p o n a soft pill ow. H ow about you ? M y grandmother had very rou~h sk in , whi ch surpri sed me as a child . Remember th e Parazo restaurant? It w as wh ere w e had th e reall y tender lamb c hops . I found an old sha rp penknife in th e pocket o f a jacket I hadn 't worn for years. The su rface o f th e lake was very rou~h as w e set o u t on our fishing trip. Can yo u help m e? I'm lo oking for a sha m poo for dry ha ir. I' ve alwa ys had rath er dry sk in, so I a lways use M ilona fa ce c rea m . We had a sm o o th flight over th e m ountains.

Customer: Assistant: Roger: Ne lly: Hilda: Bill: Tim: Ela na : Sheila: Kate:

Yes. You can eithe r have or . The temperature w a s minus five yes te rday; it's p lus eigh t today! Yes. And th e ice o n th e lake has alread y . \'Vhat's th a t lo a f of bread lik e now ? It's about four d a ys o ld . I'm a fra id it has . I think th e protes ters a re ve ry angry a bo ut this new roa d , an d ge tting angrier. Yes, I think atti tudes . T he re are so me o ra nges in th e bowl, but I'm a frai d th ey may be o ld . Mm. Yes. They a re rather o ld . They're beg inn ing .

Complete th e crossword. Across 3 the texture of yogu rt 4 th e texture of large g rai ns of sa nd 5 It 's w arm; th e snow's beg in n ing to . 6 The little c hild had fingers after eating chocola te.

2

Dow n I a djective mea n ing 'has a beautiful so ft , smooth qu ality or a p pearance, usu a lly da rk or d eep' 2 The couple spo ke very a ngrily a t firs t, but th eir softened w he n they rea lised it w as a m ista ke.

4

6

44.4

(III a photo -lab ) Is there a choice of finish for the prints?

Find four collocatio ns o n the o pposite page tha t have positive associations and four that h a ve negati ve associations .

I

Find more collocat ions de sc r ibing t extu re in English language magazine articles or advertisements about beauty and health products, o r about fabrics and furnishings.

English Collocations in Use

93


Taste and smell Food and restaurant reviews Lo o k at these d esc riptio ns of smells and tastes in travel review a rticles. Everywhere you go. the fragrant perfume of Caranza Island's wild flowers follows you. And in the village of Jarca, the distinctive aroma 1 of the local dishes and the smell of fresh coffee waft ing 2 across the square from the small cafes is simply wonderful. I

2

B

a slightly liter ary w o rd used to refer to pleasant smells (o ften of food an d d rink, e.g. coffee); ofte n used wi th ad jectives suc h as distinctiue, rich, strong , sweet , appe tising moving gen tly th rough th e ai r

For many people, octo pus is an acquired tastel â&#x20AC;˘ but it's a must o n the sou th coast, and the subtle' flavour of the local vegetable, quingat, pro vides a perfect accompaniment. The fresh scent of he rbs is everywhere in the local markets.

) so me thing yo u d islike a t first bu t sta rt to like after tr ying it severa l times ~ no t noticeabl e or obvious

Negative collocations connected with smells and tastes I ca n't dr ink bitter co ffee . I'll ha ve to put so me suga r in th is. T he re w a s noth ing in th e fri dge except a n o ld carton o f milk which ha d gone sour. The lo vely bea ch w as completel y spoilt by th e acri d ! smoke and noxious ? fu mes from a fou l-smelling chemical factory nearby. [Ist rong smelling, ca usi ng a burn ing feel ing in yo ur th roat 2 po iso no us l Bod y o dour ca n be extreme ly unpl ea sant a nd embarrassing. person's bod y th at is ca used by swea r]

C

[an unpl ea sant sme ll o n a

More taste and smell collocations Ra y:

J ane, d o yo u th ink this c heese is bad? It has a strong smell. Have a ta ste, tell me w ha t you th ink. J a ne: H mm. Let me have a sm ell .. . mm . . . When d id yo u buy it ? It smells off" to me. I no lon ger fresh or good to ea t becau se of bein g to o o ld Ta nia :

T here was a n overpowering stink coming fro m th e ri ver today as I drove ov er the bridge. It alwa ys gives off a smell in the hot w eath er but th is was dreadful. Mick: Yes, I passed th ere the other da y. It 's a revolting stench", The polluti on is ge tti ng w orse a nd worse. 2 Stench is a stro nge r, more ex treme word tha n sti nk . Revolting mean s extremel y un plea sant, d isgu st ing.

C h ris: Do I detect a whiff) o f perfume? Are you m eet ing someone special tonight ? Rita: It 's none of yo ur bus iness! ) s lig h t sme ll

D

Smell and taste: metaphorical collocations H er cruel remarks left a b ad/unpl ea sant tast e in o ur m ouths. [left an unpleasant memo ry] I tast ed freed om when I gave up m y job and travelled fo r a yea r. o w I ca n 't go ba ck to normal life. Bob and [ share th e sa me ta st e in music; w e o fte n bu y th e sa me C Ds. Sh e ha s d eveloped a taste for fast cars. Sh e's jus t bought a bright red Ferrari. We smelt d a nger and d ecided not to enter th e city. It w a s a wi se c hoice. I didn't hear every w ord, but I go t the flavo ur o f w ha t he was sayi ng and I didn't lik e it . 94

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 45. 1

Loo k a t A. M atch th e beginning o f ea ch se ntence with its end ing. I th in k caviar must be an acquired The delicious aroma of fresh coffee The park was spoilt by the noxious We just lo ved the fragrant I particularly en joy th e su btle Sm ell the bottle a nd tell me if th e milk I usu a lly lo ve coffee but th is coffee It must be the wet wood ca using s uch acrid

I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8

45.2

Divide th e collocatio ns in th e b o x in to th o se th at ha ve a po sit ive m eaning and tho se th at ha ve negative con no tatio ns . acr id smoke noxious fumes

positive

45.3

fu mes from the facto ry beh ind it . is jus t too bi tte r for my taste. wafted in from th e ki tc hen . smo ke fro m th e bonfire. ta st e - I d on 't lik e it ve ry mu ch. pe rfum e o f th e b lo ssom o n th e trees. is sour o r O K to drink st ill. flavou rs th at herbs g ive to food .

appe ns mg aroma foul-smelling chemicals overpowering stink revolting stench

fragrant perfu me fres h scent

negative

R ead th e sen tences a nd a ns wer th e questi ons a b o u t th em .

2

3 4 S

6 7 8

G reg has d eveloped a taste fo r visiting old churches. H ow freq ue ntly d o yo u think G reg visi ts o ld c h u rc hes? Greta always leaves a w hiff of pe rfume beh in d her. Do es G re ta leave a strong s me ll o r a ligh t o ne ? Is it a pleasant o r an unpl ea sant smell? As I entere d th e train carriage I cou ld n 't h elp noticing th e body odour. Do es th e spea ke r notice the sme ll o f swea t or th e sme ll of cosmetics? Jim asked his girlfriend to have a taste of th e sau ce he was preparing. Do es th e gi rlfriend p robabl y tak e a lot o r a little of th e sa uce? So me fish were rotting in a buck et and w ere giv ing off an overpowering stink. Did the s pea ke r lik e the sme ll? If th e spea ke r had sa id revolting ste nc h in stead o f overpowering stink, wo uld this ha ve m ad e th e smell seem be tte r o r w orse ? If ),ou jus t read the introd uction to the article, you can get the flavo ur o f it . H ow co uld yo u say get th e flavo ur in a d ifferent way? T he argu ment has left an unpleasant taste in m y m outh . Is th e spea ke r upset by so me t hing he ha s ea ten or some th ing th at has happen ed ? Hi lary and I get on so well together because w e share the same taste in lots of th ings. Do H ila ry a nd th e spea ke r o nly lik e t he sa me kinds o f foo d o r o ther things too?

I

Look up the words taste. flavour, aroma . smell. perfume, scent and odour in a good learn er's dictionary. Make a note of what kinds of th ings they collocate with.

English Collocations in Use

95


46 A

Number and frequency Commenting on how much or how m any T hese a dject ives collocate strongly wi th both number and a mou n t , Try to use th em instead of small o r large w he re a p pro p ria te .

minute /m a m ' j u : t~

C

substantial

r"'-------'--------(' UM BER, AMOU

i

significa nt

B

e no r,\ous

surp~iSing

Talking about numbers collocation

example

comments

odd/even numbers

5 1 is an o dd num ber - 50 is an even num ber

odd numbers = 1.3, 5 etc. eve n numbers = 2,4, 6 etc.

a decl ine/drop in the number of

There's bee n a re cent d e c lin e in t he number of boy s jo ining the a rmy.

Drop is more info r mal than de cline.

an increase/r ise in the number of

The in c rease in t he numbe r o f homeless people is worrying.

Rise is slightly more info rmal th an increase.

come to a total of

If we add up all the figures it c omes t o a t otal o f 794.

A calculation co m e s to a t otal of x; the pe rs on calculating arrives at a t otal of x.

birth ra te r ises /falls

O ve r the last few years the bi r th r a te h a s b e e n falling.

A r a t e can also drop or decline as as fall.

a un it of currency/ measurement

The standard un it of cu r re ncy in most We also tal k abo ut a un it of EU countries is the eu ro. electricity, unit of length.

well

Frequency \Vid esp rea d [existing or happe ni ng in many places or among people) collocates strong ly w ith a lot of words relating to either a tti tu de (w id esp rea d in terest, widespread su p port ) or problems (w id esp rea d d a m age, widespread poverty): T he re has bee n w idespread su p port for th e gove rn me nt's new poli cy on ed ucation. T he hea vy winds a t th e wee ke nd ha ve ca used w idespread damage. R a re [infreq ue n t a nd specia l) coll o cates with th ings in th e natural wo rld (ra re di sease, rare b ird , ra re species ) an d also wi t h collectable items of special interest (ra re sta m ps). If someone re pea te d ly d o es so me th ing th at a nnoys yo u, yo u can use the expression keep s aski ng, keeps interrupting, keep s h ittin g, etc . This is common in informal spoken English: Please do n't keep interru pti ng m e w hen I'm trying to wo rk. The c hild re n keep as king m e when we're goi ng to b uy a new computer. Constan t a nd conti n ua l a lso co nvey th e idea of something ha p pen ing repeated ly: I co u ld n't ge t o n with m y w o rk today because of co ns ta n t interruptions - the phone kept ring ing every five mi nu tes . It w as a m istak e to go o n holida y with th em. Their co ntin ual co m plai ni ng drove us mad.

D

D e scrib ing graphs and charts Profits rose sha rp ly/steep ly in Jul y, b ut fell sharply/steeply in September. T he re was a dramatic rise/fall in th e number of students a pplying to universi ty this yea r. umbers of m ature stu de nts have in crea sed stead ily/gra d ualIy since th e 19 6 0s. T he num ber of crimes committed in the ci ty has remained constant/stable since 2001 .

96

English Collocations in Use

i


Exercises 46.1

Use adj ectives from A opposite in st ead o f th e und erl in ed w o rds to com p lete the collo ca tions. I I o nly put a ve ry sma ll amou nt of ch illi in t he so u p but it w a s st ill roo hot for so me people. 2 T here was an extremely large amount of info rmati on to read, 5,000 pa ges, w hic h w as far roo muc h fo r o ne person ro abso rb. 3 We can't ignore the fact that a small but impo rta nt n umber of people disagree with the plan. 4 There was an unexpected number of people a t the meeting who ha d never voted in their lives. 5 The government's new budget will m ean that a ra ther large number of people will have ro pay more in taxes. (G ive tw o a nswers.)

46.2

C ho os e th e correct co llo catio n. I 2 3 4 5

46.3

17, 29 a nd 395 are a ll stra nge / odd / unequal numbers. Many Eu ropean co u ntries use th e e uro as th eir standard unit of m oney / ualu e / cu rrency, 26, 8 an d 192 are all equal / level / euen nu m be rs. The bill comes / arrives / gets ro a to ta l of 28 7 dollars. The u nemployme nt rate is [alling / de creasing t loioering ,

Use words from th e b o x to com plete th e news reports. You m a y use the wo rds mo re tha n o nce. decl ine

46.4

ra re

keep

widespread

drop

fall

rise

Following (I) cnucism of the government 's environmental policy a nd a recent report showing a (2 ) in the numbers of seabirds along the nation's coastline, a sche me has been an no unced w hich , it is ho pe d,

will result in a (3) in the population of birds, especially of those (4) species which are seriously threatened with extinction .

Unfortunately, last year's storms did (5) . damage to homes in the north, and the damage is still visible in many places. One local resident complained 'We (6) asking the authorities when we will be compensated. They (7) promising to sort it

out but then nothing happens.' There has been a steady (8) in the number of severe storms in the area, with an average of two per year recorded in the 1980s and more than five per year now.

Although on ly a re la ti ve ly sma ll number of people d ie from (9) diseases each year, a plan to build a research centre into such diseases has received (10) support from all political parties. 'I'm glad to say that we

have seen a steady (11) in the incidence of these d isease s: a med ica l expert sa id . 'But we must be ca ref ul. The numbers could (12) aga in if we do not continue to support re search .'

\Vrit e sentences d escribing the sa les figures in th e ch art. Use a ll th e collocations fro m D. Sales of mobile phones 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000

5000

o English Collocotions ;n Use

97


Movement and speed Synonym s o f fast adjective

collocations

examples

fast

car, train, lane , computer, pace

T he fast tra in to London only takes 45 m inutes. I don 't like driving in the fast lane on the motorway.

quick

look, glance, answer, decision, shower, lunch

We had a quick glance at the menu and went in. I think I'll have a quick shower before go ing out.

ra pid -

growth, decline, change, progress, increase , movement

There has been a rapid decline in the number of sea-birds visiting the island each year. Th e bu ilders made rapid progress w ith the new sta dium.

speedy -

recovery, conclusion, response, access

She made a speedy recovery after her operation. The new web pages provide speedy access to airline and train time ta ble s fo r 52 countries .

sw ift -

act io n, response, reaction , recovery

The government took swift action to change th e law. This is an extremely urgent matter. I ho pe yo u w ill be able to give us a swift response .

prompt -

payment. reply, response

Prompt payment of bills is a good idea. I was happy that my le tt e r recei ved such a pro mpt reply.

br isk

wal k, pace, bus iness, effic iency

We had a brisk walk before lunch . She does everything w it h brisk efficiency.

hasty

decis ion, exit. conclusion , words

We sho uld not make a hasty d ecision; we may regret it later. He made a hasty exit when he saw his w ife enter the room.

- th ese a re mo re forma l o te a lso th ese colloca tions w it h speed : This ca r has a top speed of 180 kil ometres per hou r. [max im u m speed ] H e d rove at breakneck speed a lo ng the rnororway and was soon stopped b y the police. [ca relessly fast a nd d angerou s ]

B

S low movement and stopping It w as fasci na ti ng to see th e winn in g goal aga in in slow motion. We w ere stuck in slow-moving traffic for a n hou r o n o u r w a y to th e airport. A fter th e accident th e t ra ffic slowed to a crawl a nd th en finally came to a sta ndstill . H e a lways d o es every t hi ng in an u nh u rried manner . [slo w; im p lies s light criticism I We got up late and had a leisurel y b reak fast . [done in a rel a xed w a y, without hu rrying ] I'm trying to learn th e vio lin, b u t m y p ro gress is painfully slow.

C

C ha nges in s pee d, m o vement and direction As it left t he c ity, th e t rain ga there d/p icked up speed a nd hea ded north . We took a shortc u t through a narrow side-st ree t a nd saved o urse lves a I S-min ute wa lk . Several ro ads were closed, so we ha d to make/ ta ke a detour. [a di fferent o r in direct route] I lost m y b a lan ce a nd fell o ff m y bike. I lo st m y fo otin g a nd fell down th e bank into th e ri ver. I tried to steer th e co nvers a tio n awa y from m y terrible exa m results. [ch ange th e subject] She to ok a few ste ps towards the bus, th en changed her m ind and d ecid ed not to go after all. I turned my bike upside d own and tri ed to repair it. One of th e pa ckages I posted w ent ast ray and never arri ved . [got lo st]

98

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 47. 1

Look at A. Choose th e correct coll o cati on. I 2 3 4

S 6 7 S

47 .2

J o e gave Lyn ne a speedy I fast I quick glance to see if she was O K. If yo u co me to a hasty I prom pt I bris k d eci sion, it m a y w ell be th e wrong o ne . I m a rk ed m y e- mai l as urgent so I hope I ge t a brisk I p rompt I rapid response. The m issile a ttac ks provoked a fast I swift I hasty rea cti o n fro m th e o t he r side. There has been a fast I rapid I quick inc rease in th e number of to urists visiting the city since th e m useu m was ope ned . Lu ke has a pa ssion fo r quick I swift I fast ca rs . I'm g la d to say th at business has been very brisk I prompt I sw ift a ll m orning . I thi nk I' d bette r b ri ng th e m eeti ng to a brisk I speedy I fast conclusion no w, as we are running o ut of tim e.

Fill in the mi ssing words in this paragraph about a da y out.

Last Saturday we put our bikes on the train and had a lovely day out. At first the train moved along slowly, up speed and after about an hour we but as we reached more open countryside it soon (1) p had reached our destination, a small town at the foot of the mountains. We took our bikes and got off the train. We were surprised to find a lot of slow-(2) m traffic in the town and indeed after a few minutes the traffic actually came to a (3) s There was a festival on in the main square. Fortunately, as we were on bikes we were able to (4) m a detour through some back lanes. Eventually we were on a steep road leading to the mountains. I'm not as fit as I should be and cycling uphill was (5) p slow but it was worth it. Near the top we got off our bikes and had a (6) I picnic, enjoying the magnificent views. After lunch, I got up and (7) t... a couple of steps back to take some photos. I (8) I my footing and fell. Fortunately, I didn't hurt my balance and fell off myself. Cycling downhill was much easier, though at one point I (9) I a shortcut my bike. We had a drink at a cafe in the valley beside a little river. We then (1 0) l.. across a field and got back to the station in time for the train home.

47.3

Correct the collocation errors in these sentences. I 2 3 4

S 6 7 S 9

Let's ta ke th e speedy train to Par is even t hough it's more expensive. Jack d id his bes t to drive the conversa tion away from the topic of work . If yo u take th e clo ck u psid e down, you mi gh t find the maker's name on the bottom . You could onl y be su re whi ch runn er had w on th e race by watching the film of the finish in slow mo vement. I poste d yo ur bi rt hday present in plenty of time. I hope it won't ge t ast ray. Let's ha ve a rapid lunch a nd th en ge t ba ck to work as soo n as possible. C ha rl ie a lways d oes every t h ing in a n unhurryin g m ann er. The car w a s tra velling at neck break speed th rough th e residential st ree ts . She bought a moto r bi ke w ith a peak speed of a lmost 200 kilo m etres pe r hour. English Collocatio ns in Use

99


48

Change Ways of talking about change Small changes I made a few adjustments to the gears and my bike works much better now. We ' ve ha d to make a slight alteration to our p lans fo r the eveni ng. We' ve made a few modifications to th e software so th at it s ui ts o u r syste ms be tte r. We've d ec id ed to adopt a new approach to the pa rking problem. I' ve lost some weigh t - I need to have some of my clothes altered.

M a jo r cha nges It is often much more difficu lt than you' d expect to break a habit. The organisation helps alcoholics who want to kick the hab it. [informa l] The Internet has revolutio nised th e wa y people d o research. He r grandpa re nts converted to Christianity in the last centu ry. Yo ga has the power to transform the way we fee l. [make a posi tive change]

B

Other collocations with change collocation

example

change places!seats

W o uld you like to change places!seats w ith me - t he n yo u can sit next to your fr iend.

change jo bs!scho ols! doctors, but move house

Jac k is going to change jobs next year so they'll have to move house and the ch ildren will have to change schools.

N OT ~house

change you r mind

Harry is plann ing to study law at un iversity but he may change h is m ind.

change the su bject

Whenever Fiona talks about marriage, Bill changes the subject.

change the beds

I'll get some clean sheets and we'll change the beds.

change th e baby

It's your t urn to change the baby - there's a pac ket of nappies upstairs.

change your clothes

Do you want to change your clothes before we go out?

ote th at exchange cannot be used in any of the collocations in the box. You excha nge m on ey (fro m o ne c urrency to another), exchange addresses (w hen peo ple give each other details of wh ere th ey live), exchange ideas (w he n people sha re th eir th oughts a bo ut something).

C

Some error warnings H ere a re some collo ca t io ns relatin g to th e th eme of c ha nge wh ich seem to ca use particular p ro blems, so note th em carefull y. Some new jobs wi ll become available soon . ( OT ~ ) I'm sure Geo rge w ill become successful o ne day. ( OT ~) T he sta ndard o f livin g is risi ng stea d ily / is improving. ( OT int?ft!tlsing or grow ing ) In terest in old cars has grown considerably over the last few years. ( OT has inCf t! tlst!tl ) T here's been a big improvement in your performance th is year. ( OT iIlCfCtlSC ) A number of prob lems arose du ring th e jo u rney. (N O T tlppt!llfCtl ) Something rises. fo r example, prices rise, profits rise, the sun rises. But you raise something.You raise (N OT t'i5e) your hand , the go vernment raises (N OT f'l5e!l) taxes, and du ring a mee ting yo u sometimes raise (N O T t'i5e) a question.

I00

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 48.1

C omplete the collocations in these work e-mails between Chris and Elaine. r H i Elaine, I've (1) a couple of modifications to the schedule for the sales conference. 1 knowwe've always done it the same old way, but I think we should (2) the habit this year and try a new format. See the attachment. What do you think? Chris

Chris, I'm worried about these changes, especially losing the coffee break. Lots of us are addicted to our coffee break and couldn't kick the (3) if we tried. I'm sure if you just (4) a few minor adjustments or a (5) alteration to the timetable hereand there it would be fine, but big changes like this will be unpopular! Elaine

18 0 0 Hi again Elaine, Thanks for your comments. I wasn't trying to revolutionise the (6) we do things, but I do think we should (7) a new approach. The sales conference is serious work, not an excuse for time off. But let's think about it. Chris

48 .2

\Vh a t wou ld yo u sa y? Use collocations with change from B opposit e.

2

3

4

S

6

48.3

A frien d sta rts to talk a bo ut so me thi ng unpl ea sant and yo u wou ld prefer to talk about something e lse. . YO U: I'd rathe r not tal k a bo ut t ha t. Let 's You a re on a train , s itt ing next to th e w indow. A pa rent and chi ld ge t on and the child s its next to yo u. O ffe r th e child your w indo w sea t. YOU: Wo u ld you lik e ? Yo u o rder somethi ng in a resta ura nt but immediately wish you had ordered something d ifferent. You ca ll th e wai te r back . YO U: So rry, I' ve Can I ha ve fish instead? A fr iend says she ha tes her job an d is bored wi th it. Suggest she gets a new one. YO U: H a ve you though t a bou t ? You a nd a fri end a re w earing sma rt cl othes a nd are about to do a messy, dirty job. Sugge st yo u put di fferent cl othes o n . before we YO U: It's going to be messy. I th in k we should start. You ha ve three g ues ts com ing to stay. Suggest to yo u r houserna re that you shou ld put new sheets o n th e g ues t bed s. . YO U: They're a rrivi ng this evening. We should

C hoose the correct collocatio n. The sta nda rd o f living has groton / risen / increased in th e last ten years. We changed / exchanged / passed some interesting ideas with our colleagues in the USA . Tom a nd J o a re changing / transferring / m oving house to be nearer jos elderl y parents. The new m odel of th is com p ute r w ill become / get / make ava ilable in September. At the end o f the presentation w e co u ld raise / rise / arise a ny iss ues that we wanted to d iscu ss. 6 The firm got / made / became very successful, but then problems appeared / arrived / arose. 1 2 3 4 S

English Collocotions in Use

I0 I


V+lays of speaking W edd ing s peech \'Vhen ever I m a ke a speech I always try to get to the poi nt a s quickl y as possible. I could tell a lot o f sto ries a bo ut Jim, my best friend since chi ld hood , but I don 't want to em ba rrass him, so I w on't. Also, before th e w edding, I gave him m y w ord that I w ouldn't crack an y jo kes, a s I'm reall y bad at telling jokes. So I'll do no m ore than w ish Jim a nd Sandra lu ck and hope th ey ha ve a long and happy life together.

B

B us ine s s conversati on Da vid, I w onder if I co u ld ha ve a brief chat w ith yo u a bo ut o u r new sec re tary? M m. Yes. I had a quick word w it h Lorna a bo u t it yes te rday; she said th ere ha ve been problems. Pau la: Co uld we talk no w? I kn ow it 's a delicate subject b ut I d o n't th ink w e need to m ake it a lengthy d iscu ssio n w ith everyo ne in vol ved. Da vid : Well, a ctuall y, I'm rath er g la d you raised the subject . Yes, let's talk. Paula: \'Vell , speaking off the reco rd I, every tim e yo u give her instructions, she never seem to understand, a nd if yo u challe nge her d irectl y s he ju st p lea ds ignoran ce'. The o the r secre ta ries are complaining bitterly th at th ey end u p d oing her w ork. One of th em drop ped a hint th at s he m ight resign if noth ing is d one a bo u t it . I cou ld tell by th e tone of her vo ice that s he w a s se rio us . Da vid: Oh d ear. Oh w ell, I'll have a word w ith her a nd make it clear t hat she has to im prove or w e ma y ha ve to ask her to leave. Paul a: Thanks, D a vid . An ywa y, let's cha nge th e subject. H ow's th e sa les plan going? Da vid: Oh, not ba d, but I ha ve to te ll yo u the truth, I' ve been ve ry bu sy with o the r th ings latel y. In fact I was go ing to as k yo u a favo ur .. . Pa ul a: I k now w ha t yo u' re a bout to say ! D o n't wo rry, I'll help yo u wi th it. I sa ying so mething yo u do not want to be publicl y rep orted 2 says she does not kn ow a bo ut so mething Paul a: Da vid :

c

P roblem page Dear Aunt Gleda, I find ~ difficult to get into conversation with newpeople, or to join in a conversation that's already started. And even if I do talk to someone, I feel as ~ I'm boring them. I like meeting people and I want to be able to get to know them and notjust make polite conversation. What can I do? Nora Peepoutova

DearAunt Gleda, A friend of mine made an interesting observation the other day: she said I always address people too politely and I apologise too profusely if I do something wrong. Why am I like this? Why can't I relax and be informal? AI Loof

Dear Aunt Gleda, I was at a party recently and I heard my friend Margie strike up I a conversation with a handsome man sitting next to her. Then, after a while, during a lull 2 in the conversation, I heard her whisper softly to him that she was not married. She is. Why did she tell a lie? Should I have told him? Gel Luss 2

W e speak a (foreign) language.We don't say 'I can mil< Arabic/French/etc.'

I 02

English Collocations in Use

I start qui et peri od


Exercises 49.1

Replace the underlined words with a col\ocation from A. 1 2 3 4

I a lways ge t a bit nervous whenever I have to spea k in public. julia p rom ised me sh e wou ld not lea ve th e co u nt ry without info rm ing m e. I w ish Fred w ould hurry up and get to th e important part of what he's trying to say. I hope that you wil\ be s uccessful in your new job. S After dinner everyo ne sa t a round s ha ri ng funn y sto ries .

49.2

Correct the col\ocation errors in these sentences. 1 2 3 4 S

6 7 S

49.3

You can borro w m y camera - 1'1\ m ak e you ins t ruc tions abo u t ho w to use it. I cou ld say yo u a lot of sto ries a bo ut what w e used to d o w hen w e were k id s. T ha t's eno ug h a bo ut co m p u te rs . I think it's time w e moved th e s u b ject, d on 't yo u ? On th e train I hit up a conversa tio n with an interesting man fro m japan. I can't talk japanese. I'm afra id I reall y d on 't ha ve ti me for a large discussion on the matter. The US President George Wash ington is famous fo r confessing afte r saying a lie. I do n't lik e yo u r note of voice - there's no need to be so aggressive.

Complete this e-mail.

.9 1 Hi. Jim. before the meeting this aftemoon? I'd like to have Any chance we could have a brief (1) word with you about the third item on the agenda. I want to (3) you a (2) a favour. It's rather a (4) subject. so I won't put anything in writing just now. And when we do get together. I'll be speaking strictly off the (5) ..................................â&#x20AC;˘ of course. I'll (6) . everything clearwhen we meet- so look forward to (7) a word with you soon. See you soon. Bob

49.4

----~

Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the box. bitterly politely

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 S 9 10 11 12

conversation profusely

enough hints ignorance in the conversation softly the conversation the subject the truth

I hope yo u wil\ always tel\ m e . I wish yo u had never raised . . I hope s he ' Il ge t th e point if I drop You can usu all y rely o n j a ck to m ak e so me inte res ti ng I d on't bel ieve Geo rge when he pleads _. I was too s hy to join in . When he a rrived late he apol o gi sed . When I give my students a lot of homework, th ey always com p la in It d o esn 't so u nd quite natural to a d d ress yo ur fel\ ow stu dents so ' I lo ve you,' he wh ispered to her .. . 1'1\ try to a ttract his a ttentio n during a lul\ It's not a lw ays ea sy m aking polite .

observations

.

English Collocations ;n Use

. .

103


Ways of walking A

Key walking collo cations Ca t hy a lways preferred to go places on foot ra t he r t ha n dri ving. Sh e lo ved goi ng for a walk in th e p a rk in th e ea rly m o rn ing. There were always a s urprisi ng nu m ber of p eo p le around. Some were takin g a stroll with the ir d ogs, w hi le more e ne rgetic people chose to go jogging. Ca t hy lik ed going r unning too, b ut she p referred to go for a ru n in th e eve ni ngs. In the m orning s he lik ed a brisk walk. Toda y she w a s s urprise d to see a man pacing up a nd down beside the lak e. H e w a s taki ng long steps as if he w a s m easuring th e length o f th e lak e. Ca thy was pu zzled b ut th ough t little mo re of it at th e t ime.

B

c

A dje ctive s and adverbs associated with walking collocation

example

comment

an easy / a gentle walk

It's an easy walk into town from here.

Gentle walk suggests going slowly; easy I walk suggests it's neither long nor difficult. 1

heavy/light steps

I could hear his heavy steps coming down the corridor.

Heavy can suggest either that the person walking is large or that they are sad. angry or tired.

a leisurely/gentle stroll

We can go fo r a leisu rely stroll around the park later.

Go for a stroll is more comm on in speech than take a stroll.

to walk briskly/ SWiftly

The nurse walked briskly over to the bed.

quickly.

to pick your way cautiously

She picked her way cautiously along the icy pavement.

= walked carefully across a dangerous or diffic ult area

to wander aimlessly I didn't know what to do so I just wandered aimlessly around town all morning.

Both wander and aimlessly suggest having no particu lar purpose.

to stride angrily/ confidently/ purpo sefully

We can also say also took confident! angry/purposeful strides. Striding suggests large steps.

The pres ident strode confidently across the room.

Use these adverbs so metimes instead of

I

Walking through life Walking colloca t io ns are o fte n used m etaph oricall y.

otice the examples in t his text.

J ack alwa ys did ve r y w ell at sc hoo l. H e walked ' eve ry exa m he eve r we nt in fo r. H is teachers used to ca ll him a w alking e ncyclo p aed ia . It wa s o n ly when he left scho ol th at he began to run into problems. H e cou ldn't decide what job to c hoose. Man y differen t wa lks o f life appealed to h im . He didn't want to r ush h eadl ong in to? so met hi ng th at he w ould later regret. Eventuall y he d ec id ed he m o st w anted to become a writer. The next d a y he to ok h is firs t falterin g ste ps! at writin g a no vel. Afte r o n ly a m onth o r tw o h e had made g rea t stri des" and wa s read y to tak e hi s bo ok to a pu bli shin g house. It w a s here th at he ran up again st some opposition. He see m ed to get o ff o n t he w rong foo t! with th e publish ers, who didn 't like him and turned hi s book down . The y're sor ry now! A se co nd publishe r a cce p te d h is n o vel and it 's al read y a best-sell er worl d- w ide. I pa ssed very easily (info rma l) 2 sta rt d oing so met hi ng too quickly 3 not very con fide nt ste ps . You ca n a lso ta lk a bout careful/te n tative steps when someone is d oing so met h ing wh ich th ey a re not con fide nt a bout. 4 made g re at progress S make a bad sta rt to a relationship

I 04

English Collocations in Use

i


E.xercises 50. 1

Choose the correct collocations in these holiday postcard messages. f-/[ CI1aoiotte.

FaVl.tasHc weatl1e,路 I1e.e. we've ~eeV\.

Vl<agiV\.O ICloiV\.O loettiV\.O fe路 lo""9 walles eve'1:1 ~atl a~ 芦SL<alltl VI<Q~e /walg a~e a styoU alo~ tl1e ~eacl1 eve'1:1 eve",""9 too. lOveV\. Bill I1a'Utoo~/PL<t a few steps al0""9 tl1e ~eacl1 tleste~al:} a~ tl0L< ~"CW I10w laztl I1e is '

see tj0t.( sooV\,. c;e"1:1

50.2

Read the sentences in th e box, th en say if the sta tem ents below are tru e o r fal se. If fa lse, sa y w hy. Polly strode confidently into the boss's office and asked for a pay rise. Mick just wandered aimle ssly round the shops. Jad e picked her way caut io usly across the muddy field . Har ry walked briskly towards the exit. Karen took a leisurely stroll through the park.

2 3 4 5

50.3

Complete B's responses u sin g the words in brackets to make su ita b le collocations.

2 3 4 5

6

50.4

Ja de m o ved quic kly a nd c hee rfu lly. T RUE / FALSE Ka ren wa lked nervously and quite quickly. T RUE / FAl.SE Poll y w al ked qu ite q uick ly. T RUE / FAl.SE Mick wa lked w itho u t any real purpose. T RUE / FAl.SE H arry w alked fairl y slo w ly. T RUE / FALSE

A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Is everyth ing going OK? 0 , I' m afraid we've some pro blems. ( RU ) Is Da vid m a k ing pro g ress w it h his ma rh s? Yes, he 's m aking (ST RIDE) Did Ed pass his exa m ? ( WAl.K) Yes, he sim p ly W hat so rts of people play golf ? Is it ju st rich people? 0, no t a t all. There are peo p le from all ( WALK) So J ames is not taking lip M ark's offe r of sta rt ing a b usiness togethe r? \Vell , he sa id he needs time to t hin k. He d o esn 't want to into it. ( H EAD l.O G ) A: Is th e to w n ce ntre fa r fro m here ? B: 0, it 's o n ly ten minutes. It's ( WALK)

.

Look up the word run in yo u r dictionary. Make a note of three o r four colloca tio ns . English Collocations in Use

I05


Starting and fin ishing S t a r t ing

PROMISING START FOR AMBROSE Sally Ambrose, Britain's best hope in this ye a r's Eurotenni s tourn ament, m ad e a promisin g sta rt when she w on her first match today against Sweden's Ulla Hernvik .

A BSOLUT E BEGINNERS MAKE BEST LANGUAGE LEA RNERS Research shows that absolute beg in ners have a better chance of learn ing a language well tha n those who start wi t h some knowledge.

B

---------

Many people have decided to make an early start to the bank holiday weekend. Traffic was a lready building up on major rn ot o rw a ys on Th ursday evening. ARTS FESTIVAL GETS OFF TO A GOOD START I

T he G lasgow A rts Fe st iva l got off to a good start this we e k, attracting more than I20 ,000 visitors during its first three days.

F inishing

CLOSE FINISH IN SPANISH RALLY Pedro Macarro emerged thewinner of today's Spanish Grand Prix in a very close finish. Macarro wasjust0.5 seconds ahead of Finland's Pekka Hirvonen.

NEW CONSTITUTION C

EARLYSTART TO HOLIDAY

Ministers met today to put the finishing touches to a new constitution fo r the European Union .

TREATY BRINGS C IVIL WAR TO AN E N D The 12- ye a r civi l war in Collocania was fina lly b r ough t to an end yesterday when t he two sides signed a peace treaty.

ROUX JUST WINS Claude Ro ux won the championship yesterday in a nail-biting finish.

More collocations for starting a n d fin ishing The inv ention o f television m arked th e beginning of th e end for popul ar ra dio shows . I stu d ied hard for a w ho le m onth a nd th e end result was th at I got a grade 'N in the exam. The m eal we had o n o u r last eve n ing in Ist an bul w as a perfect end to ou r ho lid a y. It's two o'clock. Let's make a sta rt / ge t sta rted, sha ll w e? Then w e can fini sh b y five . As m y tim e at u niv ersity came to an end, I knew I had to sta rt looking for a job. The meeting d rew to a close a t 5 .3 0, after a long di scu ssion. Without a ny w arn ing, he w as fired from th e newspaper in 2004 . It was an abrupt end to his career in jo u rna lism. We say th at a holiday/journeyltrip/meal e n ded . NOT

I06

English Collocations in Use

li"i5"e~.


Exercises S 1.1

What are the opposites of the underlined phrases in th ese sen te nces? 1 2 3 4

S 1.2

Correct the co llocation errors in these se ntences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

S 1.3

\Ve can make a late sta rt tom orrow if yo u like. The competition has got off to a di sappointin l! start as far as t he British are concerned . Meeti ng j osh on the beach on the last d a y was a horri ble en d to m y holida y! The m eeti ng ca me to a n unsa t isfa cto ry close.

It w as suc h a near fini sh t ha t no o ne w as quite su re wh o had w on . I' ve ju st got to put th e end ing touches to m y painting a nd th en you can see it. I ex pect the m eeting w ill go to a n en d a t a bo ut 5.30. Eve ryone is here, so I th ink we sho u ld d o a sta rt no w. We a ll hope th at th e negotiati ons wi ll succeed in ta k ing th e st rike to an end . E-mail ma rke d th e sta rt of th e end fo r th e fax mac hi ne . O u r jo u rney finis he d - as it had begun - in Cairo. H a ve yo u heard ye t what th e finish result o f the talks w as ?

Put the words in o rder to make sentences. 1 m eeting / I / will soo n / cl ose / a / hope / draw / th e / to 2 Town Hall / exce llent reception / The co n fere nce / good / got / with / in / o ff / a / sta rt / to / a n / th e 3 didn 't / As / kn o w / a sing le w ord / begin ne rs' / Dan / w a s put / class / he / j apan ese / absolute / an / o f / in 4 as a politicia n / The / e nd / sca nda l/ jackso n's / b rought / ab rupt / to / career/ a n 5 wo n / nail -biting / a / Lance Armstrong / fin ish / cycle / th e / ra ce / in

S I .4

Match the questions on the left with the responses on th e right.

x

Do yo u think we sho uld get sta rted soon? 2

Did you already know so me French w hen you started you r course?

1:< \Vas th e race exciting?

I was looking forward to university.

)

~ Did you en joy th e o pe ra la st night? )

I

it 's a complete m yst ery to m e. )

0,

\Vere yo u sa d when yo u r scho o l da ys cam e to an e nd ?

Do yo u know wh y th eir relationship came to such a n a b ru pt end?

0 ,

.s:< Yes, mo st people are here now.

)

~

)

0 ,

I w a s an absol ute begi n ner.

~ Yes, th e finis h was nai l-bi ti ng!

)

Yes, it made the perfect end to a lo vely d a y.

Look up the words begin. start. end and finish in a good learner's dictionary and note down any other interesting collocations that you find there.

English Collocations in Use

I07


Talking about success and failure A

Suc cess Notice th e collo ca tio ns fo r tal k ing a bou t success in this sc hoo lboy's end-o f-te rm report.

SCHOOL REPORT James Turner

B

MATHS:

James has made a breakthrough in his maths this year, doing excellent work in comparison with last year. A remarkable achievement.

ENGLISH:

Th is year has seen a dramatic im p rove m e nt in James's Eng lish . His crowning achievement was his performance in the school prod uct ion of Othello .

FRENCH:

James has an excellent grasp of French. This will come in useful for the school trip to France next year, and we hope he will take advantage of the opportunities to speak French there.

SCIENCE:

James has done very well this year, passing h is exams without any problem s. If he continues to work hard, his success next year is guaranteed.

GEOGRAPHY:

James has made good progress with his geography this year, gaining good marks in the end -of-year exam.

HISTORY:

James's history project was a great success. His use of or iginal sources was highly effective. He makes useful contributions in class and has the ability to explain difficult ideas clearly to less able pupils.

ART:

James found some effective ways of working with natural materia ls this year and his se lf-portrait was a brilliant success.

SPO RT:

James has been training hard and , as a member of the First Football Team , is now able to enjoy the frui ts of hi s hard work. Playing for the school has certainly brought out the best in him and he has rightly won the respect of all his team -mates.

Failure Notic e th e coll ocati ons re la ting to fai lu re in t hese ex tracts fr om a newspaper called Today' s

Bad Nellis. Unfortuna tely th e peace talks no w see m likely to fai l m iserabl y. [be tota lly unsuccessful) Although a lot o f m o ney was in vested in the film it has proved to be a spectacular fa ilure. [extre me ly unsucc essful] O'C onno r's firs t pl a y w a s a grea t success but his second pl a y flo p ped. [failed to attract a udiences) Hopes that th e pl a y wo u ld en joy a long run in London were d ash ed . [hopes ha ve had to be aband o ned] Un fo rtu na te ly, more pupils th an ever a re sa id to be failin g th eir final exam s. The m ou nta in eer 's a ttem pt to cl im b Mr Eve res t w ent badly wrong. Eve ryo ne agrees that th e peace talks a re d oomed to failure. [a re ce rtain to fai l] H opes w e re ini tia lly high for th e new project bu t it has p roved to be a di smal fai lure. [a to ta l fa ilure] A co u ple of m a jor compa nies in th e a rea wen t o u t o f busin ess la st month . [stopped doing business] I think th e new plans for c utt ing ra ilw a y costs are a recipe for di sa st er. [wi ll ce rtai nly lea d to m a jor p robl ems) At the last m oment the Olym pi c sk i jum pe r lost hi s nerve a nd did not ta ke part in the co m pe ti tion . [was not bra ve eno ug h ) The Presid ent's speech was di sappo in ting as it tota lly mi ssed the p oint. [fa iled to unders tand w ha t is rea lly important ) I 08

English Collocations in

Use


Exercises 52.1

Look at A. Complete th ese sp eeches congratulatin g people on various types of success. Over th e years, H enry ha s ( I ) th e respect o f his colleagues, a nd no w, as he of his m a n y yea rs of ha rd work. retires, we all hope he can enjoy the (2) H is ca reer has been a (3) success, and he has (4) an ~ eno rmous co ntri bu tio n to our professio n . Thank you fro m a ll of us. . ~ '--,=c--- -- -- - - - -- - - - - - -- -- -- -- - -- ------''.h'L/. ,\):$ ','"1 iJ

-

~ .

As H ead Tea cher I am proud to say th e sc hoo l has had a g rea t yea r. 87 % of studen ts (5) th eir exa ms w ith g ra des B or high er, w hi le th e good o r ve ry good ma rks. T he sc hoo l rug b y tea m has re maining 13 % (6) d one we ll; its (7) ac hievement w as winn in g th e reg io na l c ha m pions h ip fo r the third yea r ru n ning. We believe th at G a rfh a m Schoo l (8) o ur th e best in o u r boys a nd gi rls, an d th is yea r is no exceptio n. \Vell done eve ryone ! O ur resea rch team ha s (9 ) a b reak through th is year, and I th in k w e can say th e success o f th e proj ect is now ( 10) It has bee n a ( 1 1) . achievement. \Ve must now ( 12) adva ntage of the excellent progress we ha ve (13) a nd find m ore (14) ways of persuading th e public of th e impo rtance o f o u r wo rk . I kn ow we ( 15 ) the a bi lity to d o this s uccessfully, but w e sha ll need a ll yo ur sup po rt in th is.

I a m d elighted to present o u r annua l school Language prize to Tom Lin ton. To m no w has an excellent ( 16 ) of five major languages, which w ill ce rta in ly (17) in useful as he p la ns to w o rk abroad . Tom was not always a brilliant language learner, bur his w ork s howed a ( 18) . imp ro vement last year, a nd his success has co nti n ue d . \Vell done, To m.

52.2

Ma tc h the beginning of each sen tence on the left with its end ing o n th e right. lO ur p lans went 2 My hopes were 3 After the horse threw me I lost 4 T he scheme is doomed 5 H e faile d his 6 Our political campaign failed 7 H is plans are a recipe for 8 A year la te r he went o ur of 9 She see med to m iss th e 10 H is la test novel was a

52.3

miserably. to failure . complete flop. disaster. b usiness. point completel y. badly wrong. dashed when I heard th e news. final exams. my nerve and couldn't get back o n .

Correct the six collocation errors in this text. I was always a dismal fail at school. I completely passed the point of maths and I failed sadly at most other subjects. Only the drama teacher managed to bring off the best in me and gave me a part in the school play. However, I lost my courage on the day of the performance and my hopes of a career on the stage were smashed. English Collocations in Use

I 09


Talking about cause and e ffect D iffe r e n t ' ca u se ' ve r b s

B

C

topic

verb

examples

negative events. situations and feelings

cause

The storm cause d chaos / havoc / a lot of damage. Her remarks c au sed alarm/concern. Her son's behaviour caused her great anxiety / a lot of embarrassment.

positive and negative changes

bring about

The discovery of X-rays brought about a revolution/ transformation in medical science. The events brought about the downfall/collapse of the gove mment.

positive and negative situations and feel ings

create

His book helped create awareness of inne r-city poverty. Your presence on the committee is creating problems for all of us.

sudden,often negative , events

spark off

The an nouncement sparked off riots/demonstrations in the cities. His w ife 's absence sparked off rumours in the media.

reactions from people

attract

His bo ok has attracted a lot of criticism/interest. T he char ity appeal attracted support from a w ide range of peop le.

resu lts an d effe cts

produce

My com me nts produced the opposite effect t o wh at I intended. His research has not yet produced any resu lts, but we must wait.

J

Causes and effe cts The immediate cause of the problem was an oil leak.

The underlying cause of the pro ble m was a lack of funds over many yea rs .

The government hopes to reduce/min imise the impact of the new taxes.

The support she got from the Pr ime Minister strengthened/increased the impact of her re port

The new measures had an unexpected/ unforeseen outcome.

The new tax led to the predictable/inevitabl e outcome that many people became poorer.

The positive/beneficial effects of the changes were soon apparent.

The negative/adverse effects of the changes were not noticed imme diate ly.

The crisis was the d irect/inevitable result of bad economic planning.

One indirect/unforeseen result of the new laws has been a r ise in unemployment.

Common expressions fo r everyday events The bo ok caused a n uproa r in th e Uni te d States. [m ade a lot of people com plain a ngrily I If yo u m ake him a ng ry, yo u' ll ha ve to su ffe r th e co nsequences. The a ccident had a huge effec t o n her life. Latino singers ha ve had a m a jo r impa ct o n pop music this yea r. Remem ber that it makes/creates a bad im p ress io n if yo u' re late. T he drug companies have a lot of influen ce o n doctors. T heir lo ve affai r caused a sens a tio n. To a ffect means 't o have an influence on someone/something, or to cause them to change'. (Her death affected everyone deeply.) To effea means 't o achieve someth ing / make something happen'. 0Ne are trying to effect a change in the way people th ink about their diet.) The noun effea(s) re fers to the result(s) of something. (His stressful life has had an effect on his health.)

I I0

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 53 .1

C o m p lete each sentence with a verb fro m A. Use eac h ve rb once onl y. 1 2 3 4

The film ha s a lot of c rit icis m , both posit ive a nd nega tive. The ex t ra w o rk Olga's had to d o has her a lo t o f st ress. The ex pe riment d idn't th e resu lts w e'd expected . Da vid Lin e w rote a n excellent a rticle o n th e facto rs th at .. colla pse of th e Soviet Union . 5 The rise in th e price of fu el ha s .. a series of protests.

53.2

t he

C hoose th e co rrect collocati on. I've just been reading the very interesting biography of Rhoda legge, an early star of silent f ilms. She isn 't generally well -known now but she caused a(n) (1) im p ression' sensation ' outcome in the 1920s when she had an affa ir with a m inor member of a European royal family. Th is turned out to have a (2) m ajor ' principal ' chie f im pact on her career. At f irst she was ve ry d istressed by the (3) effect ' in fluence' uproar it caused in the p ress. However, u lt imately, she did not suffer the negative (4) results ' consequences ' outcomes she initially feared. On the contrary, the affair had an (5) unpredicted I unknown ' unexpected outcome. Th e (6) good ' advantageous ' positive effects of the affa ir soo n began to make themselves felt as she began to be offered all sorts of interesting new roles. The affair (7) affected ' effected' infected the way people thought about her. The re lationship d id n ot last more than a few months but it (8) produced ' attracted' caused a sensation that (9) had' did' got a huge impact on her movie career.

53.3

C hoose an end ing from th e b o x to com plete each sen te nce bel o w. some changes in the way the college is structured. the development of personality very deeply. the impact of the tragedy on our children. result of the huge tax rises. a considerable influe nce on his choice of career.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I

cause of the fire was. the impact of the ne w measu re s. results wh ich no one could have predicted. a good impression at a jo b interview. ca uses of crime.

The enq uiry a ims to esta blish wha t th e im m ed ia te H enry's g ran dmot he r had T he cha nges had some un foreseen C rit ic ising yo u r p rev io us boss doesn't c rea te We must d o a ll w e can to mini m ise What happen s in chi ld hood a ffec ts Mana ge ment is tryin g to effect T he TV coverage th ey ha ve received has st re ngthe ne d T he gove rn me nt sho uld d o so me t hing a bou t th e u nde rlyi ng The riots w ere an inevi ta b le

look up the words influence. effect. impact and consequence in a good learner's dictionary. Make a note of any other inte resting collocations that you find .

English Collocations in Use

III


Remembering and sensing A

Remembering mice a ll the m emory colloca tions in th is d ial og ue be tween tw o o ld sc hool frie nds. I sa w Terry la st nig ht. Do yo u remember her? We w ere a t sc hoo l together. 0 , m y long-term memo ry ' is terrible th ese da ys. Co me to think of it, m y sho rt- term m emory? isn't th at brill iant e it he r. And I used to h a ve s uc h a good m emo r y! An yway. give m e a cl ue 3 â&#x20AC;˘ Bet h: She was t he one wi th long black ha ir an d g lasses. You a lways used to say th at she reminded you st ro ngly of th at si nger you u sed to lik e . Tom : O h, yes . I vaguely remember her now. She used to be friends w ith j o , d idn 't she? Beth : Yes. I'd clean fo rgo t te n" a bo u t her to o. She ran o ve r to me in th e st reet a nd said hell o . M y m ind wen t blank", I co u ld remem ber h er fa ce but I' d com p letely forgotten her n am e. But o nce w e sta rted talking, the memo ries ca me floodi ng back", M y earlies t memory o f her is th at we a ll w ent to th e beach w it h h er parents one weeke nd w hen we w ere a bou t 12. Tom : O h yes . ow yo u ' re sti rring u p memories? fo r m e . I can d istin ctl y rem ember bei ng stu ng by a je lly fish in th e water. Bet h: I ca n see wh y yo u wanted to bl ot out th at m crnory''! Tom : I ca n viv id ly remember it n ow th ough. Actuall y, th e wh ol e w eekend was a n un forgettable experience. We to ld g host sto ries all n ight if I re member rightly. Beth : O h yes , th at's r ight. ow I remember it w ell . It 's terribl e how m emo r ies fade? as time pa sses, isn't it! Mind yo u, I'm happ y to lo se some o f m y m o re p a in ful memories o f sc hoo l. , memo ry o f what happen ed a lo ng ti me ago 6 lots of memories returned 2 me mory of w hat happen ed recentl y 7 making o ld me mo ries come back J informa l: tell me so me th ing more to help me 8 avoid remem bering so me thing un pleasant 9 memories ge t less clea r ~ info rmal: completely fo rgotten S I cou ldn't rem em ber a ny t hi ng Beth : Tom :

I've forgotten my homework I left it at home. NOT I've forgotten my homework at home.

B

Sensing Read th ese p robl em letters from a m a ga zine a n d notice th e collo cations rela ting to sensing. Wh e n I first m e t my ne w boss. I had/got the Impression th at he might be a d iffic u lt p e rso n to work for. I sensed some tension between us. Now I have a feelin g that he is trying to make thi ngs difficult for me. I don 't know whether I should trust my Intuition I a n d hand in my re sig na tio n . O r am I just being ridiculously over-sensitive ?

, feel co n fide nt tha t m y inst inctive feelings a re correct

For the las t few weeks I've been much more sensitive to heat and sensitive to light than I used to be. I've always had sensitive skin and sensitive teeth but this is much worse tha n ever before. My hands have also sta rte d going numb 2 if I get at all cold. I used to have an acute 3 sense of smell and acute hearing but I don't any more . 2

losing a ll feel ing

J

acute = sha rp, very good

Remember the difference between a sensitive p erson [a person who is easily up set] and a sensible person [a person w ith good judgement).

I I2

English Collocations in Use


E.xercises 54.1

These people are all talking about their memories of childhood. Use words from A opposite to complete the collocations. T he w ords in brackets give the meaning of the word you need. \X'e ll, my (first) memory is of sitti ng in o u r g a rden o n m y mot he r's lap. I inot very clea rly) remember th at the re was a ca t o r dog th ere too, b ut I ca n't remember much else. I used to ha ve a mem ory when I w a s yo ung, but I'm 82 now, a n d as yo u ge t o lde r yo ur memory (memory for things th at ha ppened long ago) is very clear, b ut yo u r memory (memory for th ings that happen ed recen tly) is less goo d . So me times I ca n 't remember wh at happened yes terday. But I can (very clearly) remember m y first d a y a t school as a ch ild.

2

3

M y mother som etimes tell s me th in gs I d id or sa id w he n I w a s little but which I' ve (to ta lly) forgotten. One emba rrassi ng memory wh ich I'd rath er _ o u t tauoid remembering) is when I took so me sc issors and cut my own hair. It looked awfu l!

4

54.2

up all kinds of memories (makes o ld m emories co me to th e surfaces for me. I wasn't ha p p y at school a nd I ha ve so me iu npleasant i memories of being forced to d o spo rts, which I hated . So me ti mes, when I hear certain songs, m emories co me ba ck (lo ts of memories returns,

Complete th e collocations connected w ith remembering. I 2 3 4

54.3

See ing sc hoolch ild re n ofte n

It was a nightmare. The m oment I looked a t t he exam paper my mind went H er na me's Lyn, a n d she worke d w ith ick a few yea rs ago, if I remember Let me see if I can remem be r where we met. Give me a .. It was a w o nd er ful trip to In d ia. It was a( n) experience.

Complete each sentence using a word from the box. int ui ti o n

I 2 3 4

S 6 7 8

54.4

. .

sensitive

numb

acute

impression

sensible

over-sensitive

sensed

Do yo u ever get the that Jane is a little mad? She says some very odd things. I a bit of tensio n be tween Mark and Pauline. I wonder if they've had a row? Usua lly I can trust my to tell me if someone is lying or not. You' re rid iculously ! You treat everything I say as a persona l attack on yo u. It was so cold and I ha d no gloves on. M y hands went as I rode my bike. H e uses a specia l face crea m a nd toot h paste as he has skin and teeth. Do gs have hea ring and smell, and are often used to resc ue disaster victims. Paul is a very pe rso n; you can trust h im n o t to do anything fooli sh .

Choose the correct collocation. I distinctly / strongly / righ tly re mem ber t hat we agreed to meet at the gym. I made / had / took the impression that you di dn 't like Molly. Yo u must wear g loves in th is cold o r you r finge rs will d o / have / go numb. I usu all y find tha t I can trust / rely / depend my intuition. S I'd ra ther stir lip / {load back / blot alit s uch unp leasant memories.

I 2 3 4

English Collocations in Use

I I3


55

Agreeing and disagreeing Verb and noun collocations

B

c

collocation

example

go along with an idea / a view

I go along w ith you r v iew that crime and poverty are linked.

be in (complete) agreement

We are in complete agreement over the question of drug abuse in athletics.

tend to agree/d isagree

I t end to agree that parents often blame teachers for problems which start with in the family.

share an opinion / a view

I share your opinion that sport is over-commercialise d.

appre ciat e someone's point of view

I appreciate your point of view, but I still think you are overstating the problem.

see someone's point [understand their opinion]

I can see your point; I've never thought of it in that way before.

enter into an argument

I'd prefer not to enter into an argument over the war in Collocania.

diffe re nce s arise/exist

Differences exist / have arisen between th e unio ns an d t he management over ho w to solve the problem.

come to / reach a co mpro mise

W e disagre e o ver what to do. but I'm sure w e can come to / reach a compromise.

settle a d ispu te / yo ur differences

T he ma nagement and th e union have finally settled their pay dispute. I'm sure we can settle our differences w ithout damaging our friendship.

agree to d iffe r [agre e to have different opinions]

I don 't th ink we w ill ever agree w it h each other. W e 'll just have to agree to differ.

Verb and adverb collocations verb

adverb

example

agree

entirely/ wholeheartedly

I entirely agree w ith you o n t he quest io n o f nuclear wast e.

agree

par tly/up to a po int

I agree up to a point. but I a lso think t he re are o t he r important factors.

disagree

fundamentally/ totally/strongly

T he two philoso phers disagreed fundamentally over the effect of the env ironment on behaviour.

Adjective and noun collocations for disputes and strong disagreements I' ve o fte n di sa greed stro ng ly with ancy but I' ve never had suc h a head -on clash w ith her before. [di sa greement wh ere two people confront each o the r directl y) The b itter disp u te between th e two g ro u ps finall y led to vio lence. We had a very heated argument about immigration th e o ther da y. J eff a nd I had a fu nda men tal di sagreement ove r wh o sho u ld be th e next C hai r of th e club.

D

Further collocations for agreeing and disagreeing T he Regional Ed uca t io n Com m ittee has reach ed a unani mo us agreemen t on a new system o f exa ms fo r seco nd a ry sc hoo ls. Controversy continues to exis t/rage ove r th e a p pointm ent o f th e new Director. A co n flict of o p in io n with in th e a rio na l Ol ympi c Asso ciation is threatening to d ela y th e bu ilding o f a new sta d iu m .

I 14

English Collocations in Use

I


Exercises 55 . 1

Look at A. Make collocations by matching words fro m th e circle o n th e left with wo rds fro m th e oval o n the right. agree

to d iffer e nte r

a p p reciate into an argument

o the rs ' points of view

see

55.2

our differences

sett le

come

sorneonc's point

Put th e ex p ress io ns fr om th e b o x into th e a p p ro priate ca tego ry belo w. a heated argument a controversy ra ge s a head-o n clash come to a co mprom ise diffe re nces exist set tle a dispute

reaching agreement

55 .3

Rewrit e ea ch sentence using th e w ord in bracket s, so th at it keeps th e same meaning. 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

55.4

disagreeing

I don't co m plete ly a g re e with what yo u say. (I'O It-.'T) I am in total agreement with you . ( El'.'TIREI.Y) There was no disagreement amon g the committee members. (u A IM O US) There will a lways be differences of o pin io n even between frien ds . (A RISE) James and Brian had a big disagreement over the qu esti on of cl ima te c ha nge. (ST RO. ' G I.Y) The project ha s been d ela yed because of the different opi nions among th e members of th e co m m ittee. (c o FI.I CT) I find it difficult to a gree with such an id ea. ( ALO G ) We a re in tota l d isagreement a bo ut m o st things. (FU ' D A ~ I ENTA I. LY )

Ans wer th ese q ues tio ns a bou t th e colloca tio ns on the opposite page. 1 2 3 4

\'Vh ic h coll ocati on sugges ts th at a di sa gree m ent is like a hig h temperature ? Wh ich two colloca t io ns sugges t that a di sa greement is lik e a fight o r a war ? Wh ich colloca tion sugges ts that con trove rsy is lik e a nge r ? Wh y d o yo u th ink th e word bitter is used to refer to quarrel s and d isputes as we ll as to ta st e? 5 \'Vhich collocation suggests th a t u nde rs ta ndi ng so rneone 's o pinion is like using yo ur eyes?

English Collocotions ;n Use

I 15


Talking about beliefs and opinions A

Spe aking abo u t b e lie fs and opinions

2

B

I firml y bel ieve th at yo u ng peo ple sho uld ha ve t he right to vote a t 16 .

I sha re yo u r opi nio n o n t he iss ue of hunting. I' m a g reat b eliever in a n ima ls' rights.

\Ve are poles apart? in o u r attitudes to life.

It 's a matter o f o p inio n w hether m en a re better drivers than w o men .

are completely differen t

Contrary to popu la r belief ' , it is nor tru e t hat blo ndes are dum b.

W/e ha ve reason to believe th at you w itnessed th e acci dent.

d isagreement

~ I' m begirming to thim

3

More form a l ways o f discussing beliefs Look a t th is ex t ract from a stu de nt essay an d no tice th e colloca tio ns referri ng to be liefs. The writer seems to make assumptions I based on an unshakeable belief in the superiority of his own value system. He seems to be unaware of the extent to which his own set of beliefs has coloured his judgement2 . His research leads him to conc lude that military action was justified. However. his evidence is based on one single document and attaches too much importance to this. I do not trust his ju dgement. Moreover, other documents cast doubt on 3 his conclusions. Opinions on the issue are div ided~ and my own cons idered opinionSis that the writer is not to be trusted. I have serious misg ivings about" his research and I have doubt s about the accuracy of some of his facts. I

2

3

C

th inks o r says things a re true w itho ut eno ug h ev ide nce a ffec te d his judgement suggest somethi ng may be w ro ng wi t h

~ S 6

people ha ve differe nt opin ions o pinion after much th ought I ha ve serio us doubts about

Som e error warn ings T he expressions in this table are collocations th a t lea rn e rs ofte n ha ve d iffic ulty w ith. collocation

comment

I hope yo u ' ll come to my party.

NOT wi5ft

They've given up hop e of any survivors.

N O T ffie hope

W e need t o thi nk har d abou t this pro blem.

NOT e6fls iElef hard - could be consider thi s problem carefu lly

I w ish they w o ul d just leave me alone.

N OT let

Many people h old the view/o pini on t hat ... H e h as stro n g opinion s on many subjects.

I I6

English Collocation s in Use

NOT

kee짜r or ~


Exercises 56. 1

Look at A. Complete the collocations in these letters to a newspaper. Sir/Madam. According to popular (4) the war between Gronbia and Karzkut started with a (5) . of opinion over how best to preserve the beautiful mountain environment on both sides of the border between them. The two countries were apparently (6) apart on how to approach the issue. and war resulted. If this is indeed true. how stupid can human beings become? Yours sincerely. B. Leaver

Sir/Madam. I (1) the opinion of yourcorrespondent that the EU has brought peace to Europe. but I cannot agree thata single currency for all of Europe is necessary. It is a (2) of opinion whether economic stability can be maintained withone currency. and there is (3) to believe thatsome European economies were more stable before they joined the euro. Yours.

A. Tory

56.2

Sir/Madam. While I (7) . believe in the rightof everyone to own a car, I am also a great (8) in keeping fit and healthy. The govemment tells us we musttake exercise. but I havea (9) suspicion that they are afraid of saying we should sell our cars because they would lose billions in road taxes. Yours. A. Sighklist

Correct the seven collocation errors in this text. I w ish w e ca n so lve a b ig p roblem w e have regard ing our stude n t co mm ittee. Op in io ns are separated about h ow t o approach the issu e and, natura lly, som e m em bers have very heavy op in ions. Some of their views a re based on the ir unstirred be lief that they a re a lw a ys right a nd that n o o ne can challenge the ir group of beliefs. My own thoughtfu l opin ion is that w e should have new elections, but I know that others have quite a different mean ing .

56.3

Match each verb in the box with its noun collocation in the table below. Then write one sen tence for each collocation. cast

colour

verb

attach

make

have

trust

noun assumptions

I 2

somebody's judgement

3 4

impo rta nce to

5

doubt on serious misgivings

6

56.4

doubts

Make seven collocations using the words in the box. Use each word once onl y. apart sneaking

cast belief believe strong suspicion

th ink doubt

firmly poles

hard opinions popular

English Collocations in Use

I I7


Deciding and choosing D e ci s io ns a nd jud geme nt s Note th e colloca tions in bol d in th ese e-rnai ls between colleagues. =-:;0-;;:-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

--

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- -

Hi Rita, Have you made a decis ion yet about the new job? It must be difficult. It's such a big decision to have to move to Londoo I and everything. I always put off making decisions till the last possible moment. I bet you're the same. I detected a slight hesitation in your last e-mail. Are you having second thoughts? Anyway, let me know. I Paul '------I

I- I

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- - --- -

-

Dear Carl, You've probably heard that the management have taken the decision to close the Madrid office. There was a lot of discussion, but apparently it was a unanimous decision in the end. There's always been a degree of uncertainty surrounding the future of the Madrid office, but let's just hope this will now be seen as a wise decision by everyone. Jane

-- -

---------

I

~"'-----

I Dear Mary, After weeks of hesitating, it seems Archie has arrived at a decis ion about the research fund. He's going to increase it by I ÂŁ10,000. I think that's a sensible decision that combines generosity and sound judgement. But he's also defending his I decision to close down the San Antonio project, which is losing a lot of money. However, he's reserving judgement on the Berlin project until he gets more reliable information. Nick

B

Choices, opportunities, advice Tim:

Laura: Tim :

La u ra :

Tim: Laura: Tim: Laura: Tim:

I I I8

I' m going to ha ve to make a choice soo n a bo ut nex t yea r. I' ve been given th e cha nce of going o n a six- month expedition to South Ame rica and I've bee n offe red a job in a bookshop here. Wow! South America! That sounds like th e opportunity o f a lifet ime! How could you say no? Well, believe it or not, I don't have a burning d esire to see the wo rld, I' d much prefer jus t to stay a t home. Anyway, I'm go ing to consider a ll the options before I d ecid e. Well , I k now you neve r take m y advice b ut I wou ld strongly advise you to t hink of t he future. Overseas ex pe rience is much more useful tha n wo rking in your home town . You're luc k y to have a choice, a lot of people stay at home because they have no option. I know, I know, but it's a tough choice. You wouldn't understand . \'<'e ll I th in k yo u're just taking th e so ft option if you c hoose the bookshop. I can't bel ieve you ' re going to pass up the opportunity of a trip to South America . Well , w e a ll face difficult choices no w a nd th en . Di fficult! You 're m ad ! Lo ok, ju st d on 't reject So uth Ame rica out of hand. Pro m ise me you' ll th ink a bou t it. Yes, yes , I a lready said I' m going to wei gh up th e options and come to a d eci sion .

Horoscopes often focus on choices and decisions in people's lives . Read horoscopes in English and note any new collocations connected w ith decisions and choices.

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 57.1

Usi ng colloca tio ns fro m sec tion A on th e opposite page, co m plete B's remarks in these conversations so that B agrees wi th w hat A says. 1 A: I sti ll d on't kno w w he t her to take the job o r not. But I'll have to d ecide soon .

B: 2 A: B: 3 A: B: 4 A: B: S A: B: 57.2

Yes, yo u ca n 't go o n pu tting th e d eci sion fo r ever. It w a s good tha t absolu te ly everyone agreed in th e en d , w a sn't it? Yes, I'm glad it w a s a deci sion. I th ink I'd prefer to w ait a n d see what happens before judg in g th e new system. Yes, I think it's best if w e a ll jud ge me nt till w e see th e resu lts. I sa id I w ould join the committee bur now I'm not so su re . Mm, it's o bvio us yo u' re ha vin g th oughts. I felt he w a s he sitating a little bit before d ec id ing , did n't yo u? Yes, I d efinitel y d etected a hesitatio n o n his part, you ' re right.

Complete each sentence usin g a word fro m th e box . degre e

come

w ise

ta ke

sound

defend

give

tough

arrive

we igh

1 She ha s a lways bee n respected for her judge me nt in fin ancial m atters. 2 Do you think it was a decision to se ll o ff the co m pa n y's Dublin branch? I think it was a mi stake. 3 I think we shou ld up th e options before d ec id ing . 4 It took t he committee a whole da y to at a decision . S There see m s to be a of uncertainty as to wh ether they will sign th e contract. 6 I don't think w e can o ur d eci sion to e xcl ude so me of the ch ild re n from th e competiti on. Everyone thinks it 's very unfa ir. 7 It w a s a c ho ice , bur we had to m ak e it, even th o ugh we hated d o ing so. S I th ink yo u sho uld you r fath er's a dvice a n d say no . 9 I wi sh so meo ne w ould m e th e c ha nce to p rove h o w good I am. 10 Ha ve you to a d eci sion yet a bo ut yo ur unive rsi ty cou rse ? 57.3

Read th ese re mar ks b y d ifferent peop le, th en a nswer th e questions. Rh oda: Zuba ya : Kim: Archie: Mabel: Ela ine :

I think I'll choose the su perma r ket job; the jo b a t the chi ldre n's ho spital seems like very hard w ork. I w ant so me t hi ng easy. I've d ecided to say no to th e o ffer to join th e co nserva tion team in Canada . I desperately w ant to see th e world; I'll tak e a ny jo b if it mea ns I can t ra ve l. I d on't want to se ll m y flat but I have n o o the r w a y o f ge tti ng m o ney. Me, w ork in a zoo ? ever, absolutely not! I'm not even prepared to co ns id e r it! I' ve been offered a job sing ing o n a cruise sh ip . It 's fanta sti c! I'll never ge t an o ffe r lik e this, eve r again . name

I Who is go ing to do so me t hing becau se they have no option !

2 Who has been given t he opportunity of a lifetime! 3 W ho wants to take the soft o pt io n! 4 Who is rejecting something out of hand! 5 Who has decided to pass up an opportunity! 6 W ho has a burn ing desire to do something! English Collocations in Use

I I9


58 A

Claiming and denying M a k ing accusations A government minist er is toda y fac ing accusations of taking b ribes. There have been hea vy h ints ' about this for some time. An a rti cle in Th e M ooll last week clearl y im plied? th at a top political figure was involved in a scandal and d ropped a number of broad h ints! as to w ho it was. A leaked document" p ub lished in roday's MOOII, however, makes a number of serio us a llega tio ns", which openl y accuse the Minister of co rruption. The Ivlinister has issu ed a sta temen t", say ing th e claims are unfounded", He claims that he has been wrongly a ccu sed by Th e M oon because of its long-running battle" with the government. 2

3 4

B

stro ng suggestio ns suggested clea rly bur indirectl y made a nu mber o f o bv io us sugge stions an officia l d oc ume nt un o fficiall y g iven to th e press

5 6

7 S

mak es serious clai ms of c rimina l behaviou r mad e a fo rma l sta te ment th e cla ims a re untrue, have no ba sis in reality an a rg ume nt th at has been going on for a lo ng ti me

P u t t ing fo rwa rd a point o f view Jones puts f o rward an in teresti ng t heory I of language learning, backing Up2 his a rg u m en t with thorough data. Fu ll y accepting the fact that different learners find different methods useful, Jones m akes the poin t ? that motivation is the key factor in most learners' success. Although this has been w idely acknow ledqed" in general terms for some time, Jones is more precise than most, statin g cl ea rly that motivation is more important than all other factors, and su bst an tiatln q! this cla im with impressive data . I 4

C

proposes a theo ry 2 suppo rt ing 3 presents a n a rgu me nt accepted by man y people s suppo rti ng

Denying collocation

example

strongly deny

T he PM strongly denied claims of co rru ptio n ma de against him.

de ny charges / an accusation

De spit e the evidence against him , t he accused denied the charges.

deny a rurnour / an allegation

The pop star has denied all the rumours about her marriage.

disclaim responsibility

T he hotel disclaims all responsibility for guests' vehicles.

reject an idea / a suggestion

Ann rejected all Joe's suggestions about how to decorate their flat.

run contrary to

The research findings run contrary to popular belief.

contradictory evidence/advice

Contradictory evidence made it hard for the jury to reach a verdict.

Note these collocations: deny/reject a clai m , deny a r u m ou r / an a llegation / an accu sation but reject an id ea / a s uggestio n and r efuse a n in vitati o n/offer.You deny/rej ect/refuse something.You d eny tha t s o methi n g is true.You can also r efu s e to do something (in the future) but deny doing som e t h in g (in the past).

I 20

English Cof/ocations in Use

I


Exercises 58.1

Complete the sentences, using collocations from A. A provided the p ress wit h informa tion abo ut the govern ment's secret plans. Manage ment has been having a wit h tra d e union representa tives over a n u mber of aspects of emp loyees' rights. I'm going to ge t m y son an iPod for his bi rthday. H e's bee n dropping ...................................................................................... abo ut wh at he w ants fo r some tim e. At the end of the th ree-d a y meeting a spokesperson wi ll _ . to in for m th e p ress abo ut any agree me nts th at ha ve bee n signed. A front-page a rticle in ro day 's pa per is m ak ing some . about th e be havio ur of some top inte rna tiona l ba n ke rs . The a rticle did not name anyone d irectl y b ut it who was involved.

2 3 4

S 6

58.2

Fill ea ch gap in this extract from a scientific article. In his latest art icle on the free market Milton King puts (1) some original theories. He (2) .. earlier ide as which up until now most economists have accepted without question. He (3) some fascinating points based on his own extensive research which is widely

58 .3

(4) as an important economic thought. The contribution to data from his research (5) _ .. up his theories and help to (6) his claim that modern economies would benefit from ma jor reforms.

R eplace the underlined words with an appropriate form of either d eny, reject o r reflise to give th e sen tences the o p posite meaning. 1 2 3 4

The politician agreed that the allegations made against him were t rue. I t hink we should accept jill's invi tation to the ir ew Year's Party, don't yo u ? H ill accepts the theories p ut forward by j a ck son. Katie ag reed that she ha d been present at the meeting. S 1 hope th ey w ill accept my o ffe r o f help.

58.4

R ewrite each sentence using the word in brackets, so th at it k eeps th e sa m e m ean in g. 1 2 3 4 S 6 7

We are not responsible fo r va luables tha t are not left in the hotel safe. ( DISCLAI:-I) The pop star insisted th at th ere was no basis to the claims made against him. (UNFOUNDED) j o nes's views d o not acco rd wi t h th e fa cts. ( RUN) The newspaper clearly suggeste d who th e acto r's new lover was. (D RO PPED) Pa ul insisted tha t w hat people w ere sayi ng abo u t hi m was u ntrue. (DENIED) Wha tever idea I suggest, j im says it is no good . ( REJECTS) I d on 't k no w w ha t to d o , as everyone keeps suggesting I do something different. (C01'o'TRADICTO RY)

8 T he stu de nt is being accused of chea ting in his exam. ( FACI ' G ) 9 In his new book the writer presents an interesting theo ry of art. (FO RWARD) 10. Recent research supports Mcintyr e 's theo ry. (up)

English Collocations in Use

121


--

-

Liking and disliking S t r o n g statements: nouns and adjectives noun

collocations

liking

I have a particular liking for quiet, relaxing music. She had a genuine liking for her cousins.

love

His great love of natu re can be seen in his paint ings. He r passionate love of the sea inspi red he r to sail round the world.

regard [formal]

I have always had the greatest regard for her. She has t he h ig h e s t regard for her teacher.

e njo yme nt

I w ill never forge t the sheer enjoyment of listening to the ch ildren singing. We get great enjoyme nt out of our little cottage in t he mountains.

pleasu re

It's been a great p le asure meeting you . I hope we meet again . It was such a huge pl e asure to be able to relax and do nothing for a week.

preference

When asked, many people expressed a clear preference for organic food . I've always had a strong preference for short stories rather than novels.

dislike

I have an intense dislike of rock music that is playe d too loud. She took an instant dislike to Mr Peabody. but she did not kno w w hy.

aversion '

He has always had a huge aversion to ha rd work of an y kind. Mo st people have a strong aversion to excessive violence on Tv.

hatred

She had a deep hatred of politicians , especially corrupt ones. The d eep-rooted hatred between the two tribes led to a bloody civil war.

, a feeling o f stro ng di slike or a lack of willingness

B

to

do something

Verbs and nouns These people are talking about thei r favo urite airlines. I think G lo be Air are pretty go o d . You can sta te yo ur p reference for a special low fat men u, or sea fo o d o r vegetarian . The y ha ve great in -flight ente rta in m ent too - th ey try to ca ter for e veryo ne 's tas tes . T hey seem to tak e pride in t he ir service. I do a lot of long-distance flying and I d on 't relis h th e th ought ' of a twelve-h our flight with no leg-room, so I usually fly with Arrow. The y g ive you a lot o f space , even in eco nom y. And th ey see m to take pl ea sure in looking after yo u . , don' t like

to

think th at it is going

to

happen

~

I think most people take offen ce? if they're just treated like a number. I ha ve no sy m pathy for airlines that lo se customers because they' re too lazy to give them a warm welco me when th ey step on board. Visa Airlines are alwa ys very friendly. 2

C

become up set becau se so meone has insulted or di srespect ed th em

O th e r useful collocations for likes a n d disli kes I like most James Bond Film s, b ut G o ldfinger is m y a bsolu te/ a ll-time fa vourite. I've a lways been a g re a t lo ver o f M o zart's operas. She's a (n) a rde nr 'zdedicared fan o f Ameri can footba ll. ['sho w ing stro ng feelings] I'm a keen admirer o f Pr esident Futral of Colloca nia . H e is suc h a st ro ng lead er. M y w ife's fath er a lways filled m e wi th admiration. H e achieved so much du ring his life. It a lways gives m e pl ea sure when I see m y c hi ld re n d o ing w ell at sc hoo l.

I 22

English Collocations in Use


Exercises 59. 1

Look at A. Rewrite each senten ce u sing the word in brackets, so that it keeps the same meamng. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S

59.2

Mark the sta tem ents with + if they are about liking and - if th ey a re about di sliking. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9

59.3

In th e su rvey most people sa id they much preferred coffee to tea. ( PREFEREN C E) Ka rl rea lly di slikes people using mobile phones in restaurants. (AVERSIO N) T he staff a ll th ink very h ig h ly of thei r managing director. (REGARD ) I' ve e no r mo us ly enjoyed ge tti ng to kn ow you. ( PLEASURE ) Suzie gen ui nely likes cowboy films. (GE NU I ' E) M y p a rents abso lu te ly d etest m o st m odern a rc hi tectu re . ( H AT RE D) We eno r mo us ly en joy o ur w eekends in th e co u ntry. (G REAT ) Rex kn ew a t once th at h e co u ld never lik e h is new secretary. (I 'STA1'.'T)

I have no sympa thy for an yone w ho ta kes such fo olish risk s . Jane Austen is my all -ti me favo urite writer. I'm a d edicated fan of Ro b in Willia m s. I don't relish the th ought o f a holiday with all m y cousins. It gives me no pleasure to have to sa y thi s to you . I ta ke p ride in d oi ng my work as neatly a s I can . I must say I rath er took offence at what she sa id to m e. I'm a great lover o f th e o pen air life. I' ve a lways been a keen admirer of e lso n M an d e la .

C h o ose th e correct co llocatio n .

I went to a new Italian restaurant last night. It claimed to (I) cater! cook ! feed for everyone's tastes. I went there with my brother.We both have a (2) large ! heavy ! strong preference for Italian food.We also both have a (3) peculiar ! special ! particular liking for sitting out-of-doors and this restaurant had a lovely garden. Unfortunately, the food did not (4) make ! give ! pass us quite so much pleasure. Although the staff gave us a very (5) warm ! hot ! boiling welcome when we arrived, they didn't seem to (6) take ! do ! make much pr ide in t heir se rv ice o r thei r cooking. I certainly don't much relish the (7) suggestion ! proposal ! thought of going there again.

59.4

Answer these questions. 1 Does it give you more p leasure to give a present o r to recei ve a present? 2 Are you mo re like ly to take an intense dislike to a person o r a place? 3 If you a re as ke d to state your pre feren ce for a window or an aisle sea t on a p lane, what d o you n ormally go for ? 4 W h ich singer is your absolu te favourite? 5 arne o ne person wh o ha s filled yo u w it h ad m ira t io n in the last five years. 6 Do yo u tak e m ore prid e in your work o r yo ur ho m e ? arne th ree people o r things that you feel grea t love for. 7 S Do yo u ge t m ore plea sure fro m read ing or from listening to m usic?

English Collocations in

Use

I23


60 A

Praising and criticising Praising Read th is review of a th eatre prod uction from a lo cal newspaper. I have nothing but prais e fo r this production of Dogs and offer my co ngra t u lat ions to all th e

cast. Th e thunderous applause a t th e end o f la st night'S performance w a s richl y deserved . The actors had managed to put on a sim ply daz zling production. James Kin g. in particular. ga ve a n o u tsta n d ing performance. Of co urse. the ca st ca n not t ake full credit fo r its su ccess; I

2

we mu st a lso wannl y congratulat e the produ cer. He has received cr it ic a l accla im' many times in the pa st. He justly deserves all th e rave reviews / he will undoubtedly receive from man y oth e rs a s well a s myself. We must also give credit III th e production 's ward robe d epartment. I a m su re they will a lso win a lot of praise for their o rigin a l a n d exciting co stumes.

enth usiastic words very enth usiastic review [info rma l)

A lso note th ese colloca t io ns re la ti ng to prai se: T he o rc hest ra received a standing ovation for th eir pe rfor ma nce of th e sy m pho ny. [the a udience lik ed th e performance so much th at th ey stood up to a p p la ud] Your boss thinks the world of yo u. H e 's a lways singing your praises to m e. [info rmal ] My pa re nts a lways used to speak well/high ly of th at journalist. H er fa t her warmly/heartily approves o f her new bo yfri end. I hope yo u w ill give yo u r blessing to th e plan. [sa y yo u w ish it we ll] Let's give the w in ner a big clap / a round of applause. You deserve a pat on the back for such excellent marks! [you deserve p rai se]

B

Criticising Whe n you are criticised yo u come in for criticism . You may respond to this criticism, you ma y co u n te r the criticism [cri ticise your critic back] or yo u may di smiss the criticism [sa y it is u nt rue o r unimportant]. A person may show hi s/her di sapproval o r ex p ress his/her di sapproval a nd th is is often done by giving a lo o k of di sapproval or wi th a frown of disapproval.

124

word

collocates with

example

criticism

harsh [strong]. constant. constructive [useful]

The play came in for some harsh crit icism.

critical

highly and sharply

The write r is sharply crit ical of our political system.

criticise

roundly [t ho ro ugh ly]. fiercely. bitterly

He was roundly criticised for his rudeness.

a critic

harsh. outspoken [critic who says exactly w hat sthe thin ks]

Actors fear him because he is such an out spoken critic.

disapprove of

strongly. thoroughly

I strongly d isapprove of smoking.

condemn

severely

The politician was severely condemned for his dishonesty.

condemnation

wholesale . universal [both mean by (alm ost) everyone]

The country 's aggressive behaviour has earned un iversal condemnation.

o bject to

strongly. strenuously [with a lot o f effort]

Local residents strenuously objected to the development plans .

English Collocations in

Use


E.xercises 60.1

Complete these extracts from TV programmes where the speakers are praisin g people. For this young violi n ist, uri a Sh ilo v, her performance ends with a (I) ovatio n a nd (2) applause. H er pl a ying has received cr it ica l (3 ) in th e last yea r in her home cou ntry, and now her tal ent ha s be en reco gn ised b y a n international audi ence. .. o w th e President o f th e a tiona l Badm into n Fed erati on (4) d eserved victory cong ratulates \Vang Shih-Ping o n his (5 ) in th is yea r's tournament. H is ski lful pla ying has (6 ) . a lot of praise from commentators, th ough he personall y refuses to (7 ) full credit for his achi evements, and (8) credit instead to his ma nager, Karla En na ise. \Vell, th e team ma nager is ecstatic and is a t this m oment ma king a sp eech (9) _ th e praises of th e capta in , Blak e Sa mson, and the rest of the team. And th ere is no d oubt that th ey ( 10 ) de serve all this praise for such a remarkable victory. So, a t th e end of th is week's q uiz, th e blue team ha ve won. Let me (I I) m y co ngra tu la tions to you a ll. You ' ll be corning back next week. And let's g ive the losers a ( 12) of applause. The red team a lso pla yed a g rea t ga me.

60.2

Circle T (T ru e) or F (Fa lse) after ea ch sta tem en t . If yo u circle F, sa y wh y. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

60.3

Put the words in order to make sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

60.4

If yo u spea k highly of someone, you praise them. T F If you have nothing but praise for someone, you do not approve of what they d o. T F If you criticise so meone ro und ly, yo u c ri ticise th em only slightly. T F If yo u heartily approve of somet hi ng, yo u are in favo ur of it. T F If yo u cou nte r cri ticism, yo u just accept it. T F If someone gives th e ir blessi ng to something, they are against it. T F If you give someone a clap, it is usua lly because you like what they have done. T F If yo u give constructive c ri ticism, yo u norm all y ha ve a positive intention . T F lot / H e / in / for / c ri tic ism / a / of / came criticis m / th e / res ponded / of / to / disapprove / ho w / I / thoroughl y / she h im / co ndem ned / lying / for / seve re ly / judge / The d isapp roval /m y / be haviour / of / wa nt / I / express / to / her o utspo ke n / were / bu t / dismissed / c ri tics / he / The / criticisms / their com men ts / co ndem nation / Hi s / uni versal /rece ived objected / pl an / We / a nd / st re n uo us ly / th e / to / were / cri tica l/ it / highly / of a lw ays / a / govern me nt / been / I /c ritic / of / ha ve / co rrupt / hars h

Complete the collocations in this text. Th is is th e last exercise in this book . May we give yo u a pat on the for getting to th is point. Indeed, yo u d eserve a cla p . \Ve ha ve .. but praise fo r yo u a nd wo u ld lik e to you o ur w arm co ng ra t ulations! Eng/ish Collocations in Use

I 25


Key Unit I

1.1

1 A collocation is a pair or group of words which are often used toget he r in a wa y whid sounds natural to native speakers of English . 2 car and food 3 narro w -m ind ed. teap ot a nd car park 4 idi oms

1.2

make mis takes powe rf ul engine have brea kfast make an effort watch TV ancient monument substantial meal bitterly cold pitch da rk st rictly fo rbid den O the r possi b le colloca tio ns a re : m ak e break fast, su bs ta ntia l break fast.

1.3

The first four sta te ments a re all true. The final sta te me n t is p robabl y not tru e. Yo u ma y we ll be und er stood if yo u usc less natural coll o cati ons bur yo u wi ll not so un d as you pro bably w ish to sou nd .

1.4

compound

collocation

idiom

teapo t

make a mistake

pull so me bo dy's leg

key ring

he avy sn ow

a storm in a tea cup

checkpoint

valid passport bitte r ly d isappointed live mu sic

1.5

The m ost use ful colloca tions to learn a re un de rlined here. When I left u nive rsity I ma de a d ec ision to ta ke u p a profession in whic h I could be creative. I co uld play t he gui tar, b u t I' d never wri tten any songs . onetheless I decided to become a singe r-songwriter. I made some reco rd ings but I had a rather heavy cold so they didn't sound good . 1 made some mo re, and sent them to a record company and waited for them to reply. So, while I was waiting to become famous, I got a job in a fast-food restaurant. That was five years ago. I' m still doing the same job.

Unit 2

2.1

All of th e u nd erl ined p h rases a re strong collocations. My frien d Beth is d esperatel y w orried a bo u t her son a t th e m oment. H e wa nts to enrol o n a co u rse o f so me so rt but ju st ca n 't m ak e a d ec ision a bo ut w ha t to study. I ga ve Beth a ring and w e had a long cha t a bo u t it last ni ght. She sa id he'd like to study for a d egree but is afra id he won't meet th e req uire ments fo r universi ty entry. Beth t hinks he should do a cou rse in M a na gem ent because he'd like to set u p his own business in t he fu ture. I agreed tha t th at would be a wise choice.

12 6

Eng/ish Collocations in Use


2.2

1 2 3 4 5

2.3

In the morning I tfltttk d id so me w ork in th e garden then I ~ had a rest for about an hour before going out to ftttÂĽe do so me sho p ping in town . It was my sister's birthday and I wanted to Jtt make a special effort to co ok a nice meal for her. I ~ had (o r to ok) a look at a new Thai cookery book in the books hop a nd decided to buy it. It has some tohlll ,. very/q uite/extrem ely ea sy recipes and I managed to Jtt m ake a good impression wi th my very first Thai meal. I think my sister utft!fl ,. th oroughl y/ reall y enjoyed her birthday.

2.4

She's She's She's She's She's

ha ving a party. taking an exam. giving a lecture. / She's giv ing a party. making good progress . doing her dury. v j inforrnal] Sh e's d o ing an exam .

lead !CONTROLI 0 l1 i:d/ verb [l or T] (led, led) to control a grou p of people, a country, or a situation: I think we've chosen the right person to lead the expedition. 0 I've asked Gemma to lead the discussion. 0 Who will be leading the inquiry into the accident? â&#x20AC;˘ lead sb by the nose INFORMA L to control someone a n d make them do exactly what you want them to do

Possible new sentences: 1 He led an expedition to the Amazon in 1887. 2 She led the discussion very skilfully. 3 T he Prime Minister appointed a senior judge to lead the inquiry into t he scandal. Fo llow up Here are some possible good collocations for the words suggested. You may choose to record them in different ways, of course. The important thing is tha t they are recorded as collocations in a phrase or sentence that will help you to understand their meaning and to remember them. desperately ill; desperately busy; desperately keen; despera tely in love with an acute pain; a sudden pain; to relieve the pain; to put up with pain (see also Unit 3 ) a wise decision; to be o lder and wiser; to be wise after the event; a wise guy (in fo rm a l) to run a business; to run smoothly; buses run regularly; to run for political office

Unit 3 3. 1

3.2

1 2 3 4 5 6

It puts them in bold. in pain, constant pain, ease the pain, a sharp pain, aches and pains It can ta ke you to a lot of information about a word o r about types of word very quickl y. You are shown a list of other ways in which t he releva nt word is used . By writing I FO RMAL after the relevant use of the word. If your dictionary does not indicate good collocations either by putting them in bold or by using th em in example sentences, t hen you shou ld seriously consider getting another dictionary that will help you in this way. It will be very useful when you are writing Englis h compositions as well as helping yo u to improve your vocabulary. 7 Your answer w ill d epend o n your own d ict io nary. 8 Your answer will depend on your own dictionary. making others experience pain

the experience of being in pain

making pain go away

t o cause pain t o inflict pain

to to to to to

t o alleviate pain t o ease pa in to lessen pa in t o soo th e pain t o relieve pain pain subside s

suffer pain complain of pain be ra cked w ith pain fee l pain ex perience pain

English Collocations in Use

127


3 .3

You mi ght find th ese colloca tio ns : ac hes a nd pains a dull ache to ha ve a stomach ache

Unit 4 4.1

1 a b rief cha t 2 bri ght colou rs

3 key issu es 4 a major problem

4.2

1 launch 2 w as bo om ing 3 crea te

4 merge 5 poses 6 ex pa nded

4.3

1 nostal gia 2 horror 3 a nger

4 prid e 5 tears 6 pride

4.4

1 bl issfull y

3 p roudl y

4 happily 5 ge n tly 6 softly

1 B

6 0

2 F

7 A 8 B 9 A

2 fu lly

4 .5

3 E 4 C 5 F

100

Unit 5 5.1

1 2 3 4 5 6

C ycl ists shou ld di sm ount before cross ing th e footbridge. (F) ever dis pose of batteries and sim ila r items by th row in g th em o nto a fire. (F) The st ude nts w ere a ll bored stiff by th e lecture. (1) Pa ssengers m ust a lig ht fro m the bu s th rough the rear d o or. (F) The g rass badl y need s cu tti ng . (1) Please p lace a ll used tick ets in t he rec eptacl e provid ed as yo u lea ve th e build in g. (F)

5.2

1 2 3 4

slas h prices, pump prices, ma jor com pa nies d etecti ves qui z, mi ssing teen ager, prim e sus pe ct flo ods hit, battli ng ag a in st flo ods a xe (200) jobs, m ade redundant, jo b lo sses, fa lling profits

5. 3

Suggeste d anstoe rs: 1 H a ve yo u heard? The o il co mpanies a re bringin g d own / puttin g d own / lo werin g / reducing th eir prices. 2 H a ve yo u heard? Det ecti ves ha ve inter rogate d/q uestio ne d/i nterv iewed a business man a bo ut th e m issin g teenager. o r Detectives a re interrogating/question ing/interview ing .0. 3 H a ve yo u heard? Floods are a ffec t ing / th ere are flo ods in th e Cen tra l reg io n. 4 H a ve you heard? The Pr esco ca r firm is ge tting rid o f 2 00 jobs (o r staff/peop le) / is m aking 200 workers (or staff/peop le) redundant / is layin g off 200 people (or w orkers/staff). 0

5.4

I 28

1 2 3 4

We rai sed ca p ita l to ex pa nd the business. They su bmi tte d a tender for th e new sta di u m . They w ent into partn ership to d evelop a new range o f products. We sta rted up a business to su p ply spo rts eq ui pment to sc hoo ls.

English Collocations ;n Use


5.5

1 2 3 4 S

dead keen boa rding the aircraft bore the cost of d ropped out of launched into

Un it 6 6.1

1 2 3 4 S

deeply ashamed ridiculous ly cheap h igh ly controvers ia l utterl y stu pid hig hly successful

6 7 8 9 10

bitterly disappointing strong ly/utterly opposed utterl y ridi cul ous ridiculous ly easy deep ly concerned

6.2

1 2 3 4 S

ridicu lously c hea p highly controversia l strong ly/ utterly o pposed bitt erl y d isappointing deeply as ha me d

6 7 8 9 10

h igh ly successful rid icu lo usly easy utterl y st upi d deeply conce rned utterl y rid iculous

6.3

The incorrect colloca tions are: 1 st ro ng ly love 4 abso lutely tired 2 highly exhausted S deepl y successful 3 bi tterly rega rd

6.4

Eve ryo ne was complaining bitterly when they hea rd a bo ut th e new plan . Peo ple were d eeply shocked to hear th a t children wou ld be strictly forbi dden to use the sports ground and most people were strongly opposed to the new rules. Even people who normally never expressed an o pinion we re utterl y appalled by the proposals.

Unit 7 7.1

1 mad e a m istak e 2 make a decision 3 make arrangements / an a rra ngement

7.2

1 do

2 d o ing 3 ma ke

7.3

1 do 2 do 3 make; do

4 ma ke a change / (so me) changes to S m a ke a choice 6 make a contribution

4 do S ma ke 6 do 4 ma ke S ma ke

Unit 8 8.1

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9

They ca n go bald. / They ca n go grey. You can go red. Your face / Yo u can go w hite . If th e news is a great shock yo ur hair might go/turn white. T hey can go yellow. T hey rum red. J o hn Mil ton we nt blind. Beetho ven went deaf. H a m let went mad . It might rum grey. / It might go dark .

English Collocations in Use

12 9


8.2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8.3

As yo u grow o lde r, yo u' ll begin to understand yo u r parents better. Becoming a ng ry with th em all th e tim e doesn't help. You ma y not want to go to sum me r camp when non e of yo ur fri ends will be th ere, but yo u r parents kn ow yo u will soo n m ake new fri ends there. You w ould all ha ve go ne o n a famil y holida y together if yo u r grandmother hadn 't fallen ill, but su re ly yo u ca n understand wh y they don 't want to leave her. You 'll feel mu ch more sy m pa t he tic to yo ur parents' feelings wh en yo u ha ve a child o f your o w n !

8.4

I mad

Dinosaurs becam e extinct .. . ... I'd lik e to ha ve lots of children . Janet b ecame d epressed . .. ... dreamt o f becoming fam ous. Would yo u be interested in becomin g in vol ved . .. M ore people have become homeless . .. M y sister had a baby . .. M y grandfather had/suffered a heart a ttack ...

2 turned 3 go ne 4 going I to go

5 6 7 8

fell g rew falling went/tu rned

Unit 9 9.1

Sugges ted questions: 1 C o u ld you have a lo ok at t his letter before I se nd it? 2 Did yo u ha ve an argument I a row ? 3 W hat happened ? D id yo u ha ve an accide nt? 4 H o w was the ho liday? Did yo u have fun I have a good time.' 5 Shall we have a brea k for half an hou r or so? 6 Nice bike! Ca n I have a go/rry (on it )? 7 When yo u' re free, co uld I have a c ha t with you a bo ut next yea r ? 8 What's th e matter? Are you having difficulty I problems I a problem reading it?

9. 2

I paid

2 3 4 5 6

9.3

took paid had paid took

7 8 9 10 1I 12

had pa y tak e ha ve tak e had

ext time you take a trip to th e coast, why not take th e train? W hy suffer endless delays in lo ng traffic jams? And why take risks when you're tra velling - take a train an d arrive sa fely. What's more, if you decide to take a holida y in the ca pital city, yo u' ll ha ve a more rela x ing ti me if you take a tra in. Or why not pay a surprise visit to a n o ld frie nd duri ng an off- pea k time ? Call now a nd take advantage of our special o ffers. 080034 7655

Unit 10 10.1

130

1 close 2 sta rt 3 large 4 fini sh ed; end

English Collocations in Use

5 6 7 8

close began big e nd


10.2

I so lita ry 2 antiq ue 3 o n ly 4 so le 5 ancient

10.3

1 Were m an y people injured in the ea rt hq ua ke? 2 Single parents raising ch ild re n w ithout a partner's su p po rt are e ntitled to fina ncia l help from th e go vernment 3 M y m obi le isn 't w orking . I need to charge th e battery. 4 She has a lot of beautifu l antiqu e jewellery. 5 When w e moved house, two men helped us to load th e van . 6 T ha t's not news - it 's a ncien t history! 7 I d on 't kn ow how to lo ad a g u n, let a lo ne fire o ne . 8 I' ve neve r been very successfu l at gro wi ng plants.

10.4

Possible answers: I T hey're lo ad ing a shi p . 2 She's growi ng plants. 3 H e's st udying an cient history. 4 T he c ha ir is d am aged. 5 H e's rai sing shee p . 6 H e ha s injured his leg . o r He is injured .

6 7 8 9 10

a lo ne lonely o ld si ngle ielderly parents is a lso a possible colloca tion) elderly

Foll o w -u p Possible co llocatio ns: big c ity, house, ea te r, sis te r, brother, d ifferen ce, d a y, d eal, idea, busin ess - when big mea ns importa nt, it cannot be replaced by large. large - la rge city, large house, large number, large s u rvey, large intesti ne

Unit I I I 1.1

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

ea rn/ma ke ga ine d won ac hieve m ade bear/defeated, w on ea rns ga ine d

I 1.2

1 2 3 4 5 6

The w oman is wearing a coat . She 's ca rrying a n umbrell a a nd a m obile phone. She 's using her m obile phone. The m an is wearing a sui t. H e's ca rry ing a briefcase a nd an umbrella . H e's using hi s umbrella.

I 1.3

La st year I got a new job and sta rt ed ea rn ing/m a k ing a lot m ore m oney. I realised I co u ld afford to spe nd more m o ney on m y ho lid a y than I usually d o a nd d ecided to spend a month in Austra lia . I knew it wo uld be hot th ere and so I wouldn't need to take w arm clo thes with me. In fact, I wore a r-shirr and jeans a ll the time I w as there. I wo re a hat all th e tim e too, o f co u rse, to protect me from th e su n. It w a s fant asti c th ere. I spent a w eek sig h ts ee ing in Sydn ey a nd th en spe nt th e rest o f th e tim e tra velling ro u nd th e cou ntry. I even a chieved m y lifelong ambition o f stro ki ng a ko ala.

English Collocations in Use

I3I


I 1.4

1 The Democratic Pa rty won the election . 2 The ruling power has gained control of the situation . 3 O u r tea m won the ma tch . 4 I earned/made a lot of m oney last m o nth . S Our co mpa ny m ade a profit last yea r.

I 1.5

I Where d id you spend your la st hol id a y? 2 H o w m uc h money did yo u earn/make la st week?

3 W ha t d o you always carry/take wi th you when you go o ut? 4 H a ve you ever won a troph y? S What aim w ould yo u particularl y lik e to achieve in life?

Possible answers: 1 I spent my last hol id a y in Swi tzerla nd . 2 I' m not sure what I earned las t week - much th e same as usual, probably. 3 I always carry m y mobi le p hone, some money, a cred it ca rd and my keys. 4 I o nce won a troph y for w ritin g an essay a t schoo l. S I'd lik e to ac hieve m y aim of writ ing a no vel.

I 2.1

Un it 12 1 sunny 2 lit up 3 lighten

12.2

1 Pa u la

2 Ro b 3 Yvon ne

12.3

12.4 12.5

4 dark S were shi ni ng / shone 6 dark en ed 4 Em ma (a nd H elen a ) S Thomas 6 J ason

I M y cheeks were burning wi th emba rrass me nt. 2 Viol ence has flared up in th e capita l city. 3 The idea s flowed du ring the di scussion . 4 The fa mous foo t ba ller 's di vo rc e w as su rro u nded by a bla ze of public ity.

b

2 b

3 a

4 c

Possib le answers: I a bright fut ure [a future th at is looki ng ha p py and successful] a bright child [an intell igent chi ld) 2 a w a rm w elcome [a fri endl y w elcome) a warm sm ile [a fri endl y smi le) 3 cold eyes [unfriend ly eyes) a cold sta re [a n un fr iendl y stare]

Unit 13 I 3. I

1 snow

2 fo g/mist 3 win ds/s u n 4 S 6 7 S

13.2

132

wind fros t ram su ns hine - N ote that yo u can al so talk a bo ut unb roken cloud. fo g/mist ore th at yo u ca n a lso talk abo ut a bl anket of snow .

1 strong 2 w ind di ed d o wn 3 d eteriorate / ge t wo rse

English Collocations in Use

4 freezing cold S heavy/d rivi ng 6 lifted


13.3

I wi sh I'd worn a w armer jacket. There 's a freezing cold / biting wind . At lea st it 's not po u ring wi th rai n today. I got soaked to th e skin yes terday. I wi sh I was soa ki ng up the su ns hi ne o n a M editerranean beach.

13.4

I 2 3 4

S 6 7

8

13.5

Very heavy rain or snow m elting perhaps. You ca n probabl y see hea vy g rey clouds - b u t note that it ha s not sta rt ed to rain yet. It's un expected, unu sual for the tim e of yea r o r th e pl ace, a n d unu sually stro ng. It's probably harder to dri ve if th ere is den se fog. However, patches of fog can al so be d angerous a s you m a y unexpectedl y run into fog. H ea vy ra in with wind. An image of vio lence is created. People ca n blow o r whistl e. They d o th is by ex ha ling ai r from their lips. So yo u might bl ow o n sou p or tea to cool it. If yo u whistl e yo u make a noise b y blowing through yo u r lips in a specia l way. D evastated suggests most de struction and damaged suggests lea st destruction .

Other collocations you might have found are: w ind not a breath o f wind a gust of wi nd

ram light rain a d o wn po u r of rain a show er of rain to rain hard rain fell heavil y

snow snow fa lls snow m elts a blanket o f snow

Unit 14 14.1

1 trave l 2 trip 3 Journey 4 tra ve l Strip

6 Journ ey 7 trips 8 rra vel/rri ps 9 tra vel 10 Journ ey

14.2

1 2 3 4

14.3

1 A bumpy flight . 2 M o st people prefer smoot h flights - th ough so me people perhaps en joy it w he n it is bumpy because it is more ex cit ing ! 3 A sc hed uled fligh t. 4 In-flight m aga zines. S A business trip is one spec ific journey fo r bu siness purpo ses w he reas busin ess tra vel refers to travelling in genera l for business p urposes. 6 Return journe y. 7 or necessaril y - famil y-run means that the main hotel sta ff a re largel y from the sa me family.

14.4

Pos sible ansurer based

m ake; full y aisle; window co n ne c ti ng ente rta in ment

S fasten 6 board 7 run 8 sm a rt/ lu x u ry ; accommodation

0 11

th e expe rience of one of th e au thors:

Last yea r I w ent to Ca lifo rn ia . I ma de all the travel arrangements m yself ove r th e Internet so it wa s cheaper th an using a travel agent. I got a cha rte r flight and good budget ac commodation in San Franci sco for a few nights. Although it was a long, tirin g jo u rney from London, it was worth it . While in San Francisco, I took a da y trip to the o the r s ide o f the Bay, across the Golden G ate Bridge, and a lso w ent o n a boat trip, which w a s fun. I had a sm o ot h flight on the return journey but I was exhaust ed when I got home.

English Collocations in Use

I33


Unit 15 15.1

1 fell into; open

15.2

A chain of sno w -co vered mountains runs down the ea st of the country. The \Vassa Rivet th e co u ntry's biggest, winds/flows slowly from t he northern mo unta ins to th e sea . Even in summer it is a bleak la ndscape, w it h its dar k, rocky mountains and its cold strea ms. But for me it is the familiar landscape of my childhood and I am happy tha t the govern me nt has deci ded to protect this environment. It is a d ramatic sett ing which is weD wo rt h visiti ng fo r a nyo ne wh o lik es spectacular views.

15.3

1 took 2 tu rn ed; caught

15.4

u nspo ilt

2 fo llowed; covere d

3 d en se fores t

3 sandy; stretched 4 b locks tra nq uil countryside

destroy

15.5

I su rro u nd ing co u ntrys ide 2 d o m ina tes the landsca pe; pa no ramic view 3 secl uded beaches 4 breathtaking sce ne ry 5 uninterru pted views

Unit 16 16.1

I high -r ise flats 2 a t ree-lined avenue

3 a ci ty sky line 4 quai nt o ld buildings (o n a cobbled street )

I 6.2

positive rela xed a tmosp here live ly bar imposing building fas hio nable cl ub

negative ove r-p rice d restaurants urban wastelan d no-go area s ha nty town ru n-d own bu ild ings

16.3

I the incessant roar of the traffic

2 (t he vo lu me o f) tra ffic 3 a n ove r-p riced rest au rant 4 a shanty town

16.4

5 6 7 8

a conse rvatio n area a pricey rest au rant high-ri se flats q uaint

I It is a sp ra w ling c ity co vering a n eno rmo us a re a .

2 It is fu ll of u p marke t shops , w hich a re too ex pensive fo r m e. 3 There was b umpe r-to-b umper t ra ffic all th e way to the ai rport. 4 I get as t h ma fro m the terribl e ex ha us t fu mes in th e c ity centre. 5 I live in a res idential a rea but w ork in th e city ce nt re . 6 So me o f th e m ore d epri ved a reas are not fa r from th e ci ty ce ntre. 7 The m ain street in tow n runs fro m th e castle to the river. 8 The main stree t is lined with sho ps and cafes. 9 On th e o utsk irts a re so me industrial zo nes a nd some large su pe rm a rkets. 10 The streets w ere stre w n with litter.

I 34

Eng/ish Collocations in Use


Unit 17 17. 1 These colloca t io ns clearl y d escribe negative aspe cts of c hara cte r: a selfish streak bea r a grudge make a foo l o ut of so meone hurt so rneone's feelings T hese collocations may describe negative aspects of character - it d epends on yo ur po int of view : pa infull y shy snap decisio ns b ruta lly honest

17.2

I kn o w th at I ha ve a tenden cy to bear a g rudge, but I jus t can 't fo rget so me th ing bad a

2

3

4

S

6

fr iend did to me recentl y. She has a selfis h strea k and doesn't care sometimes ho w muc h she hurts m y feel ings. I a m find ing it increa sin gly ha rd to keep my te m per wi t h her. But pe rh aps it might be better to lo se m y tem pe r a nd let he r k now how I re a lly fee l? I ha ve a lways tri ed to put others first a nd not to thin k of myself. I be lieve yo u should not lo se your patien ce wi th yo u r friends, b ut if someone seems to enjoy m aking a fool o ut of you in front of o the r people, d o th ose rul es of frie nds hi p still appl y ? I 'm a little shy, th ough not p ainfull y s hy, but so me t imes I think I give th e im pressio n th at I'm un friendl y. H o w can I co nvince people that I' m good com pa ny a nd w o rth ge tt ing to kn ow? . Shou ld I talk a bo ut pe rsona l matters to m y cl o sest coll ea g ue a t work? Sh e is not very good a t keeping sec re ts a nd she ha s a very vivid imag ina tion . She a lways prom ises no t to tell o the r peo ple, bu t I'm not sure she a lways keeps her w ord . M y bo yfriend has a reall y fr iendly, outgoing personal it y a nd a g rea t se nse of hum ou r. H e 's hi ghl y inte llige nt a nd has a razor-sha rp m ind. The perfect m a n . W/e ' ve been to gether now fo r a yea r, and I like him a lot, but d on't love hi m any m ore. Shou ld I be brutally honest with him a nd tell him? I think a friend is destroyin g himself w it h dr ug s. I feel a sens e of resp onsibility towa rds h im . H e ha s always been fiercel y lo yal to m e in good a nd bad t im es, wh ich is a wonde rfu l asp ect of his personal ity. I fee l I o ught to co ntact th e police or social se rvices, b ut I don 't want to m ake a sna p d ecision whi c h I' ll regret later.

17. 3

1 2 3 4 S

17.4

O ther colloca tio ns yo u might find are: 1 to g ive you r w o rd; a man o r w o m a n o f his o r her w ord 2 to ha ve a bad/fo ul temper; to ha ve a sweet te m per; to control yo ur tem per; tem pers got frayed 3 se nse of duty; sense of honou r; se nse o f fun

B: B: B: B: B:

Yes, he's found it ha rd to co me to terms w ith his new s itua t io n. 0 , it 's tru e. H e jus t ca n't take a joke, ca n he? Yes, it certainl y revealed her tru e ch a racte r . Yes, she alway s sets high sta nd a rds for herself. \Vell, rw o -year-olds often throw tantrums.

Unit 18 I 8.1

' fa t' words portl y dump y c h u b by 1 s lende r, slim 2 lanky 3 ch u bby

' thin' wo rd s la n ky slender s lim 4 portl y S d um py

English Collocations in

Use

I35


18.2

bush y eye brows tin y tot ova l face stri ki ng resem bla nce

18.3

1 2 3 4

tin y tot immaculately groomed jet-b lack s ho ulder-le ng th 5 lovely complexion 6 striking appearance

18.4

1 fair; dark 2 uptu rned; straight

b roa d sho ul de rs d roo py m oust ach e ch ubby c heeks di shevell ed hair 7 8 9 10 11

slim/slender waist portly ge ntleman yo uthfu l appearance gone go

3 round; po inted 4 coa rse; sleek

Unit 19 19 . 1

1 exte nded 2 con fir med 3 d istant 4 close-knit

19.2

C ha rles a n d I a re hoping to start a fami ly soon. We both wa nt to ha ve lo ts of c hildren. Ideall y, I'd like to ha ve m y firs t baby next yea r, w he n I'll be 25. M y siste r is expecting a baby now. It's du e next month. She's go ing to be a sing le parent and it'll be hard fo r her to b ring up / raise a ch ild on her o w n .

19.3

1 apply for custod y 2 get a divorce 3 es t ra nged w ife 4 n uclea r fami ly

19.4

5 d ysfunctio nal 6 late 7 broken

5 pro vid e for your fam ily 6 di stant cousin 7 se t up home 8 tri al se pa ra tio n

Possible answers: I J ust my husband and so n.

2 0, I don't kn o w much at a ll a bou t my distan t relatives. 3 In a small flat in London . 4 A stab le home, where th ere are nor likely to be sud den o r un pl ea sant changes. A deprived home is o ne w here living conditions a re ex t reme ly po o r. 5 to be ex pecting a baby 6 Yes, th ey ca n . A respectable fami ly is o ne that o utwa rd ly confor ms to social norms, but with in its own private w orld, it m a y be d ysfun ctiona l. The Brit ish Ro ya l Family is o ften referred to as d ys fu nctiona l even though m o st peo ple cons ider it to be respecta ble. 7 ex8 g ra nt c ustody

19.5

If po ssible, a sk yo u r tea cher o r a nothe r good spea ke r of English to cor rect yo ur para graph for you .

Unit 20 20.1

136

I make 2 have 3 st rik ing 4 spoil

English Collocations in Use

5 mutual 6 form 7 acquaintance 8 gre w


20.2

20.3

special friends make a commitment acce pt a p roposa l ret urn someone's love have an affair

keep in contact lose contact stri ke up a frie nds hip love at first sight

1 grow 2 to be/fall ma d ly in lo ve

4 close friends 5 keep in touc h with

3 accept a proposal

20.4

20.5

The gaps can personal! 1 sight 4 2 m a ke 5 3 fell 6

be filled in the following ways. The answers are, of course, private and life returned have

Possible collocatio ns: love to ma ke love to love someone deep ly to send someone your love

fri end m y best frie nd an ol d friend a childhood friend a true friend

friend ship a las t ing friends hip to hold out the hand of friendship to value sorneone's friendship

relationship a good relatio nsh ip to end a rela tionship a family relationship

Unit 21 21. 1

1 1 was bitterly/deeply/huge ly d isa p pointed. 2 Jess is a hig hly emotional individual. 3 She felt desperately sad.

e. u tJ

21.2

De let e

4 H er ch ild hood wa s b lissfu lly happy. 5 1 was worried sick . 6 She felt deeply depressed . C)

-

R.ply

~

R.ply Al l

. Forward

j- ~

Pnnt

DearJames I have to tell you that there is widespread condemnation and mounting angerover the newsthat the company pension scheme is to be closed down. The issue has i!!:Ql.!W strong feelingsamong the staff. I am personally becoming increasingly anxious that the situation might get out of control, and ask you to act immediately. With bestwishes, Joanne Withers Staff representative

2

Dear Joanne, I too am seething with anger over this pension question, I tried to ~ my disappointment over it to the Board, but they simply dismissed the issue and thatjust made me extremely angry, I feel ~ let down. I shall continue to do what I can. Yours sincerely, James Horgan (Resource Manager)

3

Gareth, You probably know I didn't get the job I applied for. It's a !:!.Ylm disappointment. Christina

4

DearWinston, I felt a ~ sadness when I heard of Patrick's death. Will you be going to the funeral? It will be such a sad occasion, won't it? Pamela

English Collocations in Use

I 37


21.3

Exam ples co uld be a wedding, the bi rth of a hea lt hy child, a degree ceremony, a bi rthday o r other celebra tion. a/t he happy couple lasting happ iness emotiona l impact I was worried sick

2 3 4 5

Follow up The Cambridge University Press website dictionary search will show you keep your temper, quick temper, be in a bad/foul temper, th en if you cl ick agai n on temper (BE HAVIO UR), yo u will find have a real temper, even-tem pered an d bad-tem pered.

Unit 22 22.1

I fully-furnis hed accommodation 2 sho rt- let accommoda tion 3 a resident ial a rea

22.2

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S

2 2.3

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10

22.4

Your dream home co uld be wai t ing for yo u a t Hi ghdal e Cottages. All cottages have a vie w o f the River M a rn. Ideal for a nyo ne seeki ng a seco nd ho me in th e area . Tele phone 3340251 fo r appointments to view

22.5

1 2 3

4 a studio flat 5 off-road parking 6 a fu lly-fitted ki tc he n

We want to turn o ur garage into a gra nny flat. J ill has invited me to her ho use-w a rm ing pa rty. Next week I have to move out of my flat. Karl ma kes a business out of doing up old houses. Our bedroom ove rloo ks the ga rden. O ur house need s to be com plete ly refurb ish ed . I hope th at o ne d a y I'll ha ve a place o f m y o w n. The ba n k can help if yo u wa nt to tak e o ut a mortgage. \Ve live on a busy road, bu t we' re luc ky beca use we have off-road parking. Gemma has moved o ut of her o ld flat and has now got a new place in \Va lville Street. \Ve' re bui ldi ng an extensio n to o ur house w hic h will give us a bigge r kitc hen. The flat is fully furn ished, w h ich is good because I ha ve no furni t ure of my own. She had to ta ke o ut a big mortgage as th e house wa s ve ry ex pe ns ive . There is no affordable housi ng for young people in this area; prices are ridiculously high. ew people have moved into the house next door. I haven't met them yet. It's a ve ry spacio us apartment with a huge living room and a big ki tchen . T he flat is ava ilable to rent fro m th e first of M arch o nwards . M y broth er a nd his wi fe live in a drau ghty o ld cottage.

welco me he r home. lea ve home / mo ve o ut. feel at home.

4 5

make you rself at home. fee l ho mesick .

Unit 23

I 38

23 . 1

1 se t menu 2 foo d addi tives 3 junk foo d

4 rea dy mea ls 5 fres h prod uce (Fresh food is also a possible colloca rion. )

23.2

1 Fo od ad di tives 2 Junk foo d 3 read y meals

4 fres h produce 5 set menu

English Collocations in Use


23.3

1 Suz ie 2 Ken 3 Rich ard

23.4

1 Processed foo ds may damage ou r health in th e long term . 2 So me people a lways ha ve three sq ua re meals a d a y, b ut I pre fer a hearty breakfast a n d then a light m eal a roun d mi d day and a m ore su bsta ntia l m eal in the evening . 3 T here a re some overp riced restaurants in the city cen tre, b ut d o wn at th e bea ch, the re a re so me n ice, reasona b ly p riced ones. 4 On m y birthda y m y parents took me o u t for a sla p- u p m eal. T hey w anted to go for a go u r met m eal but I sa id I'd prefer so me th ing m ore ordina ry. S Ice tea is a refreshing drink o n a hot d a y, a n d is probably be tter for yo u th a n soft drinks such as cola o r lemona de. 6 Let m e tak e yo u o ut to d inner o n yo ur bi rthd a y. Or would you prefer a h ome-co oked m eal ? I co uld mak e d inner fo r yo u a t m y p lace.

4

in a S Po lly 6 Arch ie

Un it 24 24.1

Matthew: Lorna : M atthew :

Lorna: M atth ew :

Lorna: M atth ew: Lorna:

H a ve yo u read that ne w boo k tha t ha s just co me o u t abou t Irela n d? 0 , I d on't go to bo okshops and I d o n't rea d b ook revi ews. What's it about? \Vell, it d eal s w ith th e Irish War of Ind epen d e nce. It's ve ry a ut he nt ic an d it m an a ges to cap tu re th e a tm os p he re of Ire la nd a t t he beg inn ing of th e 20th ce n t u ry. Is it jus t h isto rica l facts, th en ? 0, th e ce ntra l cha racters a re tw o brot he rs wh o ha ve d iffe rent o pin ions abou t th e wa r a n d th is divi des the ir fa mi ly. In the o pen ing chapters th ey're hap p y a n d d o eve ry t hi ng to gether, bu t b y the closing chapter they have bec o m e ene mies. M rn, it so u n ds a bit d epressin g to me. Well, it ce rtainly d oesn 't have a happy en d ing, bu t I liked it, a nd it's h ighly recommended by a ll th e critics . So, a bo o k w it h a pl ea sa nt beginning and a sa d end (ing ). o r fo r me, I' m afraid. I prefer th e o p posite .

24.2

Acro ss 3 a bs o r be d S eng rossed 6 stage 7 lead

24.3

fu ll house bedtime reading bo x -o ffice h it b ig sc ree n fe ma le lea d

24.4

I film 2 (lib ra ry) boo k

Down 1 cameo 2 no mi nated 4 effects

3 bo ok/maga zin e/article 4 rea di ng

Unit 25 25.1

I 2 3 4

The band 's la st CD w a s a massive/big h it. T here are some g rea t up-t empo num be rs o n th is new C D . The ba n d ha s a huge fo llowi ng of d edi ca ted fans. M usic w a s blasting out from a C D pl a yer w hen I entere d th e house. S She gave a virt uoso performance of H ed er's vio lin concerto last night.

English Collocations in Use

I 39


25.2

I 2 3 4

~

lo ve rs released went so lo heritage

fHl h li5 l1 e t:l

g f:l t 58 18 inl:tefi tt1 11€e

25 .3

I backg ro und m usic 2 easy list ening 3 a po p idol

25.4

I adori ng 2 pe rfo rmance 3 ca tc hy

5 6 7 8

€8R1flf1 5e €8l1tw l

#orfflg Ilhl ltes

t1

feature ca ptu re live goes o n

4 a rap artist 5 to tune an instrument 6 to strum (a gui tar )

4 ta ke up 5 haunting 6 ta lent

Un it 26 26.1

Yo u can d o You can go You can d o You can go In fa ct, you

26.2

pe rso na l best blo w a whistl e bring o n a su bs ti tu te fai l a d rugs test en te r a competition set a record ach ieve yo ur amb itions tra in hard en ha nce yo ur perfo rmance take the lead (take a d rugs test is a lso possibl e )

26.3

H i, Jose, Do you fancy coming on a spo rti ng w eek end wi th me next month ? It so unds grea twou ld make a change from playing co m p uter games. You ca n d o lots of d ifferent activities. You could even go fishing, I think. Yo u ca n't go skii ng at th is tim e of year but you can go wa ter sk iing, if you like. Everyone has to d o gene ra l exercises first thing in the morning and then you can d o/ pl a y whatever sport you like, more o r less. I' ve never pl a yed bad mi nton so I th in k I' m going to do that. T hen in t he afternoon I'm looking forward to the c hance to practise my ten n is serve wi th the ir professio na l coach . Please try to come ! Giorgio

26.4

I 2 3 4 5

27.1

WIn

fight d eserved tackling po ssession

6 7 8 9

You can pl a y badminton! You can d o weight lifti ng! You can pl a y ta bl e te nnis ! Yo u ca n eve n play d a rts! any spo rt yo u can th in k of. So join no w!

gai ned stage/roun d com pe ti tion set (possibly beat, if th ere was a n existi ng reco rd fo r a team wit h seve ra l fam ily members in it )

Unit 27 1 sus ta in mi no r injuries 2 3 4 5 6

140

judo! swimming! ci rcui t tra in ing! skate-boa rd ing! can d o/play a lmost

co n tra ct typhoi d ha ve a n a tta ck o f di a rrh o ea develop b reast ca ncer be di agn o sed w ith a u tis m / brea st ca ncer ca tc h a cold

English Collocations in Use


27.2

27.3

Suggested answers: 1 develop arthritis 2 had/suffered/ ex perien ced m oderate o r seve re a ttacks of d iarrh o ea 3 To b e diagnosed with cancer 4 con tract m al a ria 5 sus taine d serious inju ries 6 ca tc h pne umonia 1 se rio us; life- th rea te ni ng

7 stick; shape

2 te rm ina lly 3 dull 4 bal an ced

8 incurable 9 ta ken; exc rucia ti ng 10 health y; vigoro us

5 sp litt ing

11 prescribed; a lleviate

6 trivial

12 sligh t

Unit 28 28.1

T he stro ngest colloca tions a re th e visit a w ebsit e a re a lso possible. 1 browse th e web 2 be con nec te d to the Internet 3 enter th e web a d d ress 4 access a websi te 5 co mpose a m essage

28.2

1 mainta in ed 2 co n necte d 3 recei ve 4 na vigate

28.3

Possible answers: 1 re-in stall th e p ro grams 2 save / back up your work 3 d elet e o r erase a file 4 th at yo u ha ve put in the cor rect a ddress 5 a search e ngi ne 6 The e-mai l will bounce.

28.4

I n ng

2 co n nectio n 3 held 4 hacked

5 6 7 8

followi ng, a lthough o the rs, suc h as enter a chatroom or 6 attach a file 7 go o n line

8 visi t a cha t room 9 select a n o ption

burn hard d elet e o nline

7 H it ' rep ly' , compose your message and th en press 'send'. 8 d o wnl o a d t he p ictu re 9 forwa rd th e m essa ge 10 se nd a n a ttac h ment / se nd it as an a ttachment lIto your home address 12 pred ictive text

5 access 6 clip 7 Ima ges 8 se lec t / cli ck o n

Un it 29 29.1

1 ha ve three d aughters. T he o ldest o ne stud ied for / took a degree in economics at Birmingham Universi ty. She o btai ne d / w as a warded her bache lor's degree last year and is now carryin g o u t / conducting some research o n taxation laws in d ifferent cou ntries. The second o ne is taking / enrolled o n a co u rse a t ewcastle University. She's st ud ying/tak ing hist ory. She lov es it, th ough she says s he has to write fa r too many assignments. M y youngest d aughter is sti ll at sc hoo l. She's sitting/ta king her school-leaving exa ms in th e su m mer. She' ll go to u nivers ity next year if she receives / is given good enough g rades in her exams. She wants to st udy/ take sociology a nd then ob tain/acq uire a social w ork q ua lifica tio n . M y d aughte rs a re a ll receivi ng a much be tter ed uca tion tha n I ever had .

English Collocations in Use

14 I


29.2

1 2 3 4 S

do take/s it hand/gi ve giv ing/do ing wi thd raw

29.3

1 2 3 4

passed g ive recognises a tten d

29.4

Possible ans wers:

6 7 8 9

held dra ft assess men t go 10 provide/give/offer

S 6 7 8

com plete se n d lea ve keep

1 Schoolch ild re n ofte n take th o se exa ms a t a bo ut 16 if th ey a re lea vin g sc hoo l as soon as po ssible, o r a t 18 if th ey a re pla n n ing to go o n to furth er o r h igher ed uca t io n . 2 a bo ut 6 yea rs 3 It d o es no t d epend o n ho w yo u a re feel in g o n one spe c ific d a y. You ca n see w he the r yo u a re impro vin g o r not as yo u go a lo ng. You ca n spe n d m ore tim e d oi ng yo u r work. 4 Fee d ba c k o n the clarity and acc u racy of the presenta tion, o n the st udent's pro nunciati on, o n th e st ude nt's use o f visua l aids. S It helps yo u revise wh at you d id in cla ss. It g ives you a chance to d o extra things th at yo u d on 't ha ve time to d o in class. 6 W rite th e w ords d own in co ntext , a nd revise wh at you 've w ri tte n d own eve ry few days o r w eeks. 7 Fu rt he r ed uca tion is less academic th an h igh er o r tertiary ed uca t io n. St ude nts st udying, say, ca r m echanics o r sec re ta ria l ski lls are in furth er ed uc a tio n wherea s st ude nts stu dyi ng, say, to be lawyers o r d o ctors a re in hi gh er or tertiary educati on . 8 You'd ex pe ct a final draft to be better th an a first draft, to be better o rgan ised, to have fewer spe lli ng mi stakes, a nd so on .

Unit 30 30.1

30.2

30.3

142

I w ork 2 ca reer 3 career 4 job

S w ork

6 career 7 job 8 career; job; ca ree r

Suggested ansu/er: applicant

1-3

reasons

Kevin Marsh

3

Too yo ung. doe s not have any experience

N urd an Ozbe k

I

Enough experience. right qualifications. has worked in a team. short no tice

N uala Riley

2

W rong kind of .ex per ience. long period of notice. person needed immediately

I 2 3 4

Sh e ha s se t so me di fficu lt target s fo r us a ll. We 're making prepa rations for th e sa les co nfe re nce . I alwa ys ke ep m y appo intments. J a ne will tak e t he minutes at th e m eeting. S I ha ve to g ive a presentati on to m y collea gu es. 6 H e never a ch ieved hi s goals in hi s ca ree r. 7 H e fielded m y phone calls w hi le I took time o ff.

English Collocations in Use


30.4

d ead-end job - a job that has few prospects of leading somewhere interesti ng or successfu l glittering ca re er - an impress ive career, one that is a dmi red by m a n y people career spa n n ing - a career covering a specified and notably long period of time lucrative job - a job where th e perso n earns a lot of money for d o ing the w o rk rewarding job - a job where the pe rson gets a lot of perso nal satisfact io n - emotional ra ther tha n fina ncial - from doing the work

Un it 31 31.1

float launch make go 5 go

31.2

d 2 b 3 f

4 a 5 c 6 e

31.3

1 value

5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4

2 win; stiff 3 run 4 doing

31.4

1 2 3 4

runs up does made figures 5 6 business 7 won

6 7 8 9 10

go carry out / conduct go set ma ke

turnover ba lance bid brisk

8 competition 9 put 10 11 12 13 14

riva l struck/done create secret service

Un it 32 32.1

You may be able to justify other answers than those offered here. 1 Groundbreaking res earch, makes a sign ifica nt contribution to, powerful a rguments and sh a p e our thinking a ll suggest that the writer admires Georgescu's work . 2 Strenuou sly defend s and come und er attack both suggest that Partridge's work has been criticised . 3 Gi ves a n acco u n t of, pro vid es ev idence and concise su m m ary all suggest that Marina Ka ss presents facts. 4 Es ta b lish a co n ne ctio n and sign ifica nt trends both suggest that arhan Peel is inte res ted in analys ing social statistics.

32.2 2 3 4 5 6

The example of M rs Brown is/ p rovi des a clear illust ration of the need for better m ed ica l se rv ices in the a rea . A doctoral thesis must a lways a ckno wl edge it s sources. D r Ka hn 's res ults offer/provide ir refu ta b le proof t hat our theory is correct. The article begins w ith a concise su m mary of the background to the research. The book giv es an interesting account o f the life of Marx as a young man. Janet's theory has co me und er attack recently in a number of journals.

English Collocations in Use

143


, 32.3

Suggested answers: gro und b reaking resea rc h makes a significanr co nr ri b ution to powerful argumenrs s ha pe o ur thinking stren uo usly defends played a cenrra l role goes into grea t deta il co ncise su m mary ir re futa ble proof s ign ifica nr trends

32.4

playa part se t ou t an a rg umen t convinced by someone's argument come under a ttack m ak e a co nr rib u tio n 6 ca r ry o ut a st udy 7 go into d eta il 8 shape people's th in k ing

32.5

1 po w erfu l 2 su p po rti ng 3 tendency

32.6

Possible answers - there are many o ther ways of co mpleting th is table:

I 2 3 4 5

4 cha llenge 5 gro und brea ki ng 6 sha pe

verb

adjective

noun

to publish

an outstanding

article

to carry o ut

o r iginal

research

to conduct

a controlled

experiment

to develop

a coherent

theory

to undertake

a co mpre hensive

survey

Un it 33 33.1

1 2 3 4

fa ll di st in ction take raise

5 m aking 6 case 7 touch

33.2

1 2 3 4 5

assess convincing ly draw lend fo rwa rd

6 hold 7 draw 8 la y

33.3

1 presenrs

2 sugges ts 3 adopts 4 sta tes

144

English Collocations in Use

9 profoundl y 10 d ra w 5 6 7 8

briefly draws hold ra ises

I


33.4

Kerr takes up a co ntrovers ia l position in his latest a rti cle. H e pu ts forward th e argument th at d ifferen ces in beh a viour between th e sexes ca n be ex p la ined tota lly by th e ge nes. H e a ttempts to m ake a ca se for ed uca t ing bo ys and girls se pa ra te ly in th eir prim ary sc hoo l yea rs . H e a rg ues, occasio na lly convinci ngly, that bo th sexes wo u ld benefit from th is. H e d raw s a ttention to rece nt research w hich, he cla im s, len d s su p po rt to his a rg ument. H owever, he fail s to take a number of impo rta nt factors into co ns ide ra t io n . H e a lso ma kes no reference to th e importa nt work of Potter and Sinclair in this field. I a m su re th at I w ill no t be a lo ne in disagreeing profoundly wi th m an y of his co ncl usions . Fo llow u p Possible co llocatio ns are: re volutionary th eory, di smiss/disprove so meone's th eory gro u nd b re a k ing research, a m a jor researc h pro ject present o ne's a rg u ment, a powe rful argume nt

Unit 34 34. I

1 2 3 4

34.2

1 2 3 4

34.3

1 2 3 4 S 6 7

e ) Bill Sikes robs a bank. g ) The police carry o ut an in vestigation . b ) Bill Sik es goes o n trial. a ) A numbe r of w itnesses a p pea r in cou rt. f) The jury reach es its verdict. c ) Bill Sikes is fo u nd g ui lty. d ) Bill Sik es is seve rely punish ed.

34.4

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8

to win his o r her case a fair trial carry o ut an inv estigation They m a y face th e d eath pen alty. It mi ght a ct as a d eterrent. reach a verdict harsh punishments/sentences a heavy fine

34.5

1 2 3 4 S 6

Eve ryo ne must comply w ith th ese regulati ons. These rules appl y to a ll c itizens . The jury reach ed a ve rd ict o f guilty. The pol ice are ca rrying o ut a n in vesti gation into the ba n k robbery. Our company alwa ys acts within the law. The rul es d o not a llow students to ea t a nd drink in th e cla ssro oms.

o bey /o bse rve o bse rve/obey break resp ect S act

6 7 8 9

pa ssin g/introducing introd ucing/passing upholding/enforc in g en fo rcing/ u p ho ld ing

The ru les apply to a ll stu de nts in th e college . The rul es prohibit th e use of m obile phones in cla ss. The rules all ow students to book college g uest ro oms a t w eek ends. The regu lation s stipulate tha t coursework must be handed in o n time. S M ost st udents follow th e rules w ithout too man y co m plai n ts . 6 The a ut ho rities bent th e rul es to all ow Ma ry to su bmi t her cou rsework a little la te. 7 A ll stu dents must comply with th e regulations.

English Collocati ons in

Use

145


Un it 35 35.1

1 2 3 4

35.2

1 b

a young/juvenile offender a convicted c rimina l a ha rd ened cri m inal to se rve a sen tence

5 6 7 8

to commit a cri me / an offence a politica l prisoner a co m mon crimina l a c riminal record

2 f 3 e 4 c

5 a 6 d

35.3

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

35.4 2 3 4 5 6 7

committed breaking stea ling offende rs spa te ta c k le/co m ba t fight juvenile Wo rried, because it would mean tha t a lot of crimes were currently being com mi tted in t he a rea . A c rime tha t is nor too serio us, for example, sma ll-sca le shoplift ing or p utting graffiti on public places. They a re putting a lor of time and m o ney into solving se rious crime. combat a crime in w hich innocent peo ple a re kill ed for polit ical pu rpo ses ro b beries - a spate of is used to d esc ribe a se ries o f negat ive eve nts For example breaking windows, damagi ng telephone bo xes, b rea k ing down fences, slas hing ca r ryres, etc.

Unit 36

146

36.1

M o nda y Tuesd a y Wednesda y Th ursday Friday Sa turday Su nday

la test mak e headl ine/front-page lea ked hi t; ran front-page hol d

36.2

Ac ro ss 1 do w n 4 go 6 close 7 break

Down 2 pl ans 3 flick 5 item

36.3

1 turn ; keep; co mes 2 seized ; tak en 3 struck; caugh t

English Collocations in Use

4 ho ld; interested 5 to p; controversia l 6 lau nched


Un it 37 37.1

1 Mariann e 2 Cat herine 3 Brion y

37.2

1 soared 2 rid iculous/low p rice 3 reaso na bly p riced

4 rock-bottom/ridic ulo us 5 went; go up / rise

37.3

I m ake 2 m aking; steady 3 ti ght 4 go ing; s ho rt

5 rai se

4 Ph ilip 5 Anthony

6 sma ll; ti ed u p 7 big; se rio usly

Un it 38 38.1

I go; avert 2 raged; o pened

38 .2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 fight 4 jo in ted ); hor ro rs

The wa r be twee n Ad ver bi a an d Colloca nia broke o u t in 19 8 3 afte r a d ispute over terri tory in the northe rn pro vince. At first there w ere jus t mi nor inci dents b ut it soon turn ed into a ll-o u t w a r. The w ar ended a fte r a d eci sive battle in 198 7 . T he re w a s fierce figh ti ng in t he ca pita l city yes te rday. Uni te d a rio ns pea cekeeping forces are ex pecte d to ente r the c ity a s soon as a cca sefi re is ca lled . Forces se nt in to keep th e pea ce in th e tro ubl ed reg ion of Phra sal ia had to w ithdraw/retreat after th ey came with in (firing) range o f rebel a rti lle ry. The So rnak Republic today d ecl ared war a gainst H obrania , Ar med tro ops w ere se nt in to restore o rder afte r th e riots and vio lence of las t week . Eve n th o ug h t he tw o sid es signe d a peace treaty / peace agreement la st Ju ly, fig hti ng ha s sta rted agai n and hopes fo r a la sting pe ace a re fa di ng. As m ore o f o ur sold iers w ere kill ed o r taken prisoner, pea ce ac tivists organ ise d d emonstrations aga in st th e unpopular war. Representati ves o f th e two sides a re meetin g in Zurich in a n a tte m p t to b ring a bout peace in t he troubled reg io n . It is ho ped that they will negotiate a p ea ce a greem ent wh ich both gove rn ments ca n accep t.

38.3

I 2 3 4 5

38.4

Possible answers:

a running ba ttle . lo sin g the battle . put up a heroic fight . o ffe red no resistance . fighting for (h is) life .

arm y - a n army a d va nces, m arc he s, retrea ts; to m obilise a n a rmy; a victo rious a rmy so ld ier - veteran solide r; ran k-an d-fi le soldi er; a wound ed sold ier; to se rve as a sold ier battle - a fierce battle; a battle of w ords; a battle of wits; to go into battl e; to wi n/lose a battle w eapon - d eadl y w eapo n; c hem ica l w eapon; bi ol o gical w eapo n; to carry a w eapon to fight - to fig h t bravely; to fight bi tt erl y; to figh t ha rd peace - to mak e peac e; the pe ace process; a peace conference; to tak e part in a pea ce d emonstra ti on

English Collocations in Use

14 7


.... U n it 39 39.1

1 seeke rs 2 layer 3 breed 4 gases S o p portun ity

39.2

I c 2 e 3 a

3 9 .3

I 2 3 4

39.4

Possible answers: 1 Peo p le may su ffer from famine. Prices for food wi ll rise. 2 pet ro l, diesel, coa l 3 flo od , ea rthq ua ke, vo lca n ic eru ptio n, fore st fire 4 It might destro y people's homes a nd workplaces, d a mage o r destro y crops , destroy road! a nd th er efore mak e th e a rea inaccessible, ca use d iseases beca use of lac k of clean water. S T hey co uld send relief teams, send esse nti a l sup plies , food, medicin es, etc. 6 ecologica l issu es 7 C lima te change leading to th e melting of th e pol ar ice caps. 8 Beca use the re a re more a nd more ca rs a nd o the r vehicles emi tti ng exhaust fu mes.

6 7 8 9

slee p death need lift 10 line (Peo ple can a lso be on th e po verty line or abo ve th e poverty lin

4 d S b

g reen hi t debt d eveloping

S margins 6 solution 7 a llevia te/e radica te

Unit 40

148

40.1

I 2 3 4 S

40.2

1 2 3 4

ran o ut of t ime. w orth your wh ile. fro m d a wn t ill du sk. w ha t th e fut ure ho lds . S Did yo u ha ve a good time . 6 I d idn 't ha ve tim e to do the iron ing .. .

40.3

I 2 3 4

spare/leisu re/free spend take M ake ki lling

Sa lly: Inez: M ark : Ma ry: S And y: 6 Teresa :

English Collocations ;n Use

6 7 8 9

wast e save bang/dead/right tell

Well, w e'd better a ll set our a larms. Yes. It was fantast ic. I had the time o f m y life. Yes, [ think yo u learn to respect th em more as tim e goes by. Yes. I'll try to co me a nd see yo u in t he not too di stant future. Yes. I d id n't wake up. T he al arm didn 't go off. Yes, she a lw ays stays up work ing until th e small hours.


40.4

Possible answers - you may well find other good co llocatio ns (or these w ords: day clock day br eaks a clock stri kes day da w ns a clock chimes a t th e en d of the day to watch the clock th e good o ld da ys put the clock back/forward in this day a nd age stop the clock hour last an hour w ith eve ry passing hour to wo rk anti-social hou rs to wo rk reg u la r hours to sleep fo r eight solid hours

m inute mi nutes tick by can yo u spa re a minute do yo u have a m inute hold o n a m inute th e minu te so me t h ing happens

Unit 41 41.1

4 1.2

I babbl ing 2 si ngi ng 3 patte r 1 L

2 3 4 S 6

41.3

5 L 5 L L

1 e

2 g 3 a 4 h

4 1.4

4 a n eerie S broke n 6 ran g

7 L 8 L 9 5 10 5 11 5 12 5 S b 6 d 7 f 8 c

1 A person fa lling o ut of bed o nto a ca rpe te d floor in th e roo m a bove you - something meta l on stone would make a sha rp noise rath er tha n a dull thud . 2 Primary sc hoo lchi ld re n - as sh rill suggests high -pi tc hed vo ices. 3 Big waves - as crashing suggests a big so und . 4 From a bird . S A grou p of motorbi kes ro a ring past. A large wa terfall w ill ma ke a loud noi se but it won't be as sud den or as unpleasant as it w ou ld need to be in o rder to be called ea r-sp litt ing .

Unit 42 4 2.1 42.2

42.3

1 neigh bo ur ing 2 cover; considerable

3 far; off 4 walking; close

Although we had a liffle increase in o ur pay last month, we still ea rn very SffiftlI wages. We have not had a Big deal of he lp from t he un ion , an d tell prices mean that life is no t easy. luckily, w e o nly have a SffiftlI leve l of inflation at the moment.

I major d iffic ult ies 2 high heels 3 o n a large sca le 4 high interest rates

S 6 7 8

sm all low great high low

slim boo k large q ua ntities little brother taller th an English Collocations in Use

14


42.4

I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9

painfully 0 (a fa t book, or a p lump person) high tide ta ll little deal small o. \X'e ' d say, 'Could you help me do some little things before dinner?' You'd p refer lo w interest rates (not hig h interest rates) beca use th en you wo u ldn't need to pay so much extra money back to the bank .

Un it 43 43.1

1 bright colours; subdued co lo u rs 2 colours go 3 colour ran

4 colours clash S touch of colour

6 colour fades

43 .2

I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

43.3

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8

43.4

1 A draught, the wind or some other movement of air. 2 A ray of sunlight. 3 T he nig ht. If yo u want to say that sorneone's hair is very black, you would call it jet black . 4 Far away, because a faint glow means that the light is nor strong. S A star shines suggests a more co nsranr strong lig h t, w hereas a star twinkles suggests a brigh t light in th e distance that gives the illusion of moving a little. 6 Issues concerned with conservation o r the environment. 7 You may fee l co nfused, it is not a clear-cut issue, th ere is no obvio us right answer. 8 Something sa d or worryi ng - an illn ess perh a ps o r a wa r. 9 She ha s said something bad about him tha t he believes is harming his reputation . 10 It becomes livelier or more inte resting.

a cand le flickers a beam of light pitch dark a faint glow a star twink les pale green g reen Issues a grey area cast a shadow blacken sorneone's name

The police arc lo o king for someone who can shed light o n how the accident happened. He has always been under th e sha dow of his world-famous father. In the east the sky was tingcd with gold . J o e's crazy behavio u r ce rtai n ly adds colour to our dull office. The gla re o f th e su n can make driving difficult at this time of day. She walked until the fire was just a pinpoint of light in the distance. It was gro w ing dark and Ji ll began to fee l a little afrai d . The newspapers sccm to be trying to blacken the mi nis ter's namc.

Unit 44 44.1

ISO

I 2 3 4

a firm/h ard pillow sm o o th ski n tough la m b chops blunt penknife

English Collocations in

Use

S 6 7 8

sm o o th/ ca lm greasy ha ir oil y skin (a lso greasy skin) bumpy flight


44.2

Suggested answers: I Assistant: Yes. You can eirhe r have matt o r gloss (fi n ish) . 2 Nelly: Yes. And rhe ice o n rhe lake ha s already mel red. 3 Bill: I'm afraid ir ha s gone hard. 4 Elana : Yes, I rhink a ttitu des a re hardeni ng / have ha rd ened / are beginning ro hard en / have begun ro harden. 5 Kate: Mm. Yes. They a re ra the r o ld. They're beginning to go soft.

44.3

Across 3 cream y 4 coa rse 5 th aw 6 st icky

44.4

T hese are rh e collocat io ns wi rh rhe srro ngest positive o r negati ve associa tions , You ma y be a ble ro [us rify including o rhe rs in yo u r se lecrio n . positive co llocations negarive co llocations smoorh sk in rough skin smoorh roa dlfli ghr greasy hair render meat bumpy roadlflight creamy rexrure rou gh rnear go smoo th ly sha rp rongu e glossy hair coa rse jokes greasy hands sricky fingers sticky sirua rio n

Down I velvety 2 vo ices

Unit 45 45.1

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

45.2

positive appetising aroma fragrant perfume fresh scent

45.3

I probabl y a lor, or at lea st as much a s he can 2 a light sme ll a plea sant sme ll 3 the smell o f sweat 4 Just a litrl e - probabl y to c heck rhar ir is all right and doesn 't, for example, need more salt. 5 0, not at all. It would have seemed even worse. 6 get rhe general idea 7 so merh ing that ha s happened 8 They both like a variety of thin gs (e.g. books, film s, music, clothes, hol ida ys), nor jusr food .

I rhink caviar mu sr be an acquired ra sre - I don't like ir ve ry much. The delici ous a ro ma of fresh coffee wafted in from rhe kirch en . The park wa s spo ilr by the noxious fum es from th e factory behind ir. We jus t lo ved th e fra gr ant perfume o f th e blossom o n rhe rrees. I particularly enj oy the subrle fl a vours rhar herbs give to food. Smell th e borrle and rell me if the milk is so ur o r OK ro drink srill. I usually love coffee bur rhis coffee is jusr ro o bitter for m y ta ste. It must be t he wet logs causing such acrid smoke from th e bonfire. negative acrid smoke foul -smelling che m ica ls noxious fumes ov erpowering srink rev olring ste nc h

English Collocations in Use

I5 I


Unit 46 46. 1

1 a tin y/minute amou nt 2 a n enormous a mo unt 3 a sig nifica nt number

46.2

1 odd 2 currency 3 even

46.3

1 2 3 4 5 6

46.4

Possible ansu/ers: Sales rose stea di ly/gradua lly between J anuary a nd Apri l. Sa les ro se s ha rply/s tee p ly in M a y. Sal es remained consta nt between M a y a nd Au gu st. Sa les fell sharply/s tee ply in September. / In Septe m be r there was a dramatic fall in sale s. There was a dra matic rise in sal es in ovem be r.

4 a sur prising num be r 5 a considerable/subst antial numbe r

4 comes 5 fa lling

widespread droplfall/decline rise rare widesp read keep

7 8 9 10

keep rise rare widesp rea d I 1 decline/fa ll 12 rise

Unit 47 47.1

1 2 3 4

quick ha st y prom pt swift

47.2

1 2 3 4 5

picked m ovin g sta nds til l mak e/r ak e pain full y

47.3

I 2 3 4 5

5 6 7 8

ra p id fas t brisk speedy 6 7 8 9 10

leisurel y took los t lo st took

th e fast tra in ... to stee r th e conversa t ion . . . turn the clock upside do wn ... in slo w motion. go astra y.

6 7 8 9

a quick lunch . . . in a n unhurried ma n ne r. at breakn eck speed . . . a top s peed of ...

Unit 48 48.1

I 2 3 4

48. 2

1 2 3

48.3

1 rrse n

made break ha bit made

5 slig ht 6 way 7 ad o pt

change the subject. to cha nge places/seats? changed m y mind . . . .

2 excha nge d 3 mo vin g

I52

English Collocations ;n Use

4 beco me 5 rai se 6 became; a rose

4 5 6

cha nging jobs ? cha nge o ur clothes . .. cha nge the bed s.


Un it 49 49.1

1 2 3

49.2

1 You can bo rrow my camera - I'll give you ins t ructions abo ut ho w to use it. 2 I co uld tell you a lot of stories about what we used to do when we were kids. 3 That's enough about computers. I think it's time we changed th e s ub ject, don't yo u? 4 O n th e tra in I struc k up a conve rsa tio n with a n interesting m a n from J apan . 5 I can't spea k J a pa nese. 6 I' m afraid I really don't ha ve time for a lengthy discussion on the ma tter. 7 The US President Geo rge Wash ington is famous for confessing after telling a lie. 8 I don't like yo ur tone of vo ice - th ere's no nee d to be so aggress ive.

49.3

1 c hat 2 q uic k 3 as k 4 delica te

49.4

1 ... th e tru th. 2 .. . th e subject.

ma ke a speech . gave me her word ... ge t to the poi nt.

4 1 w ish yo u luck . .. 5 .. . cracking/te lling jokes.

5 record 6 make 7 havin g

3 .. . enough hints. 4 .. . observa tio ns .

5 ... 6 .. . 7 ... 8 . ..

Igno ra nce. the conversation. p ro fusely. bitterly.

9 .. . 10 . .. 11 . .. 12 . ..

po litely. softly. in the conversation . conversation.

Unit 50 50.1

1 going; tak e; took 2 p acing; go 3 o n foo t; go; brisk ; go fo r

50.2

1 2 3 4 5

50.3

1 run into / run up against 2 g reat strides 3 wa lked it

50.4

Possible collocations include: go fo r a ru n break into a ru n [sudde n ly sta rt run n ing) m ak e a run for [esca pe) run bl indl y run head lo ng run a bu siness (b usi nesses) run efficiently (things) run smoothly (buses, trai ns) ru n regularl y

False - Cautiously mea ns slowly a nd wi th grea t care. Fa lse - A leisurel y stro ll is a slo w, relaxed w alk. T rue True Fa lse - Brisk ly mean s qui te q uick ly. 4 walks o f life 5 ru sh headlong 6 an easy wa lk

Unit 51 5 1.1

1 an early sta rt 2 a prom ising sta rt

3 a perfect end 4 go t off to a good sta rt

English Collocations in Use

15 3


51.2

1 It was such a clo se finish to the race that no one was quite sure who had won. 2 I've just got to pu t the fini shing to uches to my painting and t hen you can see it. 3 I expect the meeting will come to an end at about 5 .30 . (d ra w to a clo se is also possible) 4 Everyone is here, so I think we should m ake a sta rt now. 5 We all hope that the negotiations will succeed in bringing the strike to an end . 6 E-mail marked the beginnin g of the end for the fax machine. 7 Our journey ended - as it had begun - in Cairo. 8 Have you heard yet what the end result of the talks was?

51.3

1 I hope the meeting will soon draw to a close.

2 The conference got off to a good start with an excellent reception in the Town Hal l. 3 As Dan didn't know a single word of japanese he was put in an absolute beginners' class. 4 The scandal brought an abrupt end to j ac kso n's career as a politician. o r The scandal brought j ack so n's career as a politician to an abrupt end. 5 Lance Armstrong won the cycle race in a nail-biting finish.

51.4

I c

2 d

3 e

4 b

5 f

6 a

Unit 52 52.1

I 2 3 4 5 6

52.2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

52.3

I was a lways a dismal failure at school. I completely mi ssed the poi nt of marhs and I fai led miserably a t most o ther subjects . On ly t he d rama teacher m a na ged to bring o ur the best in m e and gave me a pa rt in the school p lay. H o w ever, I lost my nerve on the day of th e per fo rm an ce a n d m y hopes of a ca reer o n t he stage were dashed.

won fr ui ts brillia nt/grea t ma de passed gai ned

7 8 9 10 II 12

crow ning b rings m ade guaranteed re markable ta ke

53.2

1 a tt rac te d 2 ca used 3 produce

I54

4 b rought a bo ut

5 spa r ke d o ff

I se nsa tio n

2 3 4 5

m ade effective have grasp co me d rama tic

Our plans went bad ly wrong. My hopes were dashed w he n I heard th e news. After the horse threw me I lo st my ne rve and couldn't get back on. The scheme is doomed to fail ure. H e failed his final exams. Our political ca m paign faile d m isera bl y. H is plans are a recipe for disaste r. A year later he wen t o u t of business. She seemed to miss the po int completely. H is la tes t novel was a complete flop.

Unit 53 53.1

13 14 15 16 17 18

m aj or upro ar conseq ue nces u nexpected

English Collocations in

Use

6 7 8 9

po siti ve a ffecte d ca used had


53.3

I 2 3 4

S 6 7 8 9 10

The enquiry aims to establish what the immediate cause of th e fire w a s. H enry's g ra nd m ot he r had a considerable influence o n hi s c ho ice of ca ree r. T he c ha nges had some un foreseen results which n o o ne could ha ve predicted. C ri ticising yo u r previous bo ss d o esn't create a good impressio n a t a jo b interview. We must do a ll w e can to minimise th e impact of th e traged y o n o u r children. \Vh at happens in c hi ld hood a ffec ts th e d evelopment o f personality ve ry d eepl y. M an agement is trying to effect so me c ha nges in the wa y th e college is struct ured . The TV cove rage th ey ha ve received ha s stre ng t he ne d th e impact o f th e new m ea sures. The gove rn me nt sho u ld d o so me thi ng a bo ut the underl yin g ca uses of c rime. T he riots w ere a n inev ita ble result of th e huge tax ri ses.

Fo llow up

Possible co llo catio ns are : infl ue nce - to exe rt a n influence, a co ns ide ra ble influe nce, a sligh t influe nce , a stro ng influence effec t - to a ssess th e e ffect, the main effect, sho rt- te r m/lo ng-ter m e ffects im pact - to exagge ra te th e impact, fu nda mental im pact , internati onal im pact conseq uen ces - accept/take the co nseq ue nces, adverse co nseq uences, lik el y consequences There a re , however, m an y o t he r good collo cati ons fo r th ese w ords th at you mi ght find .

Unit 54 54.1

1 \Vell, m y earliest m emo ry is of sitti ng in o u r ga rden o n my m other's lap. I vaguely remember that there was a ca t o r d o g th ere too , but I can 't remem ber much e lse . 2 I used to have a go o d memory when I was yo u ng, but I'm 82 now, and a s yo u ge t o lde r you r long-term memory is very clear, but yo u r short- te r m m emory is less good . Somet im es I can't remember wh at happen ed yes te rday. But I ca n distinctly/vividly rem em ber m y first da y a t sc ho o l as a chi ld . 3 M y m other so me ti mes tells me things I did o r sa id wh en I was little but wh ich I' ve com p letely/clean forgotten. One em ba r rass ing m emory w hic h I'd ra t her blot o u t is when I took so me sci sso rs and cut m y own ha ir. It looked awful ! 4 Seeing sc hoolch ild ren o ften sti rs up all kind s of memories for m e. I w a sn 't happ y a t sc ho o l and I have so me pain ful m emories o f being force d to d o spo rts , wh ich I hated . So metimes, when I hea r ce rtain so ngs , me mori es come flo oding back .

54.2

I blank 2 rightly

54.3

1 2 3 4

54.4

3 clue 4 a memorable / an unforgettable

impression sensed intuition o ver-sensit ive

1 di stinctly

2 had

S numb 6 se ns itive 7 ac ute 8 sensib le

4 trust S blot o ut

3 go

Unit 55 55.1

be come see se ttle share e nter agree appreciate

in agreement to a compromise so m eo ne's point o u r differences an o p i ru o n into an a rgu ment to d iffer others' points o f view English Collocations in

Use

I55


55.2

reaching agreement

disagreeing

come to a compromise settle a dispute

a controversy rages a head-o n clash a heat ed argument differences ex ist

55.3

1 I (ca n) agree with what yo u say u p to a point. 2 I entirely agree wi th yo u. 3 T he comm ittee me m bers rea ch ed a un a n im o us agreement. 4 D ifferen ces (o f o p in io n) w ill a lways a rise even be twee n frie nds. 5 J ames and Brian stro ngly di sa greed over the q ues t io n of climate change. 6 T he project has been d ela yed because o f a conflict of o pinion / because of co nflicting opinions among the m em bers of th e commi ttee. 7 I find it d ifficu lt to go along wi th such a n idea. 8 \Ve fundamentally disagree / d isa gree fundamentally abo ut most th ings.

55.4

1 a hea ted argument 2 a head-on clash, a conflict of opinion 3 con troversy rages 4 Because bitter usua lly refers to an unpleasant taste and fo r most peo ple disagreement a re unpleasant and ca n eve n be said to lea ve an u npleasa nt ta st e in you r mo ut h. 5 see sorneo ne's poi n t

Unit 56 56.1

2 matter 3 reason

6 poles 7 firmly 8 believer

4 belief

9 sneaking

1 sha re

5 difference

56.2

I hope we can / I wish we could solve a big probl em we ha ve regardi ng o ur student committee. Opin ions are divided about ho w to approac h the iss ue a nd, na turally, some members ha ve very strong o pinio ns . So me of th eir views are based on th eir unshakeable bel ief th at th ey a re al w ays right and that no o ne ca n ch all en ge th eir set of beliefs. M y own considered o p in io n is that w e sho uld ha ve new elections, but I know th at others ha ve quite a different opinion.

56.3

156

verb

noun

I

make

assumptions

2

colour

3

trust

4

attach

im po rta nce to

5

cast

doubt on

6

have

Eng/ish Collocations in Use

somebody's judge me nt

serious misgivings doubts


Possible sente nces: I It is wro ng to m ake assu m ptio ns a bo u t people before yo u really ge t to kno w th e m. 2 Rec ent events ha ve colo u re d his judgement and he can not see th in gs o bjective ly a ny m ore. 3 I w ould never trust th e judgement of som eone wh o had no ex pe rie nce o f th e m atter. 4 I d on 't a ttac h much impo rta nce to he r co m me nts; she kn ows nothin g a bout th e su b ject. 5 T he new statistics cast doubt on the claim tha t using m obile phones d o es not d ama ge ch ildren 's health. 6 I have se rio us m isg ivings abo ut th e new sc he me . I d on't th ink it w ill w ork. Pro fesso r \X'iseman has d oubts a bo ut th e acc u racy of th e results of Pro fessor Dumbssort's ex pe rime nt.

56.4

pol es a pa rt snea ki ng sus p icion st ro ng o p inio ns popular bel ief cast doubt firml y believe think hard

Unit 57 57 .1

1 2 3 4 5

57.2

1 so u nd 2 wi se

3 w eigh 4 a rrive

5 degree 6 defend

7 tough 8 take

57 .3

I Arch ie

2 Ela ine

3 Rho d a

4 M abel

B: B: B: B: B:

Yes, yo u ca n't go o n putting o ff (maki ng) the d eci sion fo r ever. Yes, I'm g la d it w a s a un an im ous d ec ision. Yes, I think it 's best if we all reserve judgement till w e see th e res ul ts . Mrn, it's obvio us you ' re ha vin g second th oughts. Yes, I d efinitely detected a sligh t hesitati on o n hi s pa rt, yo u' re righ t. 9 g ive 10 come 5 Z uba ya

6 Kim

Un it 58 58.1

1 leaked d ocument 2 long-runn ing ba ttle 3 heavy/broad hints

4 issu e a sta te ment 5 se rious a llegatio ns 6 clearl y implied / d ropped hea vy/b road h ints a s to

58.2

forward

2 re jects

3 m akes

4 ac k now ledged

58.3 58.4

d enied

2 refuse

3 rejects

4 d en ied

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5 ba ck

6 substantiate

5 refuse

\X'e d iscl a im responsib ility for va lua bles tha t are not le ft in the hote l sa fe. The pop sta r in sist ed th at th e claims m ade agai ns t h im w ere u n fo u nd ed . j ones's views run contra ry to th e fac ts. The ne ws pa pe r d ropped (hea vy/b ro ad) hints about / as to who the actor's new lo ver w as. Paul denied th e rumours a bo ut him . Whatever idea I suggest, j im re jects it. O r j im rejects wha tever idea I suggest. I don't know what to do, as eve ryo ne keeps g iving me cont ra dicto ry adv ice. The stu dent is fac ing accusa tions of ch eatin g in h is exa m . In his new bo ok th e writer puts forward a n inte rest ing t heo ry of a rt . Re cent research backs up M clnryr e's th eory.

Unit 59 59. 1

1 In th e su rvey m ost people ex pressed a clear/strong preferen ce fo r coffee rath er than tea . 2 Karl has a huge/strong avers io n to people using m obile phones in restaurants. 3 The staff all ha ve the h igh est/greatest regard for th eir ma naging d irector. English Collocations ;n Use

I 57


It's been a great/huge pleasure getting ro know yo u . Su zie has a gen u ine liking for cowboy films . My parents ha ve a d eep/deep-rooted hatred for most modern architecture. We get g rea t en joyment o ut o f o u r w eekends in th e cou ntry. 8 Rex ro ok a n in stant di slike ro hi s new secre ta ry.

4 5 6 7

59.2 59.3 59.4

2 + I ca te r 2 stro ng

3 +

5 -

4 -

3 particular 4 g ive

6 +

5 w arm 6 rake

7

8 +

9

+

7 th ought

Possible answ ers: I I lik e both , but I su p pose it is a fanra srice feeling wh en yo u g ive so me t h ing a nd you ca n tell that the person yo u g ive it ro really lik es it . 2 I th ink I a m m o re lik el y to take a n intense di slike t o a person than a pl ace as m y fee lings in ge ne ra l - both lik ing and di sliking - a re stro nger for pe ople than pla ces. 3 I normally go for a n a isle sea t because I like to be abl e ro stretch m y legs. 4 I don't ha ve a singe r wh o I could call m y absolute fa vourite - I like a lo t of differ ent people, and wh o I want ro listen ro d epends on my mood. 5 Tony Benn, an elderl y Briti sh politician, ha s filled me with admira tion o ver the last five yea rs . I think he is principled and intelligent, which is not so met h ing tha t can be sa id about all politicians. 6 I ta ke more prid e in m y work, if, by home, you mean t he house th at I live in . But if by home yo u me a n family then I tak e more pride in my home. 7 I feel grea t lo ve for m y h usba nd, my son a nd my ne p hews . 8 I perso nall y ge t m o re p leas ure fro m rea d ing.

Unit 60 60. 1

I sta n d ing

2 thunderous 3 accl a im 4 warml y

60.2

5 6 7 8

richly/justl y won take gives

9 smgmg 10 justly/richly 11 offer 12 round

IT 2 F - If you ha ve nothing but praise for so m eo ne, you praise them a lot and have no c ritic isms to mak e o f them . 3 F - If you crit icise so meo ne roundly, yo u criticise them very st ro ng ly.

4 T 5 F - If you counter criticism, yo u criticise your critic back. 6 F - If so me o ne gi ves their blessing ro something, they say they are in fav our of it. 7 T

8 T

60.3

I H e came in fo r a lot o f criticism .

2 3 4 5 6 7

I thoro ughly disapprove of how she respo nd ed ro the criticism . The judge severely co ndemned him / condemned him severely for lying. I want to express my disapprova l of her behaviour. The cri t ics were outs po ken but he d ism issed th eir cri ticis ms . H is com me nts recei ved universa l conde m na tion . We st ren uo usly objecte d ro the plan a n d w ere highl y cri tica l o f it. Or: We were h ighl y cri tica l of th e p la n a n d stren uo us ly objecte d to it. 8 I ha ve a lways been a ha rs h critic o f co r rupt govern ment.

60.4

I 58

This is the la st exercise in this boo k. Ma y we give you a pa t o n the back fo r getting to th is poi nt. Indeed, yo u richly/j ustly d eserve a big clap. We ha ve nothing bu t praise for yo u a n d wo uld like ro offer yo u o ur wa rm congratu la tio ns !

Eng/ish Collocations in Use

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