Issuu on Google+

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2013 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS Biomechanical analysis of legs position in the execution of the throwing technique in judo sport- SASAE TSURIKOMI ASHI FADIL REXHEPI...........................................................................................................................................3-7 LEGISLATION AND SPORT MANAGEMENT The sports law in the context of the plurality of law systems, and the new concept of work in European area SAIMIR. SHATKU, BLERINA MEMA AND SERGIO VINCIGUERRA .................................8-12 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH Physical activity and fitness in adolescence in Tirana AIDA SHEHU, LUMTURI MARKOLAJ...........................................................................................13-17 The prevalence of obesity in children and current level of physical activity in a city in transition JUEL JARANI, ANESTI QELESHI .....................................................................................................18-22

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS

PHYSICAL EDUCATION School-based intervention within the physical education curriculum in promoting physical activity and fitness ANDI SPAHI, JUEL JARANI AND HARALD TCHAN...............................................................23-30 A preliminary epidemiologic study on development coordination disorder in Albanian children (7-10 years) GENTIANA NICAJ, NADIA SCHOTT.............................................................................................31-36 An invenstigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them, on 6-7 years old children in Tirana KEIDA USHTELENCA, SKERDI PASHA, YNGVA R OMMUNDSEN...................................37-44 TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE A comparison of anthropometric parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness in Albanian youth soccer teams ABDYL KURIU, FLORIAN MEMA.....................................................................................................45-50 The evaluation of the functional performance of the ‘Vertical jump’ at female and male volleyball players in the Albanian championship ENKELEIDA LLESHI1, VEJSEL RIZVA NOLLI2 ..........................................................................51-54 Strength training in children and adolescent NAJADA QUKA, RIGERTA SELENICA..........................................................................................55-59

The Official Journal of Sports University of Tirana

Rruga “Muhamet Gjollesha”, Tiranë , Shqipë ri. http: www.ust.edu.al

Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2013

ISSN 2308-5045


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2013 CONTENTS EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS Biomechanical analysis of legs position in the execution of the throwing technique in judo sport- SASAE TSURIKOMI ASHI FADIL REXHEPI............................................................................................................................3-7 LEGISLATION AND SPORT MANAGEMENT The sports law in the context of the plurality of law systems, and the new concept of work in European area SAIMIR. SHATKU, BLERINA MEMA AND SERGIO VINCIGUERRA ..................................8-12 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH Physical activity and fitness in adolescence in Tirana AIDA SHEHU, LUMTURI MARKOLAJ....................................................................................13-17 The prevalence of obesity in children and current level of physical activity in a city in transition JUEL JARANI, ANESTI QELESHI .............................................................................................18-22 PHYSICAL EDUCATION School-based intervention within the physical education curriculum in promoting physical activity and fitness ANDI SPAHI, JUEL JARANI AND HARALD TCHAN.............................................................23-30 A preliminary epidemiologic study on development coordination disorder in Albanian children (7-10 years) GENTIANA NICAJ, NADIA SCHOTT......................................................................................31-36 An invenstigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them, on 6-7 years old children in Tirana KEIDA USHTELENCA, SKERDI PASHA, YNGVAR OMMUNDSEN...................................37-44 TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE A comparison of anthropometric parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness in Albanian youth soccer teams ABDYL KURIU, FLORIAN MEMA............................................................................................45-50 The evaluation of the functional performance of the ‘Vertical jump’ at female and male volleyball players in the Albanian championship ENKELEIDA LLESHI1, VEJSEL RIZVANOLLI2 ......................................................................51-54 Strength training in children and adolescent NAJADA QUKA, RIGERTA SELENICA.....................................................................................55-59


2

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1


EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGYAND BIOMECHANICS

3

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Biomechanical analysis of legs position in the execution of the throwing technique in judo sport- SASAE TSURIKOMI ASHI FADIL REXHEPI 1 1

Faculty of Physical Education, State University of Tetova, FYROM

Correspondence: F. Rexhepi, Faculty of Physical Education, State University of Tetova, FYROM, E-mail; fadil_rexhepi@yahoo.com Abstract The biomechanical analysis of the throwing techniques in the sport of judo is one of the most effective ways to determine more accurate data. The purpose of this study has been the determination of key indicators on the athlete’s body position (the thrower - tori) during the execution of the leg throwing technique, sasae tsurikomi ashi. Hence, 11 judoka were included for this purpose where one of them executed the technique on ten others (the thrown - uke). The analyzed technique, sasae tsurikomi ashi, was realized by engaging the active leg and blocking the opponent’s leg. In biomechanical terms, torque is applied on the opponent’s body. Higher values of displacement of the thrower’s supporting leg, thrower’s blocking leg, the displacement of the center of gravity and the trajectory of his movement, are displayed in the anteroposterior direction. Significant lower values are displayed in the vertical direction, while the displacements are much lower in the mediolateral direction. Furthermore, during the analysis it is proved the importance of the blocking leg velocity in the forward direction and the importance of the opponent’s traction in the backward direction of the thrower’s body. Keywords: judo throws, sasae tsurikomi ashi, biomechanical analysis, displacement, trajectory. Introduction The sport of judo is seen as one of the most attractive sports, with high educative and recreation values. The throwing techniques as well as other techniques enable to subdue the opponent and achieve victory. The group of leg throwing techniques is very effective for achieving scores, but on the other hand they are difficult to execute. These techniques are difficult because the position of the thrower (the thrower in judo is called - tori) during the execution phase of the leg techniques takes specific position where he has to stand supported with one leg (the supporting leg), while with the other leg (the active leg) acts on the opponent’s body (the thrown in judo is called - uke). This can be in the form of reaping one or both opponent’s legs, namely in the form of blocking, sweeping, etc. It is particularly important that the coach knows the most convenient positions of the thrower (tori) and

the thrown (uke) bodies during the training process. In biomechanical terms, the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique is executed by blocking the opponent’s leg, while with both hands pulling forward the opponent’s body, which means that we act on the basis of biomechanical principle of “torque” on the opponent’s body (Sacripanti, 1989). Regarding tori’s body position in respect to uke, the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique belongs to the group of techniques called “direct techniques”, because tori does not turn his back towards the opponent during the execution of the technique. Actually, he is facing uke with his chest and head during the whole time of the attack. The high level of competition in the sport of judo has made the need for detailed analysis of the techniques of this sport a necessary action. Such an action is impossible by simply


4

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

observing the performed techniques. As in any sport (Bartlett, 2007), opportunities are increased for accurate analysis of the motor structures during the execution of the techniques in the sport of judo thanks to the perfection of biomechanical labs. The kinematic analysis of the throwing techniques in the sport of judo provides useful data on the positions of the two athletes. The threedimensional analysis provides accurate data for the displacement of the limbs of the body and determines the trajectory of movement of the center of gravity of both athletes (Imamura, Hreljac, Escamilla & Edwards 2006). The purpose of this study is the analysis of legs position and the center of gravity of the thrower’s body (tori) in respect to the thrown’s body (uke) during the execution of the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique. Methods Eleven active judoka were included in this study, one of which (tori) a judo master with body mass of 73 kg, has executed the technique in question over ten others (uke) with average mass equal to the mass of the thrower’s body. The technique was executed without opponents’ resistance in the form of demonstration and a maximum engagement of the thrower (figure 1). The performance was filmed with three cameras set up in different angles of the arena. Previously, the calibration frame was filmed with dimensions 180x180x180 cm. Once the filmed material was collected, the data were processed according to the standards of the

system of analyzing movement APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System). A mathematical model was constructed for the simultaneous analysis of two human bodies, on the basis of which it was made the digitalization of 36 points of the body (18 points for each judoist). Subsequently, it was realized the transformation of the three-dimensional space, with the help of direct algorithm of the linear transformation. The achieved coordinates of the reference points of the anthropomorphic model of the two bodies were filtered by the Cubic Spline filter (Ariel Performance Analysis System) and the necessary biomechanical parameters were defined for the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique as a result of this procedure: the displacement in the anteroposterior direction of tori’s active leg (cm), the displacement in the mediolateral direction of tori’s active leg (cm), the vertical displacement of tori’s active leg (cm), the displacement in the anteroposterior direction of tori’s supporting leg (cm), the displacement in the mediolateral direction of tori’s supporting leg (cm), the vertical displacement in the direction of tori’s supporting leg (cm), the displacement in the anteroposterior direction of the center of gravity of tori (cm), the displacement in the mediolateral direction of the center of gravity of tori (cm), the vertical displacement of the center of gravity of tori (cm), and the reflection of the trajectory of the active leg (ankle), the supporting leg (ankle) and the center of gravity of tori.

Figure 1. Sasae tsurikomi ashi: a). blocking phase, b). konturogram


EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGYAND BIOMECHANICS

5

Results The technique was executed by tori’s active leg acting on the opponent’s body, in this case on his leg. Tori’s leg acts forward uke’s leg in the bottom part of the right leg, somewhere on the ankle by blocking it (Daigo, 2005). The values of the mean and of the standard deviation of the displacement of tori’s supporting leg in three directions are shown in Table 1. The value of tori’s left leg displacement in the mediolateral direction (left) is 22,42 cm, and the standard deviation is 5,345 cm. Meanwhile, in the forward direction (anteroposterior) the foot is displaced by 72,036 cm (± 3,377 cm), much more than in the mediolateral direction, because tori’s goal is to unbalance uke and pull him forward. Standard deviation values for the three directions are low. Technique l. ankle

SASAE. T.

r. ankle

c. of gravity

ASHI Displacement

Mean

(direction)

Std. Deviation

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean

Std. Deviation

X (M-L) (cm)

22,42

5,345

4,7140

3,61091

32,2810

4,60067

Y (V) (cm)

3,2660

,54993

18,5470

4,56467

7,4600

1,23057

Z (A-P) (cm)

72,0360

3,37721

88,7930

11,32921

36,1920

3,39972

Table 1. Displacement of supporting foot (left foot), active foot (right foot) and center of gravity of tori’s body in the mediolateral, anteroposterior and vertical direction – Sasae tusrikomi ashi

Meanwhile, the active leg (blocking) is mostly displaced in the forward direction at the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique where the action of hands in this case stands in pulling uke in the forward direction. Such imbalance requires fast and safe blocking in the lower region of uke’s right leg. Therefore, the value of foot displacement in the mediolateral direction is only 4,71 cm (S.d. = 3,610). The displacement of the blocking leg in the vertical direction is slightly higher 18,54 (S.d. = 4,564 ), so as to contact the foot of the blocking leg with the front distal part of uke’s leg. Furthermore, the value of foot displacement of the blocking leg in the anteroposterior direction (forward) is higher compared with the two other directions (Mean = 88,79 cm , S.d. = 11,329 cm ), which means that the main action of the blocking leg is in the forward direction (figure 2).

Figure 2. The trajectory of movement: supporting leg (red color); active leg (blue color) and center of gravity of tori’s body (green color) – Sasae tsurikomi ashi

The results of the analysis of the trajectory of tori’s center of gravity in the three directions of the three-dimensional system during the execution of the technique in question are presented in Table 1. The displacement of tori’s center of gravity in the mediolateral direction (left) is 32,28 cm ( Sd. = 4,6 cm). In the vertical direction, the displacement of the center of gravity is 7,46 cm (± 1,23 cm), which shows that the body displacement in this direction is very low, which means that tori does not have an evident decrease or increase of the body. This is because the goal of tori is to unbalance, and then to throw uke’s body forward without high-low oscillations, in order to focus energy in the right direction. In this case, it comes to question one of the famous principles of throws in the judo, “the principle of energy concentration” (Kudo, 1976).


6

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Discussion Relying on the analysis of the blocking leg, it is concluded that the main movement in this technique is executed in the sagittal plane, in the anteroposterior direction from the forward position. Even if the main aim of the attacker is to stop or “block” the opponent’s leg to continue moving forward during the blockade, he makes this movement with emphasized velocity, which in most cases the feet contact is almost striking. In real life situations, the aim is to catch the opponent unaware and not having time to avoid the leg, which probably provides a positive effect on the imbalance of the opponent (Nowoisky, 2005). The velocity of blocking is easily reached since the movement forward the thigh of the blocking leg is realized by the flexing muscles (flexors) and adducting muscles of the thigh (adductors) which are strong muscles with rapid contraction. Hands provide the pulling action in the forward direction in the upper part of the body, and thus providing the force vector that acts on the lower part of the body, by the principle of torque (figure 1). The step forward or putting the foot of the supporting leg (left leg) forward is the start of tori’s action. As noted above, kuzushi is the phase where the opponent unbalances his body with the help of the hands and by making a step simultaneously forward with the left leg. Uke is not able to maintain body stability if he does not do a compensatory movement in the direction forced by tori (Nowoisky, 2005). Since the attacker continues his action with the other blocking leg, uke is then bound to succumb sideway and forward and so follows the completion of the throwing technique and the throw of the opponent’s body. Even if three phases are distinguished at every throw, the first phase kuzushi and the second phase tsukuri are not evidently distinguished. They represent an integral period during the execution of the technique. Most scholars do not divide strictly and in the same way the first and the second phase (Daigo, 2005; Kano, 1994). It is obvious that after completing the kuzushi–tsukuri phase, the third phase, the phase of flight (kake) is the summing up of the technique and its success depends on the first two. The success of the implementation of these two phases depends on several factors. Besides

the main factors that depend on the thrower, as his technical ability, the size of the first entering step, the action with the hands and the manifested strength, the resistance (nonresistance) of the opponent, etc., the fast execution of the technique depends on the structure of the technique as well. All the socalled “direct” techniques have a shorter way of body movement of tori compared to the indirect techniques. Regarding the direct techniques where the technique in question belongs, the attacker does not turn his body during the attack (in the first and second phase), while he turns his body towards the opponent and he throws him at the indirect techniques. The largest displacement occurs in the forward anteroposterior direction. The need of displacement of tori’s entire body in the forward direction is a condition to unbalance uke’s body. The displacement value in this direction of the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique is 36,19 cm (± 3,39 cm). Aside from the techniques where the active leg causes the blocking of the opponent’s leg, the velocity of action of the active leg is higher and therefore the total time of executing the technique is shorter at the techniques that are realized by reaping the opponent’s leg (e.g., osoto gari) (Imamura & Johnson , 2003). Displacement values are directly dependent on the constitution of the body (dimensions) of tori and uke in all directions among others. Evidently, the athlete (judoist) with longer extremities, disregarding the role he is in (tori or uke), has greater value in the displacement of active leg, supporting leg or even in the center of gravity of the body. Conclusion The body position of the thrower and the controlled displacement during the sasae tsurikomi ashi technique execution are crucial factors for successful opponent throw. During the execution of the sasae tsurikomi ashi, the active leg is displaced even more compared to the supporting leg, while its displacement and displacement of the center of gravity in the anteroposterior direction is of greater value in comparison to the two other directions, namely in the mediolateral and the vertical direction. As a result, even the pulling force of the hands


EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGYAND BIOMECHANICS

is oriented in the same direction according to one of the main principles of judo throws, “the principle of energy concentration”. Based on the principles of the manifestation of force on the opponent’s body at the sasae tsurikomi ashi, it comes to question the principle of torque where the active leg makes the blocking, while the hands of the thrower develop the pulling and thus enable the throw. The accurate determination of these indicators help coaches and teachers of this sport in qualitative planning and programming of the learning process of the throw in question. Furthermore, the determination of other kinematic and kinetic indicators is of great importance during the throw execution in the sport of judo. With the help of these, the analysis is further completed and therefore the qualitative perfection of the throwing techniques. References Ariel Performance Analysis System. (1994). Handbook. San Diego CA.

Ariel Dynamics

Bartlett, R. (2007). Quantitative analysis of movement. In Introduction to Sports Biomechanics. Analyzing Human Movement Patterns (Second edition). London & New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis. Daigo, T. (2005). Kodokan Judo-Throwin Techniques. Tokyo, New York, London: Kodansha International. Imamura, R.T., Hreljac, A., Escamilla, R.F., & Edwards, W.B. (2006). Three dimensional analysis of center of mass for three different judo throwing techniques. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5 (CSSI),122 131.Available at www. jssm.org. Imamura, R.T., & Johnson, B.F. (2003). A kinematic analysis of a judo leg sweep: major outer leg reap –osoto - gari. Sports Biomechanics, 2, 191-201. Kano, J. (1994). Kodokan judo. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International. Kudo, K. (1976). Judo, Tehnike bacanja. Zagreb, Croatia: Mladost Nowoisky, H. (2005). The biomechanics of loss of balance in Olympic sport of judo, possibilities of measurement of biomechanical parameters. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports, 2005, ISBS Conference, Beijing, China. Sacripanti,A. (1989). Biomechanical classification of judo throwing techniques. In V.L. Tsarouches, J.Terauds, B.A. Gowitzke, & E.L.Holt (Eds), Biomechanics in Sports, Proceedings of the 5 th International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports,Athens, Greece, Athens Hellenic Sport Research Institute, Olympic Sport Center of Athens pp.181-194.

7


8

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

REVIEW ARTICLE

The sports law in the context of the plurality of law systems, and the new concept of work in European area

SAIMIR. SHATKU1. BLERINA, MEMA2 AND SERGIO. VINCIGUERRA3 1

Department of Organizations and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania 2 Department of Social Sciences and Education, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania 3 University of Turin-Italy Correspondence: S. Shatku, Department of Organizations and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania, E-mail; s_shatku @yahoo.com

Abstract: In our social system, is getting more and more ground to the role of law in general, but also sports and legal norms in particular the establishment, functioning and legitimacy of sports activities, clubs and sports federations. Seen in the context of a myriad of norms, rules and laws of our country whether, but European legal framework have given the developmental approach and institutional self-regulating principles of sports bodies as special public entity Sports which means that they are: sports subjects of law, not state, created by law in the public interest involved here (university of sport; Societies sports associations, sports clubs and federations) that whether a legal person in public stage or private have functional independence, political, economic, and executive decision to each organ. Purpose of this study in to show needs, practices and challenges to present legislation on a whole, as a package of legal-important character with sports, to identify schemes which function playgrounds, plant and sporting rights and obligations of plants administrators sports. Keyword: sport law, legislative techniques of sport law, global sports saw and lex sportiva, sports ethical code. Introduction As we all know the functioning of life in a proper way is also connected to the implementation of the laws that are regulated and approved by the legal bodies and governments around the globe. Every field has its laws and also sport cannot function unless there are laws. Sport is the body of legal issues at work in the world of both amateur and professional sports. Even if Sports is exercised not officially but as amateur it has its laws so it can be regulated in

a proper and functional way. Sports law overlaps substantially with the labor law, contract law competition or antitrust law. Sport apart other has also many ethical issues and rules which makes it as a subject more attractive. Issues like defamations and privacy rights are also an integral aspect of the sport law. Sport is global everywhere there you can find it and this has influenced also in the focus of its legal regulation increasingly onto international sport federations. These


LEGISLATION AND SPORT MANAGEMENT

organizations control and govern mostly the sport internationally. They have established laws how to rule the sports and also constitutions. They have the power and ability to take the decision which can have a profound effect on the career of players and that has important economic consequences. Mostly they are autonomous organization and independent of national governments. In a different way compared to other NGO’s they claim immunity from legal proceedings. Many people around the world see sport as the main entertainment of their life being the fans of it. The feeling of sports around the people is strong so to be in a level of high attraction it should function in a fair way. Methodology It has been used Jabref program for the referred downloads articles by using Medline database followed by keywords like: sport law, legislative techniques of sport law, sports center, sports European cards, sports ethical code, and plurality principles of sports law. In this review we are going to analyze the importance of the sport law in a plurality system. We are going to explain why the law is so important in the sport and how it is the national and plurality system of the sport law. How is the law treated and evaluated in its importance and efficiency in the world of the sport and what role does the law plays to make sport more attractive. Initially it is necessarily to distinguish between the concepts of “international “and global sports law. In a generally manner International law deals with the relations between nations states not so identically the international sport law therefore can be defined as the principle of international law applicable to sport. Nafzinger (1999) has argued that “as an authoritative process of decision making and legal discipline, international sport law is a much matter of international law as of sports law. He clearly sees it as aspect of international law. According to him one of the chief aspects of international sport law is that it uses the jus commune that is the general principle of international law. It is to be mentioned that the international sport law is wider than those principle that can be deduced from public international law alone and include additional

9

rule of law safeguards that are significant in the rule of the sport. The main law that is included can be such as fair hearings in disciplinary proceedings, no arbitrary or irrational decision, and impartial decision making. These are general legal principles that can be deduced from the judgments of national courts in sports in law cases. In a general point of view international sporting federation cannot be regulated by national courts or governments. They can only be selfregulated by their own internal institutions or by external institution created or validated by them. Otherwise they enjoy diplomatic type immunity from legal regulation. The distinction between international and global sport law reproduces differences between model of internationalized and globalized sport as developed by Houlian, (1991). He argues that “Internationalized sport” is often funded by state subsidy and has national framework of regulation. “Globalized sport” by contrast has nationally ambiguous or rootless teams sport without a state as in professional road cycling or formula. One motor racing where teams named after corporate sponsors, but it is to be said that globalized sport has a uniform pattern of sport that diminishes national traditions and local diversity. Globalized sport would be typified by minimal regulation or a pattern of self-regulation which under conditions or internationals sport national of regional (European Union) system of licensing, certification and training would produce a mosaic of distinctive regulatory system and patterns “ good governance “. In the first instance the global dimension of sport is regulatory and it embraces the whole complex of norms produced and implemented by the regulatory of sports regime. These rules are included and approved by different court regimes such as IOC International Olympic committee and International Federation (Ifs but also hybrid public private norms approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Regarding what it contains sport law is not simply transitional but actually global. The law of sport has also inside it the separation of powers in (particular quasi–judicial) with a strategic role played by the court of Arbitration of sport.


10

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

In these contests the formula “global sports law” thus covers all definitions so far provided by legal scholarship (such as lex sportive or International sport law) However the analysis of the global sport legal order therefore allows us to shed light on broader global governance trends affecting for example the institutional design of global regimes with specific regard to separation of powers and the emergency of judicial activities. In specific cases which can clarify the role of the law in sport it can be mentioned that in the early judgment of the European court of justice which dealt with the free movement of players within the European community marked a milestone for the sport law: (Beloff; & et al., 1999). The decision (the “Bosman Case”) limited the autonomy of international sport orders, affirmed the supremacy of EC law over sports rules and cast serious doubts on the legal theories thus far applied in the sport context . The case took five years to be settled as each ruling was appealed; finally it reached the European Court of Justice in Luxemburg. Bosman sued on grounds of restraint of trade and argued that FIFAs Article 17 breached this and was in fact illegal. The court ruled in favour of Bosman as the system, as it was constituted, placed a restraint on freedom of movement of workers and was prohibited by Article 39 of the EU treaty of Rome (Ost & de Kerchove, 2010). As a result the European Union demanded that regulations concerning players’ transfers and limitations on foreign players be amended almost immediately (Coccia, 2000). This ruling meant Bosman and every other EU footballer were free to negotiate deals to any other EU based team after their current contracts expired, they were also allowed to sign pre-contract deals with other clubs if they had six months remaining on their current deals. This ruling also stopped UEFA imposing quotas on how many foreign players are allowed to play in a team at any one time. At the time UEFA were imposing a quota on their European Cup competitions that only allowed three nonnationals in a team on match days. However these quotas were not fully outlawed, it could not be used to restrict the amount of non EU players on a match day team.

The Bosman case made a big change in the world of the football sport. The team which won a big competition affected by the benefit of the Bosman case was Manchester United who won the champion league in 1999 having almost 7 Non English players in the field. In the twenty years that followed, the points of interaction between sports law, international law and national legal system have increased enormously to the extent that they have become innumerable and multifaceted: regulatory institutional procedural, and judicial (Cassese et al., 2011). Every branch of law must deal with sport related issues, which arise in a most diverse range of fields: from antitrust regulation to commercialization of radio television broadcasting rights from labor disputes to human rights. As one of several examples we can take the legislative acts approved by state for hosting international sporting events (Cesarini, 2010) National laws “observe”the system of norms produced by international sporting institutions, and States comply with the provision within the foundational documents of the latter. Mostly national norms make reference to the Olympic charter which in some case is even incorporated into domestic legislation. However 1 Sport rules are genuine “global law” because they reach across the entire world, involve both international and domestic levels, and directly affects individuals (such as Athletes) this is for example the case of the Olympic charter a private act with which all states comply or of the above mentioned World anti-doping code a document that provides the framework for harmonization and anti – doping policies, rules, and regulation within sports organizations and among public authorities. In all these recent years sport has thus generated a set of institutions and rules that amounts to an autonomous legal corpus, which legal scholarship has varyingly referred to as “International Sport law” Global Sports Law and lex sportive thus drawing a patent analogy with the lex mercatoria governing international trade). It is to be stressed that recently in many private regimes the role of international and national public authorities has recently begun to expand. From EU and the states in particular


LEGISLATION AND SPORT MANAGEMENT

it started to increase the pressure in sport institution. Other than the Olympic movement governed by the IOC and the technical sport regimes of the individual legal orders regulated by its new international sport regimes have emerged in which public authorities play a key role: examples are the world anti- doping led by WADA and having national terminals that in the majority of cases are public administrative bodies or the regime governing the organization of Olympic. 2 Therefore although the notions of “regimes and network are taken from other fields of scholarly they appear nevertheless to be extremely useful for understanding most of the legal relationship between the various international sport institutions and between these institution and national bodies. But for Historical political socio economic reasons– sport unlike other regimes or networks displays a much advanced degree of legal and institutional development. If sports legal orders can be usefully framed within the theory of regimes networks and systems, the foregoing analysis shows that an approach based on public and administrative law may even be more fruitful. There are several analogies between the activities undertaken by international sporting institutions and public authorities. In many cases similarly to what occurs today in other international regimes States are directly involved (as in the case of WADA) abd the national bodies within the sport system are mostly of public nature. In my view an administrative law perspective appears better equipped to deal with supranational phenomena than on based on the notion of “legal order ” Italina legal scholarship has applied this notion to sport since 1920 because inter alia sport is an excellent subject for a case study, since all the feature of a “legal order” can be traced: these features identified by Massimo Severo Giannini elaborating the hypothesis originally conceived by Santi-Romanao are plurality addresses organization and norms. This is why a perspective based exclusively on legal order theory may not be the most appropriate for explaining global sport law exhaustively. The sport system can therefore be appropriately analyzed by integrating such

11

perspective with other approaches taken from international and administrative law. On a national level the domestic terminals of international sports regime are often regulated by public law. From this point of view the case of doping control measures offers a prime example because the establishment of WADA and the adoption of World anti - doping Code led to the creation of a uniform regulatory system and at the same time of a defense network of national bodies mainly of public nature. Among other the sport has also the ethical principles which are very important. This can be called as a second distinctive type of rules governs in the field of sport. This can also be called as equitable principle which can be seen in the general purpose offence that exist in most association sporting rules of ‘bringing sport into disrepute “or some similarly formula. For those reasons many international sport federation are trying to bring their own sphere of regulation as the moral principles that they see as very effectual in the area of sports. As one the key main element in this we can mention honesty and integrity of sport by not making barging in fixing the results. The fixing of results has caused especially a lot of worries and concern especially in the football. Betting scandals have brought a lot of problems to FIFA. Many strong measures have been taken and strongly laws should be abide to prevent this disastrous phenomenon for the world of sport Conclusion It is clear that the sport law is very important for its further development and keeping it as the most attractive thing in the people’s life. The main thing is sport are rules that make it so important but the laws also have it determinant part in the sport. If there were no laws and rules in sport then there really wouldn’t be anything. Rules bring order and fairness, without rules there would be chaos and sport wouldn’t be a real game; just a bunch of people doing their own thing with no goal or point. The game would actually be boring without rules. Rules are very important for anything because they make things more interesting and managed. If there were no rules in sports, then they would


12

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

become boring because nobody would understand that what is going on or what not. Rules are actually defined what the game is!! If nor rules existed at all, one for example can use boxing gloves another may use cricket balls and another player might just round around beating people up. It is the rule what actually tells us what is sport in reality. Sport has laws and rules so everyone can play fair and there can be winner and loser, each of which conditions teach valuable life lessons for all. Without rules the games would have no structure . In the assessment of all mention above we can clearly have a conclusion that law in the sport is as important as in all other fields. If the law would not have been applied to the sport with the same weights as to all other fields sport would never have been so popular. Having completed we can say that: Sports law, not only in its written form and approved by the respective parliaments can make legislation based on sport, but the unwritten laws that impose rules on sports fields as customs, traditions, and legal opinions or opinions sport having some sound base of a sport. Should the close collaboration between the clubs and sports federations that they unison to build a regular legal framework to serve European sporting events, international and national being.

References Arnaut, J.-L. (2006). “Independent European Sport Review”,UK Presidency of the EU, 2005. Bousigue, A. (2008). “Le sport dans la politique de la RPC vis-à-vis des Etats-Unis :Quel rôle? 1949 –1984", unpublished thesis for Sciences Po Lyon (France). B. Kingsbury (2005). The Emergency of Administrative law 68 Law and contemporary Problems F. Ost. M.van de Kerchove De la piramdie ou reseau Pour un theorie dialectoque du droit Bruxelle Camy, J., Clissens, L., Madella, A. & Pilkington, A. (2004). “Improving employment in the field of sport in Europe through vocational training”, Vocasport project, Education and Culture DG, Brussels Chaker, A.-N. (1999). “Study of national sports legislation in Europe”, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg Chaker, A.-N. (2004). “Good governance in sport. A European survey”, Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg Chappelet, J.-L. (2008). “The International Olympic Committee and the Olympic System. The governance of world sport”, Routledge, London M. Beloff, T. Kerry M.Demetrius,(1999).Sport Law.5 M. Coccia, (2000). Il controllo di piu societa sportiva tra conflitto di interessi e diritto antitrust, Rivista dir. sport. pg.23 Kaufmann-Kohler, G. et al (2003). “Legal Opinion on the Conformity of Certain Provisions of the Draft World AntDoping Code with Commonly Accepted Principles of International Law” February. Available at www.wadaama. org S. Cassese, E. D., Alterio, M. D. Bellis (2011). The Enforcement of Transitional law Private regulation, Pulbic Law and private regulation in the global legal space W. Cesarini Sforza La teoria degli ordinamenti guridici e il diritto sportive.


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH

13

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Physical activity and fitness in adolescence in Tirana AIDA SHEHU1, LUMTURI MARKOLAJ2, 1 2

Department of Sports, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania Institute of Sport Research, Sports University of Tirana, Albania

Correspondence: A. Shehu, Department of Sports, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania, E-mail; aida_1964@hotmail.com

Abstract The aim is to determine the relationship between physical activity and obesity, and fitness impact assessment and the extent of obesity areas. The study was conducted on 250 adolescents aged 1317 years old in 2011. Anthropometric values and physical activity were measured to all teens. The prevalence of overweight was to boys (40 %) and girls (45 %), the difference had values of obesity (15 % vs. 12 %, p < 0.05 boys/ girls). 127 boys and girls are physically active group, while the other 123 are not physically active. When active adolescents and those with sedentary life were compared with boys who practiced physical activity, they had greater tendency for overweight and obesity prevalence higher than boys who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t practiced physical activity ( 35% vs . 29 % and 9 % vs. . 4 % , p Ć&#x2019; as 0:09 / 0:10 ). Girls with physical activity had lower obesity rates than inactive girls (8 % vs . 11% , p < 0:05 ). Rural adolescents were overweight values (34 % vs . 28 % and 36 % vs . 32 % ) and degree of obesity ( 6 % vs . 8 % and 10 % vs . 9 % ) compared with urban age groups . Persons with physical activities for at least 2 hours a week had lower values of body obesity. Among the variables, VO2max showed a strong relation with BMI and fat mass assessed by measurements of skin layer. Key words: BMI, obesity on children, fitness, VO2 max. Introduction: Data from recent epidemiological studies show substantial increases for the average values of BMI and increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents from 13-17 years old. Our study was conducted in 2011, the data included in the questionnaire are renovated and will be used to verify the current trends in the age group of the population selected. New and interesting information of physical activity and fitness is incorporated in the study, including aerobic capacity, levels of strength, speed and flexibility as well as the impact of physically activity on BMI and obesity in adolescents involved in the entire questionnaire.

The aim of the study is to determine the relationships between physical activity levels and obesity, and the impact of physically fitness activity in the extent of obesity in different parts of the human body. Material and Methods: Consists by a random choice of 250 healthy adolescents, aged 13-17 yrs old, and four high schools in the city of Tirana. By the group that was selected in the schools we choose a sub group, which would serve as sample. Persons from different stratta were selected based on the structure of the local school system, geographical distribution, by gender Participation rate was higher than 90.


14

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Experimental Design: Every teenager underwent a testing session a day. During this session, became anthropometric assessments and analyzes the physical fitness (in the same way as has been suggested for determining the study protocol). In addition , all the teenagers responded to a questionnaire that provides information about the personal data , sports participation ( including the number of hours of training per week and the type of sport ) , and medical history ( including recent injuries and treatment ). Both parents and young people are informed about the goals and procedures of the study, as well as the potential risks and benefits. Teenagers gave their consent verbally, and written informed consent was obtained from their parents. None of the subjects was not on medication at the time of the study. Anthropometry and definition of overweight and obesity. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to nearly everybody individual under study. Height was measured in the right position in millimeters. Body Mass has been determined using a balance with a precision of 100 g without. Adolescents were considered overweight or obese based on data specific to the age - specific BMI when their BMI was more or equal to a threshold value according to international norm or when their item centile curve corresponds to the BMI curve that passes with 25 or more 30 kg/m2. All anthropometric measurements were performed by two experienced physicians, according to standardized procedures and the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry . Skinfold thickness was measured in areas biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac sites, abdomen, and hips with a skinfold caliber Holtain ( Holtain Ltd., Crosswell , UK), as previously described. The average value of three measurements was taken as the final value. The sum of 6 skinfolds measurements (SSF) thickness of the whole body and by region (trunk subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal) are also calculated . Levels of Physical Activities Teenagers are classified according to the level of the AP performed, except those performed during the hours of compulsory physical teaching schedule included in the Albanian academic program. The curriculum includes

80-90 minutes per week of AP. Considered physically active adolescents are those who, in addition to the academic program, took part in extracurricular sports activities and competitions at least 2 hours a week, for at least one year prior to the study. Measurement of Physical Activity during fitness Physical activity during fitness was determined using physical tests for eight gyms involved in European test for gyms. Aerobic fitness. Aspiration maximum oxygen (VO2max) was estimated using the results of a race a 20 m directional subjects were required to realize and return back again with a line frequency of 20 m starting signal emitted when the speed of the start of the competition was 8.5 km / h and increased by 0.5 km / h every minute. When subjects cannot follow the pace, time for a longer period, subjects who were able to run were recorded and used to calculate VO2max. This test has been shown to be valid and true for predicting VO2max in adolescents. Running speed. A 10 x 5 racing online right and return back to perform at maximum speed test was performed by all subjects and after this test was used to assess speed. Two separate visa classes were designed from 5 feet on the floor. Both legs should cross the line at any time. The time required to complete five cycles, is recorded as the final result. All teens are motivated to run as fast as they can. The speed of movement of the limbs. RETHORE two disks, each 20 cm in diameter, were fixed horizontally on a table. Central points of the discs were 80 cm apart. Standing before the table with legs slightly distant from each other and with the hand you use less fixed in a rectangular split between the two discs, children asked you to alternate so quickly touch two drives with their hand more useful during 25 cycles. The best performance achieved during the two efforts was chosen as the representative value of the test. Standing in front of the table, legs slightly apart and with his non- preferred fixed in a rectangular plate placed between two discs, children were asked to quickly tap the two plates alternately with the preferred hand during 25 cycles. The good performance of both efforts is taken as representative value of this test. Flexibility . From a sitting position, children should put the flat part of the foot plantar their


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH

prepared against a box with a sliding element between their legs. They should gradually push the slide element with outstretched hands, without moving, and simultaneously trying to reach their trunk forward as much as possible, always keeping your knees straight. Fingers of both hands should have the same distance, and movement jump was not allowed. The test was done twice, and the best result is calculated as the final result (in centimeters). Dynamic force. To assess the explosive power of the legs extensional, casting performance is measured. Each subject did jumps in length from a fast start line determined. While performing jumps, subjects were asked to bend their knees with their arms parallel to the ground, then flying open as we both arms, and then hopping forward as strongly as possible , trying to stand up after being thrown and inflexible feet . The good result with both efforts is taken as the final result (given in centimeters). Trunk strength: It is estimated that the maximum number of reductions achieved in half a minute. Teenagers are sitting on the floor, back straight, hands tied behind their neck, knees located at 90 ° with legs, and feet placed on the floor. Then you asked to lie on your back, shoulders to touch the floor , and from lying to sitting position and return with their elbows touching knees , holding hands tied behind their neck throughout. Best performances were implemented correctly in 30 seconds and this was the final result. Isometric Strength: Tightening hand. A calibrated handle dynamometer was used (TKK 5101, Takei , Tokyo , Japan ) . Teenagers asked to keep their hand in dynamometry favorite, without touching the rest of the body and clutched him by the force had. Adolescents who asked you eta clutched device gradually and continuously for at least 2 seconds. The best result was recorded in kilograms outcome. On arm strength. Before starting the test, adolescent was asked to put his hands on parallel and with the help of instructors stood on them until the neck was part of the class, and to stay in this position as much as possible. I completed the test called the eye portion of the rod down on classes were asked to stand under the bar, put their fingers on top, under the thumb, and place hands, shoulder-width apart, grip the bar with a forward. Instructors

15

teenagers helped to lift their chin were over the bar. Then teenagers had held the position for as long as possible without their chin resting on the grass. The test ended when his eyes went down the bar. The best time in tenths of a second head was realized. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics were run on all variables. Amongst group differences in the content and physical fitness variables in the tests were evaluated using Students t test, which is applied to assess differences in prevalence of obesity and obesity among groups . Pearson correlation analysis was applied to identify relationships between variables gym physical and bodily content. Multiple regression steps is used to determine the best predictor of BMI and SFF between all physical tests gym. In addition, many models of general linear consecutive BMI and SSF as dependent variables were used to assess the independent effects of age, levels of PA, living area, and cardio respirator camera in the gym. Package SPSS (SPSS , Inc. , Chicago , IL ) software was used for statistical analysis . Significant levels were set at p d” 0.05, and data are represented as means ± standard deviation unless otherwise stated. Results Prevalence of overwe-ight and obesity Similar prevalence of over-weight were found among boys (40%) and girls (45%), while significant differences were found in the corresponding obesity rates (15 % vs. 12 % , p <0.05 , boys and girls , respe-ctively ). 127 boys and girls were considered physically active group, while the other 123 are not considered physically active. When active adolescents were compared with sedentary life, physically active boys showed a trend towards a slightly higher obesity than boys and be phy-sically active (35 % vs. 29% and 9% vs. 4%, p ƒ as 0.09 to 0, 10).On the other hand, girls phy-sically active had lower rates of obesity than girls active (8 % vs. 11%, p<0:05). Teenagers from rural areas showed similar overweight (34% vs. 28% and 36 % vs. 32 %, boys and gi-rls, respectively) and the rate of obesity (6% vs. 8 % and 9 % vs. 10%, boys and girls, respectively) in comparison with their urban counter-parts . Anthropometrics


16

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Table 1 Levels of PA values versus Physical Activity in fitness, as Boys

Physically active group

Non physically active group

Value

Age

10.3

é 0.1

9.8

é 0.1

0.06

Length

139.1

é 0.6

138.2

é 0.9

<0.05

Body mass

37.1

é 0.6

36.5

é 0.7

<0.05

BMI

19.2

é 0.2

18.7

é 0.2

0.05

Subcutaneous layer in cm

63.4

62.8

é 1.3

NS

Subcutaneous layer in trunk

27.2

26.8

é 1.3

NS

é 1.5

Girls

é 0.9

Physically active group

Non physically group

Value

Age

9.5

é 0.1

9.4

é 0.1

NS

Length

138.1

é 0.7

137

é 0.8

NS

Body Mass

35.3

é 0.6

35.2

é 0.7

NS

BMI

18.7

é 0.2

18.6

é 0.2

NS

Subcutaneous layer in cm

73.1

é 1.4

76.6

é 1.9

<0.05

Subcutaneos layer in trunk

31.2

é 0.8

31.7

é 1.1

0.07

Table 1 summarizes the anthropometric data for all study adolescents. Girls have comparable values of age, body mass, height, and BMI values between the two group’s physically active and active. Physically active boys showed higher values of body mass, height, and BMI (all p d” 0:05). The estimated amount of SSF showed a trend to lower values in the active group compared to the sedentary group to be reduced (p= 0:07). Active girls had significantly lower values of the layer of subcutaneous fat measures than their counterparts with sedentary life which had in the whole body (p <0.05) and in parts of the trunk (p = 0:07). Excluding any of the tests , such as flexibility , weighing on the wings , test limbs movement speed , active boys with life in all physical tests achieved better results than those with sedentary life ( p < 0:05 ) . Girls with active life have achieved the best performance in all tests except for tests generally the coercive force and the velocity of limbs which were the same in both. The effect of the interaction of PA with BMI and adiposity was tested but was not observed to have any significant correla-tion

(p=0.115). Correlation between physical activity variables and subcutaneous fat mass (trunk and the totality of the body) was very low ( r § 0:32 ) with the exception of VO2max (r between 0:48 and 0:51, p < 0.01) and test the arm force (r between 0:36 and 0:40 , p < 0.01). The test showed handshake for stronger correlation with BMI values ( r=0:48, p < 0.01). Up multiple regression analysis showed that, compared with values of physical activity and living area, cardio respirator apparatus values had the strongest relationship with BMI, SSF and SFT values. It is not noticed any significant correlation between effect between residential area and adiposity or BMI among children studied. Discussion The data defining the trends of obesity that are observed from different social- geographical distribution in adolescents are packages. If children live in an urban or rural environment, it can affect subsequent values of obesity as a result of several factors that affect the total energy expenditure of adolescents ( ie , distance to school, the percentage of physical activity


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH

facilities area, differences in parenting practices, social inequalities, etc.). Regular participation in at least 2 hours per week in sports activities and performance of the compulsory education program is associated with a good physical activity and lower values of obesity the entire body. In adolescents included in our study, among all variables of physical activity, VO2max showed strong relationship with BMI and fat amount measured by measuring the skin. But in our study compared with the region is noticed that the values of physical activity to be defining the values of overweight youth to the age selected in our study. According to statistical data of maximum oxygen consumption is a strong factor which influences the BMI (Body Mass Index) and subcutaneously obesity levels. These results are comparable to similar studies in which it is clearly shown that physical activity is very important in terms of its impact on obesity on the cardiovascular system and therefore the above tests can also be used to diagnose children who may have cardiac problems that their childhood. Also important data obtained in our study affect all age groups regarding aerobic capacity and are important factors to be used in children who have problems and metabolic pathologies. And ultimately what determines our study and other studies have confirmed the fact that the area where live no direct effect on the level of BMI values and obesity. References Flegal, K.M.; Graubard, B.I., Williamson, D.F., Gail, M.H. 2005. Excess Deaths Associated with Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 293(15):1861-1867. Rofey, D.L., Kolko, R. P., Ana-Maria, I., Silk, J.S.; Bost, J.E.; Fang, W; Szigethy, E.M.; Noll, R.B.; Ryan, N.D.;Dahl, R.E.2009.A Longitu- dinal Study of Childhood Depression and Anxiety in Relation to Weight Gain. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 40(4): 517-526. Trasande, L; Chatterjee, S. 2009. The Impact of Obesity on Health Service Utilization and Costs in Childhood. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17(9): 1749-1754. White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President: Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity Within a Generation. 2010. Washington DC. Challenges in Adolescent Health Care: Workshop Report.2007. Washington,D.C.: Committee on Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

17

Steinberg, L; Dahl, R; Keating, D; Kupfer, D. J.; Masten, A.S.; Pine, D. S. 2004. The Study of Developmental Psychopathology in Adolescence: Integrating Affective Neuroscience with the Study of Context (draft manuscript,Aug. 2003). Handbook of Developmental Psychopatholo-gy. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Wang, Y; Beydoun, M. A. 2007. The Obesity Epidemic in the United States Gender, Age, Socioeconomic, Racial/Ethnic, and Geographic Characteristics: A Systemamatic Review and MetaRegression 628. Analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews 29(1): 8. Ogden, G. L.; Carroll, M. D.; Curtin, L.R.; Lamb, M. M.; Flegal, K.M. 2010. Prevalence of High Body Mass Index in U.S.Children and Adolescents, 2007-2008. Journal of the American Medical Association 303(3): 242-249. Levi, J; Vinter, S; Richardson, L., St. Laurent, Rebecca; Segal, Laura. 2009. F as in Fat: How Obesity Policies Are Failing in America. Washi-ngton, DC: RobertWood Johnson Foundation. Bethell, Ch; Simpson, L.; Stumbo, S.; Carle, Adam C.; Gombojav, Nl. 2010. National, State, and Local Disparities in Childhood Obesity. Health Affairs 29(3): 347-356. Guthrie, J. F.; Lin, Biin-Hwan; F, E. 2002. Roleof Food Prepared Away from Home in the American Diet, 1977-78 Versus 1994-96:Changes and Consequences. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 34(3):140-150. Ver, P.,Breneman, V.; Farrigan, T.H., Karen,H., David, K., Phil,L, Biing - Hwan, N.M., Smith, T., Williams, R; Kinnison, K., Olander,C., Singh, A., Tuckermanty, E., 2009. Access to Affordable and Nutritious Foodâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Measuring and Understanding Food Deserts and Their Consequences: Report to Congress Ap-036. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillanceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; United States, 2007. Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences. 2010. Retrieved Aug. 24, from www.cdc.gov/obesity/ causes/health.html. Olshansky, S. Jay, P., Douglas, J., Hershow, Ronald,C., Layden, J, Carnes, B. A., Brody, J; Hayflick, L., Butler, R. N., Allison, D.B., Ludwig, D. S., 2005. A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century. New England Journal of Medicine 352(11): 1138-1145. Whitlock, E. P., Williams, S. B., Gold, R., Smith, P. R.., Shipman, S. A. 2005. Screening and Interventions for Childhood overweight: A Summary of Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics 116(1): e125-144. Whitaker, R. C., Wright, J.A., Pepe, M.S.; Seidel, K. D.,Dietz, W.H. 1997. Predicting Obesity in Young Adulthood from Childhood and Parental Obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 37 (13): 869-873. Haeri, S., Guichard, I., Baker, A. M.; Saddle-mire, S., Boggess, K. A. 2009. The Effect of Teenage Maternal Obesity on Perinatal Outcomes.Obstetrics and Gynecology 113(2): 300-304.


18

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

The prevalence of obesity in children and current level of physical activity in a city in transition JUEL JARANI1. ANESTI QELESHI1 1

Department of Organizations and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania Correspondence: J. Jarani, Department of Organizations and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania E-mail; jueljarani@gmail.com

Abstract The objectives of this study were to investigate the problem of overweight/obesity in children and to get knowledge about the level of VO‚ max and physical activity mode in children 11 and 14 years. Cross sectional survey was apply in children (192 boys and 176 girls), randomly selected in different schools in Tirana. Questionnaire assessment (PA) and objective measurement of height and weight were obtained. Shuttle run test (20 m) was used to measure aerobic fitness. Data show that the problem of overweight and obesity among children in Tirana does exist. The results revealed that the prevalence of overweight for the entire participants was 14 % and did change by gender and the prevalence of obesity was 4%. The great majority of the children (77 %) reported walking to and from school and the study indicates a decrease from age 11 to 14 years of the children reporting “never or hardly ever” taking part in organized sports. The results from this research study reveal strong evidence that children in Albania show lower values of aerobic fitness. The problem of obesity should be a primary priority in the health care system implemented by the school and family intervention-based programs. Key words: physical activity, aerobic fitness, obesity Introduction Physical activity levels tend to decline as we get older (Sallis, 2000). Data have shown that the steepest decline in physical activity during the lifespan tends to occur between the ages of 13 to 18 years (Sallis, 2000). Other numerous descriptive and correlation studies show that physical activity levels decline as children age (Sallis et al., 2000), and the decline is so great within adolescence that this age group has been referred to as a risk factor for physical inactivity (Rowland, 1999). At puberty the rise in VO‚ max accelerates in males as a result of the anabolic influences of testosterone, while values of females plateau (Rowland, 1999). Cross-sectional data from EU countries indicate that boys’ peak VO‚ demonstrates a progressive

increase in relation to chronological age. In the Amsterdam Growth and Health study Dutch girls observed from 13 to 16 years exhibited a leveling-off, but not a reduction, in peak VO‚ with only a 2% from 14 to 16 years (Kemper, 2004). Boys’ peak VO‚ values are consistently higher than those of girls by late childhood and the sex difference becomes more pronounced as young people progress through adolescence. Boys are more physically active than girls (Armstrong & Mechelen., 1998), but the evidence relating habitual physical activity to young people’s peak VO‚ is weak (Morrow et al., 1994). Regarding the physical activity among children in Albania and particularly in Tirana, they are less physical active than in the past decade. We have a lack of sufficient data in the


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH

field of physical activity and obesity in our country. There is no information available on how many children presently meet the recommended daily dose of PA 60 min/day even in more then one bout of 15-20 min, nor on the places where PA is carried out (school, sports clubs, gyms, outside), nor on the levels of PA in children and in general population. In our city we have a decrease day by day of sport fields or free space, less parks and playgrounds, lack of infrastructure of cycling paths, lack of PE efficiency and poor education regarding PA and Health. This happens because of our chaotic construction development rhythm, demographic movement during this decade. During those years the information has been so contradicted, and nowadays we do not have any idea if our children are obese or going to be in the future. These were the reasons why we started this practical research with children in order to investigate and to have a clear idea about the actual level of overweight/ obesity, physical activity and the gender differences that exist among them. Methods A study about actual level of obesity and inactivity in children was carried out using a descriptive, cross-sectional approach. This paper represents a cross sectional study in children 11 and 14 yrs randomly selected in Tirana (the capital city in Albania). The decision to participate was taken not only by the children themselves, but also by the headmaster of the inquired schools and the children’s parents. Cross section survey of 368 boys and girls (11yrs- 110 boys, 98 girls; 14yrs- 82 boys, 78 girls), randomly selected in 6 different schools placed in Tirana. Questionnaire assessment for physical activity (EYHS questionnaire) and objective measurement of height and weight were obtained. In this study the focus has been on PEACH questionnaires from European Youth Heart Study (Ommundsen et al., 2008). Height was measurement to the nearest 5 mm, with the children standing in an upright position and the face fronted forward, and body weight was measurement to the nearest 0.1 kg using a beam balance (Tanita HD 351). BMI was calculated using weight divided by

19

height squared (kg/ m²). Shuttle run test (20m) was used to measure aerobic fitness (Léger et al., 1988). This test has been cross-validated using other samples of European and Canadian children (Andersson, 1992; van Mechelen et al., 1986). For this test, children run back and forth con-tinuously on a 20-meter (indoor or outdoor) course. The running speed is set using a sound signal emitted from a pre-recorded tape. The start-ing pace is 8.5 km-hr and the speed is increased 0.5 km-hr each minute until they can no longer maintain the pace. To measure overweight and obesity, the approach of international classification is used that is directly linked to the adult BMI cut off points of 25 and 30 kg/m², with adjustments for the growth and development of children included (Cole et al., 2000). Statistical analysis Statistical analyses were performed in this study. The sample was based on probability theory when every unit (school) in Tirana is identified and where all the school have a known non zero chance of being selected into the sample when selection of one unit does not affect the chances of any other unit (randomly selected). Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were calculated for the variables assessed in this study. All variables were tested for normality. One sample T-test was used for the comparison in the variables assessed in the study. A significant level of p<0.05 was accepted. All analysis was performed using the statistics software SPSS 17.0. Results Data from the table 1 show that 11 years boys have a higher (pd” 0.05) BMI values (17.8 kg/ m²) than girls (16.8 kg/ m²) while at 14 years boys have a lower (p> 0.05) BMI values (19.6 kg/ m²) than girls (20.0 kg/ m²). It is evident from the table 1, a significance difference in VO‚ max (pd” 0.05) in 14 years boys (37.2 ml/ kg/min) compare to girls (29.4 ml/kg/min). When we compare boys in both ages we see an increase (pd” 0.05) with 7.4 ml/kg/min as they grow up while for girls an increase by 0.4 ml/kg/min (p> 0.05). At 11 year boys had almost the same VO‚ max as girls (p> 0.05). The prevalence of overweight for the entire participants was 14 % and did change by


20

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Table 1. Comparison by gender and age for variables assessed in this study Total rs

rs

F

P value

Weight

kg

36.6

8.2

38.14*

Boys 9.2

Girls 35.2

7.0

7.56

0.01

Height

m

1.45

0.06

1.45

0.07

1.44

0.06

2.07

0.15 0.01

BMI

m/kg²

17.3

3.0

17.8*

3.2

16.8

2.8

6.59

VO₂ max

ml/kg/min

29.3

6.0

29.6

7.1

29.0

4.5

0.45

0.51

Weight

kg

52.3

9.5

53.2

8.9

51.2

10.1

2.62

0.11

Height

m

1.62

0.07

1.64*

0.07

1.60

0.06

26.67

0.00

BMI

m/kg²

19.8

3.2

19.6

2.7

20.0

3.7

0.82

0.37

VO₂ max

ml/kg/min

33.4

7.2

37.24*

7.3

29.4

4.7

58.42

0.00

Table 2. Classification of 11 and 14 yrs children by international cut off points (BMI for age)

Table 3. Descriptive statistics for VO‚ max mean values by age and BMI for age classification Age

BMI for age

11 yrs

Underweight (< 5th %ile) Normal BMI (5th - 85th %ile) Overweight (> 85th %ile) Obese (> 95th %ile) Underweight (< 5th %ile) Normal BMI (5th - 85th %ile) Overweight (> 85th %ile) Obese (> 95th %ile)

14 yrs

gender (11 yrs- boys 18 % and girls 7% and 14 yrs- boys 15 % and girls 17%) respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding prevalence of obesity (11 yrs- boys 8 % and girls 2% and 14 yrs- boys 2 % and girls 4%) at pd” 0.05. The prevalence of obesity was 4% for the entire participants. Results from the table 3 show that as BMI values increases, data on VO‚ max in children show a decrease. The same results were attained in both ages. Really it is a significant number of children that go to school by foot (77%) but in the mean time, about 22 % of children go by car or bus and the number of children that cycle from home to school is very low at about 1 % (table 4). The school travel mode (table 5) for 31% of children, took time about 1-5 min by foot (to and back from school) and 19% took time about 15-30 min. Children in the age 11 years spend more times walking to and back from school then children 14 years (15-30 min).

VO₂ max Mean 30.6 29.3 29.1 28.8 34.9 33.5 33.2 29.4

Std. Dev 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 7.5 7.8 6.9 6.7

Data from the table 6 showed approximately 29 % of children exercise themselves at almost every day (vigorously active). The percentage of children reporting “never or hardly ever” taking part in organized exercise and sport were 18% (classifying as inactive). Discussion The aims of this study were to investigate the problem of overweight/obesity in children and to get knowledge about the level of VO‚ max level and physical activity mode in children 11 to 14 years. Applying the IOTF references for BMI, the problem of overweight and obesity among children in Tirana does exist. The results showed that the prevalence of overweight for the entire participants was 14 % and did change by gender and the prevalence of obesity was 4%. Results show a significance differences (pd” 0.05) in BMI values between 11 and 14 years.


21

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH

Table 4. PA in children 11 and 14 years in Tirana assessed by questionnaire, 11yr (%) 14yr (%) Going to school boys girls boys girls walk 76.3 77.6 73.8 81.5 cycle 0.6 0 1.3 1.02 car 9.8 16.1 11.1 9.2 bus 13.1 6.2 13.7 8.2 Table 5. PA in children 11 and 14 years in Tirana assessed by questionnaire, 11yr (%) 14yr (%) Walking to school from home boys girls boys girls 1-5 min 26.1 26.2 40.9 29.1 5-10 min 52.9 53.2 41.7 53.9 15-30 min 21.0 20.6 17.4 17.0 Table 6. PA in children 11 and 14 years in Tirana assessed by questionnaire 11yr (%) 14yr (%) Frequency of exercise & sport boys girls boys Girls Almost every day (Vigorously active) 34.0 18.1 37.9 24.4 Some days (3 days) 22.9 21.9 37.3 32.5 Once or twice a week (Moderately active) 22.2 33.8 16.3 26.9 Once or twice a month (Inactive) 3.3 4.4 2.6 2.5 Occasionally (Less than once a month) Inactive 3.3 3.8 0.7 3.6 Hardly ever 14.4 18.1 5.2 10.2

Girls from 11 to 14 years old show an increase by 3.2 kg/m², but we know that this increase is quite normal because of muscle mass, hormonal development and body fat increase for girls. When we compare boys in both ages we see an increase with 7.4 ml/kg/min as they grow up. This means a lot and that include a lot of factors (hormonal development, puberty, life style, nutrition). From the other hand girls have almost the same VO ‚ max from 11 -14 years old and this fact is quite clear from the values, an increase at about 0.4 ml/kg/min. It is evident, a significance difference in VO‚ max in children 11 and 14 years old between boys. At 11 year boys had the same VO‚ max as girls (p> 0.05) while t is different in the age 14 yr where boys have higher aerobic fitness than girls (pd” 0.05). One reason for the lower values of VO‚ max in children is that there is no extra curricula strategy for PA, and even in our PE lesson we do not have standard norms to measure VO‚ max. Another reason is that we have a decrease day by day of sport fields or free space because of our chaotic construction development rhythm.

Total (%) 77 1 12 10

Total (%) 31 50 19

Total (%) 29 29 25 3 3 12

It is difficult to ascertain at what age children become able to produce meaningful questionnaire data. For assessment of physical activity in a large number of children, questionnaires, either self-reported or interviewer-based are commonly used (Katzmarzyk et al., 1999; Blair, 1994). Self-report of physical activity is the most widely used method in epidemiological research due to the ease and low costs of implementation. The great majority of the children 77 % in this study reported walking to and from school and it is very impressive. This fact go hand by hands from economic status of our country or the fact that Tirana is a densely population city with short distances between schools but for the moment it is very impressive and has a lot of benefits for their health comparing with the country that inactivity it is a big problem or school travel mode area is by car or by bus. From the questionnaire only 56 percent of children exercise themselves most of the days or some days, in organized sports clubs. We have to be aware that in Tirana most of the clubs are not so called organized or really recognized sport clubs.


22

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

We see a decrease from age 11 to 14 years of the children reporting “never or hardly ever” taking part in organized sports. Results show that 11 yrs boys were more active than girls and between children 11 and 14year-olds were differences in vigorously activity level. Data from the questionnaire showed that the decline in physical activity as children age does not exists. This is in contrary what we expected, even comparing with a lot of studies that showed a decline in the level of PA as children age (Sallis, 2000; Sallis et al., 2000; Butcher, 1983; Zakarian et al., 1994; Sallis et al., 1999). We see a decrease from age 11 to 14 years of the children reporting “never or hardly ever” taking part in organized sports. It is difficult to discern gender differences when looking at frequencies of organized physical activity once or twice a week, because we know the disadvantages when measuring the level of PA by questionnaire, but as found by others studies (Sogaard et al., 2000; Wold et al., 2000) a higher percentage of boys than girls reported taking part in organized exercise every day. In conclusion and for further implication, the problem of obesity should be a primary priority in the health care system implemented by the school and family intervention-based programs. References Anderson, G.S . (1992). The 1600 m and multistage 20-m shuttle run as predictive tests of aerobic capacity in children. Pediatric Exercise Science 4:312-318 Armstrong, N., & Van Mechelen, W. (1998). Are young people fit and active? In S. Biddle , J. Sallis & N. Cavill (Eds.), Young and Active? Young People and Health - Enhancing Physical activity -E v i d e n c e and Implications. (pp. 69-97).London,UK: Health Education Authority. Butcher, J. (1983). Socialization of adolescent girls into physical activity. Adolescence, 18, 753-766. Cole, T.J, Bellizzi, M.C, Flegal, K.M, and Dietz, W.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide:international survey. Bmj, 320(7244):1240-1243. Kemper, H.C.G. (Ed.) (2004). Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Basel, Switzerland: Karger. Katzmarzyk PT, Malina RM, and Bouchard C (1999). Physical activity, physical fitness, and coronary heart disease risk factors in youth: the Quebec Family Study. Prev.Med ;29:555-62. Blair SN (1994). Physical Activity, Fitness and Coronary Heart Disease. In: Bouchard et.al., ed.:579-90.

Léger, L.A.; Mercier, D.; Gadoury, C.; Lambert, J. (1988). “The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness”. J Sports Sci 6 (2): 93–101.doi:10.1080/026404188 08729800. PMID 3184250. Morrow, J.R., & Freedson, P.S. (1994). Relationship between habitual physical activity and aerobic fitness in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 6, 315-329. Ommundsen. Y, Page A, Ku P.W , Cooper A.R(2008). Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerized questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children’s physical activity: The European Youth Heart Study; International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physi cal Activity, 5:29 doi:10.1186/1479- 5868-5-29 Rowland, T.W. (1999). Adolescence: A risk factor for physical activity. The Presidents Council on Physical fitness and Sports Research Digest (Series 3, No. 6). Washington, DC: President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Sallis, J.F., Alcaraz, J., McKenzie, T.L., & Hovell, M. (1999). Predictors of change in children’s physical activity over 20 months. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 16, 222-229. Sallis. J.F. (2000). Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32(9):1598-1600. Sallis, J.F., Prochaska, J.J, & Taylor, W.C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), 963-975. Sogaard, A.J, Bo K., Klungland, M., and Jacobsen B.K. (2000). A review of Norwegian studies—how much do we exercise during our leisure time?. Tidsskr.Nor Laegeforen; 20;120:3439-46. Thomas W Rowland. Children exercise physiology. Aerobic fitness, page 90. Telama, R., Naul, R., Nupponen, H., Rychtecký, A., & Vuolle, P. (2002). Physical fitness, sporting lifestyles, and Olympicideals: crosscultural studies on youth sport in Europe. Schorndorf: Karl Hofmann. Naul, R., Hoffmann, D., Nupponen, H & Telama, R.(2003). PISA Schockauch im Schulsport? Wie fitt sind finnische und deutsche Jugendliche? Sportunterricht, 52, 137-141. Van Mechelen, W, Hibil, H and Kemcer, H.C.(1986). Validation of two running tests as estimates of maximal aerobic power in children. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 55: 503-506. Zakarian, J.M., Hovell, M.F., Hofstetter, C.R.,Sallis, J.F., & Keating, K.J. (1994). Correlates of vigorous exercise in predomi-nantly low SES and minority high school population. Preventive Medicine, 23, 314-321. Wold, B., Hetland, J., Aarø, L. E., Samdal, O.,and Torsheim, T (2000). Utviklingstrekk i helse og livsstil blant barnog unge fra Norge,Sverige, Ungarn og Wales. 1,1-134. Universitetet i Bergen. Hemil-Senteret. Hemilrapport nr.1


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

23

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

School-based intervention within the physical education curriculum in promoting physical activity and fitness ANDI SPAHI1, JUEL JARANI2 AND HARALD TCHAN3 1

Department of Movement and Health, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania 2 Department of Organizations and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania 3 Faculty of Sport Science, University of Vienna, Austria Correspondence: A. Spahi, Department of Movement and Health, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania E-mail; andispahi@gmail.com Abstract The aim of the study was to assess if an enrichment of the overall fitness demands of physical education during the extracurricular time, by inclusion of a 25 minutes physical education lesson once a week during school break, would improve overall or specific health related fitness- and anthropometric parameters in high school students. A total of 164 high school students from two non-randomly selected high schools in Tirana / Albania (76 girls and 88 boys respectively) volunteered in this study and were divided into an intervention group (40 girls and 48 boys) and a control group (36 girls and 40 boys) respectively. The body mass index significantly decreased in girls of both groups (p<0.005). In boys a significant lower BMI following the intervention could only be observed in the intervention group (p<0.05), whereas no differences were determined in the control group. Body fat measurement in both intervention groups of girls and of boys respectively indicate no differences between the two measurements points. Although several fitness and anthropometric parameters significantly changed over the intervention period in the different sub-groups analyzed no significant changes were detected comparing control and intervention group by T-test for equality. Key words: Youth, obesity, inactivity, cardio respiratory fitness, motor abilities, school-based intervention, physical education class. Introduction A lack of physical fitness has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth, such as lipid disorders, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance among others. This is a cause of concern because cardiovascular risk factors tend to track to adulthood and the process of athero-sclerosis starts early in childhood. Conversely, some studies have shown that physical fitness levels track from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to adulthood. The increase in physical inactivity over the past decades is one of the main causes of the increase in obesity (Must & Tybor 2005). One in

three to five children in the western world is overweight or obese (Kipping et al; 2008). This epidemic is rapidly and constantly growing and affects all socioeconomic levels and ethnicities (Ogden et al; 2006). Excessive weight is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, (Weiss et al; 2004) orthopedic problems, and psychosocial constraints even before adulthood is reached (Daniels et al; 2005). In children, physical inactivity and lack of fitness are associated with increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (McKenzie et al; 1997) even independent of body weight (Brage et al; 2004).


24

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

As obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, and risk behavior usually change little from childhood to adulthood. (Singh et al; 2008) (Bao et al; 1994). There is also evidence that CVD risk factors track from childhood/adolescence into adulthood and predict CVD morbidity (Katzmarzyk et al; 2001). Many youth become less active as they move from childhood into adolescence and adulthood (Caspersen et al; 2003 ; Sallis 2000 ; Gordon-Larsen et al; 2004; Nelson et al; 2006). The increase in sedentary behavior, i.e. physical inactivity, over the last decades is thought to be one of the main risk factors for the development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and psychosocial constraints (Andersen et al; 1998). Despite widespread attempts to increase physical activity (PA) in the general population, only a minority of adults and children in developed countries engage in PA to a degree sufficient to maintain or increase health and physical as well as psychosocial well-being (Saris et al; 2003). Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and other diseases and a major contributor to obesity in adults (Fletcher G. 1999). About 6% to 20% of adolescents are physically inactive (Caspersen et al; 2000); 17% of children and adolescents are overweight (Ogden et al; 1999); and 26% to 75% of overweight youths become obese adults. (Obarzanek 1999) Even if obese adolescents become normal weight adults, they keep their burden of an increased cardiovascular risk (Must et al; 1992). Regular physical activity is recognized as an important component of a healthful lifestyle for the reduction of cardiovascular disease among adults. (Paffenbarger et al; 1994) In addition, physical activity patterns can influence cardiovascular risk factors among youth, adolescents, and young adults (Kemper et al; 1990); (Robinson et al; 1995); (Sallis 1993). Studies have shown that physical activity may benefit adolescents by increasing their aerobic fitness, (Morrow et al; 1994) bone mass, (Bailey & Martin 1994) and HDL cholesterol (Armstrong et al; 1994) and by reducing their obesity (Bar-Or & Baranowaski 1994) and hypertension (Alpert & Wilmore 1994) Schools are thought to be the ideal setting to implement PA interventions to combat CVD risk factors, with access to large populations

from a variety of social classes, coinciding with a monitoring structure already in place ( Warren et al; 2003); ( Zahner et al; 2006). The aim of the proposed project was to assess if an enrichment of the overall fitness demands of physical education during the extracurricular time, by inclusion of a physical activity intervention with duration of 25 minutes once/ week performed during the school break, would improve physical fitness, motor skills and body composition in school children. Based on sport scientific and physiological knowledge these intervention seems to be very optimistic because most of the school-intervention studies included additional extracurricular hours of physical education have gave major improvements. However, this study examines the effect of this minimal-intervention on the body mass index (BMI), body fat and motor abilities after 5 months in 2 non-randomly selected high schools in Tirana, choosing two classes one for intervention and one for control class. According to Albanian standards, 2 units (each 45 minutes) of physical education per week are mandatory in all high schools. The intervention classes will have one lesson on physical education (25 minutes) plus the two lessons that are mandatory per week. Methods Participant: A total of 164 high school students from two non-randomly selected high schools (4 classes) in Tirana / Albania (76 girls and 88 boys, respectively) volunteered in this study and were divided into an intervention group (40 girls [16.9±0.8 yrs.] and 48 boys [16.8±0.9 yrs.] ) and a control group (36 girls [16.8±0.6 yrs.] and 40 boys 16.9±1.0 yrs.]) respectively. Before inclusion in the study, the objectives and procedures were explained to the pupils and their parents and written informed consent was obtained. Intervention: The intervention study was conducted between December 2009 and May 2010 (5-month duration). The content of physical education lesson (25 minutes during school break) were based on important fitness or activity components, including motor skills, aerobic


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

fitness, and strength which are known to improve overall or specific health fitness in students and was performed once a week, in addition to the obligatory physical education lessons in the intervention group – whereas control group participated in regular physical education lectures only. Measuremment Parameters: Anthropometric parameter (body weight, body height, skinfold, waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated) before and after the intervention period. Additionally different motor abilities were compared pre- and post intervention: VO2max was estimated from the Andersen intermittent running test; flexibility assessed from the back-saver sit and reach test and muscular strength of the upper extremities was assessed by a 30 seconds push-up test. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics for the anthropometric data and results of the fitness tests were provided (mean values (mean), standard deviation (SD), range: minimum (min), maximum (max) for both intervention and control group (both groups were additionally divided by gender for further analyses). Paired t-tests were used to study the in-group effects of control- and intervention group , respectively. The effects of training on each group were tested using a repeated-measures analysis of variance and the effect size ([posttest mean pretest mean]/SD) for the magnitude of treatment effects was determined. A two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using initial values as covariate and anthropometric data and fitness parameters for effect size, was used to determine the differences between groups following training. Significant differences between means were located with the Tukey Honestly significant difference procedure. The statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05. All analyses were performed using the statistics system Statistica 7.0. Results Age of the subjects did not differ between control group (n=76; age= 16.8±0.8 yrs) and intervention group (n=88;16.9±0.9yrs). In both groups boys and girls were pooled for further analyses.

25

Body weight of the subjects, both from controland intervention group did not differ initially, before the intervention period started. Performing a paired t-test (comparing the groups before and after the intervention period) showed no changes in the body weight of the control group (although there a tendency to increase). The subjects participating in the intervention group however, demonstrated a significant weight reduction (p=0.02). Determining the treatment effect following the exercise intervention using a repeated-measure analyses of variance comparing the delta values – did not show any effects in this respect. There was no significant difference between control group and intervention group, initially in respect to the body height. Both groups of adolescent showed a tendency to grow over the intervention period (tab 1). The increase in body height of approximately 1 cm over the 6 months period was significant (p < 0.000) in the intervention group but nut in control group. Again by performing a group comparison no influence of the exercise intervention could be establi-shed. BMI was calculated by dividing body weight / body height (m) 2. This BMI score was not significantly different between control and intervention test prior the test. Performing a paired ttest for each group (CG and IG, respectively) showed that the BMI score was significantly diminished following the intervention period in both groups (CG- p=0.04) and (IG – p=0.0002, respectively). Determining the treatment effect followi-ng the exercise intervention using a repeated-measure analyses of variance compa-ring the delta values – did not show any effects of the training intervention (tab 1). Body fat was calcula-ted from skinfold thickness was measured by calliper using the sex-specific equation descri-bed by Slaughter et al. (1988). Both groups did not differ significantly, initially before the intervention period took place. Over the 6 month period percentage body fat increased significantly (p< 0.000) but did not change in intervention group. No influe-nce of the intervention could be observed comparing the delta values (postpre) of control and intervention group (tab 2). Control- and intervention group did not differ significantly prior the 6 months intervention


26

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Table 1. Body weight, height and BMI of control- and intervention group before and following the intervention period.   

  

body weight 

pre 

control group  58.8±10.3 kg 

post  body height 

intervention group  60.3±9.8 kg 

59.2±11.0 kg 

58.6±9.5 kg 

167.9±0.1 cm 

167.1±0.1 cm 

168.9±0.1 cm 

168.3±0.1 cm 

20.9±3.1 

21.5±3.1 

20.1±4.7 

20.7±3.1 

pre  post 

BMI 

pre 

    

post 

Table 2 Percentage body fat and waist circumference of control and intervention group before and following the intervention period

  

  

Body fat (%) 

pre 

control group  20.9±3.1 

intervention group  21.5±3.1 

20.1±4.7 

20.7±3.1 

68.2±6.4 

69.9±7.6 

66.3±7.5 

66.3±9.7 

post  Waist circumference 

pre 

  

post 

  Table 3 Aerobic fitness, flexibility and strength values (mean±SD) pre- and post intervention period.   

  

Aerobic fitness 

pre 

control group  42.3±3.9 

post  Flexibility 

pre  post 

Strength 

pre 

  

post 

intervention group  41.3±5.1 

43.7±4.8 

43.4±5.6 

10.4±5.6 

8.4±7.0 

12.6±6.5 

11.4±8.6 

12.7±12.2 

10.7±9.4 

13.7±11.9 

12.9±8.7 

 

period. Performing a paired t-test (to compare pre- and post intervention data) for each group separately exhibits a significant decrease in the waist circumference in the control group (p< 0.001) but also a significant reduction in the intervention group (p<0.005). Again, no training effect could be ascertained determining the differences between groups following intervention. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) calculated from Andersen Test was significantly increased compared

to baseline in both control group (p<0.001) and intervention group (p<0.000). However no intervention effect could be esta-blished comparing the delta values of both groups. Flexbility score (in cm) from the back safer sit and reach test measuring the flexibility of the lower back and the hamstring muscles showed compareable values in both groups without any significant differences. In both groups flexibility significantly increased from baseline (control and intervention group p<0.000). No


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

intervention effects (Tab. 3) could be verified comparing the delta values of both groups). There were no significant differences detectable comparing control and intervention group. Following the intervention period both, control and intervention group demonstrated a significant improvement in muscular strength (endurance) performance of the upper extremities. Control group improved by (p<0.05) whereas intervention croup improved by (p<0.000). Comparing the delta values of both groups showed that intervention group improved significantly more (p<0.05) than the control group did. (Tab. 3) Discussion Data using a paired t-test separately for girls and boys, comparing preâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;and post intervention of the intervention and control group, show different results. Body weight in girls did not change significantly in both intervention and control group during pre- and post data comparison, however, comparing the two points of measurements in boys demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) reduction of the body weight in the intervention group, whereas body weight of the control group tended to increase at the same time. It is quite different in body height where in girls it is significantly increased (p<0.000) in both, intervention as well as the control group. The height of boys of IG and CG did not change during the intervention period. The body mass index significantly decreased in girls of both groups (p<0.005). In boys a significant lower BMI following the intervention could only be observed in the intervention group (p<0.05), whereas no differences were determined in the control group. Data concerning this point, show that studies that have took place in long period did have good results on changing PA on adolescent and those who have short period did not have big significant changes in physical activity levels. A school base physical Intervention of (Kevin et al; 2009), showed that, it did not improve body composition. Most of interventions to promote physical activity, generally directed to both boys and girls, have been conducted in school settings, (Stone et al; 1998) but have met with limited success, perhaps because only

27

about 30 hours per year of moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) occur in physical education in schools.(McKenzi et al; 2006); (McKenzie et al; 2000) Body fat measurement in this study in both intervention groups of girls and of boys respectively indicate no differences between the two measurements points, whereas body fat content (measured by skin fold thickness) significantly increased in both control groups (girls (p<0.05) and boys (p<0.0005), respecti-vely). We are in line with the intervention of ( Kriemler, et al; 2010) showed that the absolute effect on body fat was small, with a difference in skinfold thickness of about 2 mm between children in the intervention and control groups. In this study waist circumference significantly decreased in girls from intervention group (p<0.000) as well as control group (p<0.000). By contrast, in male subjects the waist circumference did not change in the interve-ntion group but significantly increased (p<0.05) in boys of the control group. This data are in line with a Meta analysis from (Kevin et al; 2009) showed that school-based physical activity interventions do not improve body composition. VO2max calculated from the Anderssen Test did not change in girls independent of the group they were in but significantly improved in boys in the intervention group (p<0.000) and the control group (p<00.1) respectively. On this topic most studies reporting males to be more active than females at all ages and results from the study (Resaland et al: 2009) suggest that a daily dose of PA over a relatively long period might be essential to affect cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) in children (Sallis 1993); (Kelder et al; 1995). In addition to boys typically having more opportunities to engage in youth sports outside school (Paffenbarger et al; 1994); (Faucette et al; 1995) gender differences in physical activity engagement may be influenced by socio cultural beliefs and expectations (Thomas and Thomas 1988). Females seem to profit selectively only from experimental PE didactics, significantly improving their response orientation ability. This could be explained by referring to gender stereotypes in PA and sport (Koivula, 2001).With males usually practicing them more than females (Tammelin et al; 2003).


28

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Data show that all subjects independent of their group affiliation and gender significantly improved their flexibility as measured by the sit and reach test. In the push up test girls of the intervention group improved significantly (p<0.000) but also girls of the control group improved in this performance task (p<0.05). Comparing boys of intervention- and control group displays an improvement in the intervention group (p<0.0005) but no changes in the control group. These findings support and add to previous research that has indicated an association between motor skill development and overall physical activity levels of young people (Dishman et al;2004; Wrotniak et al; 2006). In conclusion the aim of the proposed project to assess if an enrichment of the overall fitness demands of physical education during the extracurricular time, by inclusion of a physical education lesson with duration of 25 minutes on each week during school break, has to be modified in the future if we want to achieve better results in the fitness test and motor performance in the future. The suggestion will be to add two more lesson per week during school break {extracurricular time} and to expand the time of the intervention, at one academic year. Considering most of the suggestion of the resent studies to add one week lesson of physical education during school time will be impossible considering two facts in Tirana: The first is the availability and the condition of the gyms during winter and during the entire year and the second is the availability of the ministry of education to approve this project, considering the fact that they have plan to reduce the number of week hours of physical education on high school level in one physical education per week. Conclusion Although several fitness and anthropometric parameters significantly changed over the intervention period in the different sub-groups analyzed no significant changes were detected comparing control and intervention group by T-test for equality. The only exceptions in this respect were girls of the intervention group who significantly performed better than girls of the control group in the flexibility test

(p<0.05) and the push-up strength test (p=0.007) respectively. Although the minimal increase in physical activity by 25 minutes a week did not result in a clear improvement in health related fitness parameters it is assumed that a reduction in physical education hours is a wrong decision that could impair health and fitness of adolescents in Albania. References Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M: Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 1998, 279:938-942. Alpert BS, Wilmore JH. Physical activity and blood pressure in adolescents.Pediatr Exerc Sci1994;6:361–80. Armstrong, N., & Welsman, J. (1994). Assessment and interpretation of aerobic function in children and adolescents. Exercise and Sport Sciences Re-views, 22, 435-476. Bailey DA, Martin AD. Physical activity and skeletal health in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994;6:330–47. Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Persistence of multiple cardiovascular risk clustering related to syndrome X from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:18427. Bar-Or O, Baranowski T. Physical activity, adiposity, and obesity among adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994; 6:348–60. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP 3rd, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA:Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 1998, 338 (23):1650-1656. Brage S, Wedderkopp N, Ekelund U, FranksPW, Wareham NJ, Andersen LB, et al. Features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with objectively measured physical activity and fitness in Danish children: the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Diabetes Care 2004; 27:2141-8. Caspersen CJ, Pereria MA, Curran KM. Changes in physical activity patterns in the United States, by sex and cross-sectional age. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32 (9) :1601–9. [PubMed: 10994912] Caspersen CJ, Pereira MA, and Curran KM. Changes in physical activity patterns in the United States, by sex and crosssectional age. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1601-9. Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, Gidding SS, Hayman LL, Kumanyika S, et al. Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Circulation 2005;111:1999-2012.


PHYSICAL EDUCATION Dishman, R. K., Motl, R. W., Saunders, R., Felton, G., Ward, D. S., Dowda, M., et al. (2004). Self-efficacy partially mediates the effect of a school-based physicalactivity intervention among adolescent girls. Preventive Medicine, 38, 628-636. Enos WF, Beyer JC, Holmes RH: Pathogenesis of coronary disease in American soldiers killed in Korea. J Am Med Assoc 1955, 158(11):912-914. Faucette N, Sallis JF,McKenzie TL, Alcaraz J, Kolody B, Nugent P. Comparison of fourth grade students’ outof-school physical activity levels and choices by gender:Project SPARK. J Health Educ 1995;26 (Suppl): S82–90. Fletcher G. Physical inactivity as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 1999;107 (2A):S10– S11. G. K. Resaland1,2, L. B. Andersen2,3, A. Mamen1, S. A. Anderssen2: Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness: the Sogndal school-intervention study: Scand J Med Sci Sports 2009 Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Popkin BM. Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: adolescence to adulthood. Am J Prev Med. 2004; 27 (4):277-283. Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW. 2007. Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 56:2655–2667. Hu FB, Willett WC, Li T, StampferMJ, Colditz GA, Manson JE. Adiposity as compared with physical activity in predicting momortality among women.N Engl J Med 2004;351:2694-703 Katzmarzyk PT, Perusse L, Malina RM, Bergeron J, Despres JP, Bouchard C: Stability of indicators of the metabolic syndrome from childhood and adolescence to young adulthood: the Quebec Family Study. J Clin Epidemiol 2001, 54(2):190-195. Kemper HCG, Snel J, Verschuur R, Essen Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Lee I, Kampert JB.Some interrelations of physical activity, physiological fitnessness, health and longevity. In: Bouchard C, Shepard RJ, Stephens T, editors. Physical activity, fitness, and health: international proceedings and consensusnsus statement. LS. Tracking of health and risk indicators of cardiovascular diseases from teenager to adult: Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. PrevMed 1990;19:642–55.

29

Kipping RR, Jago R, Lawlor DA. Obesity in children. Part 1: mepidemiology, measurement, risk factors, and screening. BMJ 2008;337:a1824. Mahoney LT, Burns TL, Stanford W, Thompson BH, Witt JD, Rost CA, Lauer RM: Coronary ris factors measured in childhoodand young adult life are associciated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Muscatine Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996, 27(2):277-284. McKenzie TL, Catellier DJ, Conway T, et al. Girls’ activity levels and lesson contexts in middle school PE: TAAG baseline. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38(7):1229–35. [PubMed: 16826019] McKenzie TL, Marshall SJ, Sallis JF, Conway TL. Student activity levels, lesson context and teacher behavior during middle school physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport 2000; 71:249–59. [PubMed: 10999262] McNamara JJ, Molot MA, Stremple JF, Cutting RT:Coronary artery disease in combatcasualties in Vietnam. JAMA 1971, 216 (7):1185-1187 Morrow J, Freedson P. Relationship between habitual physical activity and aerobic fitness in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1994;6:315–29. Must A, Jaques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: a follow up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922-1935.N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1350 -5 Must A, Tybor DJ. Physical activity and seden-tary behavior: a review of longitudinal studies of weight and adiposity in youth. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005;29(suppl 2):8496S. Nelson MC, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Sirard JR, Story M. Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence. Pediatrics. 2006;118(6): 1627-1634. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999- 2004. JAMA 2006; 295: 1549-55. Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, Lee I, Kampert JB. Some interrelations of physical activity, physiological fitness, h ealth and longevity. In: Bouchard C, Shepard RJ, Stephens T, editors. Physical activity, fitness, and health:international proceedings and consensus statement. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics, 1994:119–33.

Kelder SH, Perry CL, Peters RJ, Lytle LL, Klepp K. Gender differences in the class of 1989 study: the school component of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. J Health Educ1995;26(Suppl):S36–44.

Pierce MM, Stahlbrand K, Armstrong SB: Increasing student productivity through peer tutoring programs. Austin, Tex. : PROED; 1984.

Kevin C. Harris MD, Lisa K. Kuramoto MSc,Michael Schulzer MD PhD, Jennifer E. Retallack MD: Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis; 2009; 180(7):719-26

Robinson TN, Killen JD. Ethnic and gender differences in the relationships between television viewing and obesity, physical activity, and dietary fat intake. J Health Educ 1995;26(2 Suppl): S91–6.


30

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Sallis JF. Epidemiology of physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993; 33:403–8. Sallis JF. Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2000; 32: 1598-600. Saris WH, Blair SN, van Baak MA, Eaton SB, Davies PS, Di Pietro L, Fogelholm M, Rissauen A, Schoeller D, Swinborn B, Tremblay A, Westerterp KR, Wyatt H: How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1 st Stock Conference and consensus statement. Obes Rev 2003, 4:101-114. Singh AS, Mulder C, Twisk JW, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw MJ. Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev 2008;9:474-88. Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Horswill CA, Stillman RJ, Van Loan MD, Bemben DA. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol 1988: 60: 709–723. Stone EJ, McKenzie TL, Welk GJ, Booth ML.Effects of physical activity interventions in youth: review and

synthesis. Am JPrev Med 1998; 15 (4): 298 –315. [PubMed: 9838974] Warren JM, Henry CJK, Lightowler HJ, Bradshaw SM, Perwaiz S: Evaluation of a pilot school programme aimed at the prevention of obesity in children. Health Promotion International 2003, 18: 287-296. Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl JMed 2004;350:236274. Wrotniak, B. H., Epstein, L. H., Dorn, J. M., Jones, K. E., & Kondilis, V. A. (2006). The relationship between motor profici-ency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 118, 1758-1765. Zahner L, Puder JJ, Roth R, Schmid M, Guldimann R, Puhse U, Knopfli M, BraunFahrlander C, Marti B, Kriemler S: A school-based physical activity program to improve health and fitness in children aged 6-13 years (“Kinder-Sport-studie KISS”): Study design of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2006, 6:147.


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

31

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

A preliminary epidemiologic study on development coordination disorder in Albanian children (7-10 years) GENTIANA NICAJ, NADIA SCHOTT1 1

University of Stuttgart, Institute of Sport and Exercise Science

Correspondence: G. Nicaj, Albania E-mail; gentianaqose@yahoo.com

Abstract Worldwide motor coordination disorders in children have been on the focus of numerous research studies. Awareness on the complications these disorders bring about in childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s everyday life as well as in their life as adults is rapidly growing. Until recently data on the prevalence of the disorder among Albanian children have been missing. The main aim of the current study is the investigation of the prevalence of developmental coordination disorders (DCD) among Albanian children. The sample in this study was composed of 100 school age children (mean age 8.81 years, sd 0.98) who were assessed through the Movement Assessment Battery for children 2nd edition (M-ABC 2) and the Checklist. Children had to perform in 8 different tasks on the (MABC 2) and they had to have the Checklist completed by their parents. Findings in this study revealed a prevalence of 45 % with a boys and girls ratio of 1: 0,8 . T-test data revealed a higher motor performance of girls than boys in the M-ABC 2. Chi square test showed no association between gender and motor performance in the whole performance of the M-ABC 2. The M-ABC 2 and the Checklist in the current study did not measure the same construct as only 22% of the children were diagnosed with DCD according to the checklist. The findings on this study suggest that the incidence rate of DCD among Albanian children is concerning. Strategies to increase awareness of DCD among parents and teachers and suitable intervention programs for children Keywords: prevalence, developmental coordination disorder ,Movement Assessment Battery for children, Checklist, Introduction When observing a classroom of school aged children in their daily activities, immediately the eye distinguishes those children who talk the most and who move the most. In the same way it is not difficult to distinguish those who are intimidated, who move the less and are refused in team games or the least wanted to be part of whatever team. It is their motor coordination disorders that distinguish these children from their peers. The impairment of their motor skills is that severe that they feel inefficient to participate in physical education classes, sports and games. Most of the actions we are required to perform everyday are automatic. An automatic action occurs without paying too much attention on it. For these

children even the simplest tasks such as tying their shoes, writing their name, riding a bike, or manipulating objects prove to be real challenges (Polatajko & Cantin, 2006). Motor disorders seriously disturb academic performance and activities of daily living (Kirby & Sugden, 2007, p. 182). And according to the data of Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Brein et al. (2008) they do not out grow their poor performances, being that in their study older children with DCD showed greater slowing reaction times. Their motor problems persist until adolescence and adulthood, causing destructive outcomes such as low self-esteem and social isolation (Wilson, 2005). Sometimes children show only characteristics of DCD, but in most cases it coexists with learning disabilities, speech/language


32

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

disorder and/or attention deficit disorder (Missiuna, 2003). Different research papers adopt different terms to refer to Developmental Coordination Disorders such as “motor clumsiness” (Henderson & Henderson, 2003; Wilson, 2005) ,dyspraxia as mentioned in (Gibs et al, 2007; Polatajko & Cantin 2006) or “clumsy child syndrome” (Gillberg & Kadesjo, 2003). Studies support an occurrence of 5 to 6 % of children (Gaine et al., 2008; Missiuna et al., 2002; Missiuna et al., 2004) thus implying that there will be at least one child with motor coordination disorders in every class (Polatajko et al, 1995). Prevalence of motor coordination disorders varies not only among countries (ref to table 1) but also within a country. The different assessment tools employed in the studies below may be responsible for the difference as assessed by (Parker & Larkin, 2003). Movement ABC (Henderson & Sugden, 1982) is the most frequent tool adopted. Lifestyle trends also influence on the occurrence of DCD as concluded in the study of (Tsiotra et al., 2009) where low levels of fitness were significantly associated with the higher prevalence of DCD among Greek children. Studies confirm that males show greater coordination disorders than females and are affected four times as frequently as females (Gibs, et al., 2007, Kirby & Sugden, 2007), but this ratio varies through countries through 1,6 : 1 in New Zealanders children like reported in a study of (Miyahara, et al, 2008) to 5:1 among Greek children (Kourtessis et al., 2008) and 1.9 :1 in a UK study based population (Lingam et al., 2008). In their review (Parker & Larkin, 2003) not only agree on the ratio difference across cultures but they also state that figures change over the years within a country too. Over the years researchers have focused on different pathways in their attempt to define the mechanisms underlying coordination disorders in children. Theories focusing on the deficit of information processing ( Gillberg & Kadesjo, 2003) implicate the combination of impairments in proprioception, motor programming, timing or sequencing of muscle activity as the roots of coordination difficulties in children (Barnhart et al., 2003; Missiuna 2003).

Methods The study implicated 100 randomly selected children in three different elementary schools of Tirana (48 boys and 52 girls). The only inclusion criteria in the study was age, as participants had to be 7 to 10 years old , mean age of participants (M = 8.81, S.D= 0.98). Written consent was asked by parents for the participation of their children in the test. Movement Assessment Battery 2nd edition and Checklist were used as research tools (Henderson & Sugden, 1982). In his review Geuze et al. (2001) reports that the M-ABC 2 is the most commonly used standardized motor test in (50 %) of the studies. The M-ABC checklist aims to identify children who experience motor difficulties. The checklist is appropriate for use in primary school age children. It is a good screening tool that can easily be filled by teachers who are in contact with the child from a considerable time, especially PE teachers. The “Sports University of Tirana” asked for a written consent from the Ministry of Education to perform the study in the selected schools and to have access in different classrooms. The M-ABC was used in accordance with the directions specified in the manual. Children were asked to perform eight tasks, which are grouped under three headings: Manual Dexterity (Placing Pegs, Threading Lace and Drawing Trial), Aiming & Catching (Catching with 2 hands and Throwing Beanbag onto mat) and Balance (One-Board Balance, Walking heel-to toe forwards and Hopping on mats). The formal trial of each task was preceded by the demonstration phase. T-tests were performed to determine whether the observed difference between the means standard scores of each component score and total test scores of the M-ABC 2 of males and females can be considered statistically significant. Chi-square tests were utilized to find out whether the sex differences in the motor performances were statistically significant. Convergent validity, was assessed through the cross tabulation of the MABC-2 scores and the Checklist results. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze which of the variables (age, gender, BMI, checklist) would explain the performance in the M-ABC test best.


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Results With a value of α 0.706 the 11-item scale of the M-ABC 2 can be regarded as quite reliable. An examination of the group means indicated that girls had a higher motor performance in MABC-2 (M = 62.7, SD = 13.2) than males (M = 57.8, SD = 16.2)(Table 2). T-test results showed that the difference in the mean scores was not significant, t (98) = -1.66, p >0.05, d = 0.2 . The only significant difference in the mean scores was shown for the manual dexterity item t (98)= - 2.37, p= .02 girls had higher scores (M = 22.23, SD =7.34) than boys (M = 18.96, SD =6.31). A chi-square test of independence indicated that there is no association between gender and motor performance in the whole performance in MABC-2 x2 (2, N = 100) = 4.177, p = .12. A marginally significant association between gender and motor performance was found in the manual dexterity item with x2 (2, N = 100) = 5.689, p = .058. Convergent validity showed that the M-ABC 2 test and M-ABC Checklist in the current study did not measure the same construct, as scores on the M-ABCtest are not similar to the scores obtained from the checklist. ( Table 3) In total the checklist identified 22 % children with severe motor problems against 45 % identified by the motor test. According the checklist 17 % of children classified at the yellow zone or with moderate motor disorders against 9 % of children at borderline identified by the MABC-2. The checklist identified a higher number of children without any motor disorders 61 % against 45 % of typically developing children identified with the M-ABC test. Chi square test revealed a significant association between MABC-2 scores and the Checklist results x2 (4, N = 100) = 8.537, p = .07. According data of regression analyse PE/

Recreational activities (β = -.27, p =. 004) and literacy (β= -.24, p = .01) significantly predicted performance in the Aiming & Catching task. Performance in the Balance task would significantly be predicted by learning (β = -.32, p = .001) and speech/language (β= -.21, p = .03). The predictors that would significantly predict performance in the manual dexterity task were Section C of the checklist ( β =-.16, p = .01), Section A & B of the checklist (β = -.19,p = .04) and learning (β=-.23, p = .01). Performance in the MABC-2 would significantly be predicted by learning ( β = -.35, p = .001) and speech/ language ( β =-.28, p =.007). The predictors explained 18 % of the variance, (R2=.18, F(3,96) = 8.24, p = .001). Discussion The leading aim of this study was the investigation of Developmental Coordination Disorder among children 7-10 years old and its prevalence. Our data suggest that the M-ABC 2 test items administered in this study are quite reliable as we obtained an α = .706. Referring to the findings of the present study we found that the prevalence of DCD among 100 children who were assessed is 45 % which is relatively high and by far greater than the 5 % prevalence of the child population supported by (Gaine et al., 2008; Missiuna et al., 2002; Missiuna et al., 2004 This prevalence rate is also higher than the occurrence rates of DCD reported by other studies that have adopted M-ABC as assessment tool (S.Y & S.K, 2009; Giagazaglou,2008; Kourtesis et al., 2008 ). Our results are in agreement with the results of Jarani. J, (2013) who identified 31.2 % of children with moderate motor disorders and 8 % with severe motor disorders. Boys with

Table 1. Prevalence across different cultures Author (year)

33

Country

Sample

Methods

Kourtesis et al,2008

Greece

354

M-ABC2

Lingam et al,2008 Giagazaglou,2011

UK Greece

6990 412

DSM-IV M-ABC

Civetta &Hiller, 2010

Australia

460

DCDQ

12.3%

Wu S.Y& Wu S.K 2009

Taiwan

261

M- ABC

11.9%

Tsiotra et al,2005

Greece

329

Canada

591

BOTMP-SF BOTMP-SF

Results 1.6% 1.8% 5.4%

19% 8%


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1 34 Table 2. M ABC-2 Group means, standard scores and p- values for test components. Significance was accepted for p < 0.05

Boys (n= 48)

Girls (n=52

________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mean SD Mean SD

p‐value

Aiming & Catching

17,16 4,89

17,09

4,26

0.42

Balance

21,70 8,20

23,43

7,11

0.43

Manual Dexterity

18,96 6,31

22,23

7,34

0.02

M ABC‐2 total

57,84 16,27

62,75

13,25

0.29

7,13

9,27

0.16

Section A+B motor factor 10,06 11,51

Section C non motor factors 3,3 2,04 2,40 1,88

0.01

Table 3. Convergent validity of the M ABC‐2 and Checklist results.

Checklist Results Red Zone Orange Zone

TD* 8 6 M ABC ‐2 Borderline 1 0 results DCD 13 11 Total 22 17 *( TD stands for Typically Developing children)

DCD according to test results outnumbered girls. Children in the sample were randomly selected. The slight difference between the number of boys and girls who partecipated in the study was just a coincidence. Boys-girls ratio in the current study ranges from 1:0,7 regarding children classified with developmental coordination disorder to 1:0,8 concerning children classified at borderline. The small gender difference reported in this study might be due to the life style trends of children. These findings support the fact that boys exhibit movement difficulties more than girls, even though we found no association between gender and motor performance. The current boys-girls ratio is in discordance with systematic findings of a ratio of 4:1 supported in other studies such as (Gibs, et al ., 2007) or 5:1 Kourtessis et al. 2008). Girls performed slightly better on balance, manual dexterity and in the total MABC -2 but significance was reached only in the manual dexterity test. The only test where boys performed a bit better

Green Zone

Total

32 8

46 9

21 61

45 100

than girls was in aiming and catching but this slight difference was not significant. The test results also showed that there are more typically developing girls than boys, and more boys at risk of having DCD. We believe that the discordance between the test and the checklist might have happen due to the fact that parents might not have had enough information so that they did not administer the checklist as it had to, or in some cases they did not tell the truth for their children. This was verified comparing the test performance of a child that was diagnosed with DCD and his own checklist where we would fall in the green zone. We found learning and speech/language to be the variables that could significantly predict the performance in the MABC-2. Another interesting data is that learning and speech/language would significantly predict some other test components too, such as Balance and Manual Dexterity. Aiming & Catching would significantly be predicted by PE/recreational activities and literacy. From the


PHYSICAL EDUCATION Table “Traffic Light” system for the MABC-2 and the Checklist. Adapted from the Examiner’s Manual (Henderson et al, 2007)

Child Diagnose

MABC‐2 test “Traffic Light” system TTS

DCD Borderline TD

Percentile range

Checklist “Traffic Light” system

35

Child Diagnose

Percentile range

x ≤ 56

y ≤ 15th

z ≥ 95th percentile

57 ≤ x≤ 67

5th < y ≤ 15th

85 < z < 95th

x > 67

y > 15th

z ≤ 85th

Red Zone Amber Zone Green Zone

checklist results we inferred that learning significantly affected boys more than girls in their movement difficulties. Conclusions The incidence rate of DCD among children in Albania is concerning. Future and detailed studies are needed to investigate on the underlying factors of such results. Until parents have adequate information upon the disorder, we recommend that PE teachers administer the checklist in future studies in Albania. The young experience of the tester and the fact of testing in an environment that little or nothing might be better to say is known about DCD is considered as a limitation in this study. The small sample recruited is another limitation in this study. It was not possible to recruit children from other cities of Albania in order to have a more heterogeneous sample. This would have given the possibility to have a picture of the urban-rural difference, the influence of the socioeconomic status and life style trends in our country. Strategies to increase awareness of DCD among parents and teachers and suitable intervention programs for children who exhibit motor coordination difficulties are the main tasks that arise from results of this study. References Barnhart RC., Davenport MJ., Epps SB., Nordquist VM. (2003). Developmental coordination disorder. Physical Therapy, 83(8), 722-731. Gaine R., Missiuna Ch., Egan M., McLean J.,(2008). Educational outreach and collaborative care enhances physician’s perceived knowledge about Developmental Coordination Disorder. BMC health services research, 8:21. doi:10. 1186/ 1472-6963-8-21

Geuze H. R., Jongmans J. M., Schoemaker M.M., SmitsEngelsman C.M. B., (2001). Clinical and research diagnostic criteria for developmental coordination disorder: a review and discussion. Human Movement Science 20, 7-47. Retrieved from www.elsevier.com/ locate/humov Gibbs J., Appleton J., Appleton, R. (2008). Review: Dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder? Unravelling the enigma, Archives of disease in childhood, 92, 534-539. doi: 10.1136/adc. 2005. 088054 Gillberg Ch. and Kadesjç B, (2003). Why bother about clumsiness? The implications of having developmental coordination disorder Henderson E. Sh. and Henderson L,(2003). Toward An Understanding of Developmental Coordination Disorder: Terminological and Diagnostic Issues, Neural Plasticity ,10 (1-2), 1-13. Retrieved from http://www. ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Jarani. J, (2013), The impact of exercise and games on physical fitness indicators in 1st and 4th graders in Tirana. Elementary school based intervention. ABC “5 on 5”project, PhD thesis. Kirby A., Sugden A. D., Last. (2007). Children with developmental coordination disorders. Review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100, 182-186. Kourtessis. Th., Tsougou. E., Maheridou. M., Tsigilis N., Psalti M., Kioumourtzoglou E., (2008). Developmental coordination disorder in early childhooda preliminary epidemio-logical study in Greek schools.The International Journal of Medicine, 1(2), 95-99. Lingam. R., Hunt. L., Golding .J., Jongmans.M., Emond. A, (2008). Prevalence of developmental coordination disorder using the DSM-IV at 7years of age: A UK population based study. Pediatrics, 123, 693-700. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1770 Missiuna Ch. (2003). Children with developmental coordination disorder: At home and in the classroom,. Retrieved from http://www.canchild.ca/en/aboutcan child/resources/dcdrevised.pdf Missiuna Ch., Gaines B. R., Pollock N.,(2002) Recognizing and Referring Children at risk for


36

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Developmental Coordination Disorder: Role of the Speech - Language Pathologist. Journal of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology ,26( 4),172-179 Missiuna, C., Rivard, L. & Pollock, N. (2004) “ T h e y ’ r e Bright but Can’t Write Developmental Coordination Disorder in school aged children”, Teaching Exceptional Children Plus: 1(1), Article 3. Retrieved from http:// escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol1/iss1/3 O’Brien. JC., Williams. HG., Bundy. A., Lyons .J., Mittal. A,(2008). Mechanisms that underlie coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Journal of Motor Behavior , 40(1), 43-61.Retrieved from http://www.ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/18316296 Parker, H.E., Larkin, J.D. 2003, Children’s coordination and developmental movement difficulty in Development of Movement Coordination in Children,RoRoutledge , Great Britain. Polatajko H., Fox M., Missiuna Ch., (1995) An International Consensus on Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder, Canadian Journal of Therapy 62 (1), 3-6 Polatajko H., Cantin N. (2005). Developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia): An overview of the state of the art. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 12(4), 250-8. Retrieved from Tsiotra GD., Flouris AD., Koutedakis Y., Faught BE., Nevill AM., Lane AM., Skenteris N. Last. (2006). A comparison of developmental coordination disorder prevalence rates in Canadian and Greek children. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(1), 125-7. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pubmed Wilson H.P. (2005). Practitioner review: Approaches to assessment and treatment of children with DCD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(8), 806823.doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005. 01409.x


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

37

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

An invenstigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them, on 6-7 years old children in Tirana

KEIDA USHTELENCA1, SKERDI PASHA, YNGVAR OMMUNDSEN2 1

Department of Social Sciences and Education, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania 2 The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo Norway. Correspondence: K. Ushtelenca, Department of Social Sciences and Education, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania, E-mail; keidaushtelenca@gmail.com Abstract The aims of this study were: to investigate and compare BMI level and percent body fat in 6 - 7 years old by age group and gender, to investigate the level of coordination abilities measured by lateral jumping (from KTK test battery) and plate tapping (Eurofit test battery) tests, by age and gender and finally to investigate the relationships between the levels of BMI with lateral jumping and plate tapping test scores, by gender and age group combinations. A total of 341 children (178 boys and 163 girls) between the age of 6 and 7 years participated in this study. There appeared to be no gender differences with respect to BMI but with respect to age, BMI mean and variance were both larger in the six years old children. The result show that BMI was not correlated with coordination abilities for the upper limbs as measured by late Tapping test but BMI was negatively correlated with coordination abilities for the lower limbs as measured by Lateral Jumping test. More research focusing on early age childhood are necessary in order to contribute in enforcing the importance of PA activity and increasing the level of motor abilities in children and to continue and extend their focus in all age groups. Key Words: BMI, childhood obesity, physical activity, motor abilities, analysis of covariance models, interactions. Introduction In the last years it has been discovered that obesity and overweight is an enemy for the public health especially in young age children. Prevalence levels of overweight and obesity are dramatically increasing among children worldwide. Inactivity and lack of motor coordination activities are some of the main risk factors influencing children obesity level. Low level of motor skills may put limits on childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s motivation and capabilities to involve themselves into physical activity. Research in sport and physical activity settings has further shown that children who demonstrate athletic competence tend to be more popular with their peers than less skilled children (Rose, Larkin, & Berger., 1997; Weiss & Duncan, 1992). In contrast, children who

are poorly skilled often become the target of criticism, ridicule and bullying (Fitzpatrick &Watkinson, 2003; Mandich, Polatajko, & Rodger, 2003), and exclusion (Evans & Roberts, 1987; Mandich et al., 2003). In fact, it should be considered that the emphasis of PA changes during childhood and adolescence, with the strongest emphasis on motor development and skill learning in early childhood and on health and fitness in late adolescence (Malina., 1991). The benefits of regular physical activity (PA) for the health, fitness and behavior of school age children are major topics of discussion in the context of public health (Strong et al., 2005; Marcus et al., 2006; Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2008). It is well documented that regular physical activity is associated with improved health and


38

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

reduced risk of mortality. Physical education is both an educational and a public health resource, (Sallis, and McKenzie., 1991) providing children with opportunities to be physically active and teaching them the knowledge and movement skills that lead to active lifestyles. Physical activity is shown to be effective as prevention against cancer, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, even if patients do not reduce weight (Brodney et al., 2000). Physical activity is also important for bone density and growth in children and adolescents and has a positive influence on memory, mental capacity, and social behavior in children, regardless of their body mass index (Trudeau et al., 2008). Studying the relationship motor skills among children gives us the knowledge and the opportunity as to how prevent obesity. It is a known fact that being active and having good motor skills in the earlier ages is very important for a healthy life. The relationship between physical activity, BMI and motor skills seem interrelated in several ways. While obesity may hinder physical activity and thus reduce options for sound motor skill development, lack of motor skills may reduce possibilities for staying physically active and thus facilitate unhealthy weight development. The relationship between the activity levels of children, their aerobic fitness and their level of fatness has only recently been demonstrated essentially because it is still unclear as to which aspects of physical activity are relevant in regulating body weight. The school represents a privileged institution for releasing and promoting a correct lifestyle beginning from a younger age. In this study we aim to examine whether BMI was related to gender and age, and investigate whether BMI and covariates in the format of(age and gender) related to mobility performance. The aims of this study were: To investigate and compare BMI level and percent body fat in 6 - 7 years old by age group and gender; to investigate the level of coordination abilities measured by lateral jumping and plate tapping tests, by age and gender; To investigate the relationships between the levels of BMI with lateral jumping and plate tapping test scores, by gender and age group combinations.

Methods Participant A total of 341 children aged of 6 years in kindergarten (26 boys and 40 girls) and 7 years from first elementary school (152 boys and 123 girls), respectively, participated in this study. Four elementary schools were randomly selected from a pool of 53 elementary school (Regional Education Directorate of Tirana 2011) located in Tirana. For each participant, informed consent was signed by both the parents and the school directorial. The measurements of the children were conducted by a group of examiners in the selected schools from January 2011 until March 2011. Measurements Anthropometric measures Participants were asked to stand with back, buttocks, and heels against the stadiometer, with their feet together and flat on the floor and their head straightened in a neutral position. Body mass was measured in minimal clothing and to the nearest 0.1 kg. BMI may be calculated directly as weight (in kilograms)/ [height (in meters)]^2 or determined from published tables or normograms (Himes et al., 1994; Bray et al., 1998; Thomas et al., 1976). Body fat Percent (Skin fold thickness) Procedure: Triceps and sub scapular skin folds thickness were measured to the nearest 0.2mm using a calliper (Harpenden, St. Albans, UK) on the right side of the body. All skin folds were taken three times by the same experimenter to ensure consistency in results with the average of the three values used as a final value. To predict body fat (%FM) the equation described by Slaughter et al. (1988) were selected. Motor ability (coordination abilities) Plate Tapping Test: The plate tapping test (reaction tap test) is a reaction test using an alternating wall tapping action which measures upper body reaction time, hand-eye quickness and coordination. This test is part of the Eurofit Testing Battery. Purpose: to assess the speed and the coordination of upper limb movement. Equipment required: table (adjustable height), yellow discs (20cm diameter), rectangle (30 x 20 cm), stopwatch. Procedure: If possible, the table height should be adjusted so that the subject is standing comfortably in front of the


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

39

Table 1. Summary Statistics for Body Mass Index (BMI)

discs. The two yellow discs are placed with their centers 60 cm apart on the table. The rectangle is placed equidistant between both discs. The non-preferred hand is placed on the rectangle. The subject moves the preferred hand back and forth between the discs over the hand in the middle as quickly as possible. This action is repeated for 25 full cycles (50 taps). Scoring: The time taken to complete 25 cycles is recorded. Performed the test twice and the best result is recorded. Lateral Jumping: Gross motor coordination measured by means of the KTK- Body Coordination Test for Children {Kiphard EJ, Schilling F 1974}. Purpose: To assess gross motor coordination from a battery of four tests. Equipment required: wooden slat (60 cm _ 4 cm _ 2 cm). Procedure: The child jump laterally as many times as possible over a wooden slat in 15 seconds. Scoring: The number of jumps over two trials is summed. Statistical Analysis In order to describe the distribution of body mass index (BMI) by age groups and gender, summary statistics and graphical summaries were calculated. Analysis of variance was

employed to test whether there were significant differences between age groups. In order to investigate the level of coordination abilities, summary statistics and graphical summaries for lateral jumping and plate tapping test scores by age group and gender were constructed. Analysis of variance was used to examine whether significant differences existed between genders or among age groups for these three response variables. When analyzing the relationships between the levels of BMI with coordination abilities in both groups various analyses of covariance were conducted. In these models, gender and age groups were categorical fixed effects and BMI was a continuous predictor. Results Below are summary statistics for BMI by age group and gender (table 1), as well as an analysis of variance, ANOVA, (table 2) on age and gender differences in BMI. Results revealed that the average BMI for boys is higher than that for girls (table 1) but this difference is not significant (table 2).

Table 2. Analysis of Variance Model for Body Mass Index (BMI)


40

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Table 3. Summary Statistics for Skin Folding by age group and gender combinations

â&#x20AC;˘ While not statistically significant (table 4 ), we can observe from table 3 that the mean Skin Fold measurement score for seven year old boys is higher than that for six year olds (16.99 vs. 16.24). The median, however, seems to be higher for six year old boys compared to seven year olds (13.72 vs. 14.84). The standard deviation is higher for the seven year olds boys than that for six year old boys (8.14 vs. 7.58). Six year old girls have a slightly higher mean BMI score than the seven year olds (16.53 vs. 16.35). The median and standard deviation is higher for the seven year old girls compared to the six year olds. Below are summary statistics for lateral jumping and plate tapping tests score, by age group and gender (table 5 and 7) as well as analysis of variance tables (table 6 and 8) that show that there are no significant differences between genders, age group as well as between gender by age group for these two response variables. P-value for each variable is more than 0.05 reflecting that none of the coordination motor abilities variables is statistically significant when examined against age and gender. In Table 6 we can observe that, while not statistically different (table 5), the mean lateral Table 4. Analysis of Variance Model for Skin Folding

jumping test score for seven year old boys is higher than that for six year olds (32.61 vs. 31.15). Similarly, the mean lateral jumping test score for seven year old girls was higher than that of the six year olds (33.43 vs. 31.50). The median and standard deviation is also higher for seven year old boys compared to six year olds. A parallel pattern can be observed for the girls. While not statistically significant (table 8), table 7 reveals that the mean Plate Tapping test score for seven year old boys is slightly lower than that for six year olds (22.24 vs. 22.93). Similarly, the mean Plate Tapping score for seven year old girls was lower than that of the six year olds (22.67 vs. 23.18). The same goes for medians; the six year olds have a higher score than the seven year olds for both boys and girls. Standard deviation is higher for seven year old boys compared to six year olds. The same pattern of results holds for the girls. In order to investigate the relationship by gender, age groups, between BMI with the coordination abilities, i.e. lateral jumping, and plate tapping test scores, we conducted various


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

analyses using covariance models. In these models, gender and age groups were categorical fixed effects and BMI was a continuous predictor. Modeling Lateral Jumping as a function of age groups, gender, and BMI, we found that only BMI was a significant predictor (table 9). Taking into account age and gender, we observed that as BMI increases, Lateral Jumping performance decreases. Below, is the linear regression analysis (table 9) that summarize these findings.

â&#x20AC;˘ In our analysis of covariance model for Plate Tapping we found no significant relationships between Plate Tapping and the potential predictors, BMI, gender, and age groups. Table 10 summarizes these findings. Discussion We have investigated BMI level in 6 -7 years old children of Tirana, Albania, and investigated coordination ability levels measured by plate tapping and lateral jumping tests as well as percent body fat measured by skin fold thickness among children. Further-more, we examined the relationships between BMI levels and coordination abilities. From the results obtained we found that there were age differe-

41

nces in BMI where 6 years old boys and girls have significantly higher mean values then those 7 years old, and that the average BMI for boys tended to be higher than that for girls (not statistical significant). Age group differences may reflect that kindergarten children entering school into 1 st class have moved less and thus taken on weight due to the lack of space and playground available to them inside and outside as part of the kindergarten facilities, whereas schoolyard facilities open up for more movement thus reducing their BMI as they enter 1nd class. Our findings contrast those of Vanelli et al., (2005) showing that as children age and their lives become more sedentary, they put on weight possibly leading to lower mobility performance. From our results there were no statistical significant differences in the level of Lateral Jumping and Plate Tapping test scores by age and gender, but a study from Maffeis et al. (1996) suggest that initially there is an inactive lifestyle that leads to motor deficits, which nurtures inactivity and sedentary habits. Modeling Lateral Jumping as a function of age groups, gender, and BMI, we found that BMI was a significant predictor, and taking into account age and gender we observed that as BMI increases lateral jumping performance

Table 5. Summary Statistics for Lateral Jumping test score by age group and gender combinations

Table 6. Analysis of Variance Model for Lateral Jumping test score


42

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Table 7. Summary Statistics for Plate Tapping test score by age group and gender combinations

decreases. While the current study cannot rule out the possibility that with lower coordination abilities children move less and therefore put on weight, there is evidence in the literature to suggest that with higher BMI children may be less able to coordinate their lower limbs as reflected in lower lateral jumping test scores. Results from a study of Graf et al., (2004) showed markedly worse results of overweight/ obese children than the others with regard to gross motor development (KTK test battery were used) and endurance performance, even after adjustment for gender and age and concluded that increased body mass in firstgrade children correlates with poorer results in gross motor development and endurance performance. In our analysis of covariance model for Plate Tapping we found no significant relationships between Plate Tapping and the potential predictors, BMI, gender, and age groups. This indicates that the level of BMI do not restrict the ability to coordinate upper limb as measured by plate tapping test. Indeed the results from other studies focusing on this issue report mixed results. For example, in a recent study of Graf et al., (2004) examining the

relationships between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood it was shown that the relationship between BMI and coordinative and endurance performance were only slightly negative, whereas high body fat content as measured by skinfold was not related to these performance measures (Graf et al., 2004). In contrast, another study among children revealed that low perceived physical competence and ability, poor motor performance and body dissatisfaction increased the risk of childhood obesity (Morano, 2009). Children are more prone to play activities in which they need to be more active using their lower limbs then upper limbs. This observation would seem comforting given that results revealed that BMI was negatively related to coordination ability related to activity requiring lower limbs coordination ability whereas BMI was unrelated to coordination ability related to the use of upper limbs. Conclusion There appeared to be no gender differences with respect to BMI but with respect to age given that mean BMI value was larger in the six years old than the seven years old children.

Table 8. Analysis of Variance Model for Plate Tapping test score


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

43

Table 1. Linear Regression Results for Lateral Jumping test scores

Table 2. Linear Regression Results for Plate Tapping test scores

There were no age and gender difference (not statistical difference) for percent body fat. Level of BMI was not related to coordination abilities for the upper limbs as measured by late Tapping test. We found that BMI was negatively correlated with coordination abilities for the lower limbs as measured by Lateral Jumping test. Recommendations for Future Research More research focusing on early age childhood is necessary in order to contribute in enforcing the importance of PA activity and increasing the level of motor abilities in children and to continue and extend their focus in all age groups. Also, we think that future research is necessary to confirm and support the results of our study. Future studies should be concerted to investigate the level of PA and to test which are the most appropriate PA programs for improving children motor abilities. More needs to be done concerning qualification of the staff in the kindergarten and more support is needed from the government to create or to build new space/ playgrounds for this generation.

REFERENCES Brodney SB, Blair SN, Lee CD. Is it possible to be overweight or obese and fi t and healthy In Bouchard C, editor. Physical activity and obesity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2000. (J Eating Disorders 2000;215 – 20.) Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT. Definitions and proposed current classifications of obesity. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT, eds. Handbook of Obesity. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1998:31–40 Evans, J., & Roberts, G.C. (1987). Physical competence and the development of children’s peer Relations.Quest,39,23–35. Fitzpatrick, D.A., & Watkinson, E. (2003). The lived experience of physical awkwardness: Graf C, Koch B, Kretschmann-Kandel E, Falkowski G, Christ H, Coburger S, et al. Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILT-Project). Int J Obes 2004; 28:22–26. Himes JH, Dietz WH. Guidelines for overwe-ight in adolescent preventive services: reco-mmendations from an expert committee: the Expert Committee on Cli Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services. Am J ClinNutr. 1994; 59:307–316 Maffeis C, Zaffanello M, Pinelli L, Schutz Y. Total energy expenditure and patterns of activity in 8–10 year old obese and nonobese children. J Pediatr GastroenterolNutr 1996; 23: 256–261. Malina RM. Fitness and performance: adult health and the culture of youth.In: Parks RJ, Eckert MH, eds. New possibilities, new paradigms? American Academy of Physical Education Papers No. 24. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1991: 30–38.


44

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

McKenzie, T.L., Alcaraz, J.E., Sallis, J.F. and Faucette, N. (1998) Effects of physical education programme on children’s manipulation skills,Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 7, 327-341. Morano, M., D. Colella., C. Robazza3, L. Bortoli3, L. Capranica (2009)Physical selfperception and motor performance in normal - weight, overweight and obese children. Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, et al. Long-termmorbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: a follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1350–5. Must, A., & Strauss, R.S. (1999). Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. International Journal ofObesity23 (Suppl. 2), 2–11. Rose, B., Larkin, D., & Berger, B.G. (1997). Coordination and gender influences the perceived competence of children. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14,210–221. Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146:732–737 Thomas AE, McKay DA, Cutlip MB. A nomo-graph method for assessing body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976;29:302–304 Trudeau, F., Shephard, R.J., 2008. Physical edu-cation, school physical activity, schoolsports and academic performance. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 5, 10. Vanelli M, Iovane B, Bernardini A, Chiari G,Errico MK, Gelmetti C, Corchia M, Ruggerini A, Volta E, Rossetti S, Students of the Post-Graduate School of Paediatrics, University of Parma. Breakfast habits of 1,202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesity. Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense 2005: 76: 79–85. Weiss, M.R., & Duncan, S.C. (1992) . The relationship between physical competence and peer acceptance in the context of children’s sports participation. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14, 177–191.


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

45

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

A comparison of anthropometric parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness in Albanian youth soccer teams

ABDYL KURIU1, FLORIAN MEMA2 1

Department of Sports, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania

2

Department of Physical Activity Recreation and Tourism, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania Correspondence: A. Kuriu, Department of Sports, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania, E-mail;abdylkuriu@gmail.com Abtract The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the anthropometrical status of a group of highlevel youth soccer players and to assess and compare their VO2 max. The present sample had approximately 5 years of playing experience and had competed together on a championship for the past 3 years. In the present investigation, a non experimental, descriptive- comparison design was used to examine the comparison between teams for aerobic fitness and anthropometrics variables. One hundred and eleven soccer players from the five team [body mass, 58.4 kg (10.2 SD); height, 170 m (0.1 SD); and age, 18.8 years (0.8 SD)] were involved in the study. The results from comparing the data between clubs show that sginificance for parameters assessed in this study were only for (height {sig= 0,00}, weight with {sig= 0,01}, and Vo2max {sig= 0,00}). Results for Vo2 max were better for Partizani club (56,6 ml/kg/min) and lower for Dinamo club (52,0 ml/kg/min). Therefore, the assessment of the soccer player’s anthopometric parameters and aerobic performance could be of interest for soccer coaches in order to evaluate and better programme their endurance training sessions Keywords: aerbic fitness, anthropometric parameters, soccer clubs

Introduction The evaluation of athletes’ physical fitness is an important concern of coaches and trainers. Athletes who engage in sports that require prolonged activity must possess high levels of cardiovascular fitness. A soccer game involves more short, high-intensity movements than sustained, moderate-intensity movements. These workouts increase a player’s ability to recover between periods of hard running and play during games, Aerobic fitness is the foundation of soccer-specific fitness. Without a strong cardiovascular system, players have enough energy to play hard through an entire practice or game. The best way to build aerobic

fitness is through sustained, moderate-intensity movement. Competitive soccer is an intermittent, high-intensity physical activity that requires well-developed aerobic and anaerobic fitness (Ekblom, 1986; Reilly and Gilbourne, 2003; Reilly and Bangsbo, 2000). The relevance of aerobic fitness in soccer has been confirmed by descriptive (Smaros, 1980), cross-sectional (Wilsloff et al., 1998), and training studies (Helgerud et al., 2001). Furthermore, as soccer performance is characterized by several actions, such as sprinting, jumping, changes in direction, and tackling, muscular strength and power has also been shown to be important characteristics for


46

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

soccer players (Wilsloff et al., 1998). Aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake, lactate thresholds, and running economy;) can be accurately evaluated using a variety of laboratory protocols during treadmill-running until exhaustion. Although the values obtained with laboratory testing are considered the gold standard for the measurement of aerobic fitness, the procedures involved are time consuming and require trained personnel and expensive equipment. The positive effects of a high level of aerobic capacity on match play performance in soccer has been indicated for years (Bergh et al., 1991), and recently directly shown by Helgerud et al., 2001 who demonstrated that improved maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max) and running economy, by about 5 ml/kg/ min and 7%, respectively, substantially influenced the players’ technical and tactical performance during a game. This included more involvement with the ball, similar technical performance despite significantly higher exercise intensity, increased number of sprints, and a longer distance covered during a game. Thus the players’ aerobic capacity certainly plays an important role in modern soccer and has a major influence on their technical performance and tactical choices. Therefore, the assessment of the soccer player ’s aerobic performance could be of interest for soccer coaches in order

Methods Experimental Approach to the Problem In the present investigation, a non experimental, descriptive- comparison design was used to examine the comparison between teams for aerobic fitness and anthropometrics variables. Testing session took place over 3 separate days, with subject participation being randomly assigned. The testing sessions consisted of the following: (a) Anthropometrics and cardio respiratory testing, (b) card frequency measurements. One hundred and eleven soccer players from the five team [body mass, 58.4 kg (10.2 SD); height, 170 m (0.1 SD); and age, 18.8 years (0.8 SD)] were involved in the study (Table 1). To be included in the study, participants had to possess official medical clearance at the beginning of the season according to national law, to ensure that they were in good health. This medical examination, which includes electrocardiogram and blood, was performed in medical centers certified . Informed written consent was obtained after verbal and written explanation of the experimental design and potential risks of the study.

Table 1 .Descriptive statistics for variables assessed in the study

Height Weight FC Abd_skinfold Vo2max

Std. N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation 1.4 1.9 1.7 0.1 111 39.0 89.0 58.4 10.2 111 59.0 78.0 66.2 4.0 111 111 0.0 4.0 1.2 0.6 24.0 60.0 54.8 3.8 111

to evaluate and better programme their endurance training sessions The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the anthropometrical status of a group of high-level youth soccer players and to assess and compare their VO2max. The present sample had approximately 5 years of playing experience and had competed together on a championship for the past 3 years.

 

Aerobic Fitness Assessment Maximum oxygen uptake was determined using an incremental running test on a motorized treadmill. Subjects underwent continuous, incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion. The cycle ergometer test was performed on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Oxygen consumption was measured using a spiroergometer. Subjects were asked to choose a pedaling rate of 60 rpm


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

47

Table 2 Descriptive statistics splited by team for all variables

Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo

N 17 17 28 25 24

Height (m)

Weight (kg)

Mean 1.68 1.72 1.73 1.70 1.62

Mean 54.86 59.71 63.70 57.16 53.67

Std. Dev 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.08

and to maintain that rate throughout the test. After a 2-min warm-up period at 0 W, the test was initiated at an initial power output of 20 W. Stepwise increments of 40 W were made every minute until exhaustion. VO 2max is expressed as percentage of predicted peak VO2 (ml/min) based on sex, age, and body mass index as described previously (Astrand ecuation). For the purpose of the present analyses, we used this parameter as measure of aerobic fitness. Statistical Analyses Data are reported as mean and SD. Before using parametric tests, the assumption of normality was verified. Comparison between variable means was performed for variables assessed in the study. One-way ANOVA was used to test differences between teams for anthropometrics variables and cardiorespiratory fitness. Post hoc analyses were carried out using the Tukey HSD test. Significance was set at 0.05 (p d” 0.05). Excel database was used for entering the data and finally Spss 20 packages (program) was used for final data analysis. Results Results show that the average height for participant in this study is 1.70m (0,1SD). The

Std. Dev 12.85 7.88 8.32 8.87 11.85

Vo2max (ml/kg/min) Mean Std. Dev 55.14 3.24 54.59 2.12 56.59 1.89 55.32 1.91 52.21 6.27

minimum and the maximum value for height is 1,50 m-1,70 m. The average weight is 58,4 (10,2 SD). FC (cardiac frecuency) is 66,2 b/min (4,0 SD), Abd Skinfold (abdominal skinfold) 1,2 (0,6 SD) and the average values for Vo2 max is 54,8 ml/kg/min (3,8 SD). Data show higher level in height to Partizani team with 1,73m (0,08 SD) and lower value for Dinamo club 1,62m (0,08 SD). For weight data show higher value for Partizani club with 63,70 kg (8,32 SD) and lower weight for Dinamo club with 53,67 kg (11,85 SD). For Vo2 max the results revealed higher level for Partizani club with 56,59 ml/kg/min (1,89 SD) and lower level for Dinamo club with 52,21.ml/kg/min (6,27 SD). For this result sig koeficent was (d”0,05) This reults show that the trainers should focus deeper on this antropomertics parametres. The results from comparing the data between clubs show that sginificance for parameters are (height {sig 0,00}, weight with {sig 0,01}, and Vo2max {sig 0,00}). Vo2 max is better for Partizani (>56,0) ml/kg/min and last for Dinamo.(52,0) ml/kg/min.

Table 3 Between and within teams analysis for variables assessed in this study.

Height Weight BMI FC Abd_skinfold Vo2max  

Between Groups Within Groups Between Groups Within Groups Between Groups Within Groups Between Groups Within Groups Between Groups Within Groups Between Groups Within Groups

Sum of Squares 0.198 0.6 1478.448 8970.25 51.277 625.472 35.845 1530.293 2.092 37.897 259.189 1222.78

Mean Square 0.05 0.006 369.612 93.44 12.819 6.515 8.961 15.941 0.523 0.395 64.797 12.737

F 7.925

Sig. 0.00

3.956

0.01

1.968

0.11

0.562

0.69

1.325

0.27

5.087

0.00


48

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

Figure1.Means comparison per team for cardiorespiratory fitness

Discussion Competitive soccer is an intermittent, highintensity physical activity that requires welldeveloped aerobic and anaerobic fitness (Ekblom, 1986; Reilly and Gilbourne, 2003; Reilly and Bangsbo, 2000). The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the anthropometrical status of a group of high-level youth soccer players and to assess and compare their VO2max. This study showed that the height, weight and Vo2 max mean values significantly were different between teams. Vo2 max mean values were better for Partizani club (>56,0) ml/kg/ min and lower for Dinamo.club (52,0) ml/kg/ min. The fact that such a ball dribbling field test correlated with aerobic performance is certainly of great interest for the soccer coaches. Indeed, it is generally easier to ask soccer players to make an effort with the ball than without. The results in championship was closely related to VO2max during ergometer running, Predicting VO2max from ergometer is meaningless, as values varied between 24. ml/ kg/min and 60.0 ml/kg/min. We can conclude that the presence of the ball in a dribbling form is certainly a critical motivational point as to its use by soccer teams in order to assess their playersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; aerobic performance. The present study VO2max results for youth players are among the lowest ever reported for a youth club soccer team and are not in the order of those observed in under 16 national teams

(Frank et al., 1999; Leatt et al., 1987). Furthermore, VO2max was substantially higher than that reported on Albanian soccer players, but are not in the normal range of what is reported for senior elite players. However, the values are not at all impressive considering the advantages of a high VO2max in modern soccer. A very effective interval training programme, increasing VO2max by about 0.5% each training session, has recently been described (Helgerud et al., 2001; Hoff et al., 2002). Furthermore, as shown by (Helgerud et al., 2001), improving VO2max and running economy by 11 and 7% respectively had the consequence that the team in total ran 18 000 metres more at a higher intensity, which also influenced the on field performance, apart from just running. The positive effects of a high level of aerobic capacity on match play performance in soccer has been indicated for years (Bergh et al., 1991), and recently directly shown by Helgerud et al., 2001 who demonstrated that improved maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and running economy, by about 5 ml/kg/min and 7%, respectively, substantially influenced the playersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; technical and tactical performance during a game. Therefore, the assessment of the soccer playerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s anthopometric parameters and aerobic performance could be of interest for soccer coaches in order to evaluate and better programme their endurance training sessions.


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

Apendics (Suplementaary material) Table 4 Multiple Comparisons/ Dependent Variable: Height (I) Team

(J) Team

Flabina

Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo

Tirana

Partizani

Studenti

Dinamo

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval Lower Upper Bound Bound

-0.04782 -0.05143 -0.02909 0.0603 0.04782

0.0355 0.0334 0.0338 0.03396 0.0355

0.181 0.127 0.392 0.079 0.181

-0.1183 -0.1177 -0.0962 -0.0071 -0.0227

0.0227 0.0149 0.038 0.1277 0.1183

-0.00361 0.01873 .10811* 0.05143 0.00361

0.0243 0.02485 0.02506 0.0334 0.0243

0.882 0.453 0 0.127 0.882

-0.0519 -0.0306 0.0584 -0.0149 -0.0446

0.0446 0.0681 0.1579 0.1177 0.0519

0.02234 .11173* 0.02909 -0.01873 -0.02234

0.02175 0.02199 0.0338 0.02485 0.02175

0.307 0 0.392 0.453 0.307

-0.0208 0.0681 -0.038 -0.0681 -0.0655

0.0655 0.1554 0.0962 0.0306 0.0208

.08938* -0.0603 -.10811* -.11173* -.08938*

0.02259 0.03396 0.02506 0.02199 0.02259

0 0.079 0 0 0

0.0445 -0.1277 -0.1579 -0.1554 -0.1342

0.1342 0.0071 -0.0584 -0.0681 -0.0445

  * The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

Table 5 Multiple Comparisons/ Dependent Variable: Weight (I) Team

(J) Team

Flabina

Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo

Tirana

Partizani

Studenti

Dinamo

 

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval Lower Upper Bound Bound

-4.8487 -8.8393* -2.3029 1.1905 4.8487

4.3411 4.0848 4.1335 4.1523 4.3411

0.267 0.033 0.579 0.775 0.267

-13.466 -16.948 -10.508 -7.052 -3.768

3.768 -0.731 5.902 9.433 13.466

-3.9905 2.5459 6.0392 8.8393* 3.9905

2.9721 3.0388 3.0643 4.0848 2.9721

0.183 0.404 0.052 0.033 0.183

-9.89 -3.486 -0.043 0.731 -1.909

1.909 8.578 12.122 16.948 9.89

6.5364* 10.0298* 2.3029 -2.5459 -6.5364*

2.6598 2.689 4.1335 3.0388 2.6598

0.016 0 0.579 0.404 0.016

1.257 4.692 -5.902 -8.578 -11.816

11.816 15.367 10.508 3.486 -1.257

3.4933 -1.1905 -6.0392 -10.0298* -3.4933

2.7624 4.1523 3.0643 2.689 2.7624

0.209 0.775 0.052 0 0.209

-1.99 -9.433 -12.122 -15.367 -8.977

8.977 7.052 0.043 -4.692 1.99

* The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

49


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1 50 Table 6 Multiple Comparisons/ Dependent Variable: Vo2max

(I) Team

(J) Team

Flabina

Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo Flabina Tirana Partizani Studenti Dinamo

Tirana

Partizani

Studenti

Dinamo

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval Lower Upper Bound Bound

0.5546 -1.4464 -0.1771 2.9345 -0.5546

1.6028 1.5081 1.5261 1.5331 1.6028

0.73 0.34 0.908 0.059 0.73

-2.627 -4.44 -3.207 -0.109 -3.736

3.736 1.547 2.852 5.978 2.627

-2.0011 -0.7318 2.3799* 1.4464 2.0011

1.0973 1.1219 1.1314 1.5081 1.0973

0.071 0.516 0.038 0.34 0.071

-4.179 -2.959 0.134 -1.547 -0.177

0.177 1.495 4.626 4.44 4.179

1.2693 4.3810* 0.1771 0.7318 -1.2693

0.982 0.9928 1.5261 1.1219 0.982

0.199 0 0.908 0.516 0.199

-0.68 2.41 -2.852 -1.495 -3.219

3.219 6.352 3.207 2.959 0.68

3.1117* -2.9345 -2.3799* -4.3810* -3.1117*

1.0199 1.5331 1.1314 0.9928 1.0199

0.003 0.059 0.038 0 0.003

1.087 -5.978 -4.626 -6.352 -5.136

5.136 0.109 -0.134 -2.41 -1.087

*  The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level. References Bergh U , Sjødin B, Forsberg A, et al. The relationship between body mass and oxygen uptake during running in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991;23 :205–11 Franks AM, Williams AM, Reilly T, et al. Talent identification in elite youth soccer players: Physical and physiological characteristics. Communication to the Fourth World Congress on Science and Football,Sydney. J Sports Sci 1999;17:812. Helgerud J , Engen LC, Wisløff U, et al. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33 :1925–31. Hoff J, Wisløff U, Engen LC, et al. Soccer specific aerobic endurance training. Br J Sports Med 2002;36:218–21. Ekblom, B. Applied physiology of soccer. Sports Med. 3:50–60.1986. Leatt P, Shephard RJ, Plyley MJ. Specific muscular development in under-18 soccer players. J Sports Sci 1987;5:165–75. Reilly, T., and D. Gilbourne. Science and football: A review of applied research in the football codes.J. Sports Sci.21:693–705. 2003. Reilly, T., J. Bangsbo, and A. Franks. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. J. Sports Sci. 18: 669–683. 2000.

Smaros, G. Energy usage during football match. In: Proceedingsof the 1st International Congress on Sports Medicine Applied-to Football. L. Vecciet, ed. Rome: D. Guanello, 1980. pp. 795–801. Wisloff, U., J. Helgerud, and J. Hoff. Strengt hand endurance of elite soccer players. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 30(3):462–467. 1998.


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

51

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

The evaluation of the functional performance of the ‘Vertical jump’ at female and male volleyball players in the Albanian championship ENKELEIDA LLESHI1, VEJSEL RIZVANOLLI2 1

Institute of Sport Research, Sports University of Tirana, Albania Department of Organizations and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana, Albania

2

Correspondence: E. Lleshi, Institute of Sport Research, Sports University of Tirana, Albania, Email; enlleshi@yahoo.com Abstract The performance profiling of volleyball players is important to distinguish the anthropometric and physical characteristics from other sports. The reason of this study is the evaluation of the “Vertical Jump” and other parameters of the Albanian National Championship volleyball players. The height of the vertical jump is considered as the potential of an athlete during the jump. Volleyball players were tested in different periods before and after the training with their coaches. Participants were 10 girls, mean age 22.1 years old and 10 boys, mean age 16.2 years old who were assessed on a number of functional testing for the sport of volleyball. Body height (BH), Body mass (BMI %), Body weight (BW), SJ (squat jump) tests, CMJ (countermovement jump), DJ (drop jump 40 cm). Based on the results presented on table 2, 3 and 4, we observed differences on general team data but also on individual volleyball players between two periods, before and after the testing. From the obtained data of the test was observed even the effect of the training that these athletes have done for the jumping level, assessment of explosive strength and maximum power. The obtained results suggest changes in sporting performance of “vertical jump” in the force settings, speed and power. These tests are necessary for each coach and athlete. The evaluation of these tests is one of the key features of a vertical jump as one of the specific technical element in the game on air in the sport of volleyball. Key Words: drop, squat-countermovement jump. Introduction My activity and work in the field of volleyball pushed me to deepen toward more knowledge of this sport. Studies have been based on the sport of volleyball at different ages. Evaluations are conducted in support of this sport and the individual and we have realized that the vertical jump is a necessary element for the volleyball players. While conducting this study we have used the facilities of the Sports University of Tirana and its respective laboratories of Physiology and Biomechanics where tests are developed with advanced equipment and “Leonardo” platform. In collective sports as volleyball, football, basketball besides other technical elements that these kind of sports contain it is seen even the

functioning of the element “vertical jump”. The effects of jump trainings over the vertical jumping ability have been studied by various authors. They have found out that many high jumps can be greatly improved using plyometric jumps. The better perfection of a “vertical jump” can be achieved by training with the certain order to increase the height of the jump, the high level of the muscular activity by increasing the growth of cargo in the stretch faze of the vertical jump. One of the training methods that the coaches use during the preparatory period of the athletes are the plyometric exercises. These exercises include rapid eccentric and concentric movement to increase muscle strength so they can perform an efficient jump (Bosco, 2006). The main


52

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes and the effects that training with the coaches caused to volleyball players using the tests squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ). We are focused on vertical jump as a basic element to achieve the proper high of the sportive performance in volleyball players without compromising other technical elements. Bosco 2006 has compared the performance of vertical jump in male and female athletes in these three cases. Volleyball players must possess and increase, by training, the ability for the development of the maximum power and explosive force and also to reuse the elastic energy. Method Participants In understanding with coaches of the volleyball teams we based our study on the female volleyball team “Tirana Volley” in the period before and after a preparatory mini faze and on the male volleyball team “Farka Volley” in the period before and after the second phase of the National Championship. During the study players have been under our observation for the performance of the training program with their coaches. Training sessions have been regular, 5 times a week with duration of 1 hour and 30 min each time. Among all 20 participants, 10 participants were girls, mean age 22.1 years old and the other 10 participants were boys, mean age 16.2 years old. They were assessed according to several functional testings specific for the sport of volleyball. Body height (BH), Body mass (BMI %), Body weight (BW) are presented on table 1.

Table 1: Descriptive statistics for anthropometric measurements

Girls

Boys

Mean Age

22.1 ± 4.8

16.8 ± 0.9

Body Height

177.4 ± 6.09

187.9 ± 9.47

Body Wight

67.81 ± 6.7

70.2 ± 10.08

Body Mass

21.55 ± 1.6

20.37 ± 2.06

Statistical analysis • SJ (squat jump), The vertical jump from the initial position starts when the athlete has his/her legs refracted to 90º and hands positioned on the waist. There have been realized 3 jumps and has been taken the best. • CMJ (Countermovement Jump) is similar to SJ, but the athlete begins the testing by staying right and then he/she takes off by refracting his/her lower limb to 90 º and hands placed on the waist (3 jumps). Tests were developed on MUSCLELAB JUMP (Ergo test Technology and the “Leonardo” platform. • DJ (drop jump), Jump-drop-jump from 40 cm cube in “Leonardo” platform. • Calculation (CMJ-SJ) x 100/CMJ). The capacity of reusing the accumulated energy as a result of the elastic stretch that precedes the muscular contraction. During squat jumps with a knee flexion to 90° players were instructed to perform a maximal vertical jump and were not allowed to use any motion, forward flexion before jumping. All volleyball players were tested in the same conditions, with a preliminary general stretching of 10 min.

Table 2: Somatic data and Ergojump tests of the female team “Tirana Volley” and male team “Farka Volley”


53

TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE Table 3: Data of the tests done with “Leonardo” platform in “Tirana Volley” and male team “Farka Volley”

Nr

Teams

Age

BH SJ Test 1-2 F max P max kN kW 1.48 2.73

P max kW 2.97

F max kN 1.46

CMJ Test 1-2 F max P max kN kW 1.53 2.81

P max kW 2.96

10

Female

22.1

177.4

F max kN 1.38

10

SD Male

4.8 16.8

6.09 187.9

0.13 1.55

0.12 1.60

0.27 3.52

0.29 3.57

0.12 1.51

0.12 1.75

0.29 3.32

0.32 3.71

SD

0.9

9.47

2.23

2.24

0.58

0.53

0.19

0.20

0.47

0.45

Table 4. Female “Tirana Volley” and male team “Farka Volley” DJ-Drop test in “Leonardo” platform Nr

Teams

Age

BH

10

Female

22.1

SD 10

177.4

F max Test 1-Test 2 kN 3.31 3.18

P max Test 1-Test 2 w/kg 30.82 33.45

TimeContac Air Time (TC)s (TA)s Test 1-Testi2 Test 1-Test 2 0.30 0.30 0.48 0.93

1.69

1.78

4.8

6.09

0.68

0.88

4.15

5.98

0.07

0.10

0.02

1.37

0.40

0.48

Male

16.8

187.9

2.44

3.12

27.05

33.63

0.41

0.32

0.49

0.49

1.24

1.69

SD

0.9

9.47

0.50

0.71

5.91

9.57

0.12

0.09

0.08

0.08

0.27

0.57

Results Somatic data and Ergo jump tests data for the female team “Tirana Volley” and for the male team “Farka Volley” are presented on table 2. Specific data for Leonardo Platform of both teams regarding the SJ and CMJ tests are presented on table 3, while data regarding the DJ test are presented on table 4. Discussion Table 2 presents somatic data and Ergojump tests data for the female team “Tirana Volley” and the male team “Farka Volley”. The estimate average and the standard deviation (SD) for all data presented on this table are calculated. But if we do a comparison with the references taken from the foreign literature, female and male volleyball players have low jumping levels; (refers Bosco 2006) (SJ 37cm ,CMJ 41cm for girls) (SJ boys 47cm ,CMJ-53). But in both teams there have been male and female individuals who have improved during the training with the coaches. It is clearly seen in younger athletes. For a long time we thought that CMJ jump would provide the muscle elasticity measure, while today it is found that this test provides the rapid force measure of the jump. The differences between the two tests CMJ-SJ of the athletes in teams is the “elasticity index”. Good capacity used by the elastic

TA/TC s Test 1Test2

energy corresponds to 8-10 cm. Difference between these two tests is called “The index of fast power ” (Bosco 2006). From the data obtained before and after the training of the volleyball players there is still exploited elastic energy. We think that there is more to be clarified and developed in the training plan that the coaches use to increase the vertical jump to young volleyball players. Table 3 shows the results obtained from the tests performed on a “Leonardo” platform, both for the female and male volleyball players. This platform consists in obtaining more data to the evaluation of the volleyball players, force (F max kN) and power (P max kW), during the vertical jump. This platform clearly shows and identifies all the testing protocol of the vertical jump. Technical good used efficiency (EFI %) during the vertical jump highlights the general preparation that this sports has in lower extremities (legs) and the usage of the elastic energy of the muscle complex. From the observation and the conversation with the coaches of these two teams we realized that despite the general athletic-technical-tactical preparation they used different plyometric exercises to increase the vertical jump. We think that in terms of training according to coaches, the use of plyometric exercises to increase the explosive power in vertical jump


54

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

has not been regular, based on a detailed program. But for female and even for male players the training has been efficient. Max force (F max) and max power (P max) are relatively poor values (low) compared with the results that a volleyball player should have during a vertical jump. The results of the DJ-Drop test performed on a “Leonardo” platform for the female “Tirana Volley” team and for the male “Farka Volley” team are presented on table 4. The DJ Drop jump (jump-drop-jump) test is performed with a fall from the height (40, 60, and 80 cm) and an instantaneous jump in height. In this test we used fall from 40 cm high cube in both volleyball teams. The results presented by DJ in “Leonardo” platform show an effect to improve the vertical jumping ability. The test provides as an objective the progressive increase in the decline faze, contact time (TCS), the residence time on air (TAS) and has also the objective to show the highest determining result of the vertical jump. (Bosco, 2006) has come to the conclusion that to have significantly results on DJ test, we can conduct future studies from the height 60 cm. The results of the study as outlined above for women and men show that by using the DJ test we can improve the vertical jump. By comparing the first and second DJ test, the results show the higher increase of the sportive performance in maximal force and maximal power in male volleyball players than female, especially in particular individuals. As a result of improved power and force is also increased the vertical jump shown in the declining contact DJ faze with the time of flight, expressed in seconds. Conclusions From the obtained results of the study we have arrived on these conclusions:

Vertical jump SJ and CMJ done in Ergo jump and with the implementation of the method (Bosco, 2006) before and after training shows that tested volleyball players have yet untapped and well-used energy. We think that there is more to be clarified and developed in the training plan that coaches use to improve the vertical jump to volleyball players. The ability in jumping is an important factor of success in the sport but it is associated with the general and specified training to develop the muscular max force and max power. DJ test (jump-drop-jump) proves that is a more effective way to increase the output power and the jumping performance.

References Bosco C. (2006). Applicazioni pratiche del test di Bosco In La forza muscolare: Aspetti Fisiologici ed Applicazioni Pratiche (pp.103-110) Rome, It: Ed. società stampa sportiva Bosco C. (2006). La forza muscolare: Aspetti Fisiologici ed Applicazioni Pratiche (pp. 201-210) Rome, It: Ed. società stampa sportiva Commeti G. & Cometti D. (2009). I test di Bosco In La Pliometria: Origini, teorie, allenamento. ( pp. 60 – 65) Tivoli, It:Calzetti & Mariucci Editori Marella M. & Risaliti M. (2007). La Forza In Il libro dei test: Le prove di valutazione fisica per tutti gli sport (4th ed). (pp. 80-85) M i l a n o , It: Edizioni Correre


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

55

REVIEW ARTICLE

Strength training in children and adolescent NAJADA QUKA1, RIGERTA SELENICA1 1

Department of Social Sciences and Education, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana,Albania Correspondence: N. Quka, Department of Social Sciences and Education, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Sports University of Tirana, Albania, E-mail; najadaquka@yahoo.com Abstract: The aim of this review is to gather more knowledge about youth strength training. The purpose of it is to build up an overview of advantages and disadvantages of youth strength training; intended of highlighting the exits paradox. Furthermore, the review is supposed to find out whether the resistance exercises should be promoted among young children. It is not only to show that “Yes”, strength training is good for children but also that resistance exercises can have positive effects by improving health and performances values. The purpose of this study is to inform not to diagnose. In this study review, we were focused on the process of exploration and collection data from different articles and researchers that emphasized “how effective and safe youth strength training program can be”. The study review were directed by a detailed data selection of the most important and critical aspects of strength training in children. The strength training program has shown to be safe and beneficial even for young children. Also, it has indicated that children and adolescent can gain strength by following appropriate supervised youth strength training program. The strength gained among children have shown to be primarily attributed to neural adaptation, disputing the myth that youth strength training program cannot result in strength gain among this age group. Keywords: strength training in children, misperceptions, effects of strength training in training program. Introduction The strength training was mentioned since the Hypocrites era which explained the principles of strength training referring to hypertrophy and atrophy as a significant morphological phenomenon. Strength training as a term is defined differently by many scientists but the concept is basically the same. It should be emphasized that a good coach must have knowledge about physiological changes of a child growth process. It is indicated that all of those who work with children and implement strength exercises into their physical education should possess the necessary knowledge regarding “ the way a child changes during the growth process” in order to design a suitable strength-training program according to child’s needs and to organize an effective coaching process (David

children,

et al, 2007). Refer to graphic 3, table 2,4 and table 2,4,5. The neurological adaptations of children who engage strength training refer to muscle strength gain but without muscle hypertrophy which contrarily occurs in adults and adolescents. The direct studies regarding neurological changes especially in pre-puberty boys and girls, demonstrated an increase in motor unit activation (Ramsay et al, 1990) and increase in neuromuscular activation in agonist muscle (Ozmun et al, 1994). Contrary to adults, who gain strength by increasing muscle size (muscle hypertrophy), children, on the other hand, are more predisposed to gain neuromuscular improvements. The ability of the muscle to create strength comes as result of the muscle contraction which is stimulated


56

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

There are no apparent differences in weight and height for both boys and girls, before the peak of this growth spurt is reached. Furthermore, it is indicated that girls not only start and finish the stages of puberty earlier than boys and adolescence, but also they seem to be 12 years old (average age) during the peak of growth spurt while boys only 14 years old. (It is clearly shown at the graphic, nr 3.) Graphic nr. 3. Differences between boys and girls related with the rate of height.

by motor- units that receive stimuli from nerve system. The ability to activate more motor units leads to greater strength. These neural adaptations in response to resistance training lead to the possibility of strength gains even during childhood and even though they are not completely mature (Folland et al, 2007). One of the most frequently asked questions by those who do not support the idea that strength training should be promoted even during childhood (parents; coaches) is that

“whether strength training will stunt child’s bone or growth plates?”. Believing that strength training is harmful for young children especially before their skeletal system is completely mature and that it will stunt stature growth or damage the epiphysis or growth plates, it is not supported and even opposed by current finding (Faigenbaum et al, 1996, 1998, 2003). Strength training can provide significant functional outcomes to the health and wellbeing improvements even when children participate in strength training only for pleasure. These outcomes are shown to be focused on: Helping children to strength their bones; promoting healthy blood pressure and ameliorating the cholesterol level, reducing obesity and maintaining a healthy weight; improving child’s self-esteem; increasing child’s muscle strength; increasing protection of child’s muscle and joints from the injury; improving joint function; reducing risk of injury; increasing bone density; improving cardiac function and proper exercise behaviors which can all contribute to better health and well-being over a lifetime (Faigenbaum et al, 2003). Unfortunately, there are some factors (Faigenbaum et al, 2003) that may influence negatively while using strength training among children: • Improper Supervision. • Improper Technique. • Improper Strength Exercise Program (designed)

Table, nr. 2. Stages of growth are clearly shown for both boys and girls. Both boys and girls develop and grow according to some obvious and similar stages such as: infancy, childhood, puberty, adolescence and adulthood.


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

Research procedures To realize this literature review the most important database were used to gather as much as possible information and to obtain the various comparisons on conception and treatment of the critical issues that strength training in children is facing today. Database used during our navigation were Medline, Discuss, Inspire, est. from which the information was successfully implemented into our study (Review). Articles related to strength training in general as concept, were a lot, but being focused on strength training in children and adolescent, these articles reduced. But this reduction does not affect our job because these results we obtained were sufficient material to concretize our study (Review). Literature review Strength training, especially during childhood, is determined as one of the beneficial training methods leading to the improvements of general health and sport performance values. It can be safer and more beneficial than it is generally believed. Before sport participation, children should be introduced to a preparatory program helping and facilitating their training process by improving fundamental motor skills in children. This development can help children to adapt more easily to specific exercises and to feel more protected against sport – injury. The probability of injuries results to reduce down to 50 % after their participation in a preparatory training program (Nielsen & Rowland, 1984). Furthermore, there are an increased number of scientific evidences that demonstrate the

57

importance of neural adaptations and its great contribution in the increase force muscle production. Unfortunately, because of lack “detailed researches” toward neuromuscular adaptations in prepubescent, the possibility to gain strength even during puberty period continuous to be one of the most open debates (Franklin et al, 2001). The only responsible mechanism of strength gains in prepubescent are neural adaptations. During adulthood, contrary to prepubescent, muscular strength is the production of both muscle hypertrophy and improved neuromuscular system. It is reported that children who can perform regularly strength exercise result to benefit positive effects in “bone growth and development” during childhood and adolescence (Rodriguez,V.G). Furthermore, resistance training combined with proper nutrition show potential improvement in the growth process and it is well documented that bone or growth plate stunt are unlikely during strength training program if it is designed correctly and appropriately for every age group. Guidelines of strength training in children are recommended by different scientists, and facilitate the work of new instructors to design and guide effective and safe resistance training session. It is essential that instructors or coaches should produce a training program according to individual needs and individual physical capacities level and should not impose children to adult’s strength program. The most important “training challenge” is that the child should have fun while performing resistance exercises program and not become a forced task for them (Pierce et al,). Finally, based on

At the table below are shown the peak times of growth in different age group for both boys and girls indicating that there are children who develop earlier or later than the average age of peak growth. Table, nr.4. Differences between boys and girls related with the rate of height.


58

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2013 Volume 1 Issue 1

scientific results, strength training is good for children. Safe conditions and guides reported by contemporary â&#x20AC;&#x153;strength training studiesâ&#x20AC;? (involving children) are estimated as mandatory conditions for a safe and effective training process. Conditioning strength training is vital for children as regarding prevention process of sport-related injury. The promotion of strength training into physical activities routine of children and not allowing them to drop- out from training participation should be taken into account by those who support and instruct children during a strength training program. It is not advisable for children to lift maximal load or perform one repetition with his maximum capacity during childhood. Even

more attention should be concentrated on the proper form and execution of strength exercises. It is recommended that during the initial stage of learning, children should perform the exercises with no resistance and not in competitive aspects. In conclusion, children result to tolerate exercise stress after 2 to 4 weeks of resistance training program. Moreover, the training load can be increased about 10 % only when child can easily perform 15 repetitions (Faigenbaum et al, 1996). Results of training program become visible after at least 8 weeks of a strength exercise program but children may lose all strength gains after 6 week period of having quitted a resistance exercise program (American Academy of Pediatrics 2008).

Table nr.5. Summary of the effects of resistance training (RT) in children and adolescents Note: +++, clear effect in numerous studies; ++, some effect in limited number of studies; +, small effect in limited number of studies; ?, unclear effect;â&#x20AC;&#x201D;, no effect. BMD= bone mineral density; BMC= bone mineral content.


TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE

Furthermore, strength gains in children have been indicated to be achievable if he or she can perform 12 or more RM per exercise, while when a child cannot perform more than 12 RM (fewer than 12 repetitions) outcomes will be “muscular strength endurance” and not a maximum strength development. The main goal of this review is to summarize the latest information and the contemporary strength training results. This review is supposed to help people more complete “information” with the latest arguments, facts and results about strength training for young children. In the end of this study it is essential to emphasize that “strength training for young children” as an important topic needs to be deeply analyzed and discussed between qualified scientists. References American Academy of Pediatrics.(April 2008). Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Pediatrics, vol 121: pp 835-840. American College of Sports Medicine. (2006).Sport medicines Institute for young athletes, 36:561-569. Blimke, C.J.R. Chapter 7: Trainability of muscle strength and power and endurance during childhood Behm, D.G., Faigenbaum,A.D., Falk, B., & Klentrou,P. (2008). Resistance training in children and adolescents. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology.Position paper, 33 (3).

59

health and athletic performance. Strength and Conditioning. Faigenbaum, A., Kreamer, W., Cahill, B.,& Chandler, J. (1996). Youth resistance training. Position statement and literature review. Strength and conditioning. National Strength and Conditioning Association, 18 (6). Faigenbaum, A., Milliken, L.A., Westcott, W.L. (2003). Maximal strength testing in healthy children. Journal of strength and conditioning research & National strength and conditioning association, 17 (1); 162. Folland, J.P., & Williams, A.G. (2007). Review Article: The adaptations to strength training. Morphological and Neurological contributions to increased strength. Graves, J.E., & Franklin, B.A. (2001). Strength Training for Young Athletes: What Kids and Their Parents Need to Know. Sports Medicine Institute for Young Athletes, Hospital for Special Surgery. Kraemer,W.J., & Ratamess, N.A. (2005). Review Article: Hormonal Responses and adaptations to resistance exercises and training.

Kraemer,W.J., & Fleck,S.J. (2005). Strength Training for Young Athletes. Human Kinetics 2nd ed. Nielsen, K.S.(1984).Chapter 10.Muscle strength Pierce, K.C., Byrd,R.J., & Stone,M.H. Youth weightlifting. Rowland, Th.W. Physiology of healthy child: Physiologic and perceptual response to exercise in healthy child. Rodriguez, V. G. Strength training for young athletes: How does exercise affect bone development during growth?. Shires, K. Review Article: Strength training for kids.

Faigenbaum, A. (2007). Resistance training for children and adolescents: Are there health outcomes?. American Journal of lifestyle medicine (1); 190-200.

Wilmore, J.H., & Costill,D.L., Book: Physiology of sport and exercise Third Edition: Chapter 3, Chapter 16, Chapter 18.

Faigenbaum, A., Westcott, W.L., Loud, R.L.R., & Long, C. (1999). The effects of different resistance training protocols on muscular strength and endurance development in children. Official Journal of the America Academy of Pediatrics, 104.

Westcott, W.L. Youth Strength Training: Why and How?.

Faigenbaum, A., & Michel, L. ( 1998). Published by American College of sport and Medicine: Youth strength training. ACSM. Faigenbaum, A. (2003). Strength training in children and adolescents: Adaptive responses, performance and safety aspects. Department of health and exercise science, college of New Jersey. Faigenbaum, A. (2003). National Strength and Conditioning Associate: Youth Resistance Training. Faigenbaum, A. (2003). Strength training for children and adolescent. American College of Sports Medicine. Fit Society Page (ACSM). Faigenbaum, A., Conley, M., Kreamer, W. ( 2 0 0 0 ) . Resistance training guidelines for the enhancement of


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2013 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS Biomechanical analysis of legs position in the execution of the throwing technique in judo sport- SASAE TSURIKOMI ASHI FADIL REXHEPI...........................................................................................................................................3-7 LEGISLATION AND SPORT MANAGEMENT The sports law in the context of the plurality of law systems, and the new concept of work in European area SAIMIR. SHATKU, BLERINA MEMA AND SERGIO VINCIGUERRA .................................8-12 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH Physical activity and fitness in adolescence in Tirana AIDA SHEHU, LUMTURI MARKOLAJ...........................................................................................13-17 The prevalence of obesity in children and current level of physical activity in a city in transition JUEL JARANI, ANESTI QELESHI .....................................................................................................18-22

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS

PHYSICAL EDUCATION School-based intervention within the physical education curriculum in promoting physical activity and fitness ANDI SPAHI, JUEL JARANI AND HARALD TCHAN...............................................................23-30 A preliminary epidemiologic study on development coordination disorder in Albanian children (7-10 years) GENTIANA NICAJ, NADIA SCHOTT.............................................................................................31-36 An invenstigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them, on 6-7 years old children in Tirana KEIDA USHTELENCA, SKERDI PASHA, YNGVA R OMMUNDSEN...................................37-44 TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE A comparison of anthropometric parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness in Albanian youth soccer teams ABDYL KURIU, FLORIAN MEMA.....................................................................................................45-50 The evaluation of the functional performance of the ‘Vertical jump’ at female and male volleyball players in the Albanian championship ENKELEIDA LLESHI1, VEJSEL RIZVA NOLLI2 ..........................................................................51-54 Strength training in children and adolescent NAJADA QUKA, RIGERTA SELENICA..........................................................................................55-59

The Official Journal of Sports University of Tirana

Rruga “Muhamet Gjollesha”, Tiranë , Shqipë ri. http: www.ust.edu.al

Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2013

ISSN 2308-5045


JPAS Volume 1 Issue 1