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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS

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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS

UST

The Official Journal of Sports University of Tirana Volume 2 Issue 1 August 2014 Rruga “Muhamed Gjollesha”, Tiranë, Shqipëri. hptt: www.ust.edu.al

UST

ISSN 2308-5045


Editorial Board Vejsel Rizvanolli, Albania Daniela Caporossi, Italy Harald Tschan, Austria Mehmet Spahiu, Albania Dhurata Bozo, Albania Juel Jarani, Albania


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS Volume 2 Issue 1 August 2014 CONTENTS Changes on lifestyle behaviors toward inactivity in children Mema B and Ushtelenca K ................................................................................................................................................ 3 Aerobic indices of albanian basketball players from different age groups Peja. E and Metolli. S ......................................................................................................................................................... 7 Sports students‘ attitude to coaching profession Eleonora. M ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Physical activity and childhood obesity in different ages; actual level in a city in transition Nicaj. G and Nicaj. R. ........................................................................................................................................................ 13 Finding out about nutrition habits and physical activity in sporty secondary-school students in the Czech Republic Juøíková, J and Filípková, P. ........................................................................................................................................... 17 The impact of internet use one individuals’ social life Shehu. M and Cenaj. M. .................................................................................................................................................. 26 The influence of physical activity in stage 2-3 of hypertension and in type 2 diabetes mellitus Krasniqi. M, Nallbani. G ................................................................................................................................................... 33 Students’ language needs analysis and its significance in ESP syllabus design Cenaj, M and Lile, A ........................................................................................................................................................ 39 Match fixing as criminal offence, seen on the light of sports law in Albania Agalliu. P and Shatku S. ................................................................................................................................................... 45 Assessing biomechanical parameters of sut students through the jumping test Bendo. A and Skënderi. Dh ............................................................................................................................................. 50 Analysis of the situation in some indicators based game positions Kryeziu. A, Asllani. I. Rexhepi. J and Qorraj. A ................................................................................................................ 58 The effect of physical activity on body fat mass in male pupils aged 15-16 Adili. D and Lile. A ........................................................................................................................................................... 64 Comperative review about the morfology and funcition of the athlete’s heart Kajo. E , Vorpsi. N and Mijo. A ........................................................................................................................................ 70 Outdoor play versus videogame play in albanian children; differences between urban and rural areas Karamelo. E and Toci. B ................................................................................................................................................... 75 Actual level of the physical activity in children in Tirana School children 6-15 years old Jarani. J and Spahi. A ....................................................................................................................................................... 81 A two-year monitoring study based on anthropometrics changes, coordination and motor skills in the age group 7 - 9 years in Tirana Ushtelenca. K and Jarani. J ............................................................................................................................................. 86 Effects of the revenue growth and impact on the budget of university (case study of sports university of tirana ) Galushi. M, and Gishti. E .. ............................................................................................................................................ .91 Chronic fatigue syndrome and physical activity benefits Pano. G, Çitozi. R and Mitllari. J ...................................................................................................................................... ..99 Leisure and Recreation Sport Elmazi. R. ....................................................................................................................................................................... .103 Sports Contracts, A Novelty In European Labour Law Shatku. S and Agalliu. P ............................................................................................................................................ ..107


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Changes on lifestyle behaviors toward inactivity in children Mema B1 and Ushtelenca K1 Department of Social science and Education, Faculty of Movement Science, Sport University of Tirana, Albania. Correspondence : Blerina Mema, Department of Social science and Education, Faculty of Movement Science, Sport University of Tirana, Albania. E-mail : bmema@ ust.edu.al Abstracts The aim of this research is to monitor life style behavior changes and finding out how this age spent their free time. To achieve our conclusions on this topics we have interviewed, 568 children, (288 girls and 280 boys) which were randomly selected from a pool of 10 elementary schools of Tirana, from a total of 59 schools in Tirana. All the children have fulfilled the EYHS questioners. Results on frequency showed that 60 % of children (56.3 % of boys and 63.5 % girls) spent from 1 to 3 hours on watching television on their leisure time every day. Results, based on the questioner have showed, that girls spend more time than boys on watching TV. The opposite results were for boys which spend more time on PC. The time spent on SMS was the same in both gender, but boys spent more time doing home works compared to girls. Future research should expand these findings examining interventions targeting different types of sedentary behaviors and the effectiveness of specific behavior change techniques across different contexts and settings Key words: lifestyle, inactivity, behavior change, leisure time, TV, PC, home works, SMS. Introduction Leisure time is increasingly spent in sedentary pursuits such as screen-viewing (eg, television/ DVD viewing and computer use), motorized travel, school/work and sitting-based socializing (eg, social media and chatting). Sedentary screen time, particularly TV, appears to play an important role in the etiology of obesity due to its co-occurrence with other unhealthy behaviors such as snacking on energydense foods, low levels of physical activity and inadequate sleep (Biddle, 2014). More information is needed on how to reduce sedentary behaviors. Most interventions have focused on young people and a number of systematic reviews exist on this topic.Several reviews came to inconsistent conclusions about international trends in PA among adolescents. Two reviews indicated declining trends in PA especially in the domains of active transport, physical education

and organized sports (Dollman et al 2005). However, not all findings, especially those for vigorous intensity PA, were in line with a decline and, compared to adults, only a small number of studies were identified (Knuth et al 2009). Results from a study of Jarani and Qeleshi (2013) indicated a decrease from age 11 to 14 years of the children reporting “never or hardly ever� taking part in organized sports and in Albania (Jarani et al., 2014) about 42.7% of children fell in inactivity rates (level)and 19.4 % of children (7-10 yrs) fall into the level of severe motor disorder(Jarani and Ushtelenca 2014)In contrast, a recent review of subjectively and objectively measured PA by Ekelund and colleagues (Ekelund et al 2011) did not find a decline in PA over the last two decades. For both overall PA and sport participation no change or a slight increase was observed. However, few adolescents meet current PA guidelines that


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point to the health-enhancing effects of MVPA (Currie et al 2010; Hallal et al 2012). In Albania there are several studies which have they main focus on sedentary behavior in children, because as we can easily se nowadays the number of overweight and obese children is dramatically increased. Studies in youth highlight that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and inactive-time behaviours such as television viewing and PC use are associated with a range of health outcomes. However, little is known about recent trends in these behaviours in children (Bucksch et al 2014). The aims of this study is to find out how many times per day children spend on: watching television on their leisure time every day; working in PC on their leisure time every day; wending SMS, on their leisure time every day; doing their Home Works. Methods For doing this research we have surveyed a total of 568 children, from which 288 were girls and 280 boys. All these children were randomly selected from a pool of 10 elementary schools of Tirana, from a total of 59 schools in Tirana. All the children have fulfilled the EYHS questionnaire , with the main focused questioned on daily routine and time send on watching TV, playing on computers, doing home works and on time they spend sending sms. Statistical Analysis In order to describe all the answers from the children we have used SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) program. To show all specific answered we have used graphics and tablets. Analyses were conducted, using the complex samples module to account for the clustered study (design with “school class” as primary sampling unit). Since in 2014 the variable class was not coded we used instead the person’s identification. Results Watching television on their leisure time every day (figure 2). Based on the results from the questionnaire we found out that, 20.5 % of the children spend

Figure 2. Children watching TV

two hours per day watching TV, instead of 33.1 % which spend three hours a day. Not less than 26.7 % spend at least four hours a day, but also few of them 2.3 % answered that spend at least 7 hours per day in front of TV. But if we see carefully 59,8 % spend three to four hours per day in front of television. Working in PC on their leisure time every day (figure 1). Results from data collected showed that 27.2 % spend two hours per day working on PC, 36 % of them spend three hours a day, and only 16.3 % spend four hours a day in working

Figure 1. Working PC of children

on their PC, but if we see carefully 63.2 % of them, spend 2 to 3 hours per day working on PC. Sending SMS, on their leisure time every day (data not showed in figure). As we know, now we are living in a Digital age where not only TV and computer are our unhealthy habits, bat also SMS, in one of the main risk factor of sedentary behavior where we can see that 36.3 % of children asked spend at least one hour per day sending SMS, and


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35.8 % of them spend two hours per day. So 72.1 % spend one to two hours per day which is really to much, and the % decreases into 1.4 % which are answered that spend six hours per day. Discussion Results from systematic reviews and metaanalyses show that interventions to reduce children’s sedentary behavior have a small but significant effect (Biddle, 2014). Results from a study by Bucksch et al 2014 show that TV viewing on weekdays, but not at weekends, declined steadily over time with a difference between 2002 and 2010 of 12.4 min/day in girls and 18.3 min/day in boys (p for trend<.01). Our results on frequency showed that 60 % of children (56.3 % of boys and 63.5 % girls) spent from 1 to 3 hours on watching television on their leisure time every day. Results showed also that 52.3 % of children (55.2 % of boys and 49.3 % girls) spent from 1 to 3 hours working in PC on their leisure time every day. Results showed that only 20 % of children (19.3 % of boys and 20 % girls) spent from 1 to 3 hours on sending SMS, on their leisure time every day. Overall time spent in inactive-based behaviours therefore remains about the same over this time frame (Sigmundova et al 2011). However, there is no consistent pattern of time trends in sedentary behaviour across different studies (Smpokos et al 2012; Cui et al 2011; Nelson et al 2006; Huhman et al 2012). It was found a strong increase in PC use for non-gaming purposes (Bucksch et al 2014) over time for girls only, with a difference between 2002 and 2010 of 54.1 min/weekday and 68.8 min/weekend day (p<.001). Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and health in youth (Janssen and Leblanc 2010). There is also a growing body of evidence highlighting that sedentary screen-time behaviours are linked to negative health outcomes in adults, including all-cause mortality independent of PA (Wilmont et al 2012). Results showed also that 53.1 % of children (61.6 % of boys and 44.2 % girls) spent from 1 to 3 hours on their Home Works, but we figure out that 30% of girls spent more than 4 hours

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on a day. Results, based on the questioner EYHS have showed, that girls spend more time than boys on watching TV. The opposite results were for boys which spend more time on PC. The time spen on SMS were the same in both gender, but boys spent more time doing home works compared to girls. Conclusion Despite the observed decrease in TV viewing, there was no overall decline in the observed screen-based behaviours, especially for girls. This is mainly due to a marked increase in use of a PC for chatting on-line, internet, emailing, homework etc. among girls during the last ten years which outweighs the corresponding decrease in TV viewing. The findings highlight a need for strategies and interventions aimed at reducing inactive-time behaviours and promoting MVPA Recommendations for Future Research Nowadays we can see around children as young as two years old which are playing with electronic devices, but not only the videogames makes the children stay, but also television, mobile phones, smart phone application, computers, tablet computers, video games and PSP games etc. At the other side we can easily see that children tend to be active group consumers, and many electronic products are tragedy to young children market. Parents find it very easy to make they’re children quite and stay in one place by buying and giving them a I pad, or something familiar. Also many famous brands’ have recently shown different types of computer divided for boys blue and pink for girls to be more and more closer to children preferences. Future research should expand these findings examining interventions targeting different types of sedentary behaviors and the effectiveness of specific behavior change techniques across different contexts and settings. Effective strategies include the involvement of family, behavioral interventions and electronic TV monitoring devices (Biddle, 2014). References Dollman J, Norton K, Norton L: Evidence for secular trends in children’s physical activity behaviour. Br J Sports Med 2005, 39:892–897.


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Knuth AG, Hallal PC: Temporal trends in physical activity: a systematic review. J Phys Act Health 2009, 6:548–559. Ekelund U, Tomkinson G, Armstrong N: What proportion of youth are physically active? Measurement issues, levels and recent time trends. Br J Sports Med 2011, 45:859–865. Currie C, Zanotti C, Morgan A, Currie D, De LM, Roberts C, Samdal O, Smith O, Barnekow V: Social determinants of health and wellbeing among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2012. Hallal PC, Andersen LB, Bull FC, Guthold R, Haskell W, Ekelund U: Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 2012, 380:247–257. Marshall SJ, Gorely T, Biddle SJ: A descriptive epidemiology of screen-based media use in youth. a review and critique. J Adolesc 2006, 29:333–349. Sigmundova D, El Ansari W, Sigmund E, Fromel K: Secular trends: a ten-year comparison of the amount and type of physical activity and inactivity of random samples of adolescents in the Czech Republic. BMC Public Health 2011, 11:731. Silva KS, Silva Lopes A, Dumith SC, Garcia, Leandro Martin T, Bezerra J, Nahas MV: Changes in television viewing and computers/ videogames use among high school students in Southern Brazil between 2001 and2011. Int J Public Health 2014, 59:77–86. Smpokos EA, Linardakis M, Papadaki A, Lionis C, Kafatos A: Secular trends in fitness, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and TV-viewing among first grade school children of Crete, Greece between 1992/93 and 2006/07. J Sci Med Sport 2012, 15:129–135. Cui Z, Hardy LL, Dibley MJ, Bauman A: Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children. Int J Beh Nutr Phys Act 2011, 8:93. Nelson MC, Neumark-Stzainer D, Hannan PJ, Sirard JR, Story M: Longitudinal and secular

trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence. Pediatrics 2006, 118:e1627–34. Huhman M, Lowry R, Lee SM, Fulton JE, Carlson SA, Patnode CD: Physical activity and screen time: trends in U.S. children aged 9–13 years, 2002–2006. J Phys Act Health 2012, 9:508–515. Biddle. J H S, Petrolini. I, Pearson. N (2014). Interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviours in young people: a review of reviews Br J Sports Med ;48:182-186 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093078 Bucksch. J, Joanna Inchley2, Zdenek Hamrik3, Emily Finne1, Petra Kolip1( (2014)Trends in television time, non-gaming PC use and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among German adolescents 2002–2010 . BMC Public Health , 14:351 Janssen I, Leblanc AG: Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Beh Nutr Phys Act 2010, 7:40. Jarani J and Qeleshi A (2013). The prevalence of obesity in children and current level of physical activity in a city in transition, Journal of Physical Activity and Sports 1(1), 18-22. Jarani. J, Muca. F, Spahi. A, Qefalia, D and Shaka, L (2014). Threats of new generation on physical activity level in Albanian children, Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 40, 151–158. Jarani. J, Ushtelenca. K (2014). Development Coordination Disorder in Children Need for Information in a Transitional PostCommunist Country in Southeastern Europe. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(4) 459-463 Wilmot EG, Edwardson CL, Achana FA, Davies MJ, Gorely T, Gray LJ, Khunti K, Yates T, Biddle SJ: Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2012, 55:2895–2905.


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Aerobic indices of albanian basketball players from different age groups Peja. E 1 and Metolli. S 2 1

Institute of Sport Research, Sports University of Tirana, Albania Department of Health and Physical Activity, Faculty of Recreation and Physical Activity, Sports University of Tirana, Albania

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Abstract Basketball involves continuous play with no regular rest intervals. Its anaerobic and aerobic energy requirements equal 50 % each (Gaskill et al. 2006), but due to the overrated importance of sport specific resistance training, basketball players need new personalized evidence to harmonize and balance their training sessions. The aim of this study is to assess the aerobic fitness of Albanian basketball players from different age groups and discuss on the relevance of endurance training. Maximum oxygen uptake of 45 male basketball players of different age was predicted by performing the Astrand – Ryhming cycling test. The 11 participants, aged from 23 to 30 (26,1 ± 2,19) are part of the national male basketball team while the other 34 participants, aged from 13 to 17 (15,7 ± 1,08) are part of a junior male basketball team. Based on our data analysis it resulted that for 54,5 % of the national team players, the aerobic power value was less than 40,48 ml/kg/ min, while for 52,9 % of the junior team players, the aerobic power value was less than 37,8 ml/ kg/min. Regarding the aerobic capacity value, it resulted that for 54,5 % of the national team players, this measurement was less than 3,71 liter/min, while for 52,9 % of the junior team players, it was less than 2,54 liter/min. Based on these results we concluded that most players of the organized basketball teams in Albania are not enough aerobically fit.

Keywords: Albanian basketball players, Maximal oxygen consumption

Introduction Basketball is a game of continuously changing tempo, requiring players to be able to sustain high levels of continuous efforts. A high degree of aerobic power is therefore necessary to meet energy demands within a game and aid in recovery from anaerobic efforts (Gore C., 2000). Aerobically fit individuals use fat during rest and recovery, allowing the muscles to store more glycogen and to improve their ability to recover from anaerobic bursts of effort such as a fast break in basketball (Gaskill et al., 2006). Thus, it is difficult to separate the aerobic and anaerobic systems from each other, as they always occur together, albeit in different proportions (Gaskill et al., 2006). Unfortunately,

based on our observations of some Albanian basketball players’ aerobic indices, it results that this continuum between energy systems is often neglected during the planning of training for Albanian basketball teams. Their training is mostly based on the principle of overload, neglecting aerobic training. The aim of this study is to assess the aerobic fitness of Albanian basketball players from different age groups and discuss on the relevance of endurance training. Method Participants All Albanian basketball players who presented themselves in our laboratory setting during


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2012 were included in this study. During this time period we examined 11 players of the national male basketball team, aged 23 to 30 (26,1 ± 2,19) and 34 players of a junior male basketball team, aged from 13 to 17 (15,7 ± 1,08). Table 1.1: Percentiles for Aerobic Power Values

Nr. of subjects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Corresponding VO2max(ml/kg/min) 54.31 53.48 51 44.64 41.73 40.48 38.79 35.88 34.44 31.63 30.43

Percentile 9.1 18.2 27.3 36.4 45.5 54.5 63.6 72.7 81.8 90.9 100.0

Data Collection All participants in this study performed the same cycloergometer submaximal exercise testing according to the Astrand-Ryhming protocol. The Astrand – Ryhming test (Cooper et al., 2004) requires setting a cycle ergometer load using a pedal frequency of 50 r.p.m. so Table 1.2: Percentiles for Aerobic Capacity Values

Percentile 100.0 81.8 72.7 63.6 54.5 45.5 36.4 27.3 18.2 9.1

Corresponding VO2 max (liter/min) 3.1 3.44 3.5 3.55 3.71 3.84 4.18 4.46 5.1 5.94

that the work rate is 75W, 100W, or 150W for untrained, moderately trained, or well-trained participants respectively. This work rate is then maintained for 6 min. If values for heart rate recorded during minutes 5 and 6 are not different by more than 5 min-1, and if heart

Table 2.1: Percentiles for Aerobic Power Values

Number of subjects 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 22 23 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Corresponding VO2max(ml/kg/min) 24.63 25.5 27.43 27.82 28.27 31.06 32.12 32.22 33.35 33.73 34.05 34.67 34.67 35 36.59 37.37 37.8 37.95 38.84 39.55 39.57 40.38 41.64 42.29 42.31 42.78 42.9 43.15 43.79 44.1 44.97 46.03 51.78 52.5

Percentile 100.0 97.1 94.1 91.2 88.2 85.3 82.4 79.4 76.5 73.5 70.6 67.6 67.6 61.8 58.8 55.9 52.9 50.0 47.1 44.1 41.2 38.2 35.3 32.4 29.4 26.5 23.5 20.6 17.6 14.7 11.8 8.8 5.9 2.9

rate value is between 130 and 170 min-1, the test is terminated. If heart rate is less than 130 min-1, the work rate is increased by 50 – 100 W and the test is continued for another 6 min. Again if heart rate values are different by more than 5 min-1 between minutes 5 and 6, the test is continued until the heart rate values between two consecutive minutes do not differ by more than 5 min-1. At the end of the exercise testing,


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1 Table 2.2: Percentiles for Aerobic Capacity Values

Percentile 100.0 94.1 82.4 73.5 70.6 64.7 52.9 50.0 47.1 41.2 26.5 20.6 14.7 11.8 8.8

Corresponding VO2 max(liter/min) 1.78 2.12 2.23 2.39 2.41 2.5 2.54 2.7 2.73 2.83 2.97 3.04 3.15 3.33 3.36

maximal oxygen consumption values for each participant are expressed in both ml/kg/min and liter/min.

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Results The average aerobic power value for the national team players resulted 41,52 ± 8,47 ml/kg/min, while for the junior team players it resulted 37,67 ± 6,88 ml/kg/min. The best aerobic power value achieved by the national team players was 54,31 ml/kg/min, while for the junior team players the best value achieved was 52,50 ml/kg/min. Regarding the average aerobic capacity value, the national team players achieved an average value of 4 ± 0,83 liter/min, while the junior team players achieved an average value of 2,66 ± 0,44 liter/ min. The best aerobic capacity value achieved by the national team players was 5,94 liter/min, while for the junior team players the best value resulted 3,78 liter/min. Table 3 provides simple summaries of the above mentioned data. Discussion Basketball involves continuous play with no regular rest intervals. Its anaerobic and aerobic energy requirements equal 50 % each (Gaskill

Table 3: Descriptive Statistics for Maximal Oxygen Consumption Values

Minimal value Maximal value Mean Standard Deviation

Aerobic Power: VO2max(ml/kg/min) National Team Junior Teams 30,43 24,63 54,31 52,50 41,52 37,67 8,47 6,88

Data Analysis Gathered data for maximal oxygen consumption is grouped in two categories, i.e. national team and junior team. This data is then elaborated by percentiles to facilitate comparison and reference to it. We could not classify performance based on VO2max obtained, because we do not dispose sport-specific and/ or population-specific reference values for the Astrand-Ryhming cycling test. Percentiles of maximal oxygen consumption values for the national team are presented on table 1.1 and 1.2, while for the junior team they are presented on table 2.1 and 2.2

Aerobic Capacity: VO2max(liter/min) National Team Junior Teams 3,1 1,78 5,94 3,78 4 2,66 0,83 0,44

et al., 2006). Thus, for basketball players to perform at optimal levels, aerobic and anaerobic training should get equal attention. The aerobic power, which defines one’s ability to use oxygen per unit of body weight and is considered as a predictor of performance in weight-bearing activities such as basketball ranges up to 80 ml/kg/min (Gaskill et al., 2006). Based on our data analysis (table 1.1 and table 2.1), it resulted that for 54,5 % of the national team players, the aerobic power value was less than 40,48 ml/kg/min, while for 52,9 % of the junior team players, this value was less than 37,8 ml/kg/min. The aerobic capacity,


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which defines the capacity of the aerobic system, including the respiratory system (taking in), the cardiovascular system (transport) and the muscles (utilization) ranges to over 6 liter/min (Gaskill et al., 2006). Based on our data analysis (table 1.2 and table 2.2) it resulted that for 54,5 % of the national team players, the aerobic capacity value was less than 3,71 liter/min, while for 52,9 % of the junior team players, this value was less than 2,54 liter/ min. As our data analysis shows, most players of the organized basketball teams in Albania are not enough aerobically fit. Unfortunately in everyday training sessions, aerobic training is often presented in a negative fashion, by applying it as a punishment for being late, making a mistake or misbehaving. Running a number of laps is often associated with negative feelings when on the contrary it should be presented as a fun activity that promotes positive feelings toward working out, because due to the sedentary life style the best chance these athletes have to exercise their stamina is at basketball practice. In order to improve stamina training adherence, we recommend doing it strategically. Stamina training should not necessarily be conducted entirely at one particular time during a practice. Splitting up stamina training within a practice should increase the overall intensity each basketball player exerts during these segments (Lancaster et al., 2008).

Another option to make the aerobic training routine more bearable is obstacle courses. Very few athletes truly enjoy running but nearly everyone enjoys the challenge of an obstacle course. Obstacle courses become even more challenging if performed on diverse terrains like the beach or on the side of a hill. References Cooper C. & Storer T. (2004) Testing methods. In Exercise Testing and Interpretation: A practical approach. (pp. 65). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Gaskill S. and Sharkey B. (2006) Anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. In Sport Physiology for Coaches (pp. 127 - 132). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Gaskill S. and Sharkey B. (2006) Developing Energy Fitness. In Sport Physiology for Coaches (pp. 153). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Gaskill S. and Sharkey B. (2006) Assessing Energy Fitness. In Sport Physiology for Coaches (pp. 141). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Gore C. (2000) Protocols for the physiological assessment of basketball players. In Physiological Tests for Elite Athletes (pp. 229). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Lancaster S. & Teodorescu R. (2008) Boost stamina. In Athletic Fitness for Kids (pp. 82). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics


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Sports students‘ attitude to coaching profession Eleonora. M National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria Correspondence: National Sports Academy, Department of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology Studentski Grad, Sofia 1710 E-mail: emileva2002@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aim of the research is to study the sports students’ attitude to some social and pedagogic criteria. The following criteria are outlined: social status of coach in Bulgaria; problems and difficulties of coaches in the modern socio-economic conditions in the country; weaknesses in behaviour of the coach in educational training and competition process. Subject of study are 100 students with different sports qualification and from different sports at the National Sports Academy in Sofia. Special questionnaire with open questions is worked out. The content analysis as statistical method is used. The analysis of the results show that 90% of the sports students define the status of coaches in Bulgaria as low and very low. Answers about difficulties of coaches in Bulgaria nowadays outline on the first place the weak financial support of clubs and atheletes and the lack of funding - 60%. Interesting are students’ answers to question about main weaknesses in the coaches’ behaviour. Firstly high relative share stands incorrect approach by the coach to the athletes – 42,5%. As a separate response has been specified low professional pedagogical and psychological preparation of coach - 24%. Another drawback is demonstration of arrogance of coaches - 37%. Difficult vocational conditions for sports coaches in the country raise a number of negative effects that affect the whole sports area and in particular sport for children and youth. Key words: Sports students, coach, professional status, difficulties, pedagogical preparation Introduction Coaching occupies a specific place in the social structure. It features unique characteristics that distinguish it from all other professions (At. Todorov, V. Zhechev, 1999; St. Tzonev, 2003; N. Popov, 2007). In modern social conditions profession is interpreted, assessed and selected in the context of career development and its implementation through specific actions and appearances of personality (Y. RashevaMerdzhanova, 2004). Coaches enter new social relationships and expand circle of social contacts. They create complex and complicated relations caused by the changed social structure in sport. The modern coach in Bulgaria must

deal with a number of significant issues that are not always within his/her responsibilities. This provokes many conflicts and contradictions that lead to frequent change of coaches in our elite teams and sports clubs. Methods The aim of the research is to study the sports students’ attitude to some social and pedagogic criteria. The following criteria are outlined: social status of coach in Bulgaria; problems and difficulties of coaches in the modern socioeconomic conditions in the country; weaknesses in behaviour of the coach in educational training and competition process. Subject of study are 100 students with different


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sports qualification and from different sports at the National Sports Academy in Sofia. Special questionnaire with open questions is worked out. The content analysis as statistical method is used. Results and discussion The analysis of the results show that 90% of the sports students define the status of coaches in Bulgaria as low and very low. Answers about the problems and difficulties of coaches in Bulgaria nowadays outline on the first place the weak financial support of clubs and atheletes and the lack of funding - 60% (fig. 1). The bad economic conditions in the sports clubs immediately address the lack of facilities for training – 47,5%.

Figure 1. Problems and difficulties of coaches in Bulgaria

According to students another major problem in coaching profession in Bulgaria is the insufficient interest of pupils to sports activities and targeting of adolescents to other activities like playing with computers, Internet browsing, watching TV - 25%.From great interest for the research are the students’ answers to the question about main weaknesses in coaches’ behaviour according to training and competition process. Firstly high relative share stands incorrect approach by the coach to the athletes – 42,5% (fig. 2). As a separate response has been specified low professional pedagogical and psychological preparation of coach - 24%. Another drawback that makes an impression and occupies a relatively high share is demonstration of rudeness and arrogance of coaches and emotional instability, use of profanity - 37%. In this context stands the subjective coaches’ attitude to the athletes - 20%. These facts outline many questions for the coaches’ behaviour in the contemporary social conditions in Bulgaria,

Figure 2. Weaknesses in coaches behaviour

as well as for the institutions involved in their professional development and realization. Conclusions - Social status of the coach in Bulgaria is defined as low. - Problems and difficulties of coaches in the modern socio-economic conditions in the country are mainly connected with low financial support of the clubs and the athletes and a lack of funding. - Weaknesses in the coach behaviour have different dimensions. Wrong way of communication, expression of subjective attitude and low pedagogical and psychological development are outlined. Difficult vocational conditions for sports coaches in the country raise a number of negative effects that affect the whole sports area and in particular sport for children and youth.Rising of social status of the coach in Bulgaria and overcoming of some difficulties require hard work and collaboration/ co-operation with many formal and non-formal institutions, including those involved in vocational training, education and professional qualification of the future Bulgarian coaches. References: Popov, N. (2007). The Coach. Psychology. Education. Adaptation, Sofia (in Bulgarian). Todorov, At., V. Zhechev (1999). About content and character of coaching profession, - In: Personality. Motivation. Sport., Vol. 5, Sofia (in Bulgarian). Tzonev, St. (2003). Social prestige of profession sports coach, - In: Sport. Society. Education, Vol. 8, Sofia (in Bulgarian). Rasheva-Merdzhanova, Y. (2004). Professional pedagogy – in tradition and in perspective, Sofia (in Bulgarian).


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Physical activity and childhood obesity in different ages; actual level in a city in transition Nicaj. G and Nicaj. R. University of Shkoder, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Physical Education and Sport ABSTRACT According to the WHO obesity is the greatest challenge of the 21-st century. The epidemic is global, with alarming rates and is affecting not only urbanized countries but rural countries as well. Being targeted as one of the most important measures to prevent it, we decided to investigate on levels of Physical Activity (PA) among elementary school aged children in 2 different schools in the city of Lezhe. We aim to get a picture of the actual level of PA and childhood obesity. 248 children from 2 different schools were randomly selected to partake in the current study. PAQ-C was used to determine levels of PA. Children who completed the questionnaire were weighed and measured in order to calculate their BMI. BMI was calculated and according to Cole cut off points, data revealed that 87.1 % were classified as normal weight, 6.4 % of them overweight and 6.4 % obese. The boys- girls difference were very small, only 0.3% more obese girls than boys. Findings suggest that there are more obese children in the 1st and 2nd grade and interestingly they are the less active. PA levels were at the normal level, and reported to increase with age with obesity rates declined in older children. Findings of this study revealed that obesity levels are low. As children grow up they tend to be more physically active and obesity levels do decrease more with age. Our results support the fact that PA is a good measure to prevent childhood obesity. Keywords: childhood obesity, physical activity, PAQ-C questionnaire, BMI. Introduction Along history mankind has faced numerous and threatening diseases, but today we are facing with a serious condition, which is affecting adults and children as well. There is not a specific age for the onset of the condition and every individual being a baby or an adult can be exposed to it. For sure the evolution of the way we live our lives with a booming technology that promotes little movement or no movement at all has a lot to deal with that. Actual rates are concerning. The WHO estimated that the number of overweight children under the age of 5 in 2010 was approximately 42 million (WHO 2011) Several studies show an increasing prevalence worldwide. (Goran et al., 1999; Cole et al., 2000; Friedmann et al., 2012; McLennan, 2004; Wright, 2006). According to the study of Jarani

et al (2014a) the prevalence of Albanian children for overweight is 10.2% and obesity 3.2% (boys 5.7% and girls 2.2%). The inability of the body to balance calorie intake with utilized calorie causes obesity, but genetic, behavioral and environmental factors are significant contributors to obesity (WHO 2011). When referring to obesity generally we picture an abnormal accumulation of fat around different parts of the body, which is in fact the most visible outcome of the condition but seriously compromises health (Lahti-Koski & Gill). It has detrimental effects on the overall wellbeing of a child, as they are more exposed to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension (Pediatrics, 2006). There are also findings that suggest that obesity interferes with the growing bone and that the well functioning


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of the endocrine, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems are compromised in obese children. The relationship of obesity and its consequences on motor skills is yet uncertain and no gender differences with respect to BMI is found (Ushtelenca et al 2014) Different studies have reached different conclusions on this point, some concluding in lower levels of motor coordination skills in boys than girls, others agreeing in limited gross and fine motor skills for both boys and girls. According to the study of (Castebone & Andreyeva 2012) obesity does not influence on the overall level of motor skills, nor gross neither fine motor skills. Only abilities that are directly related to body weight are compromised such as jumping and hopping (Mc Lennan, 2004) What is more concerning about obesity in children as well as in adults is that there is not a proper cure for it. Physical activity is estimated as one of the best measures to prevent and to treat this condition (Pediatrics 2006). In their review on the impact of physical activity on obesity MI Goran et al., (1999) found that aerobic exercise leads to reduction of body fat in children independently of any diet interventions. A study of Jarani et al (2014b) aiming PA in Albanian show that 42.7% of children fell below the normal level of PA (girls 49.6% compared to boys 36%)and children that fall into the level of severe motor disorder in Albania are at 19.4% (Jarani and Ushtelenca 2014 c). According to them the relationship between obesity and physical activity is positive but the effects of different types of exercises have to be studied before implementation in weight managing. On the other hand obese children are expected to suffer from a very low selfesteem (Strauss, 2000), which implicates their emotional feelings such as sadness, loneliness, and nervousness. Obesity brings about long term effects, as obese children are more likely to get obese adults (WHO 2000) and at this point it is not only a matter of health but even their economic status is affected. Obese people as shown in the study of O’Brien et al., (2012) are discriminated due to their physical appearance, which is a barrier to be selected in any job position, and this is mostly present among females. Cut off points to define obesity have always been a question for debates. Two cut-off values of the 85th and 95th percentiles

of BMI-for-age have been accepted to define two different conditions such as BMI-for-age from the 85th up to the 95th percentile as ‘‘overweight’’ and to BMI-for-age at or above the 95th percentile as ‘‘obesity.’ (Ogden & Flegal 2010). Definitions for both conditions have been subject to changes during the years. In their report (Ogden & Flegal 2010) outline that the term “overweight” has been accepted instead of “at risk for overweight” and the definition “obese” has been introduced instead of “overweight” According them it implies a more serious health condition that arises form excess body fat. The main aim of this study was the investigation on the prevalence of obesity among elementary school aged children 1st to 5th grade in Lezhe and their physical activity levels. We wanted to find out whether PA levels of children contribute to obesity trends and to what extent life-style in a city in transition influences on obesity trends. On the other hand this study will serve as a referring point to compare figures in the future. New policies that aim the increasing of physical activity levels in all school levels in Albania are being implemented by the Ministry of Education and Sports, so it will be useful to compare data after a certain time and evaluate its effectiveness. Methods Cross sectional survey was applied in 248 children (110 girls and 138 boys) , randomly elected in 2 different public elementary schools in Lezha. The only selecting criteria was age as children had to be from 1st to the5th grade. Permission was asked from the Regional Department of Education to access the selected schools. After filling in the questionnaires objective measures of height and weight were taken. Children were asked to fill in the Physical Activity Questionnaire at home with their parents. The questionnaire included question on their level of physical activity at home during the week and at the weekend, it also included questions regarding their eating behaviors, how they got to and from school. Data from this survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics from SPSS. We calculated the percentage and cumulative percentage, mean and standard deviation for PA, BMI. BMI was interpreted according Cole’s cut off points


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1 Body Mass Index category th

th

BMI 85 -<95 percentile th

BMI => 95 percentile

terminology 1994

terminology 2007

At risk of overweight

Overweight

Overweight

Obese

15

Table 1. Changes in terminology

Results Data from this investigation study reveal that obesity rates are not concerning among children in the city of Lezha. (fig 1) Only 6.4 %

Fig 1. BMI classification according gender.

of them were classified as obese. There are more obese girls than boys but the difference between them is very slight. There are only 0.3% more obese girls than boys. (fig 2)

Fig 2. Physical activity levels and standard deviations for specific grades

It is interesting to notice that obesity is more present among children of 1st and 2nd grade and this rates lower as children get older. Children get more active as they grow older (fig 3). Boys and girls levels of physical activity are not very different, 1st and 2nd grade girls are less active than boys, but as they grow they get equally or more active than boys.

Fig 3 BMI classification for each grade

Discussion Our results suggest that obesity trend in the city of Lezha is not concerning. Figures tend to lower as children grow older. On the other hand their attitude toward physical activity changes as they grow, becoming more active both boys and girls. Overweight and obesity rates are at the same levels throughout the age ranges. Younger children (1st and 2nd graders) are the less active and they have the highest percentage of obesity. Comparing our results with those of Jarani et al., (2009) who studied obesity and inactivity among children in Tirana, we can conclude that results are consistent in both studies. Childhood obesity in both cities is not concerning and physical activity levels vary among ages, highlighting the need to fulfill the recommendations that all children should get at least 60 minutes per day physical activity. Conclusion We can assume that there is a dependent relationship between PA levels and percentage of BMI, as children of 3d, 4th and 5th grade were shown to have lower percentage of BMI and higher scores on PA levels. Obesity is more present in younger children who display lower levels of PA. There are many factors that have contributed to such results. First of all children in this study came from peripheral areas of the city of Lezha, children walk more to school instead of using the public transport, and they spend more time playing outside cause they have more playgrounds in their neighborhoods. The traffic around these areas is light and it is not a barrier for children to play outside. PA is seen as one the measures that enhances the equilibrium between spent and consumed energy. It also increases the resting metabolic


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rate. (RMR) As results of this study revealed that PA does influence on the weight of children it is essential that children achieve or maintain a certain amount of PA during the days except physical education classes that they take at school. Further Implications Referring to the data of this study even though obesity is not concerning for this specific age range in the city of Lezha, it would be of great importance to investigate even older age ranges. This would give a better picture how obesity figures change when children grow into adolescents and later as adults as their attitude towards physical activity and their life style also change. So far no other study has been conducted in this city to investigate on the level of obesity among adolescents and adults. References K. O’Brien et al.,Obesity discrimination: The role of physical appearance, personal ideology, and anti-fat prejudice,’International Journal of Obesity (doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.52. Goran, M., Reynold, K., & Lindquist, C. (1999) Role of physical activity in the prevention of obesity in children. International Journal of Obesity 23, 23, 18-33. Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & W. H. Dietz, (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey.BMJ, 320, 1240-1240. Friedemann, C., Heneghan, C., & Mahtani, K. (2012)Cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its association with body mass index: systematic review and meta-anlysis. BMJ. McLennan, J. (2004) Obesity in children Tackling a growing problem. Australian Family Physician, 33. Wright, C. M., L. Parker., D. Lamont., and A. W Craft. (2006) Implications of childhood obesity for adult health: findings from thousand families cohort study, BMJ Lahti-Koski, M., & Gill, T. Defining Childhood Obesity. .

Active Healthy Living: Prevention Of Childhood Obesity Through Increased Physical Activity. (2006) Pediatrics, 1834-1842. Castebone, K., & Andreyeva, T. (2012) Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-. BMC Pediatrics. Strauss, R. S. (2000) Childhood Obesity And Self-Esteem. Pediatrics, 105, e15-e15. Ogden, C. L., & FLegal, K. M. (2010) Changes in Terminology for Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics, Jarani, J., Qeleshi, A & Froberg, K., (2009), A study of obesity and inactivity in children in Tirana. Jarani, J. Ushtelenca K and Spahi A (2014a). The current level of health and skills related fitness indicators in Albanian children; reference values from a country in transition, Faculty of Kinesiology University of Zagreb 1, 264– 268. Jarani. J, Muca. F, Spahi. A, Qefalia, D and Shaka, L (2014b). Threats of new generation on physical activity level in Albanian children, Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 40, 151–158.

Jarani. J, Ushtelenca. K (2014c). Development Coordination Disorder in Children Need for Information in a Transitional PostCommunist Country in Southeastern Europe. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(4) 459-463 Ushtelenca K, Pasha and Ommundsen Y (2013). An investigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them, on 6-7 years old children in Tirana, Journal of Physical Activity and Sports 1(1), 37-44. WHO 2011 http://www.who.int/dietphysica lactivity/childhood/en/ ) WHO 2011(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/articles/PMC3278864/)


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Finding out about nutrition habits and physical activity in sporty secondaryschool students in the Czech Republic JUØÍKOVÁ, J and FILÍPKOVÁ, P. Masaryk University, Faculty of Sports Studies, Department of Kinesiology, Brno, Czech Republic Corresponding author: Jana Juøíková, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic, e-mail: jurikova@fsps.muni.cz, Abstract The aim of this work was to find out what nutrition habits sporty secondary-school students have and what sports activities they are involved in. For the research, students of some secondary schools in Brno, Czech Republic, who are also competition or professional athletes were selected. The data were arrived at through questionnaire; there were 76 informants: 43 boys and 33 girls. At first, anthropometric parameters such as body weight and body height were measured. These values were used to calculate BMI. BMI of the majority of both boys (90.7 %) and girls (87.9 %) was within the limit. The majority of students (65.8 %) were found to have 5 meals a day. Most students answered that in one day they eat two portions of fresh fruit (60.5 %) and two portions of fresh vegetables (52.6 %). In respect of drinking regime, most students (45.6 %) stated that they drink 2.1 - 2.4 l fluids per day. The most frequent fluids were still water and tea (64.5 % students), further unsweetened mineral water (19.7 % students) and sweetened mineral waters (14.5 % students). The largest number of students (50 % sharp) stated that they consume sweets once per week. The majority of the students stated that they were non-smokers – 95.6 % students. 77.6 % of students stated that they do not drink alcohol. The most frequent sports activities that the students are involved in are athletics (18.4 % students), volleyball and soccer (17.1 % students for either of the sports). The majority of questioned students (54 %) have trainings six times or more times per week. They used a 1-10 scale (1=smallest load; 10=biggest load) to evaluate their training units; most students evaluated the unit with number 8 – 39.5 % students. The results we gained indicate that nutrition habits of sporty students are at a very good level and in compliance with nutrition recommendations. Their BMI within the limits is also a proof of this. Obviously, students who are involved in sports at a competition or professional level are fully aware of the importance of good nutrition and healthy lifestyle. Key words: number of meals, vegetables, fruit, smoking, alcohol, sports activities Introducion During adolescence, young people are away from home more often and for a longer time. They choose the place they eat at as well as the kind of consumed food. Their mates affect the selection of such places just like the availability and advertisements on products which are

usually focused on young people. The result is frequent consumption of “fast-food” products, sweets and sweet sparkling drinks, i.e. food containing excessive fats and carbohydrates (Thompson, Manore, & Vaughan, 2011). Food composed of sandwiches, hamburgers, sweets


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or biscuits does not present sufficient nutrition in the period of adolescence. In this period, it is recommended to have sufficient supply of whole-meal products, legume, dairy products and fresh fruits and vegetables (Melgosa, 2000; WHO, 2010). Nutrition recommendations in all countries stress the importance of breakfast for health and good mood (positive inner state of mind). Starting a school day without having had breakfast leads to feeling of hunger and decreases working dispositions: it makes concentration more difficult, it increases the number of mistakes and it has a negative influence on students’ mood (Pollitt & Mathews, 1998). Students who do not have breakfast on a regular basis consume more snacks during the day which contain high amount of fat and little roughage (Rusnicow, 1991). Breakfast should cover 20 % of daily supply of energy, snack should cover 15 %, lunch 30 %, afternoon snack 15 % and dinner 20 % of total energy. Adolescent boys are recommended to have another (light) snack around 9 or 10 pm. Nutrition is a key area for the growth and development of maturing organism and for prevention of illness in adult age. It is not easy to tell sufficient supply of energy of adolescents due to the demands of organism, the level of sexual maturation, physical activity and psychological aspects of eating food (Svaèina, 2008). The basic need is a balanced energetic balance in which the energetic supply of food is equal to energetic expenditure which is given by basal metabolic need and the amount of physical activity of the organism (Provazník & Komárek, 2004). An adolescent’s overweight or obesity is a sign of excessive energetic supply. On the contrary, extreme thinness suggests insufficient energetic supply. The biggest demands for energy and nutrients occur in the period of growth spurt when the overall growth is accompanied with the growth of muscles and storing spare fat (mainly hypodermic fat in girls). Insufficient nutrition in girls may lead to menstruation disorders and other consequences caused by food supply disorders such as mental anorexia or mental bulimia (Hamplová, 2009). METHODS The present paper presents the research of eating habits and physical activities of

secondary school students in their leisure time who do some sports at a competitive or professional level. Seventy-six students participated in the research (46 boys and 30 girls) who attended Sports Secondary School of Ludvík Danìk, Secondary Technical School of Chemistry and Secondary Polytechnic School in Brno, Czech Republic. The data from the students were collected through a questionnaire. The q uestionnaire was anonymous and it contained 21 questions altogether. First, anthropometric parameters of researched students were found out, such as body weight, body height and these data were used to calculate BMI. Following BMI, it was found out whether they suffer from undernourishment, whether they have normal weight, overweight or whether they suffer from obesity. The students were divided into groups respective of their BMI according to Table 1. * Table 1 BMI assessment BMI Evaluation Men

Women

˂ 18.9

˂ 17.9

19.0 – 20.9

18.0 – 19.9

Skinny

21.0 – 22.9

20.0 – 21.9

Slim

23.0 – 25.9

22.0 – 24.9

Standard

26.0 – 27.9

25.0 – 27.9

Slightly overweight

28.0 – 30.9

28.0 – 29.9

Overweight

˃ 31.0

˃ 30.0

Undernourishment

Obesity

Source: Vilikus et al. (2012) – adjusted

Regarding eating habits, the students were asked about the number of individual meals per day, the frequency of consumption of certain kinds of food and following drinking regime. The students were also asked if they consume alcoholic drinks or smoke. Regarding sports activities, the students were asked to state the kind of sport they do actively, its demandingness, training frequency and duration. The questionnaires were filled in by selected students (i.e. those who do sports at competitive or professional level) during a school lesson under supervision. They were made familiar with the questions in the questionnaire


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in advance and after collection, the questionnaires were preliminarily checked for completeness. This showed that the return of completely filled-in questionnaires was 100 %.

Results and discussions The set of students who participated in the research is presented in Table 2a and Table 2b (Appendixes). * Table 2a Anthropometric parameters of the researched group of students - boys Student No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Body height [m] 1.81 1.93 1.70 1.81 1.82 1.82 1.75 1.75 1.79 1.82 1.75 1.65 1.82 1.76 1.76 1.83 1.93 1.70 1.80 1.90 1.67 1.86 1.76 1.90 1.76 1.80 1.85 1.88 1.75 1.74 1.81 1.91 1.76 1.73 1.86 1.80 1.76 1.67 1.96 1.78 1.85 1.90 1.97 1.93 1.80 2.02

Body weight [kg] 72 80 55 72 80 84 70 69 68 74 80 66 76 62 72 70 73 70 75 85 58 95 63 100 70 78 75 70 65 65 69 75 55 53 65 76 65 56 77 77 77 82 76 85 75 95

BMI 21.2 21.5 19.0 22.0 24.2 25.4 22.9 22.5 21.2 22.3 26.1 24.2 22.9 20.0 23.2 10.9 19.6 24.2 23.1 23.5 20.8 27.4 20.3 27.7 22.6 24.1 21.9 19.8 21.2 21.5 21.1 20.6 17.8 17.7 18.8 23.5 21.0 20.1 20.0 24.3 22.5 22.7 19.6 22.8 23.1 23.3

Table 2b Anthropometric parameters of the researched group of students - girls Student No. 1 2

Body heights [m] 16.5 1.84

Body weight [kg] 50 79

BMI

3 4

1.75 1.73

60 60

19.6 20.0

5 6

1.65 1.65

48 49

17.6 18.0

7

1.69

48

16.8

8

1.64

59

21.9

9 10

1.68 1.74

48 65

17.0 21.5

11 12

1.69 1.64

70 54

24.5 10.1

13

1.65

63

23.1

14

1.74

57

18.8

15 16

1.75 1.66

58 60

18.9 21.8

17 18

1.72 1.75

70 75

23.7 24.5

19 20

1.74 1.69

61 50

20.1 17.5

21 22

1.76 1.65

69 54

22.3 19.8

23 24

1.83 1.76

70 64

20.9 20.7

25 26

1.91 1.80

78 68

21.4 21.0

27 28

1.79 1.78

68 59

21.2 18.6

29 30

1.75 1.69

74 58

24.2 20.3

18.4 23.3

The table shows that the BMI of researched students is most frequently within the range of 18-24.9 for boys, which means normal body weight in the majority of students. Four girls and three boys suffered from undernourishment. The BMI of two boys was within the range 26-27.9, which proves slight overweight; however, this does not need to manifest increased amount of fat but increased mass of muscles. Obesity was not found in any student, which could be expected in case of sporty young people. Further, there followed questions related to eating habits. It was researched how many meals students consume per day. The responses to this question are presented in Graph 1.


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* Graph 1. Eating frequency in the researched group of informants

The graph makes it obvious that the majority of the informants (68.5 %) eats five times per day or more frequently, which is in compliance with nutrition recommendations. The rest of the athletes, who eat less frequently than five times per day, usually travel to the sports facility after school and they have no time to buy snacks in between the individual main meals. These athletes are recommended to prepare food at home so that they do not lose time buying it. The next question regarded the consumption of different kinds of meat. Meat is very important for athletes as a source of fullfledged proteins which are necessary for growth and maintaining muscle mass. However, some kinds of meat can be a source of animal fats the consumption of which should be restricted by the athletes. The students were asked to state which kind of meat they consume most frequently. The results are presented in Graph 2.

The results presented in Graph 2 show, that the informants prefer poultry. Poultry contains smaller amount of animal fats but at the same time it contains a relatively high amount of proteins, which makes it ideal for athletes. The second most frequently consumed kind of meat is fish. Fish, mainly sea fish, are very important because of the contents of minerals and essential fatty acids. For this reason, dishes made from fish should be consumed twice per week. The third most frequently consumed kind of meat is pork. This kind of meat is not much suitable for athletes because of its high contents of animal fats. 2.6 % of students did not state any kind of meat because they do not eat meat; they are vegetarians. Being a vegetarian is not suitable in the period of childhood and adolescence or in case that the individual does sports on a professional level. Vegetable sources of proteins are not fullfledged, therefore, high-quality nutrition of young vegetarian athletes requires high-level knowledge in nutrition. Another two questions were focused on the frequency of the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consuming fruits and vegetables is very important because of their contents of vitamins, minerals and roughage. The responses for the question regarding the consumption of fruits are presented in Graph 3. * Graph 3 . Number of portions of fresh fruit consumed daily in the group of researched informants

* Graph 2 Preference of different kinds of meat in the researched group of informants

The Graph shows that the researched students consumed most frequently fruit twice per day (this response was answered by 60.5 % of informants), which is optimum frequency according to recommendations. The second


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

most frequent response was the consumption of fruits once per day (18.4 % of students), which is not sufficient for adolescents, namely athletes. The third most frequent response was consumption of fruit three times per day (15.8 %), which may be a result of higher energetic expenditure and a consequent necessity to supply more simple carbohydrates. Very often, athletes cover energetic deficit with sweets, co replenishing energy with sugars contained in fruits is favorable.

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* Graph 5. Frequency of consumption of sweets in researched group of informants

Responses for the question regarding the consumption of vegetable are presented in Graph 4. * Graph 4. Number of portions of fresh vegetable consumed per day in group of researched students

According to nutrition recommendations, at least three portions of fresh vegetables should be consumed per day. This response was given only by 9.2 % of informants. The majority of students consume only two portions of vegetables per day (this response was given by 52.6 % of students), nearly one third of students (31.6 %) stated that they consume only one portion of vegetables per day. Two students even stated that they do not consume any vegetables at all. On the contrary, it is admirable that one student stated that he consumes five portions of vegetables per day. As stated before, athletes often substitute their energetic deficit with sweets. The next question asked the informants in this research about this fact. The responses for the question how frequently the informants consume sweets are presented in Graph 5.

The presented Graph shows that exactly half of the researched students consume sweets once per week, which may be considered a positive result meaning that they do not substitute full-fledged food with sweets. The second most frequent response (given by 27.6 % of students) was that they consume sweets even less frequently than once per week. 22.4 % of students stated that they consume sweets 2-3 times per week; two students even have sweets every day. Such responses were given by athletes who are involved in very demanding kinds of sports such as ice hockey, judo, athletics etc. The unavailability of highquality food during the time spent at school can be a problem. The reason is that schools usually offer only commercially oriented vending machines with fast food, offering prevailingly less valuable food like sweets and candies or sweet drinks. The following questions focused on the drinking regime in the researched group of people. The first question found out about the number of liters of liquids drunk by the students per day. This question was followed by a question finding about the kinds of liquids the students drink most frequently. The responses for those two questions are stated in Graph 6 which illustrates the amount of liquids drunk by the researched group of students per day and in Graph 7 which illustrates the preference of individual kinds of drinks in the researched group of students.


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* Graph 6. Amount of liquids drunk in the researched group of students per day

Graph 6 shows that nearly half of the informants (45.6 %) drinks 2.1-2.4 l of liquids per day. 36.8 % of students stated that they drink even more â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2.5-3 l of liquids. The results are in adequate to their daily energetic supply because the informants have a training unit nearly every day, so their drinking regime must be higher than in persons with a sedentary job who do not have such energetic expenditure and who do not sweat so much and therefore their loss of liquids is not so big.

sweet mineral water. The fact that young athletes like sweet mineral water can also be explained by higher energetic expenditure; due to further training units the athletes replenish liquids which contain sugar. A good taste of sweet mineral water does certainly play a part in their selection. It could be expected that young people who are involved in professional sport do not smoke. Whether it is so, was the focus of the next question. The responses for the question regarding smoking are presented in Graph 8. * Graph 8. Ratio of smokers and non-smokers in the researched group of informants

* Graph 7. Preference of individual kinds of liquids in the researched group of students

The Graph shows that the majority of athletes do not smoke (96 %), which is very positive result. Only three students stated that they smoke. Similarly, it could be expected that young people involved in sports at competitive or professional level do not drink alcohol. The students were asked three questions regarding alcohol: whether they drink beer, whether they drink wine, or whether they drink spirits. The responses for the questions regarding to the consumption of alcohol in the researched group of students are presented in Graph 9.

The Graph shows that more than half of the informants (64.5 %) drink still water and tea, which is an optimum result as still non-sweet water should make the basis of drinking regime. The second most frequent response (given by 19.7 % of students) was mineral nonsweet water, which is understandable with regard to the fact that the informants train nearly every day, so the loss of water and minerals are bigger than in a comparable group of unsporty students. The third most frequent drink (as stated by 14.5 % of informants) was

*Graph 9.Alcohol consumption in the researched group of students


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

The Graph shows that the informants usually avoid alcohol. 22.4 % stated that they sometimes drink beer; 13.2 % of the informants stated that they sometimes drink wine, and only four students admitted drinking spirits. This question was focused on the frequency of drinking alcoholic drinks. The responses to the question made it clear that the students drink alcoholic drinks only occasionally, only at various social events or family celebrations. The following group of questions focused on the kind of sport which the students do and on the frequency and demandingness of trainings.

23

The table shows that the majority of students is involved in athletics (18.4 %), volleyball (17.1 %) and football (17.1 %). The reason is that the majority of students was from Ludvík Danìk Secondary Sports School in Brno which is mostly devoted to athletics, volleyball and also basketball. The next question found out about how many training per week the students have. The responses to this question are presented in Graph 10. * Graph 10. Number of trainings per week in the researched group of students

* Table 3. Sports which the informants are involved in their leisure time No. of students Kind of sport [% rel.] Athletics

18.42

Volleyball

17.11

Football

17.11

Basketball

9.21

Tennis

5.26

Cycling

5.26

Ice hockey

3.95

Horse-riding

2.63

Swimming

2.63

Handball

2.63

Floorball

2.63

Sports gymnastics

1.32

Modern gymnastics

1.32

Dancing

1.32

Bodybuilding

1.32

Strength tetrathlon

1.32

Capoeira

1.32

Karate

1.32

MMA

1.32

Judo

1.32

Triathlon

1.32

The graph shows that more than half of the informants (54 %) have trainings more often than 5 times per week, which is very timeconsuming into consideration their school duties. The last question focused on the demandingness of one training units on a scale 1-10. The results are presented in Graph 11. * Graph 11. Individual evaluation of the level of load in one training unit’

As Graph 11 shows, the most frequent evaluation used by the students on the scale


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

was number 8 – this was stated by 39.5 % of the informants. However, it is necessary to state that the responses to this question were highly subjective. Conclusion Based on the research, it was found out that the nutrition condition of sporty students who attend selected secondary schools in Brno, Czech Republic, is on a very good level. This is proved by their BMI which is in most cases (86.7 % of girls and 89.7 % of boys) within limits. The number of meals per day is also mostly (65.8 % of students) respective of nutrition recommendations of five meals per day. Their daily meals were relatively balanced; they did not lack complex carbohydrates and high-quality proteins. As far as meat is concerned, the informants preferred poultry, which is desirable for sports nutrition. Consuming fresh fruits two times per day is also in compliance with the rules of healthy diet. Fresh vegetables was consumed by the majority of the informants two times per day; however, nearly one third of the students ate vegetables only once per day. The reason may be that they are not sufficiently encouraged to eat vegetables at home, which means that young people then do not eat such kind of food. Sweets as a source of simple carbohydrates was consumed by the researched students mostly once per week (50 % of informants), which is a god result taking into consideration that the students are very frequently (often more often than five times per week) subject to training units, which means their energy expenditure is very high. Drinking regime of the researched athletes was also in compliance with recommended criteria. The majority of students stated that they drink 2-3 liters of liquids per day, which is very important in respect of their demanding physical load which is much higher than in general population. Most frequently consumed liquid is still water and non-sweet still mineral waters, which is an optimum result as still water should make the basis of drinking regime. As could be expected, the majority of students who are involved in sports do not smoke (96 %) or drink alcoholic drinks. Only one fifth of the students stated that they occasionally drink

beer, 13.2 % wine and 5.26 % spirits. As far as alcohol consumption is concerned, all mentioned kinds of alcohol were consumed by the students only exceptionally on the occasion of social events. Regarding sporting activities, the majority of students were involved in athletics (18.4 %). The frequency of training was overwhelmingly more than five times per day (54 %) and the demandingness of the training was evaluated by most students (39.5 %) with number 8 on the 1-10 scale. REFERENCES Bernaciková, M., Cacek, J., Dovrtìlová, L., Hrnèiøíková, I., Kapounková, K., Kopøivová, J., . . . Ulbrich, T. (2013). Regenerace a výziva ve sportu. Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Burdová, E. (2011). Styly mladých. Emo styl sebepoškozování. Benešov: Fórum výchovy ke zdraví XIV. Clark, N. (2009). Sportovní výziva. Praha: Grada Publishing, a. s. Currie, C., Hurrelmann, K., Settertobulte, W., Smith, R., & Todd, J. (1. srpen 2006). Health and Health Behaviour among Young People. Naèteno z Health policy for choldren and adolescents Issue 1. Internationl Report. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: a WHO Cross-National Study (HBSC) International Report: http://www.who.dk/document/ e67880.pdf Hamplová, L. (2009). Poruchy pøíjmu potravy. Sborník z konference Fórum výchovy ke zdraví XII (stránky 11 - 12). Brno: Pedagogická fakulta Masarykovy univerzity. Laskiené, S., Zaborskis, A., & Zemaitiené, N. (2004). Physical activity of children and adolescents within their lifestyle (case of Lithuania). Soubor referátù z mezinárodní konference konané 11. a 12. 11. 2004 na Fakultì sportovních studií MU v Brnì “Sport a kvalita zivota”. Brno: Fakulta sportovních studií Masarykovy univerzity. Lichtenstein, A. H., Appel, L. J., Brands, M., Carnethon, M., Daniels, S., Franch, H. A., & Wylie-Rosett, J. (2006). Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Revision 2006. A Scientific Statement From the American heart Association


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Nutrition Commitee. Circulation, 82 - 96. Mandelová, L., & Hrnèiøíková, I. (2007). Základy vý•ivy ve sportu. Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Melgosa, J. (2000). •ít naplno. Praha: Advent Orion. Pánek, J., Pokorný, J., Dostálová, J., & Kohout, P. (2002). Základy vý•ivy. Praha: Svoboda Servis. Pešek, R., & Neèesaná, K. (2009). Prevence u•ívání tabáku, alkoholu a jiných drog u dospívajících. Písek: Arkáda - sociálnì psychologické centrum. Pollitt, E., & Mathews, R. (67 1998). Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, stránky 804 - 813. Provazník, K., & Komárek, L. (2004). Manuál prevence v lékaøské praxi V. Prevence poruch zdraví dìtí a mláde•e. Praha: Fortuna. Rusnicow, K. (61 1991). The relationship

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between breakfast habits and plasma cholesterol levels in school children. Journal of School Health, stránky 81 - 85. Svaèina, Š. (2008). Klinická dietologie. Praha: Grada Publishing, a. s. Šitinová, M. (2013). Vý•ivové zvyklosti a pohybová aktivita adolescentù - mu•ù studijících rùzné typy støedních škol. [Bakaláøská práce]. Brno: Fakulta sportovních studií Masarykovy univerzity. Thompson, J. L., Manore, M. M., & Vaughan, L. A. (2011). Science of Nutrition. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Vilikus, Z. (2012). Vý•iva sportovcù a sportovní výkon. Praha: Karolinum. WHO. (2010). Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: WHO. Woynarowska, B., Mazur, J., Kololo, H., & Malkowska, A. (2005). Zdrowie, zachowania zdrowotne i œrodowisko spoleczne mlodziezy w krajach Unii Europejskiej. Warszawa: Poligrafia.


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

The impact of internet use one individuals’ social life. Shehu. M.1, Cenaj. M.1 1

Sports University of Tirana, Faculty of Movement Science, Department of Social Science and Education. Author Correspondence: Marsela Shehu 1 , Department of Social Science and Education, Faculty of Movement Science, Sports University of Tirana, Street “Muhamet Gjollesha” , Tirana, Albania, email: marsela.shehu@gmail.com,

Abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the level of internet addiction and analyze the impact of psychosocial factors on UST students. The sample of the study includes 205 students aged 18-25 (146 Male and 59 Female) Bachelor Full-Time students at UST. The instrument used was “Internet Addition Test (IAT)” Dr. Kimberly Young 1996. It contains 20 items assessed on a 6-point scale, from 0 - Does not apply to 5 – Always. The psychosocial factors that affect internet use are: salience, excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control and neglecting social life (Dr. Kimberly Young, 1996). Alfa Cronbah is 0,89. The data show that subjects under study spend on the Internet and its related functions 2 hours/day on average. Salience, excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control and neglecting social life resulted to be at a low and moderate level. The level of internet use decreases with advance of age and it results to fall down and to be at lower levels at older students. There is a correlation between age and psycho-social factors. **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The study was specifically carried out with students of sports at UST is valuable to identify psychosocial factors and internet addiction, and it is worth pointing out that individuals engaged in sports do not represent high levels of internet addiction and the negative psychosocial factors are less manifested and do not affect their social life. Keywords: Psychosocial factors, Salience, Excessive use, Neglecting work/social life, Anticipation, Lack of control.

Introduction The Internet is the latest innovation in a series of technological advances, which turns out to be a revolution not only in marketing, but also in interpersonal communication with others. The Internet has changed individuals’ lifestyle. Internet now affects the socialization of

individuals, we study by navigating the Internet, make various purchases or shop online, seek employment, etc., just looking through various websites, google.com or other website. In other words, internet acts like a mechanism for some several purposes:


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

• •

Educational purposes – we learn using different information from the Internet, or by using technology. Social interactions – different social websites, email, chats, blogs etc. Leisure and entertainment – playing games, watching films, listening to music etc.

The studies show that regular users of internet are teenagers and youths, who experience different problems related to excessive time they spend navigating on the Internet. (Karishma.S.Ramdhonee, Dr. K. Young (1996). Using the internet has both advantages and disadvantages (possitive effects and negative effects). In cases when the youths use the internet over long hours, they manifest such symptoms that affect physical aspect as well as their psychological wellbeing. (R. Kraut, M. Patterson, V. Lundmark, S. Kiesler, T. Mukopadhyay, W. Scherlis (1998). The Positive Effects of the Internet. • Internet search engines are the best information retrieval systems available. They bring any kind of information for internet users, from local restaurants to international news. • The Internet makes possible for business and companies to do transactions with their clients and customers. • The internet has allowed the interchange of ideas and materials among scientists, university professors, and students, in addition to provide servers, resource centers and online tools for their research and scholar activities. The Negative Effects of the Internet. • The addiction to online social networks can disturb a person’s way of living and professional activity. • Social isolation, Obesity and Deppression. • Distorted sense of reality • Exposure to violence • Fatigue, tiredness • Can be an important source of stress • Addictive. • Negative impact of uncensored material

27

Dr. Kimberly Young (1996) created “The Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire (IADQ) and Internet Addiction Test (IAT). According to the author, the symptoms of an Internet addict are: • Is preoccupied with the Internet (think about previous online activity or anticipate next online session). • Need to use the Internet with increasing amounts of time in order to achieve satisfaction. • Has made unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop Internet use. • Is restless, moody, depressed, or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop Internet use. • Has stayed online longer than originally intended. • Has jeopardized or risked the loss of significant relationship, job, educational or career opportunity because of the Internet. • Has lied to family members, therapist, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with the Internet. • Uses the Internet as a way of escaping from problems or of relieving a dysphoric mood (e.g., feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, depression). Methods Research procedures The sample of the study includes 205 students aged 18-25, 146 Male and 59 Female, students at UST, Bachelor Full-Time. Instrument used was “Internet Addition Test (IAT)” Dr. Kimberly Young (1996). It contains 20 items assessed on a 6-point scale, from 0 Does not apply to 5 – Always with the midpoint 2 – Occasionally. Factors to be analyzed are salience, excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control and neglecting social life. Level of addiction according to points collected by subjects are: 20 – 49 points (Average online user), 50 – 79 points (Frequent problems), 80 – 100 points (Significant problems). The statistical data processing was performed by SPPS statistical program, version 20. Cronbach’s Alpha 0.896 were used to assess the reliability of the instrument. In completing test was maintained entirely student anonymity.


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

Discussion and Conclusion Subjects spend on average 2 hours a day on the internet (60%), 4 hours a day (25%) and 6 hours a day (11%). As their activities of daily life is filled with academic life at the university, where most deal with physical activity best explains the neglected correlation, negative, between age and time navigating on the Internet where this correlation is not statistically significant, thus it identifies that internet surfing is not directly related to the subjects’ age, but is depends on the individuals nature/character.

Fig.1.How many hours a day the subjects spend on the Internet? Frequency Percent 

Valid  2 h 

Valid Percent 

Cumulative Percent 

123

60.0

60.0

60.0

4 h 

51

24.9

24.9

84.9

6 h 

22

10.7

10.7

95.6

8 h 

1

.5

.5

96.1

10 h 

8

3.9

3.9

100.0

Total

205

100.0

100.0

The functions of Internet used by entities more often, we see that 44.9% of them use the Internet to get different information and 44.4% of them use for chat, a very limited percent of them use for functions such as games and shopping online. Many studies on the impact of using the internet, point out that Facebook and Skype, Viber etc. have “conquered” the social life of individuals, even school life technology does not make exceptions, as most of the contemporary literature we find online.

Fig 2. Which function of the internet used by the subjects more often? Valid Cumulative  Frequency  Percent  Percent  Percent 

Valid   Games  

Table Nr. 1: How many hours a day the subjects spend on the Internet?

Age

Pearson Correlation 

Age

Time navigating 

1

‐.055

Sig. (2‐tailed)  N  Time navigating  Pearson Correlation 

.438   205 

205

‐.055

1

Sig. (2‐tailed) 

.438

N

205

205 

Table 2: Correlations between age and time navigating on the Internet

13

6.3

6.3

6.3

Chat  

91

44.4

44.4

50.7

Shopping online  

9

4.4

4.4

55.1

Getting Informacion   Total  

92

44.9

44.9

100.0

205

100.0

100.0  

Table 3: Which function of the internet used by the subjects more often

The amount of time spent on this function used by the subjects is 2 hours (60.5%), 26.8% of them 4 hours and only 10.2% of them 6 hours. These data concord with a lot of studies on the functions of internet use, like getting information and chatting. Regarding the level of Internet addiction, according to the IAT scoring test, the subjects are on average (20 – 49 points) 55.1% of them, 23.9% of them are under the average level (under 20 points), a very limited percent of them are above average and high levels. Graphic


29

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

Fig 3. How many hours a day the subjects spend on the function selected above?

Frequency

Percent

Valid Cumulative  Percent  Percent 

Fig 4. The level of Internet addiction according to the IAT scoring test. Level of Internet addiction

Valid  2 hours  

124

60.5

60.5

60.5

4 hours  

55

26.8

26.8

87.3

6 hours  

21

10.2

10.2

97.6

8 hours  

1

.5

.5

98.0

10 hours  

4

2.0

2.0

100.0

205

100.0

100.0

Valid  

Total  

Valid Cumulative  Frequency  Percent  Percent  Percent 

Minimal Usage  

49

23.9

23.9

23.9

Average on‐line  user  

113

55.1

55.1

79.0

Frequent problem  user  

40

19.5

19.5

98.5

Addicted User  

3

1.5

1.5

100.0

205

100.0

100.0

Total  

Table 4: How many hours a day the subjects spend on the function selected above?

Regarding to gender noticed that males have higher average compared to females, while in terms of age group noticed that the biggest tendency of internet addiction is in the age group 18-21 years and less in the age 22-25 years, in accordance with what the researchers claim that the most frequent users of the Internet are teenagers. Through t-test to compare averages show that S.(2-tailed) 0.599 for the age group 18 – 21 years and 0.596 for the age group 22 – 25 years, so there is a small difference, but there is not statistically significant. This difference matches the study of Dr. K. Young, (1996). Salience factor (1.m=8.7, 2.m=9.2) and Neglecting social life (1.m=2.7, 2.m=2.9) are at higher level for the age group 22 – 25. Thus, this affect negatively their psychological wellbeing. While other factors like Excessive

Table Nr. 5: Level of Internet addiction according to the Ie IAT scoring test.AT

Std. Deviation 

Std. Error  Mean 

Level of  Female   59  30.9322  17.09392  Internet  146  35.5000  18.20278  addiction. Male   (In its  entirety) 

2.22544

Gender

N

Mean

1.50647

Table Nr. 6: Level of Internet addiction related to gender Age Group  Level of  1.00(18‐21 years)  Internet  addiction. 2.00(22‐25 years)   (In its  entirety) 

N

Std. Std. Error  Mean  Deviation  Mean 

110 34.8000  19.16265  1.82709  95  33.4737  16.55220  1.69822 

Table Nr. 7: Level of Internet addiction related to age group.


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

Use (1.m=9.79, 2.m=9.22), Neglecting work (1.m=5.0, 2.m=4.0), Anticipation (1.m=3.19, 2.m=2.7) and Lack of control (1.m=5.4, 2.n=5.3) are at higher level at the age group 18 – 21, but there is a difference from the second group. The results match other studies as these factors are at the same levels. Regarding gender we notice that for the 6 factors, the results are at almost the same levels but somehow higher in males. Factors Salience  

Age Group 

N 110 

8.7818

5.12125

.48829

2.00(22‐25 years)  

95

9.2000

5.09192

.52242

1.00(18‐21 years) 

110

9.7000

5.63663

.53743

2.00(22‐25 years)  

95

9.2211

4.72472

.48475

Neglecting work  1.00(18‐21 years) 

110

5.0000

3.64478

.34752

2.00(22‐25 years)  

95

4.0421

3.09053

.31708

1.00(18‐21 years) 

110

3.1909

2.76444

.26358

2.00(22‐25 years)  

95

2.7053

2.54689

.26131

Lack of control   1.00(18‐21 years) 

110

5.4000

3.31026

.31562

2.00(22‐25 years)  

95

5.3789

3.27524

.33603

Neglecting social 1.00(18‐21 years)  life   2.00(22‐25 years)  

110

2.7273

2.41900

.23064

95

2.9263

2.38899

.24511

Anticipation  

Salience  

Std. Std. Error  Mean  Deviation  Mean 

Gender

N

Female  

59 8.2203  4.57530 

.59565

Male  

146 9.2808  5.28073 

.43704

59 9.3729  5.50516 

.71671

Male  

146 9.5205  5.12898 

.42448

Female  

59 4.2203  3.45447 

.44973

Male  

146 4.6918  3.41511 

.28264

59 2.6949  2.60804 

.33954

146 3.0753  2.69632 

.22315

59 4.7627  3.30798 

.43066

Male  

146 5.6438  3.25415 

.26932

Female  

59 1.6610  1.93525 

.25195

Male  

146 3.2877  2.41820 

.20013

Exesive Use   Female  

Mean Std. Deviation  Std. Error Mean 

1.00(18‐21 years) 

Exesive Use  

Factors

Neglecting work 

Anticipation   Female   Male   Lack of control  Female  

Neglecting social life  

Table Nr. 9: The six factors related to gender.

Table Nr. 8: The six factors related to age group.

Factors N  

Valid  

Neglecting Salience  Exesive Use  work  Anticipation 

Lack of  control 

Neglecting social life 

205

205

205

205

205

205

0

0

0

0

0

0

8.9756

9.4780

4.5561

2.9659

5.3902

2.8195

5.09944

5.22679

3.42468

2.67043

3.28602

2.40131

Minimum  

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

Maximum  

25.00

25.00

15.00

10.00

15.00

10.00

Missing   Mean   Std. Deviation  

Table Nr. 10: Dominant factor by average.

If we compare the factors it results that Excessive Use (m=9.4) is the dominant factor. Almost at the same levels are: Salience (m=8.9) - Excessive use (m=9.4), Anticipation (m=2.9) - Neglecting social life (m=2.8), Neglecting

work (m=4.5) - Lack of control (m=5.3). The correlation between six factors shows that correlate with each - other and the correlation is statistically valid at the 0.01 level (two-tailed), (r = 1).


31

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1 Table Nr. 11: Correlations between six factors. Factors

Salience Negleting work  Anticipation  Lack of control  Neglecting  Exesive Use  social life 

Salience  

Pearson Correlation  

1

.559

.678

.642

.471

.692

Sig. (2‐tailed)  

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

205

205

205

205

205

205

.559

1

.511

.587

.401

.602

Sig. (2‐tailed)  

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N  

205

205

205

205

205

205

N   Pearson  Correlation   Negleting  work  

Pearson Correlation   Anticipation  

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

**

1

.562

.478

.657

Sig. (2‐tailed)  

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N  

205

205

205

205

205

205

**

**

**

**

**

.642

.587

.562

1

.446

.693

Sig. (2‐tailed)  

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N  

205

205

205

205

205

205

**

**

**

**

**

.471

.401

.478

.446

1

.412

Sig. (2‐tailed)  

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N  

205

205

205

205

205

205

Pearson Correlation   Exesive Use  

**

**

**

.511

Pearson Correlation   Negleting  social life  

**

**

.678

Pearson Correlation   Lack of  control  

**

**

**

**

**

**

.692

.602

.657

.693

.412

1

Sig. (2‐tailed)  

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N  

205

205

205

205

205

205

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2‐tailed).  

Future The study was specifically carried out with students of sports at UST is valuable to identify

psychosocial factors and internet addiction, and it is worth pointing out that individuals engaged in sports do not represent high levels


32

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

of internet addiction and the negative psychosocial factors are less manifested and do not affect their social life. Reference Bargh, J. A., & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2004) The internet and social life, Annu. Rev. Psychology. Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998) Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being? The American Psychological Association, Vol. 53, No. 9, 1017-1031. Moreno. M. A., Jelenchick. L. A., Koff. R., Eickhoff. J. C., Goniu. N., Davis. A., Young. H.

N., Cox . E. D., & Christakis. D. A., (2013) Associations between internet use and fitness among college students: an experience sampling approach. Journal of Interaction Science. Paul, C. (2002) The impact of ICT on Learning and Teaching, Literature Review. Young, K., (1996) Internet addiction: Emergence of a new clinical disorder, Cyberpsychology&Behaviour, Vol. 1, No. 3. Widyanto, L. & Mc. Murran (2004) The psychometric properties of the Internet Addiction Test, CyberPsychology&Behavior, Vol. 7, No. 4.


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The influence of physical activity in stage 2-3 of hypertension and in type 2 diabetes mellitus Krasniqi. M1 and Nallbani. G2 1 2

Department of healthcare Elbasan Sports University of Tirana

Abstract: To evaluate physical activity in the group with hypertension and diabetes mellitus, compared with control group, and to study their relationship with BMI. 113 patients presented to the clinic, completed a questionnaire to assess their PA and underwent to clinical and objective examination. Patients were divided into Control Group (Gr.1) and the group of individuals with hypertension and diabetes mellitus where we received: -Gr.2 (diabetes mellitus, hypertension stage 2-3); Gr.3 (diabetes mellitus, normal pressure); Gr.4 (No diabetes mellitus, hypertension stage 2-3). The groups were under categorized on the basis of physical activity performed; low-PA; mediumPA; high-PA. Was observed a lower prevalence of high-PA in the groups of study (15 individuals) (13.3%). High-PA was evidenced more in Gr.1 (32.1%), while in the Gr.2 was not reported any case. Low-PA appeared with the highest prevalence in Gr.2 (44.4%), Gr.3 (22.7%) and Gr.4 (39.1%); all this groups compared with Gr.1 (17.8%) reported P < 0.05. In evaluating the BMI groups according to PA; it was observed that individuals with low-PA reported higher BMI (27.8 ± 3.4) than the BMI of individuals with medium-PA (26.8 ± 2.4) and BMI of individuals with high-PA (25.4 ± 3.2). In low-PA was observed that Gr.2 (29.5 ± 3.5) reported a higher BMI than Gr.3 (28.5 ± 3.6) and Gr.4 (28.7 ± 1.8), which compared with the Gr.1 (25.46 ± 2.6) reported a P < 0,05. In medium-PA a higher BMI was observed in Gr.2 (28 ± 2.1), Gr.3 (27.2 ± 1.7), and Gr.4 (27.3 ± 2.7), each group compared with Gr.1 (25 ± 1.9) showed P < 0,05. In high-PA was observed that in Gr.2 was not reported any case, while the Gr.4 (24.6 ± 3.8) was presented with normal values of BMI . Higher BMI was seen in individuals of Gr.2, Gr.3 and Gr.4 compared with Gr.1. A low BMI was seen in individuals that performed a high-PA. PA improves vital components reducing the risk factors that affect the pathologies as diabetes and hypertension. Keyword: physical activity, BMI, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension Introduction: Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are becoming a major public health problem. In recent years specialists have put a lot of attention about hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus because these two diseases are increasing the mobility and the mortality of the population. Worldwide prevalence for hypertension may be as much as 1 billion individuals, and from

1999 to 2009 the death rate from high blood pressure increased 17.1 percent, and the actual number of deaths rose 43.6 percent. (Go et al., 2013). In a cross-sectional research studies carried out in Albania and Hungary (Pilav, n.d.) in recent years showed that the prevalence of hypertension in Albania was 32%. World Health Organization (WHO), estimates that more than 180 million people worldwide


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have diabetes, this number is likely to more than double by 2030 (Rambhade, 1, *, & 2, n.d.). In 2002 WHO estimated that deaths from type 2 diabetes were about 4.4% in males and 10,6% in females. In Albania, studies shows that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 4.7% in 2007 and is expected that this number will go up to 7.5% in 2025 (Andriciuc & Officer, 2008). Patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 are 1.5-2 times more likely to present hypertension compared to the general population (Babatsikou, 1, 2, & ., n.d.). As we can see is expected to have an increase in diabetes mellitus and hypertension, which would lead to increased the frequency of diseases, which will increase the morbidity and the fatality rates. Therapy and medications are available that can control blood pressure with minimal side effects, and can control diabetes mellitus with lower the glucose level. Many other studies have reported the role of physical activities with the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. (Resic, Borovac, & Leto, 2001) A variety of lifestyle modifications have been shown to lower blood pressure and to lower the glucose level. (Biddle & Ekkekakis, 2006) These includes weight loss in the overweight, physical activity and a controlled diet. Studies in Albania about prevention of these two diseases are absent. In fact it is important to study the ways of intervention in order to have the control of these pathologies. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus usually have the same risk factors such as stress, smoking, physical activity, overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of physical activity in the group with stage 2-3 of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared with control group, and to study their relationship with BMI. Methods: The participants in this study are cases and controls from a case-control study of type 2 diabetic and stage 2-3 hypertensive patients and non-diabetic and/or non-hypertensive patients conducted in the healthcare center of Elbasan, from March and May 2013. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. In order to obtain adequate control population

and adequate case population, records were search for glucose level in laboratory analysis and blood pressure was measured in three different days by the same doctor. All patients aged < 40 years old were excluded from this study, in order to remove elements of confounding bias. All data collected was confirmed throw clinical records. Measures/Instruments: All patients underwent to laboratory analysis where fasting and postprandial blood glucose level was asked. Diabetes mellitus was defined as American Diabetes Association, 2004 criteria, diabetic was defined as fasting blood glucose level e” 126 mg/dl and post-prandial blood glucose level e”200 mg/ dl. Non diabetic was defined as fasting blood glucose level <100 mg/dl and post-prandial blood glucose level <140 mg/dl. Blood pressure was measured in three different days, by the same doctor with sphygmomanometer. The average of three blood pressure measurements was used in this study and then classified according to World Health Organization in normal pressure when SBP (systolic blood pressure) < 130 and /or DBP (diastolic blood pressure) < 80 mm Hg, and high blood pressure when SBP e” 130 and/or DBP e” 80 mm Hg. In high blood pressure we have 3 stages: · Stage 1 - SBP 140-159 mm Hg and DBP 90-99 mm Hg · Stage 2 - SBP 160-179 mm Hg and DBP 100-109 mm Hg · Stage 3 - SBP e”180 mm Hg and DBP e”110 mm Hg Anthropometric measurements as weight and height were taken using standard measures. Then BMI was calculated according to WHO; where BMI defined as the ratio of weight to length in meters square BMI = weight (kg) / length (m) 2 . In base of BMI patients was classified in normal when BMI was between 20 kg/m2 and 24.9 kg/m2; in overweight, when BMI was between 25 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2; and in obese when BMI was e” 30 kg/m2. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using the Pacific Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults. (World Health Organization, n.d.) The questionnaire consisted on 13 questions and physical activity was determined by asking subjects about the frequency and time spent on several occupational and activities during


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the last year. These activities were grouped into three categories according to their intensity; Low physical activity; medium physical activity and high physical activity. In base of data collected patients was categorized into level of intensity as shown in table 1.

Table 1. (*Pacific Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults: Framework for Accelerating the Communication of Physical Activity Guidelines. Manila: World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific Region; 2009)

Statistical analysis: The sample size was composed from 85 cases and 28 controls, in total 113 patients. According to data, patients were classified into four groups; - Group 1 (Gr.1) or Control Group – nondiabetic ( glucose level <100 mg/dl) and nonhypertensive (BP < 120/ 80 mmHg). - Group 2 (Gr.2) – diabetic (glucose level e” 126 mg/dl) and hypertensive stage 2-3 (BP e” 160/ 100mmHg). - Group 3 (Gr.3) – diabetic (glucose level e” 126 mg/dl) and non-hypertensive(BP < 120/80 mmHg). - Group 4 (Gr.4) – non-diabetic (glucose level <100 mg / dl) and hypertensive stage 2-3 (BP e” 160/100 mmHg). Qualitative data were expressed in percentages and quantitative data were expressed in average ± standard deviation. We use ANOVA to compare cases with control group and Student t-tests to compare means and proportions between cases and controls. Significant p-value was considered as P < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the study population was 63.9 ± 10.9, and 54.9% of them are female. In the classification into groups, there was seen a higher prevalence of the patients in the group 3 (type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-

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hypertensive) with 38.9% ; a low prevalence was seen in patients of group 1 (type 2 diabetes mellitus and stage 2-3 of hypertension) with 15.9%. Table 2 shows the prevalence of groups according to the intensity of physical activity (PA). Out of the 113 patients in total, 15 patients (13.3%) reported a high physical activity; which represented the lower prevalence. A low physical activity appeared with the highest prevalence in cases; in group 2 with 44.4%, in group 3 with 22.7% and in group 4 with 39.1%, while group 1 reported the lower prevalence with 17.8%. In high physical activity, a high prevalence was seen in group 1 with 32.1%, while in group 2 was not reported any case. Cases (Gr.2, Gr.3, Gr.4) compared with control group (group 1), reported a significant p-value, with P<0.05.

Table 2: Prevalence of groups according to the intensity of physical activity (ANOVA)

The BMI of groups according to physical activity are shown in Figure 1. It was observed that patients with low physical activity reported higher BMI (27.8 ± 3.4) than the BIM of patient with medium (26.8 ± 2.4) and high (25.4 ± 3.2) physical activity.

Figure 1. Evaluating of BMI in groups according to physical activity


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The analysis of BMI in groups by physical activity are shown in table 3. The control group (Gr.1) reported a lower BMI 25.3 ± 2.6 compared with cases. In cases the BMI was 27.8 ± 2.7; with high BMI in Gr.2 (28.7 ± 2.8). In low physical activity was observed that Gr.2 (29.5 ± 3.5) reported a higher BMI than Gr.3 (28.5 ± 3.6) and Gr.4 (28.7 ± 1.8). Control group (Gr.1) compared with Gr.2 reported a significant P < 0.05. Also Gr.4 compared with Gr.1 reported a significant P < 0.05. In medium physical activity a higher BMI was seen in Gr.2 (28.0 ± 2.1), Gr.3 (27.2 ± 1.7), and Gr.4 (27.3 ± 2.7), each group compared with Gr.1 (25.0 ± 1.9) showed P < 0,05. In high-PA was observed that in Gr.2 was not reported any case, while the Gr.4 (24.6 ± 3.8) was presented with normal values of BMI.

Table 3. Analysis of BMI by physical activity in all four study groups (t-student test)

Discussion In our population, it was observed that higher BMI and lower physical activity were associated with the group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stage 2-3 of hypertension. From the results it was noticed that we had a high prevalence of patients with low physical activity; which shows that this population tends to a sedentary life. Other studies have shown that the population these days tend to go into a sedentary life style and shows the effects of the sedentary life in the cardiovascular system. (Mk, Raj, Nj, & Johncy, 2011) Overweight, obesity, and weight gain have been shown to be risk factors for development of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Overweight and obese people are usually less active than people of normal weight. (Beyerlein et al., n.d.) During the BMI analysis of the population; we

observed that our patients were placed in the category of overweight; a lower BMI was seen in the control group compared with the group of diabetes mellitus or/and with the group of hypertension. Studies have shown that Albania’s population is trying to pass from having a normal weight to being overweight due to sedentary life. (“Albania - WHO Country Profile - Albania-WHO-Country-Profile.pdf,” n.d.) Many other studies around the world show a higher BMI in the group of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension (Bays, Chapman, & Grandy, 2007). Our analysis shows the association of physical activity and BMI for the risk of stage 2-3 of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A high physical activity was associated with lower BMI and was seen in the control group; but a lower physical activity was associated with higher BMI and was seen in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stage 2-3 of hypertension. There were many studies that reported the effect of physical activity on controlling diabetes mellitus and hypertension. (Ansari, 2009) As we can see from the results, a high physical activity is associated with a lower incidence of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stage 2-3 of hypertension; where in our study, we didn’t find any case. While in the group with stage 2-3 of hypertension a high physical activity was associated with a normal value of BMI (24.56 ± 3.8). From other studies we know that high BMI is associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. (Warsy & el-Hazmi, 1999) The contribution of physical activity is to prevent the type 2 diabetes mellitus and stage 2-3 of hypertension, because of its effect on weight loss and body composition. The physical activity will decrease the Body Mass Index which will prevent diseases as type 2 diabetes mellitus and will decrease the blood pressure. Other studies show how physical activity can influence in decreasing insulin resistance (Hamburg et al., 2007) and decrease high blood pressure (Tesfaye et al., 2007). Physical activity has an important role in controlling the BMI, and in maintaining in normal values the vital component. Many studies has recommended and planning an educational program in increased the physical activity. (Henrique L. Monteiro & 1, n.d.)


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It’s important to prepare a physical activity program in Albania, which would help in conducting a low values of BMI; will improve and prevent diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Conclusion: As a conclusion we can say that in our study, both elevated BMI and low physical activity appear to play an important role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and stage 2-3 of hypertension. Physical activity will reduce the risk factors such as BMI (body mass index) that affect the pathologies as diabetes and hypertension; and will prevent these pathologies. Our studies suggest that general practitioners must prescribe physical activity as part of the diet in diabetic and hypertension patients. Reference: Albania - WHO Country Profile - AlbaniaWHO-Country-Profile.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved June 07, 2014, from http://www.euro.who.int/ __data/assets/pdf_file/0003/243282/AlbaniaWHO-Country-Profile.pdf Andriciuc, C., & Officer, O. D. (2008). Country Report for Albania The four stakeholders, 1– 13. Ansari, R. M. (2009). Effect of physical activity and obesity on type 2 diabetes in a middle-aged population. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2009, 195285. doi:10.1155/2009/ 195285 Babatsikou, F., 1, 2, & . (n.d.). Epidemiology of hypertension in the elderly - 404.pdf. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://www. hsj.gr/volume4/issue1/404.pdf Bays, H. E., Chapman, R. H., & Grandy, S. (2007). The relationship of body mass index to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia: comparison of data from two national surveys. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(5), 737–47. doi:10.1111/ j.1742-1241.2007.01336.x Beyerlein, A., 1, *, ì, Toschke, M., 2, … Kries. (n.d.). Risk Factors for Obesity: Further Evidence for Stronger Effects on Overweight Children and Adolescents Compared to Normal-Weight Subjects. Retrieved June 07, 2014, from http://edoc.rki.de/oa/articles/ reV5BBeuyAdU/PDF/25X5UOVyP3qi.pdf

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Biddle, S. J. H., & Ekkekakis, P. (2006). Physically active lifestyles and well-being. In The science of well-being (pp. 141–170). Colberg, S. R., Albright, A. L., Blissmer, B. J., Braun, B., Chasan-Taber, L., Fernhall, B., … Sigal, R. J. (2010). Exercise and type 2 diabetes: American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Exercise and type 2 diabetes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(12), 2282–303. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e 3181eeb61c Dias, P. J. P., Domingos, I. P., Ferreira, M. G., Muraro, A. P., Sichieri, R., & Gonçalves-Silva, R. M. V. (2014). Prevalence and factors associated with sedentary behavior in adolescents. Revista de Saude Publica, 48(2), 266–274. Retrieved from http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24897048 Epidemiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in a country in transition: a population based survey in Tirana City, Albania. (2003), 734–739. Go, A. S., Mozaffarian, D., Roger, V. L., Benjamin, E. J., Berry, J. D., Borden, W. B., … Turner, M. B. (2013). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 127(1), e6–e245. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e318 28124ad Hamburg, N. M., McMackin, C. J., Huang, A. L., Shenouda, S. M., Widlansky, M. E., Schulz, E., … Vita, J. a. (2007). Physical inactivity rapidly induces insulin resistance and microvascular dysfunction in healthy volunteers. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 27(12), 2650–6. doi:10.1161/ ATVBAHA.107.153288 Henrique L. Monteiro, P., & 1. (n.d.). Exercise program effectiveness on physical fitness, metabolic profile and blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Retrieved June 07, 2014, from http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbme/v13n2/ en_08.pdf Herbst, A., Kapellen, T., Schober, E., Graf, C., Meissner, T., & Holl, R. (2014). Impact of regular physical activity on blood glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a multicenter study of 578 patients from 225 centres. Pediatric Diabetes. doi:10.1111/ pedi.12144


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Mk, J., Raj, P., Nj, N. S., & Johncy, S. (2011). Effect of sedentary life style on anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, 2(4), 846–851. Pilav, A. (n.d.). The Assessment of Prevalence of Hypertension as Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Adult Population. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfswm/32675.pdf Presseau, J., Hawthorne, G., Sniehotta, F. F., Steen, N., Francis, J. J., Johnston, M., … Eccles, M. P. (2014). Improving diabetes care through examining, advising, and prescribing (IDEA): protocol for a theory-based cluster randomised controlled trial of a multiple behaviour change intervention aimed at primary healthcare professionals. Implementation Science, 9(1), 61. doi:10.1186/1748-5908-9-61 Rambhade, S., 1, * U. K. P., & 2. (n.d.). Diabetes Mellitus- Its complications, factors influ encing complications and prevention- An Overview. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from http://jocpr.com/ vol2-iss6-2010/JCPR-2010-2-6-7-25.pdf Resic, H., Borovac, N., & Leto, E. (2001). A high prevalence of hepatitis C in hemodialysis. Medicinski Arhiv, 55, 235–237. Tesfaye, F., Nawi, N. G., Van Minh, H., Byass, P., Berhane, Y., Bonita, R., & Wall, S. (2007). Association between body mass index and blood pressure across three populations in Africa and Asia. Journal of Human Hypertension,

21(1), 28–37. doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1002104 Thomas, D. E., Elliott, E. J., & Naughton, G. A. (2006). Exercise for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD002968. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD00 2968.pub2 Warsy, A. S., & el-Hazmi, M. A. (1999). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity—common multifactorial disorders in Saudis. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal = La Revue de Santé de La Méditerranée Orientale = AlMajallah Al-bi%%îyah Li-Sharq Al-Muta wassim, 5(6), 1236–42. Retrieved from http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11924118 World Health Organization. (n.d.). WHO | Pacific physical activity guidelines for adults: framework for accelerating the communication of physical activity guidelines. Retrieved from http:// www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/pacific_activity_9789290613947/en/ Xu, F., Ware, R. S., Tse, L. A., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Hong, X., … Owen, N. (2014). Joint associations of physical activity and hypertension with the development of type 2 diabetes among urban men and women in Mainland China. PloS One, 9(2), e88719. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0088719


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Students’ language needs analysis and its significance in ESP syllabus design Cenaj, M 1 and Lile, A.2

1 2

Sports University of Tirana, Faculty of Movement Science, University of Tirana, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation

Correspondence: Cenaj, M. Department of Social Science and Education, Faculty of Movement Science, Sports University of Tirana, Street “Muhamet Gjollesha” , Tirana, Albania,

Abstract: This study examines students’ needs regarding English language at University of Sports of Tirana. Students’ needs are divided in three types which cover needs for English language for general purpose, for academic purposes, job purposes, and the last group of questions investigates student’ felt needs regarding language skills to be improved. The main reason of this need analysis is the crucial role it plays in designing an ESP syllabus acknowledged by Hutchinson and Waters (1987) and Dudley-Evans (1998). It aims to gather feedback from the students in order to design a language program that meets students’ needs and wants, as well as to prepare appropriately tailored content and classroom materials. Moreover, it sees whether there are any discrepancies between the needs foreseen in the present syllabus that might indicate modification of it. The method used to collect data is a 25-item questionnaire. The sample of the study are 160 freshmen full-time and part-time students at UST; A four-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to measure students’ attitude toward English Language. Results revealed that students demonstrate a quite positive attitude (3.38±0.38) towards benefits of learning English. Unsatisfying results regarding their English level were obtained. Reliability analysis was performed in order to evaluate internal consistence of the instrument. Cronbach’s alpha for the overall inter-item reliability of the questionnaire was 0.888, which indicated a high level of internal consistency for our questionnaire of 25 items. The feedback has thrown light on students’ needs as following; .735 for the “General Needs”, 0.735 for the scale “Academic Needs”, 0.806 for the scale “Job Needs” and 0.795 for the scale “Language skills Needs”. Findings of this study could be very useful to the process of adapting and assessing the English Language syllabus based on Students needs. Considering the findings of the study some conclusions are drawn regarding future curricula design and modification to satisfy students’ needs and necessities. Key words: needs analysis, ESP syllabus, students’ needs and wants, academic needs


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Introduction What is ESP? ESP, English for Specific Purposes has developed alongside the concern for learners’ needs, which are an important factor in deciding course objective. It is hard to give a definition universally applicable and acceptable for ESP as it greatly depends on several elements and factors as well as because “what is specific and appropriate in one part of the globe may not be elsewhere” (Robinson, 1991). Moreover, ESP is is by its very nature an interdisciplinary area. Hutchison and Waters (1987) define ESP as an “approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learners’ reason for learning”. Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998) identify three “absolute characteristics” of ESP: 1. ESP is designed to meet the specific needs of the learner; 2. ESP makes use of the underlying methodology and activities of the disciplines it serves; 3. ESP is centered on the language (grammar, lexis, and register), skills, discourse and genres appropriate to these activities. The “absolute characteristics” illustrate that an ESP approach concerns not only learners’ language issues, but also the design of the methodology and activities related to students’ disciplines. Most importantly, ESP views students’ needs as the first priority. Thus, for a full and clear picture of ESP, several elements and factors, such as ESP students, their age, interests and purposes, occupation, aims of the syllabus to be applied and learners’ linguistic and non-linguistic needs will have to be taken into consideration. In order to bring to light students’ needs an assessment of needs analysis should be carried out. Although it is difficult to find an operational definition available for every situation of foreign language learning, needs can be generally recognized as ‘a gap or measurable discrepancy between a current state of affairs and a desired future state ‘(Berwick, 1994). Brindley (1984) provided a clearer explanation by identifying NA as a set of tools, techniques and procedures for determining the language content and learning process for specified groups of students. Needs Analysis (NA) is a prominent feature and vital element in designing any ESP syllabus

(Munby, 1978; Robinson, 1991). NA is a tool to identify the specific language needs that can be addressed in developing the goals, objectives, and content for a specific language program. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) argue that “any language course should be based on needs analysis”. Dudley-Evans & St John (1998) state that “needs analysis is the process of establishing what and how of a course”. They emphasize three main aspects of needs analysis: 1.Needs analysis aims to know learners as people, as language users and as language learners. 2.Needs analysis study also aims to know how language learning and skills learning can be maximized for a given learner group. 3.Needs analysis study aims to know the target situations and learning environment so that data can appropriately be interpreted. In the study we have tried to focus on the Process-oriented interpretation, being also learner-centered, of the needs which include as Hutchinson and Water (1987) have described and have broken down into three categories: a-Necessities are considered to be “what the learner has to know in order to function effectively in the target situation”; bLacks are defined as the gaps between what the learner knows and the necessities; c-Wants are described as “what the learners think they need”. That is the reason we constructed the instrument of our study in a way that it identified all these needs. Methods A questionnaire was the instrument used to collect the information needed for the study. It was a 25-item questionnaire, distributed to 160 first-year student of UST. It aimed to collect information concerning present and long – term perceived needs by the students regarding proficiency, skills and benefits of English language in their personal and professional life. These skills were organized, and comprised in the questionnaire, into four main groups: namely the general needs, the academic needs and job needs. Moreover, the students were asked to name the language skills that they felt they need to improve. In the first part of the questionnaire, students’ have to identify their general needs for English in their everyday life. The second


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part of the questions sought to elicit information on the need of English language skills that they need most in their field of study and academic environment. In the third part of the questionnaire, students have to express the language needs for their job, more specifically for professional growth and future occupational needs. While, the last part of it aimed to gather information on language skills (reading, listening, writing and speaking) they think they should improve A four-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to measure students’ attitude toward English Language. Statistical analyses was performed using IBM statistics 20. Cronbach’s alpha for the overall inter-item reliability of the questionnaire was 0.888 (see table 1), which

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Results analysis General needs (see table 2), this group of questions was designed to generate a general idea about the need for English in the students’ daily life. It consists of seven questions. Questions no.1 asks the students to indicate how important English in their private life, questions no. 2, and 7 ask about the students’ needs for reading, questions 3 and 4 ask about speaking skills, question 5 asks about the listening skills, while question 6 asks about the writing skill. Students have to indicate their opinions by choosing: 4= important; 3= not so important; 2= not important at all; 1= not applicable. Reliability analyses of the scale “General Needs” pointed out a 0.735 Cronbach’s Alpha. Every item of the scale is quite necessary since results Cronbach's N of figured out that the deletion of any of them disfavours scale reliability. N % Alpha Items The data analysis show that Survival English Cases Valid 157 98.1 .888 25 (e.g. being abroad as a tourist) was at the Excludeda 3 1.9 highest score (3.62) followed by the importance of English in their private life (3.61), Total 160 100.0 thirdly rated was Listening to the radio, understanding T.V programs and films (3.39) indicates a high level of internal consistency for The data analysis show that Survival English our questionnaire of 25 items. Results revealed (being abroad as a tourist) was at the highest that students demonstrate a quite positive attitude score (3.62) followed by the importance of (3.38±0.38) towards benefits of learning English. English in their private life General Needs; In your everyday life you (3.61), thirdly rated was Std. need English for: Mean Deviation N Listening to the radio, 3,61 0.770 160 1.Importance of English understanding T.V pro2,34 1.063 160 grams and films (3.39). 2. Reading newspapers 3,62 0.633 160 The subjects are sports 3. Survival English students so they feel that 3,33 0.807 160 4. Conversing with fellow students they might need English, 3,39 0.801 160 5. Understanding TV programs, listening if not in their immediate to the radio/music (Audio-visual) personal life, sometimes in 2,76 1.096 160 6. Writing private letters their near future as their 3,08 1.096 160 7. Reading literature profession requires frequent trips for matches, contests, sports events if not to search for a part-time job. This emphasizes the role of English as a very important international tool for communication as well as a prerequisite for most vacancies and employees. Moreover, given their age 18-20 their Table 2: General needs


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everyday life is focused on chatting, internet, TV and music as well as leisure activities mainly sports that’s why they think it as an important use of the main global language, language of computers, internet, movies, media and research, sports events and leisure. This reinforces the role of TV as a learning audiovisual tool. The results revealed that the students do not appreciate their need for English as a mean of reading for pleasure and reading English literature in the original or reading newspapers, which indicates a very low motivation in the language as a means to read materials written in English in particular. As motivation is considered to be a very essential factor in foreign language learning, it is necessary that the ESP teachers pay more attention to encourage general reading by providing some suitable material to raise students’ motivation in the language which would have positive results in their performance in ESP courses. The Academic Needs: This group of questions asks the students to rate the skills needed in their specialization or field of study (see Table 3). It Academic Needs: In your field of study, you need English for: 1.Importance of English at your university. 2. Understanding lectures 3. Reading literature 4. Reading spec. journals 5. Taking notes in lectures 6. Writing essays, reports, course papers 7. Answering in tests/exams 8. Discussing with professors.

Table 3: Academic needs

Mean 3,59

consists of eight questions. It covers various academic situations in which the students may need certain English skills. Reliability analyses of this scale pointed out a 0.753 Cronbach’s Alpha. In another delivery of this questionnaire item 12 can be removed since the deletion of question 12 increases scale reliability to 0.802. The results indicate that; the first two questions asked students to rate the importance of English in their academic development, which received the highest score (3.59), and the other asked them about their need of language to understand lectures (3.45) or take part in discussions or to converse with their professors (3.34). The results showed that students, like teachers, place value on the listening and speaking skills, productive skills, so developing these skills is essential in the field of specialization which call for a significant weight in any syllabus that caters for the students’ language needs. In the third and fourth questions, the students were asked to rate their needs for reading field literature and journals. The results rated as (3.21; 3.07) these scores were unexpected as most of their textbooks for complementary information or references to various subjects are available Std. at the library mainly in Deviation N English. ,685 160

3,45

,791

160

3,21

,927

160

3,07

,946

160

3,23

1,884

160

3,27

,976

160

3,31

,985

160

3,34

,917

160

The jobs needs (see table 4): The jobs needs are to be investigated in this section of the study. They are different from the other two kinds of needs mentioned above in the way that the students have to foresee which needs will be mostly useful in their future. The students do not presently experience this kind of need. In this part of the questionnaire the students were asked to speculate what they may need English in their future job through five situations. Reliability analyses of the scale “Job Needs” pointed out a 0.806 Cronbach’s Alpha


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

as shown in details in table 2. Every item of the scale is quite necessary since results figured out that the deletion of any of them disfavours scale reliability. The studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; answers are shown in table (4).

Job Needs: In your future job, what do you expect you may need English for? 1.Comunicating with colleagues 2. Job related Information 3. Conveying information/instructions. 4. Conducting in-service courses 5. Writing reports, memos etc 6. How important is English in better job opportunities

Mean 3,50 3,31 3,35 3,43 3,21 3,50

Table 4: Job needs

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as regarding the four English language skills that they feel they should pay attention and work more on them in order to develop. As made clear in the previous parts of this questionnaire they felt that speaking skill is of great importance in their Std. personal life, to converse with Deviation N professors as well as future ,795 159 colleagues and they feel they ,819 159 really need to master this skill ,811 159 as it is clearly shown by the ,799 159 results with the highest score in ,886 159 this section (3.50), followed by ,787 159 reading (3.42) and listening skill (3.41). The writing skill received the lowest score here (3.40), but also in the other above parts. The explanation of this is that writing is a difficult skill to master and as English is not the language in which lectures are conducted they hold the opinion that it is not as vital to their education or professional development.

Table (4) shows that the top score in group three goes to conversing with English-speaking colleagues and for better job opportunities which both received the same and highest score within this group (3.50), followed by in-service courses conducted in English (3.43), while question 18- conveying information or instruction form English language to Albania employers or vice versa, and after in order of score comes question 17- reading written or printed materials connected with jobs received the lowest score here. Language skills needs (see table 5): In the last group students have to identify their weakness Language skills you need to improve;

Mean 3,42

Std. Deviation ,777

N 157

2. Listening

3,41

,734

157

3. Speaking

3,50

,739

157

4. Writing

3,40

,750

157

1.Reading

Table 5. Language skills students feel they should improve.

Conclusion The study has come out with a number of facts the most important of which are: Sports students think that English is important in their daily life, this item got the highest score, next they rated the need of survival English. The results revealed that the students do not


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appreciate their need for English as a means of reading for pleasure and reading English literature or journals related to their field of study, i.e. physical activity, sports etc, which indicates a very low motivation in the language as a means to read materials written in English in particular. In the academic field, again the need for English language received the highest score, followed by the need to understand lectures. In their future jobs the study revealed that students think that English will increase their job opportunities and they will need it mostly to communicate to foreign colleagues. Finally, the language skill they intend to improve is firstly speaking and secondly reading. Further implications Findings of this study could be very useful to the process of adapting and assessing the English Language syllabus based on Students needs. Considering the findings of the study some conclusions are drawn regarding future curricula design and modification to satisfy students’ needs and necessities, i.e. speaking and reading skills should be the focus of syllabus content. Needs Analysis is intended to be a continuous process, as target situations, students’ wants, preferences, aims and proficiency change through time affecting directly the course content, materials, tasks and activities, the learning process as well as credits distribution. This study might serve as a model for EGP or ESP teachers who want to get acquainted to students’ needs in order to design a language course that fulfils students expectations and builds up their English skills. The great importance to obtain information on valuable teaching and learning activities and thus make attempts to overlap the perception gap that exist between teachers and students.

References Berwick, R. 1994. “Needs Assessment in Language Programming: from Theory to Practice” in Johnson, R. K. (ed.) The Second Language Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 48-62. Brindley, G. (1984). Needs Analysis and Objective-setting in the Adult Migrant Education Program. Sydney: Adult Migrant Education Service. Dudley-Evans, T., and St. John, M. (1998). Developments in ESP: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . Fatah-ELrahman Dafa-Allah .A.M. ESP Learners’ Needs: A case Study of Medicine Students at Some Sudanese Universities. in English for Specific Purposes World, ISSN 1682-3257 Hutchinson, T., and Waters, A. (1987). English for specific purposes: A learning-centered approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Munby, J. (1978). Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. (1990). Using learner data in curriculum development. ESP Journal, 9, 1732. Richards, J. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Robinson, P. (1991). ESP today: A practitioner’s guide. Prentice Hall.UK: Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.


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Match fixing as criminal offence, seen on the light of sports law in Albania Agalliu. P and Shatku S.

Abstract The following material explores the phenomenon of fixing, “match selling”, and their impact on the final score in matches and the role of the authorities managing sports, in relation to the phenomenon in question. Law “On sports” and changes made have improved justice in sports in accordance with the European Charter of Sport and Recommendations of International organizations in this field. “Fixing” or “match selling” is a controversial phenomenon, not only in Europe, but also in our country. There is need for further cooperation between the Albanian justice, FSHF and UEFA to fight this phenomenon, considering the fact that there have been continuous charges, especially about Albanian clubs participating in European Cups. Information from UEFA indicates that organized crime has entered into fixing sports results, mainly in football, being the most popular sport in our country. About the phenomenon in question, in 2008, for the first time, the Office for the Protection of Citizens initiated a project that would sanction by law match fixing and provide sanctions for the people responsible about match fixing, with or with no benefit in doing this. It is probably the first time that a law initiated by civil society manages to get granted and approved: the Law “On match-fixing in football” (Added by Law No. 10 023, dated 27.11.2008) “Predestination results in sports competitions” Article 197 / A (Criminal Code). Approval in the Criminal Code, Article 197 / a, added to the law that deals specifically with the phenomenon in question “For match-fixing in football,” adds immediately to the urge of establishing new articles in the law “On Sports” and reflecting their regulations of soccer clubs with very clear goals: Unification of sports legislation not only in the region but also beyond. Key Words: Criminal Code in Albania -Law “On Sports” -UEFA, FSHF-Match fixing Unification of Sports Legislation

Introduction Sport is one of the activities of human society, which has had an extraordinary development and has become an essential element of the functioning of the society itself. Sport is an early phenomenon of human activity and its relationship with the state has followed a specific nonlinear development. Due to the fact that sport is an area of public interaction even in the international level, there are interstate structures that deal with sport.1 Moreover, the Constitution of the Republic of

1 2

Albania2 provides that: The State, within its constitutional powers and tools, gives the right to any Albanian citizen to achieve the private initiatives and responsibilities and it aims at: “Development of sports and recreation activities.” Today, sport is an activity that can not only deal with the private activity of citizens. This intensive evolution of the sports is bringing undisputable changes by adapting the rules it requires. Seen on the international perspective and international organizations, they consider sport

V.Rizvanolli, A.Shyti, Organizimi institucional dhe juridik i sportit, Tiranë 2011, fq 5,6 Kushtetuta e Shqipërisë neni 59/1 pika ë/, ndryshuar në vitin 2012.


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a human right. Given the importance that sport has, different international organizations have contributed to the drafting of conventions and documents aiming at the leading role and development of the sport not only nationally, but also at an international level. Main sports documents are: -The European Charter-Sport; -Sports Code of Ethics; -European Convention Against Violence; -Anti-Doping Convention; 1.1 International Sports Organizations World’s most important organizations that deal specifically with the organization and operation of sports are: 1.1.1 –”International Olympic Committee” which deals with the organization of the Olympic Games taking place in summer and winter, maintaining ethics in sports, the fight against criminal acts in sports such as violence, doping, match fixing and encourage and support projects that unite nations through sport, culture, etc; 1.1.2 – “International Sports Federations” which deal with the promotion, sports development, increase the quality level of the athletes, provide financial resources, support of the overall sports federations, protect sports from violence, doping, discrimination (by actions that are contrary to regulations set); 1.1.3 – “International Professional Sports Associations” are international organizations that develop sport in the context of different professions in some categories and not only. They also deal with the scientific aspects of sports development. 1.2. National Sports Organizations The Sports Organizations that operate in our country are: 1.2.1 “Albanian Federation of Sports” is a national sport organization that unites all sports organizations in the country to develop a particular sport; 1.2.2 “Albanian Olympic Committee” intended to our country’s participation in the Olympic Games; 1.2.3 “Professional Associations Sports” organized under the Albanian legislation; 4

2. Our law “About Sports” Sport, an element that has taken extraordinary proportions, bringing innovation and various issues has caused them to be reflected in our legislation. In 1996 the “Law for the sport”3 was approved. But, being geographically in Europe, seeing the proportions that the sport was gaining, enabling an approximation of our legislation with European countries the law “On Sports” should be consistent on the latest developments of that period. Law “On sports” and the changes made in it, improved sports justice in accordance with the European Charter of Sport and the latest recommendations of international organizations in this field.4 There were legal notions of law such as “Sports Justice”. In this case, changes were made to improve physical education and sport justice. We can witness non legal elements as doping, violence in sports, coaches, insults and corruption. But in addition to these familiar elements, other actions that were not previously recognized in sports were coming to surface. Recently “Match Fixing” is a controversial phenomenon, not only in Europe, but also in our country.”Match fixing” affect the principle of loyalty and honesty in sport by increasing the criminal activity of all kinds in sports spectrum. This is a problem for all involved parties and promotes the continued need for concerted action on a global scale by highlighting their importance as criminal activity. About this phenomenon, in 2008 it was initiated for the first time by the Office for the Protection of Citizens, a project that was to sanction all match fixing and provide other sanctions for those who fixed football matches with or without benefits. It is probably the first time that a law initiated by civil society manages to get approved and the law “On match-fixing” was also approved as: “Prearrangement results in sports competitions” 5 and “Distortion of competition in sports competitions”.6 2.1 Problems encountered in the sales of matches in Albania Albanian football has been through a lot of

Ligji nr 9376, datë 21.04. 2005( në të cilin është reflektuar dhe ligji nr.9816, datë 22.10.2007) Kodi Penal. Neni 197/a. (shtuar me ligjin nr.10 023, datë 27.11.2008,neni 20) 6 Kodi Penal. Neni 197/b. (shtuar me ligjin nr.10 023, datë 27.11.2008, neni 20) 5


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corruption. Albanian Superior League is at the top list as far as match fixing is concerned, with a quota of 97 fixed matches in total. The investigation was extended to more than 400 international betting companies. The investigation period covers a period of two years and a half, during which Albania has allegedly fixed 97 games.8 Unfortunately, Albania has not escaped the virus of the fixing of matches and other sports races. Draft law “Clean Feet” would make those responsible of match-fixing liable to up to seven years in jail while also bringing Albanian laws in line with the European Union’s. This initiative, which is a part of our cooperation with UEFA9 and FIFA for “Fair Play” in soccer, will help minimize damaging phenomena in sports and help punish those responsible. FIFA and UEFA were the first sporting bodies to establish early warning systems to detect betting related manipulation. Initiatives put in place by sport organisations and betting operators in recent years are also fundamental in the fight against match-fixing. These can take the form of an “intelligence system”; ethical code of conduct; integrity units, or educational programs. There was a total of 143,472 investigated matches in 596 different championships, of which 798 or 0.56 percent resulted manipulated. Compared with 27 games more than the Italian championship, which holds the second place in world rankings with 70 fixed matches. In the third place there is the Moldovan championship, while in the top ten there also the Greek League, the Russian League, the Macedonian League and Bulgarian League10. The Albanian Football Federation, seeing the situation of Albanian football, raised the Ethics Commission at its offices, but despite their will, it proved ineffective in fighting this phenomenon. The Albanian Football Federation (FSHF) and UEFA in order to fight this phenomenon agreed to a memorandum of cooperation aiming to efficient methods for 7

47

investigating suspected fixed matches in the Albanian championship and even international ones. It was agreed to train investigators and prosecutors from UEFA for analog issues, in order to obtain the necessary experience to investigate issues of prearrangement in sports results. Meanwhile, even the Prosecution Office, despite having received several files from AFF until in 2010 has not launched any official investigation. There is need of a better coordination of all links as well as involvement of other state structures to seriously evaluate this concern. According to the forms used, it has added to the need for cooperation between the Albanian justice, UEFA and FSHF to fight the phenomenon in question, moreover, that the charges for this are frequent, especially for Albanian clubs participating in European Cups. Information from UEFA indicates that organized crime is involved in fixing matches, mainly in football being the most popular sport, even in our country. The Albanian Football Championship is rigged. It is manipulated at that level as UEFA itself calls the situation alarming and one which requires urgent intervention on the part of the Albanian Prosecutor Office, with the aim of coming up with a list of people responsible for match fixing. The UEFA11’s reports date back in the years 2011 and 2012, which means that the match fixing phenomenon is alarming and on the increase. In it’s reports UEFA focuses on what has been achieved by its anti-fraud system, based on evaluations and a deep analysis resulting after the monitoring of bets accompanying our teams’ matches, which shows that some of the matches are played “wild” by betting companies, and financially speaking millions of Euros are at stake. Indeed, UEFA’s system guarantees up to 100 % and based on this coefficient, UEFA’s special structures themselves provide subsequent appropriate evaluations about the degree of manipulation of a particular championship.

Analizë e rezervuar të shoqërisë “Sportradar”, lider botëror i monitorimit të kuotave të basteve dhe fluksit të parave të luajtura në futboll. 8 Agjencia e specializuar e trukimit të ndeshjeve “Agipronews”. 9 Raporti i UEFA_s ne lidhje me “Fair Play” 10 Statistika të nxjerra nga shoqëria “Sportradar”në lidhje me fefenomen e shitjeve të ndeshjeve 11 Raportet e UEFA_s ne lidhje me “Trukimet e ndeshjeve”


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UEFA has provided the Albanian Football Federation (AFF) with several reports on the alarming situation that accompanies our championship matches, by also making the names of some teams. In the last season almost all third-phase matches were manipulated. Even games of the season that closed in summer were considered rigged to a high degree, in other words fixed, while in this season some matches have been under the scrutiny of the Albanian Football Federation AFF’s Ethics Committee itself for results entirely fixed and distressing for football’s outlook. Well -known specialists in the country have underscored the concern for such an ever growing alarming phenomenon. Viewed as a whole, tampered results have in essence been a source of shame to the Albanian football for the year 2012. The Albanian Prosecutor Office has begun on its own initiative, after UEFA’s signals, a broad investigation on match fixing in the Albanian Football Championship. Since no measures after the prior UEFA’s reports addressed to the Albanian Football Federation, AFF have been undertaken for the offenders, the institution that manages European football has decided to send a copy to the Albanian General Prosecutor Office, which is immediately set in motion. 12 Recently, interception of calls of club managers have been obtained regarding matches suspected of being rigged. Soon, the latter, referees to the matches in question and football players alike will be questioned. Everything is held in strict confidence and has been decided to be overlooked by AFF, which so far has not taken a clear stance on specific cases of suspected fraud. Currently one of the names that is being investigated is N.B. Evidence and elements of the criminal offense of “manipulation of gaming outcomes” have been found in four games held by the team in question. By tapping the phone calls it has been concluded that he has had a hand in match fixing. Although he has rejected this hypothesis, it is thought that the General Prosecutor has 12 13

Prokuroria e Përgjithëshme http://www.pp.gov.al/ Prokuroria e Përgjithëshme http://www.pp.gov.al/

indisputable evidence of his involvement, because the wiretapping in question, the number one of X team, has yielded some matches’ results, which were later confirmed true on the playing field . 13 The need to fight against match-fixing is a response to perceptions of it as a public interest issue; match-fixing jeopardises the integrity of the competitions, damages the social, educational and cultural values reflected by sports, and jeopardises the economic role of sports. Conclusions: -Today sport is facing various forms of corruption which have become a major concern. From these, we can mention here violence, corruption, doping, racism, and the more recently match-fixing. -The main goal is not only to consider the criminal provisions, but also the effective role that the European member states have in the fight against “manipulation of sports results”. -Moreover, match fixing, particularly connected with betting, often has implications in and beyond the sporting community and often involves organized crime structures. This goes beyond the scope of disciplinary sports law. -There have been efforts as far as the legal role is concerned that the shortcomings observed in our legislation should be reflected in accordance with the European Sports Legislation, according to the European Charter of Sport and the latest recommendations of international organizations in this field. Firstly, not only with the law “On Sports”, but also the changes that this law has suffered. Secondly, the coherence to all illegal actions that not only appears, but become part of the sports. Approval in the Criminal Code of the law that deals specifically with the phenomenon in question “For match-fixing in football,” adds directly to the need of establishing new articles in the law “On Sports” and their reflection in the regulation of football clubs with clear purposes: Unification of sports legislation not only in the region but also beyond.


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

References: -Kushtetuta e Shqipërisë, Botim i Qendrës së Publikimeve Zyrtare (2012)

49

-Kodi Penal. Neni 197/b. (shtuar me ligjin nr.10 023, datë 27.11.2008, neni 20)

-Organizimi institucional dhe juridik i sportit, V.Rizvanolli, A.Shyti, Tiranë 2011

-Transparency International 2011.Section 1.4 above, also Gorse and Chadwick 2011; Vilotte 2011;

-Kartën Europiane të Sportit e rishikuar më 2001

-Raportet e UEFA_s ne lidhje me “Trukimet e ndeshjeve”

-Konventat kryesore sportive (kundër dhunës, dopingut), hyrë në fuqi më 1990

-Analizë e rezervuar të shoqërisë “Sportradar”, lider botëror i monitorimit të kuotave të basteve dhe fluksit të parave të luajtura në futboll.

-Rekomandime të KE, Rekomandimet më të fundit të Organizatave Ndërkombëtare në këtë fushë -Parimet Bazë të OKB-së “Mbi Sportin” -Ligji nr 8114, “Për Sportin” datë 28.03.1996 shfuqizuar -Ligji nr 9376, datë 21.04. 2005( në të cilin është reflektuar dhe ligji nr.9816, datë 22.10.2007) -Kodi Penal. Neni 197/a. (shtuar me ligjin nr.10 023, datë 27.11.2008,neni 20)

-Agjencia e specializuar e trukimit të ndeshjeve “Agipronews”. -Raporti i UEFA_s në lidhje me “Fair Play” WEB SITE http://www.qbz.gov.al http://www.pp. gov.al/


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Assessing biomechanical parameters of sut students through the jumping test Bendo. A 1 and Skënderi. Dh2 1

Sports University of Tirana, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Department of Movement and Health; 2 Sports University of Tirana, Faculty of Movement Sciences, Department of Sports E-mail: bendoaida@hotmail.com;

Abstract The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and kinetic parameters deriving from motor performance. Anthropometric characteristics are important factors which influence the muscle function, so it is necessary to evaluate the correlation between Force max. total, Power max. relative, EFI score in relation to body size parameters by gender. The kinetic parameters have been calculated using force measurements during a jump, and this is used as an important indicator of motor function of the locomotor system in humans. EFI score is calculated as a percentage of the standard value for each age, which provides indicators of the individual’s motor function. The assessment of muscle function in healthy physically active Albanian students can be used to collect information with regard to their physical fitness. In this perspective, jumping mechanography could be a useful device in providing accurate data of students’ physical performance. Keywords: Jumping mechanography, anthropometric characteristics, Force max. total, power max. relative, EFI score. Introduction Nowadays the change of lifestyle is closely related with everyday movements and an increased risk of disorders. Anthropometric characteristics are important factors which influence muscle function. Locomotion and neuromuscular function are also essential in understanding and assessing motor performance, therefore locomotion and parameters describing the neuromuscular functions are indispensable variables for the identification of diseases and their treatment (Anliker E, Dick C, Rower R, Toigo M. 2012). The modifications in muscle function are the key characteristics of physical development. According to the Mechanostat theory, the increase in bone strength as a function of

structural adaption is driven by the experienced bone strains, and the highest bone strains are induced by muscle force (Anliker E, Dick C, Rower R, Toigo M. 2012; Rauch F, Schoenau E. 2001; Robling AG. 2009). The bone strength is determined by the maximal muscle forces, while muscle power is the product of force and velocity. The difference between force and power is important for the development of specific regimes. The kinetic parameters are measured in the standard units of physics. A scientific description of movement allows us to apply the laws of physics in human movement. During the studying of muscle performance, movement is described in biomechanical terms of force, velocity and acceleration. Movement is the action of force


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

along a distance over a time interval and so it is used to calculate power. According to the physics laws, this mechanical principle is used for the calculation of the kinetic parameters of human movement. This study intends to collect reference data and to discuss these parameters of the locomotor system in healthy and physically active students of Sports University of Tirana (SUT). A further objective is to undertake a comparison of the physical capabilities of Albanian subjects with normative values of different populations. The assessment of motor function through jumping movements using force measurements, maximal power relative to body weight (Pmax/ kg) are used as an indicator of motor function. Runge et al (Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. 2004), reported changes in muscle mass and jumping Pmaxrel associated with aging process; there was a strong correlation between age and Pmax/kg in subjects of both genders. On the basis of this report (Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E. 2006), an index called Esslinger Fittnes Index (EFI) was developed. EFI is calculated as a percentage of the standard value for each age, which provides indications of a subject’s motor function (Ward KA, Das G, Bery JL, Roberts SA, Rawer R, Adams JE, Mughal Z. 2009). Leonardo mechanography force plate records the ground reaction forces over time, velocity of vertical movements of center of gravity (COG) and power during movements in jumping tests. Leonardo force plate is used in many clinical practices (Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D, Runge M. 2004; Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. 2004). The concentric and eccentric phases of movements are welldistinguished by the explorations of energy storage of elastic elements in human muscles. The motor system cannot produce the necessary energy to jump, without releasing the previous stored energy. The required force for a movement is the total of released energy, which is stored in elastic elements during eccentric phase of Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), and muscle force generated by the actin-myosin system (Runge M and Hunter G. 2006). The muscles are able to generate much higher forces during eccentric contraction than during concentric contraction (Rauch R,

51

Veilleux F, Rauch D, Bock D, et al. 2012). During this eccentric phase, the energy is stored by the extension of elastic elements. Without this stored energy, body is not able to generate the whole energy required against gravity, so jumping is not possible. According to Hill’s equation, the inverse relationship between force and velocity results in increased velocity while the force decreases. Muscle power in jumping shows a strong correlation with the aging process (Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. 2004). Methodology All measurements were performed in the Biomechanics laboratory in SUT, on a randomly selected group of 112 students of SUT (78 males and 34 females), aged 20-29 years old. The mechanography measurement device (Leonardo GRF platform, Novotec Medical, Germany), is a quadratic platform with a side length of 66 cm and a height of 7 cm (Veilleux LN, Rauch F. 2010). The force plate is divided in two sections and can measure the applied forces from the right and left lower limb separately. The applied force to the jumping force plate is detected by four sensors on each part of the plate. The detection of force is measured by a deformation which is proportional to the applied force. During trials, the vertical ground reaction force was recorded with a frequency rate of 800 Hz. Velocity was derived from a time series of vertical force (Cavagna GA: 1975). The signal from the sensors is recorded by Leonardo Mechanography GRFP software. This software uses force and time data to calculate velocity, power, jump height and EFI scores of the movement, according to Cavagna (Cavagna GA: 1975). The recording of kinetic parameters such as: vertical velocity, force and power, give information on the eccentric phases of movement (Runge M, Schacht E. 2005). Jumping mechanograhy is found to be a reliable and sensitive method for measuring motor performance in different groups of subjects. The body height parameter was measured with a wall-ruler, while weight was recorded on the force plate before the vertical jump movement. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the formulae: (BMI = Weight /Height² (kg/m²)). The biomechanical


All (n = 112) Parameter

Jump Height (m)

Mean (SD)

Median (Min-Max)

Female (n = 34) Mean (SD)

Median (MinMax)

Male (n = 78) Mean (SD)

Median (MinMax)

0.19±0.047 0.20± 0.057

0.20(0.11-0.39)

0.18(0.12-0.28)

0.21±0.06

0.21(0.11-0.39)

2.54±0.23

2.56(1.94-3.37)

2.37±0.32

2.34(1.94-3.37)

2.60±0.17

2.59(2.12-3.16)

(kN)

1.97±0.43

1.92(1.23-4.28)

1.59±0.28

1.60(1.23-2.27)

2.10±0.40

2.01(1.59-4.28)

Power max. tot (kW)

3.64±0.84

3.75(1.89-6.63)

2.66±0.56

2.53(1.89-3.89)

3.96±0.64

3.90(2.80-6.63)

Force max.tot. rela ve (kN/kg)

2.84±0.35

2.79(2.06-4.13)

2.70±0.27

2.67(2.34-3.44)

2.89±0.36

2.88(2.06-4.13)

Power max/kg (W/kg)

51.74±7.22

52.61(34.71-69.84)

43.43±6.37

4 2.61(34.7156.62)

55.64±5.40

54.02(44.0769.84)

94.40±11.04

93.00(77.0-125.0)

94.40±13.93

90.50(77.0-125.0)

96.14±10.02

95.50(77.0122.0)

Velocity (m/s) Force max. tot

EFI score (%)


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test, results for jump height and velocity were respectively 10% and 9 % higher in male subjects than in females. In the second CMJ test, PFP and PJP were 24 % and 33 % respectively higher in maleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s subjects. Fmax/ kg and Pmax/kg in female subjects were 6.6 % and 17 % lower than in male subjects, while the difference in EFI score was only 1.8 %. Therefore, males have higher PJF and PJP scores than females; consequently female

53

subjects have lower results in jump height and velocity. The reason for these results is that jumping height and velocity are related with the action of muscle against gravity. According to the second Newtonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s law, acceleration is the ratio of ground reaction force to body weight (a = F/m), and this affects to the velocity (v = at), which depends on the acceleration of body during jumping movement. Thus, male subjects with higher body weight produce


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higher force and power for the same acceleration than female subjects. Consequently, biomechanical parameters resulting from jumping tests were lower in the female group. These differences between male and female subjects are also based on the differences in musculo-skeletal development between genders (Schoenau E, Neu CM, Mokov E, Wassmer G, Manz F. 2000). This difference can be explained by gender related differences in steroid hormone; androgenic hormones increase muscle mass, while estrogens increase bone mass due to applied mechanical force (Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E. 2006). Table 3 reports correlation analysis between anthropometric characteristics and kinetic parameters. In general, the correlation coefficients were greater for the parameters concerning force and power measurements. A strong correlation was found between PJF, PJP and body weight, respectively: in PJF (r = 0.857) for females, (r = 0.439) for males and (r = 0.639) for all subjects. For the PJP the coefficients were respectively: (r = 0.670) for females, (r = 0.483) for males and (r = 0.665) for all, (p < 0.01). For both females and males the greatest r-value observed for the correlations between PJF, PJP and BMI were respectively: in PJF (r = 0.794) for females, (r = 0.299) for males, (r = 0.499) for all, and in PJP: (r = 0.515) for females, (r = 0.380) for males and (r = 0.315) for all, (p < 0.01). Almost all parameters of muscle performance were negatively and weakly correlated with age. We

found no correlation between PFJ, PJP and age. Fmax/kg and Pmax/kg were also negatively but significantly correlated to body weight and BMI (p < 0.05), respectively: for Fmax/kg to body weight: (r = - 0.366) for females, (r = 0.314) for males, and (r = - 0.151) for all. Fmax/ kg to BMI: (r = - 0.359) for females, (r = - 0.207) for males, (r = - 0.226) for all. Pmax/kg to body weight: (r = - 0.307) for females, (r = - 0.205) for males; Pmax/kg to BMI only (r = - 0.373) for females was significant at 0.05 level (p < 0.05). Body weight was also positively and weakly correlated to jump height and velocity in males (r = 0.252) and (r = 0.119) respectively; and negatively and weakly correlated in females, respectively: (r = - 0.097) and (r = 0.294). The relationship between jumping force or power and body height was no longer significant, which means that these parameters are independent from body height. Only in female subjects, some significant correlation was found at 0.05 level: (r = 0.295) for PJF and (r = 0.505) for PJP, (p < 0.05). No significant correlation was found between % EFI scores and anthropometric parameters, which mean that these parameters are independent of eachother. From all the findings, it is noticed that in females, the coefficient of correlations are clearly greater than in males, which means that females are able to manage better their body weight to apply the maximal force in jumping.


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1 Table 3. Pearson’s correlation coefficient of kinetic parameters with anthropometric characteristics. Parameter

Gender

              All (n=112)  Jump Height    Females (n=34)    Males (n=78) 

Age

Height

Weight

      BMI 

  0.039    0.132 

 0.223 

 0.088 

‐ 0.186    0.123 

‐ 0.097 

‐ 0.161 

 0.165 

‐ 0.006 

 0.252 

 0.162 

‐ 0.120 

 0.324 

 0.148 

‐ 0.076 

‐ 0.234 

 0.104 

‐ 0.294 

‐ 0.346 

 0.031 

 0.062 

 0.119 

 0.083 

 0.064 

 0.512* 

 0.639** 

 0.499** 

 0.165 

 0.295* 

 0.857** 

 0.794** 

 0.097 

 0.103 

 0.439** 

 0.299** 

‐ 0.055 

 0.514* 

 0.665** 

 0.315** 

‐ 0.017 

 0.505* 

 0.670** 

 0.515** 

‐ 0.029 

 0.034 

 0.483** 

 0.380** 

              All (n=112)  Fmax/kg  Females (n=34)    Males (n=78) 

‐ 0.054 

 0.125 

‐ 0.151 

‐ 0.226 

 0.055 

‐ 0.016 

‐ 0.366* 

‐ 0.359* 

‐ 0.090 

‐ 0.056 

‐ 0.314* 

‐ 0.207* 

              All (n=112)  Pmax/kg  Females (n=34) 

‐ 0.16 

 0.432 

 0.14 

‐ 0.166 

‐ 0.145 

 0.128 

‐ 0.307* 

‐ 0.373* 

Males (n=78) 

‐ 0.178 

‐ 0.03 

‐ 0.205* 

‐ 0.162 

All (n=112) 

‐ 0.132 

‐ 0.036 

‐ 0.045 

‐ 0.004 

‐ 0.190 

 0.274 

‐ 0.161 

‐ 0.272 

‐ 0.087 

‐ 0.170 

 0.016 

 0.140 

              All (n=112)  Velocity   Females (n=34)  Males (n=78)                 All (n=112)  Fmax. Tot    Females (n=34)  (PJF)   

Males (n=78) 

              All (n=112)  Pmax. Tot   Females (n=34)  (PJP)   

Males (n=78) 

% EFI score  Females (n=34)  Males (n=78) 

** p < 0.01 correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2‐tailed)                                          * p < 0.05 correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2‐ tailed) 

Table 4 provides a comparison of anthropometric data and movement parameters of Greek (Dionyssiotis Y, Galanos A, Michas G, Trovas G, Lyritis GP. 2009) and Albanian females aged 20–29 years old. There are slight differences in anthropometric characteristics such as: body weight and BMI respectively 4.2 % and 3.4 % and no difference in average body weight. The findings show that except PJF, which has a significant difference 33.9 % lower in Albanian females, the other parameters in

Greek females were respectively: velocity (11.4) %; PJP (21 %); Pmax/kg (14.4 %) lower than in Albanian females. The reason of this difference is the same as is explained above in Table 2: higher body weight results in greater velocity and Pmax/kg, but the great difference in PJF 33.9% between them still remains unexplained. Table 4. A comparison of anthropometric data and movement parameters of Greek and Albanian females. Parameters Data 

Greek females 

Albanian females  

Difference (%) 

(n = 12) 

(n = 34) 

Age (years) 

20‐29

20‐29

0

Weight (kg) 

58 ± 9.0 

60.53 ±11.48 

4.2

Height (m) 

1.65 ± 0.07 

1.65 ± 0.057 

0

BMI (kg/m²) 

21.4 ± 3.41 

22.15 ± 4.15 

3.4

Velocity (m/s) 

2.1 ± 0.41 

2.37 ± 0.32 

11.4

Force max. tot  (kN) 

2.3 ± 0.19 

1.59 ± 0.28 

33.9

Power max.  tot (kW) 

2.1 ± 0.50 

2.66 ± 0.56 

21.0

Power max/kg  (W/kg) 

37.2 ± 8.8 

43.43 ± 6.37 

14.4

Table 5 shows a comparison of normative values of mean Pmax/kg and % EFI scores. % Pmax-relative was calculated relative to 100% for the group in their 20-s according to the standard values for Europeans (Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E. 2006; Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. 2004) and Japanese subjects (Tsubaki A, Kubo M, Kabayashi R, Jigami H, Takahashi HE. 2009). We calculated % EFI score, as a percentage EFI score relative to 100 % for the same age Europeans ((Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E. 2006; Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. 2004)) and Japanese (Tsubaki A, Kubo M, Kabayashi R, Jigami H, Takahashi HE. 2009), and then the values of our subjects are compared.


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Table 5. A comparison of normative values of Pmax/kg and % EFI scores among different population in males and females.

phy, which are used for assessing motor performance. These values can be Albanian’s Differenc Parameter  Age  Gender  Normative  considered goal values for values  subjects  e (%)  the improvement of motor function in healthy and Power max/kg    Female  43.30 ± 5.5  43.43 ± 6.37  1  physically active Albanian (W/kg)  20 ‐ 29  students. This study allows Male  59.2 ± 8.7  55.64 ± 5.4  6  us to compare the physical                   20 ‐29  Female  94.8 ± 12.1  94.40 ± 13.93  0.4  capabilities of different % EFI score  populations with normative Male  101.2 ±15.3  96.14 ± 10.02  5  values of Europeans, Japanese and Albanian subjects, for the same age groups as a The main findings are that Albanian females benchmark. This study is not based on have a very slight difference in Pmax/kg and population, so it is not representative of a % EFI scores, respectively 1% and 0.4 % lower general population, but rather of a group than European and Japanese females, while the randomly selected among the students of SUT. results in Albanian males are more accented In the future, we intend to extend the number for Pmax/kg and % EFI scores were respectively of subjects and the specter of age in 6 % and 5% lower than European and Japanese participants. This is a good opportunity to create males. This difference might be due to the our data, thus offering valuable scientific difference in body weight. research for the future in terms of physical Fricke and Schoenau reviewed the literature fitness. In this perspective, jumping mechanoand explained why anthropometric charactegraphy could be a useful device in providing ristics, mainly body height and body mass, are accurate data of students’ physical performaimportant factors which influence muscle nce. function (Fricke O, Schoenau E. 2005). Besides anthropometry, hormones also influence References muscle function (Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski Anliker E, Dick C, Rower R, Toigo M. 2012; B, Schoenau E. 2006; Philips SK, Bruce SA, Effects of jumping exercise on max. GRF and Woledge RC, et al. 1992). Anthropometric bone in 8-to 12-year-old boys and girls: a 9characteristics, mainly body weight and body month randomized controlled trial. J mass, are important factors which influence the Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 12 (2): 56recording of muscle function. Thus, we need 67 to evaluate power in relation to body size parameters (Fricke O, Schoenau E. 2005). Cavagna GA: 1975; Force platforms as Runge and colleagues showed a very good ergometers. J Appl Physiol; 39: 174-9 correlation between maximum power output Dionyssiotis Y, Galanos A, Michas G, Trovas G, per body weight and age for both genders Lyritis GP. 2009; Assessment of separately in a healthy sportive reference musculoskeletal system in women’s Health; 1: collective (Dionyssiotis Y, Galanos A, Michas 113-118 G, Trovas G, Lyritis GP. 2009). Fricke O, Schoenau E. Examining the Conclusions: developing skeletal muscle: 2005; Why, what The key task of Leonardo Mechanograpy is to and how? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; provide a simple, easy and reliable method to 5:225-231 quantify the main parameters of human Fricke O, Weidler J, Tutlewski B, Schoenau E. movement. The jump tests give information 2006; Mechanography – a new device for the about the capacity of a subject’s motor assessment of muscle function in pediatrics. performance. This study presents reference Pediatr Res; 59: 46-9 values of PJF, PJP, Fmax/kg, Pmax/kg and % EFI scores measured by jumping mechanogra-


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

Philips SK, Bruce SA, Woledge RC, et al. 1992; Force and cross sectional area of adductor pollicis muscle in post menopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy. J Physiol; 446: 364-367 Rauch F, Schoenau E. 2001; The developing bone: slave or master of it cells and molecules? Pediatr Res; 50: 309-14 Rauch R, Veilleux F, Rauch D, Bock D, et al. 2012; Muscle force and power in obese and overweight children. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 12 (2): 80 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 83 Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D, Runge M. 2004; Reproducibility of the jumping mechanography as a test of mechanical power output in physically competent adult and elderly subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc; 52: 128-131 Robling AG. 2009; Is boneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s response to mechanical signals dominated by muscle forces? Med Sci Sports Exerc; 41: 2044-9 Runge M and Hunter G. 2006; Determinants of musculoskeletal frailty and the risk of falls in old age. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 6(2): 167-173 Runge M, Rittweger J, Russo CR, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D. 2004; Is muscle output a key factor in the age-related decline in physical

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performance? A comparison of muscle cross section, chair-rising test and jumping power. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging; 24: 335-40 Runge M, Schacht E. 2005; Multifactorial pathogenesis of falls as a basic for multifactorial interventions. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 5: 127-134 Schoenau E, Neu CM, Mokov E, Wassmer G, Manz F. 2000; Inducence of puberty on muscle area and cortical bone area of the forearm in boys and girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85; 1095-1098 Tsubaki A, Kubo M, Kabayashi R, Jigami H, Takahashi HE. 2009; Normative values for maximum power during motor function assessment of jumping among physically active Japanese. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 9(4): 263-267 Veilleux LN, Rauch F. 2010; Reproducibility of jumping mechanography in healthy children and adults. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 10: 256-66 Ward KA, Das G, Bery JL, Roberts SA, Rawer R, Adams JE, Mughal Z. 2009; Vitamin D status and muscle function in post-menarchal adolescent girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 94: 559-63


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Analysis of the situation in some indicators based game positions Kryeziu. A1, Asllani. I1 Rexhepi. J1 and Qorraj. A2 1 2

Faculty of Physical Education, State University of Tetove, FRYOM Lower Secondary School “Zenel Hajdini” Pristina - R. Kosovo

Correspondence: A. R. Kryeziu, Faculty of Physical Education, State University of Tetove, FRYOM, Email:artankryeziu88@hotmail.com Abstract: The main objective of this study is the analysis of some indicators of the situation on the basis of the positions of the party. In this article, we take the experience of 14 basketball Albanian national basketball, according to the positions of the game as the organizers of the game (3), shooting guard (3), small forward (2) power forward (2) and centers (4), taking into account the 13 indicators of the state of the game, six variables are respectively the situation of efficacy (three efficacy for success and failure), an indicator of passes, two indicators of dance (in defense and attack), a measure to block the ball, fly balls, lost balls and personal error for each player separately. Indicators descriptive statistics were calculated according to the organizers of the games have shown that during the game knows how to organize the game, so managed to grab two points. Shooting guard as seen in the successful two-and three-point shot have thrived, they also managed to catch(fly) balls of the opponent. Small forward are distinguished for the successful hunt for three points. Power forward long shown that they can play well in the external positions respectively about 6.75 cm line, especially in a free shot, two and three successful points. Also jumped to the defense during the game, while blocking opponents have reached important than other values. Centers according to their position have been proven in the shot for two points. According to univariant analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the situation tested between the Albanian representative groups. Only three position indicators have a significant contribution. Location kick indicator is unsuccessful significant changes in the probability level of 0,008. Two point shot managed to have a statistically significant difference in the level of 0,003, while opponents blocking achieved statistically significant changes from 0,000. Keywords: Analysis of positions, the indicators of the situation, the game cart, the differences Introduction: During the development of basketball there are five main positions of players: 1 - organizers of the game(PG), 2 - shooting guard(SG), 3 small forward(SF), 4 - power forward(CF) and 5 - center(C). The organizer of the game is very important for assists, this element is the main organizer of the players. Organizer of the game, the player must necessarily be the type to get a good view of the action during the game or during an attack by the player with his

teammates (Trninic, S. & Dizdar, D. 2000; Trninic, S. & Dezman, B. 2005). Shooting guard is the main actor realizes the distances to two and three points (Bajgoric, B., Bonacci, D. & Firic, G. 2008). Must be able to score in different ways, especially at the end of a tight match and the result, when the defense of the opposing team is strong (Perica, A., Trniniæ S. & Jelaska I. 2011). Small forward player are those who know the shot from a distance of two and three points, seep (Sindik, J. & Nazor,


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

D. 2011). As such accurate shooting is a common responsibility for the position players. This type of player must interact with teammates and opponents play defense against because these players must necessarily play very active facets that takes place in the line 6.75 inches (Trninic, S. & Dizdar, D. 2000). Power forward basketball player to be big and strong in the game under the basket. These players are the ones who control the defense team in all positions of the game (Trninic, S. & Dizdar, D. 2000). Centre for the game is the player who knows how to use his height to score points and also to prevent the opponent from scoring close distances cart (Perica, A., Trninic, S. & Jelaska, I. 2011). Study is made based on the monitoring, identification, collection, analysis, presentation and comparison of differences in positions between the indicators of the situation of the game and the level of technical and tactical (Milo, B., Kavaja, G. & Kuvarati, S. 2002). The main objective of this study is the analysis of some indicators of the situation on the basis of the positions of the party. Are also to descriptive statistical analysis and differences between the organizers of the game, shooting guard, small forward, power forward and centers based on indicators of the state of play basketball. Research methodology: Model (samples) of entities This study is included in an experimental analysis of the positions of players based on several indicators of the state of play basketball. For the study we have taken 14 of the Albanian national basketball which has participated in our Representative, respectively game of Eurobasket 2012. For the method of data collection is applied extraction of data from web www.eurobasket.com made public in which all the teams results, national basketball in Europe, by modifying the data is organized specifically for this work, with precisely extracting information relevant and appreciated our paper.

Figure. 1 Statistics and records of players No.

Name and Suname

4

Enli Llazani

186 cm

G

89

Kamza Basket

5

Redi Vogli

190 cm

SG

87

SK Tirana

6

Marsel Alija

196 cm

F

88

Teuta Durres

7

Algert Gjonaj

198 cm

SF

87

Kamza Basket

8

Bruon Daliu

206 cm

C

85

SK Tirana

10

Erkan Karaj

188 cm

PG

82

SK Tirana

11

Genti Lasku

183 cm

G

85

SK Tirana

12

Ersid Luca

212 cm

C

81

Sigal Prishtina

13

Klaudio Ndoja

198 cm

CG

85

Enel Brindisi

14

Endrit Hysenagolli

204 cm

C

88

SK Tirana

15

Gerti Shima

202 cm

CF

86

Capljina

31

Afrim Bilali

195 cm

G

79

Kamza Basket

Herion Faslija

205 cm

C

89

Kamza Basket

Marlin Sukaj

202 cm

F

83

U.A.T

Roland Avrami

Body height

Player Position

Age

Name of team

Head Coach

Description of variables: In the sample of variables determining the situation, we opted for the 13 indicators of the state of play, including six variables are effectively the situation (three effective for the success and failure), an indicator to help two jumping events (in defense and attack), a pointer to block the ball, fly balls lost balls and personal errors for each player separately. Situational efficiency indicators: Successful cheap shot (SCS) - the number of points scored in the cage during free-throw line. Unsuccessful shot free (USF) - number of unsuccessful point during the free-throw line. Two point shot for the successful (TPSFSU2) the number of points scored in playpen within the area bounded by 6.75 meters. Two point shot for the unsuccessful (TPSHUN2) - number of unsuccessful point


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

within the area bounded on the line of 6.75 meters. Three point shot for the successful (TPSHFSU3) - the number of points scored in playpen outside line bordering 6.75 meters. Three point shot to unsuccessful (TPSHUN3) number of unsuccessful point outside the line bordering 6.75 meters. Indicators of aid during the game: Jumping in attack (JA) - capture the ball in the basket or transition table in the attack. Jumping in protection (JP) - catch the ball in the basket or transition table in defense. Assists (AS) - the number of guns acquired during development of the game when the player is successful in throwing the basket. Blocking the ball during the shot (BD) - number of stop shooting and successful implementation during the transition phase to phase protection. Stealing balls (SB) - balls get kidnapped - phase defense during a game of basketball moment. Lost balls (LB) - balls which is lost in the attack phase, as the result of inaccurate passing over a certain action in the game. Personal error (PE) - the number of personal errors which players take on the opponent during the game. Statistical Analysis: The data collected are official statistics for each game separately, so the data recording is performed by personnel Officials specially trained for this work in computer programs for keeping statistics in basketball game (Trniniæ, S., Viskiæ-Štalec, N., Stalec, J., Dizdar, D., & Birkiæ, Z. 1995). Data were analyzed with SPSS package statistic program under Windows 16 version where through basic statistical analysis of the results has been distributed to each variable separately with statistical method, arithmetic average (Mean) and standard deviation (Std. Dev.). As for the differences between the positions of the players listed is applied method of analysis uni-variant variance (ANOVA). While other computer program, Microsoft Office Excel 2007 is used to display the diagrams (graphs). Results and Interpretations: In the table. 1 descriptive statistics and indicators on the situation of representatives of the elite

players in Eurobasket 2012. For each position are housed separately statistical analysis indicators basketball game. Given the arithmetic mean (Mean) and standard deviation (SD). The organizers of the game show that while playing the game know how to organize, also turned in baskets especially for two successful shot points. Shooting guard as seen from the basic statistical parameters shows that the shot of two and three successful 3.6±7.40, compared to two points unsuccessful plan for 10 ± 20. Always on the set of two successful points 7.3 ± 14.7, against 15.3 ± 30.7 point failure nevertheless managed to take (steal) balls opponent of 2.13 ± 4.27. Small forward be distinguished for shooting three short points for the success of 1 ± 1. Players under the basket (trapezoid) indicators that were presented showed that significant value for other positions in the party. Power forward long shown that they can play well in the external positions respectively about 6.75 cm line, especially in a free shot, two and three successful points. Also in defense jumped an average of 1.1 ± 2.30 game while blocking opponents have reached the high value that the other 1.30 ± 0 to match. Centers according to their position showed that the shooting for two successful development value of 9.5 ± 5.01 to play. If we compare the values calculated mean values and standard deviations in other studies, we find that our lower than other studies values’m. (Trninic, S. Viskic - Štalec , N. Stalec, J., Dizdar, D. & Birkiæ, Z. 1995; Dedek, D., 1999; Separovic, V. & Nuhanovics, A. 2008; Court , J., Jukiæ , I. & Adzija, M. 2012). Analysis Between Groups Game Position: Registered in the results table. 2 have to do with differences indicated by uni-variant analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the indicators of the situation between Albanian representative tested groups. Only three indicators of the state have a significant contribution to a probability level of .05. If you look at the significant differences for each indicator separately, the indicator of the situation shows that kick is successful significant difference in the odds ratio of 0,008. Two point shot managed to have statistically significant differences in the levels of 0,003, while (blockage) of opponents conducted a statistically significant difference of 0,000.


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

Table no. 1 Basic parameters statistical indicators of the situation

Table no. 2 ANOVAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s indicators for indicators of the situation between the positions of elite players

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Figure. 2 Structure of positions as potential players in the game based on the Albanian National

Discussion and conclusion: Objective of this study is the analysis of some indicators of the situation and look for differences based on indicators of the situation in the game of basketball. Taking into account, in this paper we take the experience of the 14 players Albanian national basketball positions of the game are the organizers of the game (3), shooting guard (3), small forward (2) power forward (2) and centers (4) receiving 13 parameters depending on the game situation, namely six variables are the efficiency of the situation (efficiency of three equally successful or not), an indicator to help two tests dance(in defense and attack), an indicator of coverage

(blocking) of the ball, fly balls, lost balls and personal errors. Based on this study, we arrive at the following conclusions: Indicators descriptive statistics are calculated statistical arithmetic method (Mean) and standard deviation (SD). The organizers of the game show that during the game knows how to organize the game, so shoot the basket, especially in the colon successful shot. Shooting guard in the game for two and three points were also able to catch (stole) balls of the opponent. Small forward distinguished for short three point shot to succeed. Power forward long shown that they can play well in the external positions respectively about 6.75


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

cm line, especially in a free shot, two and three successful points. Also jumped to the defense during the game, while the cover (block) the ball has reached separate opponents noted that the values of others. Centers according to their position has been shown to run two very successful points. According to uni-variant analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the indicator of the situation between the test groups of Albanian com representative. Only three position indicators have a significant contribution. Indicator of the free movement of unsuccessful shot situations has significant difference in the odds ratio of 0.008. Two point shot managed to have statistically significant differences in the levels of 0.003, while coverage (blocking) of opponents conducted a statistically significant difference of 0.000. References: Bajgoriæ, B., Bonacin, D. & Firiæ, G.(2008). Selection oriented towards the functional roles of the individual players in basketball. Sport Science, Bosnja and Hercogovina, 1(2);102-106. Dedek, D.(1999). Analysis of game effectiveness of teams in first half of the season in Kolinska League, season 1998/99 - degree report, College for Sport, Ljubljana. Milo, B., Kavaja, G. & Kuvarati, S.(2002). Niveli i tregueseve tekniko-taktik të ekipit kombëtar të basketbollit - femera (Në kupën e promocionit Malte - La Valeta). Studime Sportive, Tiranë. 1, 48-77. Perica, A., Trniniæ, S. & Jelaska, I.(2011). Introduction into the game states analysis system in basketball. Journal of Sport Sciences & Physical Eduacation, Florida, 65 (2);51-77. Šeparoviæ, V., & Nuhanoviæ, A. (2008). Latent structure of standard indicators of situational effectiveness in basketball in Bosnian league 6. Sport Scientific and Practical Aspects, 5 (1/2), 1318. Sindik, J. & Nazor, D. (2011) Differences in Conative Characteristics and Perceived Group Cohesion of the Basketball Players Playing in Different Positions in the Team. Collegium Antropologicum, Zagreb. 35 (3); 895-904. Trniniæ, S., Viskiæ-Štalec, N., Stalec, J., Dizdar, D., & Birkiæ, Z. (1995). Latent structure of

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standard indicators of situational effectiveness in the game of basketball. Kinetics, 27 (1): 2737. Trniniè, S. & Dizdar, D.(2000). System of the Performance Evaluation Criteria Weighted per Positions in the Basketball Game. Collegium Antropologcium, Zagreb. 24 (1); 217-234. Trninic, S. & Dezman, B.(2005). Differences in playing efficiency structure of three types of basketball players in defence. Science and profession challenge for the future 4th International Scientific Conference, Kinesiology; 522-525.


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The effect of physical activity on body fat mass in male pupils aged 15-16 Adili. D1 and Lile. A2 1 2

High School “Drita” Kërçovë, Republic of Macedonia, dritana@yahoo.com Sports University of Tirana, Albania , alile@ust.edu.al

Abstract The aim of this study is to identify the effect of physical activity on body fat mass in male pupils aged 15-16. This is a longitudinal study which has supervised the subjects under study, pupils at “Drita” High School Kercove, in the Republic of Macedonia, along a 9-month period. The sample of this study includes 165 (n=165) randomly selected male pupils, who were divided into two groups (k=2); the control group n1=84 and the experimental group n2=81. The pupils under the control group have been trained following a 2-hour physical activity per week program which included sports disciplines such as; football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics and gymnastics. While pupils of the experimental group beside the 2-hour curricula program in the abovementioned disciplines have been trained for another extra-curricular physical activity hour that they attended every weekend, and the sports they engaged in were the following competitive sports; football, basketball and volleyball. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistics 20. Results pointed out a higher reduction rate (p<0.05) of body fat mass after the training 6 months period and a non statistical significant difference of the experimental group compared to control group. Findings of this study can be very useful for the improvement of physical activity program in high schools. Key words: Physical Activity, body fat mass, physical education classes, sports games.

Introduction The aim of this study is to identify the effect of physical activity on body fat mass in male pupils aged 15-16. Obese children who tend to remain obese in adulthood have a higher cardiovascular risk as mentioned in (Dietz, 1998). Lifestyle education is considered a key element in obesity therapy and the treatment of obese children should aim at decreasing fat mass and avoiding loss of lean mass, ensuring adequate growth and development, and preventing cyclic weight regain. In fact, exercise or increasing physical activity is one of the best strategies of obesity prevention ( Epstein 1999, Dao 2004). The aim of this study is to identify the effect of physical activity on body fat mass in male pupils aged 15-16.

A systematic review (Janssen et al., 2005) of a cross-sectional survey of 137 593 youth (10-16 years) from the 34 (primarily European) participating countries results outlined that increasing physical activity should be the focus of strategies aimed at preventing and treating overweight and obesity in children. Exercise can increase energy expenditure ( Epstein 1999, Dao 2004) and can affect total fat oxidation and fat balance through the promotion of loss of fat mass and maintenance of lean mass. Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity discussed in various research papers (Khan & Weiler & Blair 2011, Anrig,2003 ; Ball & McCargar, 2003; Hanner & Kraemer & Wilson & Ritter & Dornbush, 1991; Hancox & Milne & Poulton, 2004; James


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

& Cavan & Kerr, 2004; Leonard & Schults & Tershakovee & Zemek, 2004, Moore et al., 2003; Choudhuri & Kulkarni 2003, Cale L & Harris, 2006) outlined this major issues: - Becoming active is a key factor for weight reduction, but may not be very easy - Helping overweight or obese children loose weight has been shown to be effective when there is a team approach - Restricting or controlling the food that they take in is also important. Parents are responsible for planning meals and snacks, preparing food and providing a supportive atmosphere and maintaining limits on grazing between meals and snacks. - Children love variety, so Physical Activity teachers need to be creative and incorporate into variety physical activities. - Obese children and teenagers have a greater chance of becoming overweight adults - Public policy and community partnerships that include education and health professionals have a responsibility in the prevention of childhood obesity - Educators should determine the most effective and cost- effective methods of increasing and sustaining different types of physical activity among specific groups of children. Grouping them by age, culture or disability should be considered. - Educators should determine to what extent different types of physical activity displace others and the factors leading to sedentary behaviour over time - Participation in physical activity is important for their healthy growth and development and can reduce the risk of chronic conditions improve their health and wellbeing. - Educators should plan initiatives that aim to ensure the health and wellbeing of children at school. Materials and Methods This was a longitudinal study which has supervised pupils at “Drita” High School Kercove, in the Republic of Macedonia, along a 9-month period.

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Sample The sample of this study includes · 165 randomly selected male pupils · control group ( 84 ) · experimental group ( 81 ) The pupils under the control group have been trained following a 2-hour physical activity per week program which included sports disciplines such as; football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics and gymnastics. While the pupils of the experimental group beside the 2-hour curricula program have been trained for another extra-curricular physical activity hour that they attended every weekend, and the sports they engaged in were the following competitive sports; football, basketball and volleyball . Measurement of body fat in children was conducted in four sites: Triceps, Biceps, Subscapula and Abdomenal sites. Instrument Triceps, Biceps, Sub scapular, Abdominal skinfold test was used to evaluate body fat percentage. Skinfold thicknesses were measured at the biceps, triceps, sub scapular and abdominal points on the left side of the body using a skinfolds caliper according to the procedures described in the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Descriptive Statistics was used to summarize and descriptively represent data. Normality of data distributions where checked using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine if there was a statistical significant effect between pre and post measurements. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied to evaluate body fat changes after the 9 month period and to statistically evaluate differences between experimental and control groups. Results The results of Triceps, Biceps, Sub scapula, Abdominal skin fold test used to evaluate body fat revealed that the 9 month training period was accompanied by a slight reduction in body fat mass. The changes in body fat variables over time and between groups are shown in table 1


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JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1 Table 1: Descriptive statistics for Triceps, Biceps, Subscapula, Abdomenal dependent variables group

Triceps

Triceps

Biceps

Biceps

Post N

Post

Subscap Post

81

81

81

81

81

81

10.95

10.19

6.14

5.94

12.70

10.91

10.78

10.11

.686

.686

.446

.381

1.084

.986

.645

.629

Std. Deviation

6.176

6.173

4.015

3.433

9.756

8.870

7.000

5.657

Kurtosis

1.399

1.641

3.004

2.059

.171

-.310

3.768

3.526

.529

.529

.529

.529

.529

.529

.529

.529

1.426

1.439

1.865

1.641

1.126

.947

1.977

1.868

.267

.267

.267

.267

.267

.267

.267

.267

86

86

86

86

86

86

86

86

11.64

11.13

6.64

6.36

13.90

11.29

10.89

10.20

.682

.668

.451

.462

1.001

.991

.983

.731

Std. Deviation

6.321

6.198

4.187

4.288

9.279

9.188

6.130

6.782

Kurtosis

2.534

4.695

2.778

8.801

.429

1.215

3.003

11.959

.514

.514

.514

.514

.514

.514

.514

.514

1.559

1.923

1.765

2.654

1.184

1.248

1.793

2.883

.260

.260

.260

.260

.260

.260

.260

.260

Std. Error of Kurtosis Skewness Std. Error of Skewness N Mean

control

Subscap

81

Std. Error of Mean

ntal

Post

Abdom

81

Mean

experime

Abdom

Std. Error of Mean

Std. Error of Kurtosis Skewness Std. Error of Skewness

Graph 1. Differences on body fat (experimental/control/both groups)

and graph 1. Percentage of body fat of control group changed from (8.04±2.26%) in pretraining measurements to (7.82 ±2.08%) in post-training measurements. Percent of body fat of the experimental group changed from (7.71±2.46%) in pre-training measurements to (7.46±2.08%) in post-training measurements.

Percent of body fat of both groups changed from (7.88±2.36%) in pre-training measurements to (7.64 ±2.09%) in posttraining measurements. As data distribution accomplished the requirement of normality (checked using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality. Repeated Measure ANOVA was


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Table 2 : Descriptive statistics for body fat using Skinfold test results Descriptive Statistics Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error of Mean experimental

Kurtosis Std. Error of Kurtosis

7.71

7.46

81

81

2.46

2.08

.27

.23

1.272

1.122

.529

.529 1.336

Std. Error of Skewness

.267

.267

Mean

8.04

7.82

N Std. Deviation Std. Error of Mean Kurtosis Std. Error of Kurtosis

86

86

2.26

2.08

.24

.22

1.487

85.890

.514

.514

1.412

9.265

Std. Error of Skewness

.260

.260

Mean

7.88

7.64

Skewness

Total

bodyfatPost

1.423

Skewness

control

bodyfatPre

N

167

167

Std. Deviation

2.36

2.09

.18

.16

Std. Error of Mean

rate of body fat mass of the experimental group comparing to control group 3) Repeated Measure ANOVA corrected with Greenhouse-Geisser results pointed out a significant body fat change after the 9 month period F(1,164) = 5.519. p = 0.020). 4) Repeated Measure ANOVA results showed a non significant body fat change between groups (F(1,164) = 0.039. p = 0.844). Discussion The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Physical Activity on body fat among school children. The pupils under the control group have been trained following a 2-hour physical activity per week program which included sports disciplines such as; football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics and gymnastics. While pupils of the experimental group beside the 2-hour curricula

Graph 2. Triceps, Biceps, Subscapula, Abdomenal mean differences between groups

used to evaluate time and group interaction. Results of this study outlined the following key points: 1) Results pointed out a reduction of body fat mass after the 9 month period 2) Results pointed out a higher reduction

program in the abovementioned disciplines have been trained for another extra-curricular physical activity hour that they attended every weekend, and the sports they engaged in were the following competitive sports; football, basketball and volleyball. The present study


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showed that male children 15–16 year olds who participated in the Physical Activity extracurricular program over a 9-month period showed more favorable changes in body fat than children who did not participate in the extra-curricular program. Furthermore, the repeated measure ANOVA (see Table 2) results showed a statistically significant change on body fat after the 9–month training period and a non statistically significant change on body fat between groups, although the magnitude of changes in body fat variables was higher in experimental than in control groups. Change in body fat percentage (see Table 2) showed a significant time interaction of decreased body fat percentage of 7.82 ±2.08% of pre training measurement vs. 7.64 ±2.09% of post training (after 9-months) measurement (P<0.05). Change in body fat percentage (see Table 2) showed a non significant group×time

interaction of decreased body fat percentage of 0.25% of the experimental (3-hour per week) group vs. 0.22% of the control (3-hour per week) group (P>0.05). Conlusion Findings of this study can be very useful for the improvement of physical activity program in high schools. This study can be extended using a larger sample and measuring more relevant variables. In order to produce more accurate results we should include other factors that can affect and explain changes in body fat. Future research should be conducted with improved study design, appropriate sample sizes and should include long-term follow-up of participants. Future studies should identify and control any potential mediating variables in order to identify causal pathways leading to a change in physical activity and health outcomes.

Table 2 : Repeated Measure ANOVA using training and training * group as factors

Source

time

Type III

df

Mean

Sum of

F

Sig.

Square

Squares training

Linear

4.616

1

4.616

5.519

.020

training * group

Linear

.032

1

.032

.039

.844

References Anrig, C.. (2003). The obese child. Dynamic Chiropractic. 21: 27-31. Ball, G.D.C., & McCargar, L.J.(2003). Childhood obesity in Canada: A Review of prevalence estimates and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Canadian Journal of Applied of Physiology, 28: 117-140. Cale L, Harris J. (2006). Interventions to promote young people’s physical activity: Issues, implications and recommendations for practice. Health Education Journal 65: 320–337. Choudhuri D, Choudhuri S, Kulkarni VA., (2003). Physical fitness: a comparative study between students of residential (Sainik) and non-residential schools (aged 12–14 years). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 46: 328– 332.

Dao H. (2004). Effects of a multidisciplinary weight loss intervention on body composition in obese adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 28, 290–299. Dietz W. (1998). Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics, 101(3),518–543. Epstein L. (1999).Physical activity in the treatment of childhood overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31, 553–562. I. Janssen, P. T. Katzmarzyk, W. F. Boyce, C. Vereecken, C. Mulvihill, C. Roberts, et al. (2005). Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

for the Study of Obesity, 6(2):123â&#x20AC;&#x201C;132, May 2005. James, J. Thomas, P., Cavan, D., & Kerr, D.,(2004). Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: Cluster of randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pediatrics, 328:1237-1242. Khan KM, Weiler R, Blair SN, (2011), Prescribing exercise in primary care. British Medical Journal,343 Hanner, L.D., Kraemer, H.C., Wilson, D.M., Ritter, P.L. & Dornbush, S.M.(1991).Standardized percentile curves of body-mass index for children and adolescents. American Journal of Disease of Child,145, 259263.

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Hancox, R.J., Milne, B.J., Poulton, R. (2004). Associations between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Lancet, 9430, 257-262. Leonard, M.B., Schults, L. Wilson, B.A., Tershakovee, A.M, Zemek, B.S, (2004).Obesity during childhood and adolescence augments bone mass and bone dimensions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 514-523. Moore LL, Gao D, Bradlee ML, Cupples LA, Sundarajan-Ramamurti A, Proctor MH et al. (2003). Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood?, Prev Med ;37: 10â&#x20AC;&#x201C;17.


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Comperative review about the morfology and funcition of the athlete’s heart Kajo. E 1, Vorpsi. N2 and Mijo. A3 1.Head of Department of Physiopathology, Medical University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 2.Student, Faculty of General Medicine, Medical University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania 3.Department of Cardiology, “Mother Theresa” Hospital Universitary Center, Tirana, Albania

Abstract For more than 100 years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of intense athletic conditioning on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this review is to display the importance of changes that happen in the heart chambers and function. The advent of echocardiography many years ago provided a noninvasive and quantitative assessment of cardiac remodeling associated with systematic training. Methods and results: Cardiac dimensional alterations associated with athletic training have been defined in a number of cross-sectional echocardiographic studies including also other examinations like ECG, stress test, Holter ECG monitoring, MRI, usually performed in highly trained individuals. In this case Echocardiography is the most appropriate method which we are using to study heart morphological changes. Dilatation and hypertrophy are present, involving both the left and right sides of the heart, and these changes should be physiologically adapted, or on the contrary they are potentially pathological. The overall mean relative left ventricular thickness of control subjects is significantly smaller than that of trained individuals. There is an important difference between the athlete’s group and the control group related to left ventricular internal diameter, posterior wall thickness and interventricular septum thickness. Because of the potentially adverse consequences of underlying cardiovascular disease in young athletes, considerable attention has been focused on clinically distinguishing physiologically based athlete’s heart from a variety of structural heart diseases. This differential diagnosis has critical implications for dedicated athletes because cardiovascular disease may represent the basis for disqualification from competitive sports to reduce the risk of sudden death. The results of our study and research regarding athlete’s heart show the proof of cardiac adaptations in sports. The main purpose of this study is the prevention of important heart morphological changes which are the source of abnormal systolic and diastolic functions that can lead to rhythm disorders and at the end sudden death. Key words: Echocardiography, Hypertrophy, Remodeling, Exercise, Cardiomyopathy

Introduction Young competitive athletes are widely regarded as a special group of healthy individuals with a unique lifestyle who are seemingly invulnerable and often capable of extraordinary physical achievement. For more than 100 years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of intense athletic conditioning on the cardiovascular system. The

advent of echocardiography more than 30 years ago provided a noninvasive quantitative assessment of cardiac remodeling associated with systematic training and also Stress Test is an important equipmet which shows changes in the electrical cardiac function, and consequently, a vast body of literature has been assembled that is focused on the constellation of alterations known as “athlete’s heart.


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The classic distinguishing feature of athlete’s heart is left ventricular remodeling, with increased wall thickness and chamber size but preserved, and even improved, systolic and diastolic function 1, 2. However, morphological and functional changes in other cardiac and vascular structures have been observed in athletes in an increasing number of studies. Athlete’s heart syndrome 3 Athletic heart syndrome (AHS) known as athlete’s heart, athletic bradycardia or exerciseinduced cardiomegaly and cardiac hypertrophy is a non-pathological condition commonly seen in sports medicine, in which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal. Objectives The main objectives of this study are: to assess variations in cardiac adaptation in individuals who are young professional players and exercise 4-6 hours per day, in order to determine the changes that occur in the echocardiographic parameters; to determine whether there is a relationship between the magnitude of changes induced in particular cardiac structures and those in other structures; to have a view of the heart electrophysiology, rhythm or conduction changes; to assess whether the adaptive pattern has similar characteristics in all athletes irrespective of the kind of sport, and age; to exclude possible coronary arteries problems; to have an assessment about blood pressure situation and to exclude possible hipertension problems. Study and Methods Our study consists on group of 50 young professional players from 15 – 19 years old divided in three different sports: Basketball, Football, Volleyball. The study has been performed at “Klinika Kajo” which sponsored the examination project. It has been taken in consideration the Cardiac study protocol to study Cardiac dimensional alterations associated with athletic training which includes three kind of examinations which are: crosssectional Echocardiography-Vivid I Cardiovascular Ultrasound System, General Electric, performed by three assessments: twodimensional, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography, Electrocardiogram and

Treadmill stress test. Echocardiography: This examination is used to show the heart chamber morfology and function by emphasizing these elements: LV wall thickness, LV mass (calculated using the Devereux formula), LVEDD, Left atrial (LA) diameter, Aortic root diameter, LA area, Right ventricular(RV)diameter, E/A ratio, ejection fraction % (EF). Electrocardiograme: This examination is used to measure the heart’s electrical conduction system. It picks up electrical impulses generated by the polarization and depolarization of cardiac tissue and translates into a waveform. The elements taken in consideration in this study are: Sinus bradyarythmia, Atrioventricular conduction, Ventricular size, Ventricular contractions, ST interval, T- wave. Treadmill stress test: Cardiac stress tests is an indirect examination to compare the coronary circulation while the patient is at rest with the same patient’s circulation observed during maximum physical exertion, showing any abnormal blood flow to the heart’s muscle tissue (the myocardium). The results can be interpreted as a reflection on the general physical condition of the test patient. It is used also to give us an information about the heart rhythm and conduction system, to prevent different types of arthymias and conduction problems. During stress test we also assess every 10 minutes blood pressure to have a full view about blood flow situation during the three phases of the stress test which are: Rest phase, Effort phase and Recovery phase. The protocol used in stress test is BRUCE Protocol 6. Results and discussions Anthropometric data, Table 1 Minimum Maximum

Mean

St. Deviation

Weight

61

97

71.64

9.74

Height

170

192

181.1

6.83

Body

1.71

2.25

1.912

0.57

9

6.27

1.11

Surface Years of 4 exercising


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Changes in Echocardiografic parameters,Table 2

Mean

St.

Min. Max

Deviation Septal

10.97

1.24

9

14

9.99

0.96

8.5

12.8

thickness Posterior wall LVEDD

51.74

3.62

46

63

LVESD

33.64

2.906

29

39

Ejection

64.5

4.71

57

74

5.48

19

40

3.44

27

43

3.72

11.7

24

Fraction Right 31.94 ventricular diameter Left atrial 33.27

area Aortic

2.73

25

p Disipline vs. LVEDD

0.05

Disipline vs. LVESD

0.009

Disipline vs. Weight

0.01

Disipline vs. Height

0.001

36

Statistical significance of correlations between changes in the parameters assessed, Table 4

7 30.14

Differences in changes in parameters between athletes of different disciplines, Table 3

In table 3 are shown the significant differences of echocardiografic and anthropomentric parameters which are related to the three disciplines 7 . This means that different disciplines have a significant effect in these parameters and the most specific are LVESD and Height related to discipline.

diameter Left atrial 16.06

in a player of basketball. Differences in this parameter, comparing the control group and the grup of these young athletes is significant. The fact is that there were changes in LVEDD that talk about dilatacion observed on resting echocardiography. LV mass, which is derived from wall thickness and LVEDD, also is increased.

Root LV mass

207.7

46.2

125

341

E wave

0.89

0.13

0.68

1.1

A wave

0.49

0.11

0.35

0.81

Septal thickness vs. LA

0.039

E/A ratio

1.89

0.34

1.32

2.55

Septal thickness vs. LA area

0.028

Septal thickness vs. Aortic Root

0.003

Septal thickness vs. Posterior wall

0.009

Septal thickness vs. LV mass

0.0001

E/A ratio vs. LA

0.05

LVEDD vs. Aortic Root

0.002

LV mass vs. Aortic Root

0.005

The responses of individual athletes to systematic conditioning are not uniform. Training induces in 80% of trained athletes some evidence of cardiac remodeling 10, which consists of alterations in ventricular chamber dimensions, including increased left and right ventricular and left atrial cavity size (and volume), associated with normal systolic and diastolic function. For example, marked enlargement of the LV chamber (eâ&#x20AC;?55 mm) occurs in Hâ&#x20AC;?30% of highly trained athletes 8. Significant LV wall thickening was observed during Echocardiografic examination. 50 % of athletes had a septal thickness of >11 mm, and 10% of >13 mm, with a maximum of 14 mm

p

In healthy junior young non-athletes a left atrial diameter of 30 mm, as assessed by echocardiography in parasternal long-axis view, is considered normal, but observational studies in highly trained elite athletes suggest higher values, more than 35 mm. The main factor determining the magnitude of the


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increase in atrial size is LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD). It has also been suggested that participation in competitive sports induces aortic root dilatation due to the forces generated by chronic elevation of LV ejection volume and the slight increase in blood pressure that occurs during exercise. At the same time, there was a close correlation between increases in E/A ratio and LA diameter, which suggests that the larger the LA, the greater the quantity of blood stored during ventricular systole, lengthening the E wave in the early diastolic phase of rapid LV ûlling. Since most ventricular ûlling occurs during this phase, the effect of greater atrial volume on the A wave is not as marked as on the E wave, resulting in a higher E/A ratio 4, 5. In addition, as stated above, atrial contraction in trained athletes contributes less to ventricular ûlling than in sedentary controls, due to the former’s lower heart rate and hence longer diastole. With regard to sport type differences, Basketball players had greater LV wall thickness. Age did not affect the patterns of additional adaptation, on this observation. Thus, LV wall hypertrophy is the most important feature of additional adaptive changes 9. The young athlete’s heart is characterized by specific, progressive adaptations to regular sport activity and training. In these sports LV hypertophy cannot be fully classified as concentric or eccentric, but represent a mixture of both types.

studies are considered normal in the athlete’s heart. As we can see on the ECG there are also some changes like Incompletet right bundle branch block, isolated QS on AVL, that should be followed up by the stress test, to have a confirmation that, there is no possible coronary problem. Stress Test Results 100% of the athletes completed the stress test succesfully. Their effort ability was excellent and they achieved more than 5 steps, over 13 Met that means that the test is considered complete. It was noticed that 2 % of the athletes had the response for tendency of hipertension. Coronary abnormalities and arythmia were excluded. Normal electrophysiological changes during stress test for athletes, Table 6

Parameters

%

Early repolarization during effort

66

Early repolarization during maximal effort

20

Bradycardi 50-56 beats/min during rest phase

60

Persistent incomplete right bundle branch block 48 without change and significance Poor R wave progression on

AVL without 20

evolution Negative T wave on D3 and AVF during rest and 25

ECG Results, Table 5

recovery phase, they disappear during effort

Parameters

%

Incomplete right bundle branch block

48

Negative T wave on D3

10

Sinus bradyarythmia

74

Isolated QS on AVL

20

LV hypertrophy

50

LV dilatacion

30

Poor R wave progression

76

Early repolarisation

24

The most significant changes during ECG were Sinus bradyarythmia, LV hypertrophy, poor R wave progression which according to other

VES during rest and recovery

5

It was recognized that the ECG of athletes may be different from other subjects, and findings correlated with pathology in nonathletes may be the result of a normal response to vigorous training. These include left- and rightventricular hypertrophy, abnormalities in repolarization (T- and ST-segment changes), sinus bradycardia, and atrioventricular conduction disturbances Ventricular Hypertrophy Both right- and left-ventricular hypertrophy are common as estimated by R wave criteria. ST-T wave changes are seen but are less common. Right-ventricular hypertrophy is frequently seen as well as left-ventricular


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hypertrophy. Early repolarization, is also frequently seen. Echocardiography has demonstrated that the ECG changes are associated with left-ventricular dilatation and sometimes myocardial hypertrophy. It seems well established that this type of hypertrophy is simply work-related and has no untoward implications. Rhythm and Conduction Disturbances: Sinus bradycardia is common and correlates to some degree with the level of fitness, and occasionally less than 50 beats per minute may be seen. It was demonstrated that all the changes during the stress test are not significant so they are considered normal. Recomandations According to the suggestions of the American and European Heart Associations and based on our study we recommend that high school and college athletes must have a pre participation examination to prevent possible cardiac problems and sudden death. The examination protocol for professional players should be repeated every year. Our results support the suggestion that regular physical training may prevent age depended impairment of left ventricular compliance. References Rost R. The athlete’s heart: historical perspective. In: Maron B, editor. Cardiology Clinics, the Athlete’s Heart. Philadelphia: Saunders Co.; 1992. p. 197—207. Morganroth J, Maron BJ, Henry WL, et al. Comparative left ventricular dimensions in trained athletes. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82:521—4. Huston TP, Puffer JC, Rodney WM. The athletic heart syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:24—32. Caso P, D’Andreas A, Galderisi M, et al. Pulsed Doppler tissue imaging in endurance athletes: relation between left ventricular preload and myocardial regional diastolic function. Am J Cardiol. 2000;85:1131—6. Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, et al. The athlete’s heart: a meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation.

2000;101:336—44. Bruce RA, Kusumi F, and Hosmer D. (1973). American Heart Journal.85:546-562. Fagard RH. Impact of different sports and training on cardiac structure and function. Cardiol Clin. 1997:397—412. Pelliccia A, Culasso F, Di Paolo F, Maron BJ. Physiologic left ventricular cavity dilatation in elite athletes. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 130: 23–31. Sharma S, Maron BJ, Whyte G, Firoozi S, Elliott PM, McKenna WJ. Physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite junior athletes: relevance to differential diagnosis of athlete’s heart and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40: 1431–1436. Maron BJ. Structural features of the athlete heart as defined by echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986; 7: 190–203.


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Outdoor play versus videogame play in albanian children; differences between urban and rural areas Karamelo. E 1and Toci. B2 1 2

University of Elbasan, Faculty of Education Sciences, betakaramelo@hotmail.com State University of Tetovo Ilindenska, Faculty of Physical Education, bexhetoci@yahoo.com

Abstract Spontaneous outdoor play strongly affects children’s physical development. It is a natural part of their mental and spiritual wellbeing. This study discusses the extent to which children in Albania today participate in active outdoor play and the time they pass playing videogames and watching television. 232 children, 7-14 years of age, from three schools of the city of Elbasan and 188 children of the same age, from three schools of three various villages of Elbasan and Librazhd districts were surveyed with regards to their active, outdoor play experiences and videogame playing and/or watching TV. Questionnaires were filled in anonymously and results were statistically processed. The t-test for the difference in mean values clearly indicates that: (i) the mean time that city children pass playing outdoors is significantly less than the respective time for rural-area children; (ii) city children spend significantly more time playing videogames compared to same-age children from villages; (iii) time spent watching TV presents insignificant differences between the two categories. Results of the study show that all children prefer outdoor play compared to indoor play. However, time spent playing outdoors is decreasing compared to time spent in videogames and Watching TV, especially in cities. The study reveals several fundamental reasons for this inconsistence, including dependence on television and digital media, reduction of appropriate spaces and playgrounds where children used to play and concerns about crime and safety. The study also conveys findings related to the frequent use of electronic diversions and discusses several suggestions for early – childhood professionals, classroom teachers, and parents for fostering children’s enjoyment of outdoor play as well as for the local and central authorities responsible for preserving existing and creating new and appropriate outdoor playing spaces. Keywords: children, outdoor play, videogame, time, compare

Introduction Through outdoor games and physical activity the child learns several necessary skills useful for his future as an adult. The most important of these skills that need to be emphasized are the social competence, problem solving, creative thinking, the ability of feeling safe in terms of avoiding a potential risk etc (Moore, R.C. &Wong, H.H. 1997). When playing outdoors children grow emotionally and

academically (Miller, K. (1989). They develop a natural appreciation of the surrounding environment, through participation in imaginary games they develop the initiative and the need to understand basic academic concepts such as the research on the properties of objects, things and different materials and how to use simple appropriate tools to perform a given task (Kosanke, N. &Warner, N. 1990). The outdoor play offers the opportunity to


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explore the surrounding environment, to get in touch with the basic natural materials like dust, water, sand, dirt and mud, stones and wood. They offer unique opportunities for finding or creating appropriate places for the game, collecting appropriate objects to develop hobbies, and ultimately they increase the desire for physical activity. Numerous studies show that the biggest changes related to the physical growth of the child’s body occur between the ages of 3 and 12 years, which are demonstrated by the desire to run, to cling and to jump in natural environments. Such rapid movements, part of the outdoor play, affect not only the strengthening of the muscles, but also help and support the growth of the heart and lungs as well as all other vital organs for normal physical development of the child (Pica, R. 2003). Besides the impact on the motor development, the outdoor play also affects the mental and spiritual health, perhaps even more than the physical one (Gabbard, C. 1998). Everyone agrees that the outdoor or spontaneous games simulate to a larger extent all aspects of mental and emotional development of the child rather than games in closed locations, or the structured games. The opportunities with infinite diversity offered by nature in the development of these skills can not be compared to any other artificial location. On the other hand, it is also noticed an overall trend of limiting the time that children spend in outdoor games in favor of games at home, mainly electronic ones or watching television (Evans, J. 1995). This trend noticed a few decades ago in developed countries is increasingly being noticed in the last two decades in our country, as well, especially in large urban centers. The amount of free time that today children in our country spend playing outdoors is the object of this study. Also, through comparison with the previous generation, respectively, with the time spent outdoors by the parents of today’s children when they were young kids, we create an idea of the changes that have happened in a generation and the continuous trend of this change. Target group and methodology In order to carry out this study there was

designed a questionnaire which was completed voluntarily by 232 students aged 7-14 years in two elementary schools of Elbasan and also 188 children of the same age from 3 schools of 3 villages in Librazhd. The survey was conducted from April - May 2013. The survey’s results were statistically processed with the SPSS 17.0 program. The number of the respondents was chosen in order to obtain results that have statistical value for the population under consideration. Such questions were chosen to give a much clearer picture of the situation, both in terms of frequency of game (day/week) and the time duration (hours/day) for both the categories of games, outdoor and videogames, and also for the two groups of children included in the study, one living in the city and the other living in the village. The responses give us the opportunity of comparison between children of two different areas for two game categories. But on the other hand, the questions made, will help us identify potential factors which directly effect the amount of time spent outdoors and the time spent with videogames or TV. That is why in the questionnaire were included questions on physical opportunities to play outdoors, or the existence of adequate facilities for these activities, whether the child likes nature, if he/she prefers more outdoor games or electronic games, what kind of games they prefer etc. Results and discussion Outdoor game . From Tables 1 and 2 we can easily notice that the free time that city kids spend playing outdoors differs significantly from that of their counterparts who live in rural areas. The difference is evident both in terms of weekly frequency (days per week of playing outside) and daily duration of activities on those days when playing outside. Thus, only 9 % of children in the city claim that How many days a week do City children

Village

you play outdoors?

children

Everyday

9

28

4-6 days

16

35

2-4 days

44

13

1 day

32

6


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without criteria and without a clear plan. Neighborhood streets or squares between the buildings that once constituted the most common playgrounds where children could play carelessly today are occupied by buildings or cars making it impossible for traditional activities and games for children. Insecurity and risks are now really but also virtually or psychologically higher for parents who, in their turn, do not allow children to play like before because of fear from accidents or various threats. These factors, apparently, still have not extended their effect on rural areas where appropriate free spaces for spontaneous outdoor games are still intact. This is, among other things, the main cause of this drastic change in the average time that children of the two categories spend playing outside. To support this argument there are the answers of the question whether the kids today have facilities suitable for casual outdoor play. Results show that city children’s access to the spontaneous outdoor games are drastically restricted or that is how it is perceived. Thus 72 % of children in the city think that in their neighborhood or the place around their house there are no suitable places where they can play without fear. For their village counterparts this is only 9%. Videogames and TV . Similarly to the question related to spontaneous outdoor games, the next question related to the time spent with videogames, mainly computer, or watching television was addressed to the children of both categories. Table4 and Graph 4 show the average values of two categories of frequency (days / week) that children play on the computer, the daily duration of the game for those days when they play and the weekly average time spent with videogames. Hours in Days in Hours in

of outdoor play for kids in the city (2:07 ± 5.64) represents statistically significant differences compared with children in the village (1.86 ± 1.17), (t ( 418 ) = 9:41 , p = 0.000) .

Graph 4: Average time spent with videogames (mainly computers)

We can mention at least two reasons for this big difference observed between the two categories of children. Firstly, rural children have less opportunity to play on the computer compared with their counterparts in the city. This is shown in the answer of the question whether they had or not videogames or computers at home where only 40 % of the village children responded positively. While in the city this percentage is 87% . Secondly, another important factor that can be considered is that in the village there are conditions (facilities) for children to play freely outdoors, which as mentioned above, for the children of the city is becoming more and more difficult. As we can see from table 5 and graph 5 there are no significant differences between children of the two categories in terms of time spent in watching television. The results of t - test for equivalence of averages showed differences statistically insignificant. The daily duration for city children (1.80 ± 00:45) is insignificantly different from village children (1.87 ± 0:41) , (t ( 418 ) = 3:41 , p = 0.037);

a day

a week

a week

How many hours a day do City

City children

1.57

5.64

8.8

you watch TV?

Village children

0.87

1.86

1.6

More that 2 hours

34

35

Table4: Average values of time spent with videogames

1-2 hours

46

49

The results of t-test for independent samples (independent t - test) for the equivalence of averages show that the frequency (days / week)

Less that 1 hours

21

16

Village

children children

Table5: Duration of daily TV (%)


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Graph5. Duration of watching TV for both the categories of children daily (%)

The change in the amount of time spent outdoors causes the above discussed consequences in the psychomotor development of the child. We are all aware that today’s children, especially in big cities where opportunities for regular outdoor play are smaller, are less strong physically than their counterparts in rural areas or those of a generation before. Simple exercises for strength which are natural for the most of children in natural areas, appear too difficult for most children of the city. We can mention the exercising on parallel bars, push ups, climbing a tree, or in a rock, the cross – over of a narrow place that requires maintaining the balance etc. Also the reduction of the time spent outside influences on children’s appetite. Often we see, mainly in the city, children who eat not spontaneous, in front of the TV or the computer or just certain foods, which are problems less known in rural areas. Of course here we have the changes affecting the economic and social conditions, but the energy consumption of outdoor games necessarily brings appetizing and improves the digestion and circulation. The changes in the time spent in nature, the standing for a long time before the screens, combined with changes in the structure of the food have begun to give effect to the increase of obesity in children, which constitutes a minor problem for children who live in rural areas. Conclusions As we can see there is a noticeable difference of time that children in urban areas spend with spontaneous games (disorganized), outdoor (in nature) (4.54 hours / week) compared to their

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counterparts in rural areas (10.7 hours / week). The most important factors that have influenced this drastic reduction were identified and divided into two groups: Factors related to the lack of infrastructure, namely the lack of adequate facilities in the larger urban centers for spontaneous games. These specific and common playing sites have almost disappeared or reduced to the maximum, as a result of the legal and illegal construction boom which is occupying every possible space. But even those places that have not been occupied yet, are almost “inappropriate” to play in normally, like in the past, because of traffic or car parking. These factors are felt less or not at all in rural areas although the tendency shows that soon they will emerge there as well. On the other hand, these sites have not been properly substituted, as it should, with the construction of new playgrounds, safe from traffic hazards, and relatively close to home, where children can play. This limits even the possibilities of going outside and reduces the time spent outdoors. Psycho - social factors. The most important would be the fear of parents for their children to play outside, “exposed” to numerous and growing risks, the most dangerous of which is considered the dense and partly uncontrolled traffic which is the main factor for not allowing children to play on the road, and secondly there is the fear or insecurity by “foreigners” or “strangers”. This fear is amplified by the mass media where concerned parents hear all sorts of daily news about car accidents or abductions, beatings and quarrels of different kinds. In these conditions, parents feel more relaxed if they do not allow kids to go play outside, or are forced to observe them during their game. The same factors that affect the time limitation that children spend outside, favor the possibility for this time to be spent in videogames or TV shows. The inability of city children to play outdoors, either for lack of adequate places and security or because parents do not allow them from fear of potential risks, has led this category to increase the time spent in front of a computer or TV set. Recommendations Playing outdoors is an inner genetic need of


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the child. Its effects on psychomotor development of the child are strong and indisputable. So it must be promoted and encouraged. There are two main institutions through which this can be achieved, family and school. Family has the possibility and obligation to create for the child the opportunity, from the first steps (the beginnings), to be in direct contact with nature, and to become familiar with its infinite diversity. School, in turn, plays an important role in the education of the child, teaching the rules for the conservation of nature and protection of the environment. Despite efforts to introduce in the curricula topics about nature, conservation and protection of the environment, flora and fauna, the schools should play a greater role in this regard. What needs to be done, besides strengthening the theoretical approach by improving existing curricula or the introduction of new curricula, is to increase direct contact with nature. This can be accomplished through the organization of excursions, or outdoor camping, in the forest, mountain, sea, lake or river, in areas where the human impact has been much lower. Another important influence of the school is the sports class, the organization of games in which children are taught to play different games and in particular games in a team. The role of the school in this aspect has started to weaken. Sport is increasingly being underestimated and overlooked in our schools, without considering the consequences. This phenomenon must not persist any longer and sports should be reevaluated to take its proper role as an important part, not only in the physical education of the child. Another factor however with an indirect impact but also significant is the approach of the community in general and the local or central government in particular to the conditions in which children play in nature. We together can do something in order to increase safety in the streets or squares by applying traffic or parking rules, increasing the awareness of the community to become responsible and care for children and the places where they play. The local governments through law enforcement can impede occupation or alienation of parks, gardens and green areas suitable for children and also

should maintain them. The central government can influence policies that help in the promotion of nature and environment in schools, can pass more stringent laws and secure their implementation, especially in the administration of the territory etc. This way everyone can contribute in the limitation of the tendency of children to stay away from nature and outdoor games in favor of staying at home, playing electronic games and watching television. To conclude, we all can contribute in providing children with a healthy and productive leisure time which can better prepare them for their future.

References Evans, J. (1995) Where Have all the Players Gone?International Play Journal, 3(1), pp. 318. Frost, J.L. (1992) Reflections on Research and Practice in Outdoor Play Environments, Dimensions of Early Childhood, 20(4), pp. 6-10 Gabbard, C. (1998) WindoWs of Opportunity for Early Brain and Motor Development, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 69(8), pp. 54-61 Guddemi, M. & Eriksen, A. (1992) Designing Outdoor Learning Environments for and with Children, Dimensions of Early Childhood, 20(4), pp. 15-24 Kosanke, N. &Warner, N. (1990) Creative Play Areas. Nashville: School-Age Notes. Miller, K. (1989). The Outside Play and Learning Book: activities for young children.Beltsville: Gryphon House Moore, R.C. &Wong, H.H. (1997). Natural Learning: the life history of an environmental schoolyard. Berkeley: MIG Noland, M., Danner, F., Dewalt, K., McFadden, M. & -Kotchen, J.M. (1990) TheMeasurement of Physical Activity in Young Children, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61, pp. 146153 Pica, R. (2003) Your Active Child: how to boost physical, emotional, and cognitive developmentthrough age-appropriate activity. Chicago: Contemporary Books


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Actual level of the physical activity in children in Tirana. School children 6-15 years old Jarani. J and Spahi. A Sports University of Tirana Abstract Physical activity is a complex behavior and can be subdivided into different categories such as leisure time activities and occupational activities. The purpose of this study was to show the current level of physical activity in 6- to 16-year-old children in Tirana and to compare the current level of PA among boys and girls as they grow up in elementary and middle school in the city of Tirana. Study participants were 5746 children attending schools who did the questionnaire in Tirana. This sample represent data from 13 schools randomly selected from a pool of 63 schools (N=63). The study examined physical activity level for all days (one week) by PAQ-C. Reference scores in PA questionnaire are (1- inactive; 2.5- normal; 5- very active). No difference were observed by gender in elementary school while in secondary boys were more active than girls. Comparing the results by school level data show significantly (Pd” 00.5) a higher PA level in middle school children than those in elementary school level. Results show an increase of the PA level on 6.1-6.5 yrs (score 2.3) to a score of 2.8 at 12.1- 12.5 yrs. From the age 12.5 yrs – 15.1 yrs were observed a decrease of the level of PA (score 2.8- score 2.6 ). In conclusion the results show that there is an increase of PA level from 6-12 yrs and then after the age of 12 yrs the physical activity level declines. This age period may represent a problem of the health related risk concerning children later during life. Keywords: Children, Physical Activity, Tirana, level

Introduction Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy input and energy expenditure. This epidemic is rapidly and constantly growing and affects all socioeconomic levels and ethnicities (Ogden et al., 2006). Recent reports from different studies have highlighted the severity of obesity in children by suggesting: “today’s generation of children will be the first for over a century for whom life expectancy falls” (Hills et al., 2007). “Physical activity” can be defined as ’any body movement produced by the skeletal muscles, resulting in energy expenditure (Caspersen et al., 1985; US. and Services., 1997). Physical activity is a complex behavior and can be subdivided into different categories such as leisure time activities and occupational

activities. Thus, “sports and exercise” are subcategories of physical activity. Time spent outdoors in the early years is positively correlated with physical activity levels among children Sallis et al. (1993). Gidding et al. (2006) demonstrated over a 3-year interval in 663 children that long-term participation in intense physical activity may reduce BMI in children and those with elevated cholesterol levels who lead a more physically active lifestyle had lower systolic blood pressure and a trend toward lower low-density lipoprotein. Elevated body mass index (BMI) places children and adolescents at greater risk for cardiovascular disease as adults, and that diet and physical activity are important factors in maintaining a healthy BMI range (Walter 1987). Strong et al. (2005) and World Health Organization


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recommend that children should accumulate 60 min of moderate to vigorous (MVPA) every day but also emphasizes that these minutes should be on top of everyday physical activities. Everyday physical activities total around 30 min of MVPA in the quintile of the least active children, means that the new recommendations constitute more activity in total compared with earlier recommendations (Andersen et al., 2011). In Tirana have been conducted different cross sectional studies focusing on physical activity (42.7% inactivity rates; Jarani et al., 2014b), obesity (overweight 10.2% and obesity 3.2%); (Jarani et al., 2014a), physical fitness from elementary and secondary school children (Spahi et al., 2013). In general cross sectional study results conducted in Tirana show no gender differences regarding BMI and percent body fat in 6-7 years old children (Ushtelenca, 2012) while the results in 10 years boys showed higher BMI scores then girls (Spahi et al., 2012). Boys (7 years) are more active than girls even though they had higher scores in BMI. Children living in urban areas have higher scores in BMI and lower scores in the level of physical activity comparing with children living in rural areas (Balla et al., 2012). The results from an investigation study in elementary school children (N= 100) from Qose (2012) showed that the prevalence of DCD among Albanian children were 45 %.and severe motor disorder at 19.4% (Jarani and Ushtelenca 2014c) The purpose of this study was to show the current level of physical activity in 6- to 16year-old children in Tirana and to compare the current level of PA among boys and girls as they grow up in elementary and middle school in the city of Tirana. Methods This data are part of a large scale evaluation of PA level in Balkan region for Albanian population of children (Ministry of Education 19/04/2011 prot 2202 Regional educational departments). In this research we will provide data from children living in Tirana (Table 1). Study participants were 5746 children attending schools who did the questionnaire in Tirana. This sample represent data from 13 schools randomly selected from a pool of 63 schools (N=63).

Table 1. Evaluation in children on the current level of PA

Country Albania Kosovo Macedonia Montenegro Total

N 9492 4334 3039 1859 18724

Boys 4750 2149 1512 997 9408

Girls 4742 2185 1527 862 9316

 Assessment The study examined physical activity level for all days (one week) by PAQ-C. Reference scores in PA questionnaire are (1- inactive; 2.5normal; 5- very active). The PAQ-C questionnaire was validated in Albanian language (Jarani, 2013) in 452 children (7-10 years) with a reliability coefficient from first (r=0.71)- fourth grade (r=0.78) and used to assess the current level of PA. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) was used as a means for children to self-report their own levels of physical activity over the past seven days. Children reported how many times in the previous week they participated in a wide range of physical activity behaviors such as recreational activities, sports, and other types of exercise (Crocker et al., 1997; Kowalski et al., 1997). A final overall score is obtained as an indicator of activity level for the student. Convergent validity for this instrument was established through correlations with other measures of physical activity, specifically an aerobic step test and a questionnaire related to perceptions of athletic competence Janz et al. (2008); Kowalski et al. (1997). All questionnaires of physical activity (PAC-C) for first grade children were distributed by school classes in coded envelopes (pre and post intervention). The PA questionnaires of the 4th graders were filled out by the children themselves. The teachers collected the questionnaires some days later. In addition, it was added questions about, the way of commuting to school, the time used and eating breakfast behavior (frequency in the morning during one week). Statistics analysis First it was created a file.excel in order to generate the values taken from the


83 the PA level on 6.1-6.5 yrs (score 2.3) to a score of 2.8 at 12.1- 12.5 yrs. From the age 12.5 yrs – 15.1 yrs were observed a decrease of the level of PA (score 2.8- score 2.6 ).

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questionnaire and than converted to spss file. Descriptive statistics were used in order to show the values generated from the questionnaire and the number of subject participated on the study. In order to obtain the results from different areas of the city of Tirana it was used ANOVA test and a post hoc analysis

Figure 1 PA level by age group

Results Data on the table 2 show the physical values in children by school levels. Results show that children in elementary school have PA level with a score of 2.5 (SD 0.55) while those in middle school had a score of 2.7 (SD 0.54). Comparing the results by school level data show significantly (Pd” 00.5) a higher PA level in middle school children than those in elementary school level. Table 2 PA by school levels School Levels

N

Mean

Std. Dev

Elementary (6.1- 11.5 yrs) Middle (11.6-16.5 yrs)

3283

2.50

0.55

2463

2.74 *

0.54

Boys show significant higher values (Pd” 00.5) in every age groups compared to girls (Figure 2). In both gender data show a significant increase of the PA level from 6.1 yrs- 12.1 yrs (boys score 2.4 – 2.9 and girls score 2.2- 2.8) and a decrease of PA level from 12.1 yrs- 15.1 yrs. Figure 2 PA level by age group and gender

Table 3 show results from comparison by gender. Data revealed the same PA level (non significant- NS) in children observed in the city of Tirana [(elementary- Boys score 2.6, Girls score 2.5);(middle- Boys score 2.8, Girls score 2.6 )]. Table 3 PA by school levels and gender School_Levels

Gender

N

Mean

Elementary (6.1- 11.5 yrs)

Boy

1652

2.6 NS

Std. Deviation 0.54

Girl

1631

2.5

0.54

Boy

1256

2.8 NS

0.55

Girl

1207

2.6

0.50

Middle (11.6-16.5 yrs)

NS- no significant Results from the Figure 1 show an increase of

Discussion The purpose of this study was to show the current level of physical activity in 6- to 16year-old children in Tirana and to compare the current level of PA among boys and girls as they grow up in elementary and middle school in the city of Tirana. No difference were observed by gender in


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elementary school while in secondary boys were more active than girls. Strong et al (2005) and World Health Organization recommend that children should accumulate 60 min of moderate to vigorous (MVPA) every day but also emphasizes that these minutes should be on top of everyday physical activities. Everyday physical activities total around 30 min of MVPA in the quintile of the least active children, means that the new recommendations constitute more activity in total compared with earlier recommendations (Andersen et al., 2011). 135. Comparing the results by school level data show significantly (Pd” 00.5) a higher PA level in middle school children than those in elementary school level. A potentional explanation is that physical education in elementary school children is taught by general teacher than those in middle school. This may be a problem later in childhood from overweight and obesity. Gidding et al. (2006) demonstrated over a 3year interval in 663 children that long-term participation in intense physical activity may reduce BMI in children and those with elevated cholesterol levels who lead a more physically active lifestyle had lower systolic blood pressure and a trend toward lower low-density lipoprotein. Elevated body mass index (BMI) places children and adolescents at greater risk for cardiovascular disease as adults, and that diet and physical activity are important factors in maintaining a healthy BMI range (Walter 1987). Data revealed the same PA level (non significant- NS) in children observed in the city of Tirana Boys show significant higher values (Pd” 00.5) in every age groups compared to girls However, the findings of the study should be considered and interpreted in light of the following limitation. We did not measure objectively/directly the level of physical activity of the children so the questionnaire may be not presented the true physical activity level. Welk et al. (2000) reviewed the measuring PA problems among children and concluded that the evidence were not clear which measure were most accurate. The report results showed that using different instruments provides a

more complete description of children’s activity and permit a triangulation of outcomes. In summary, there remains no single way of obtaining a highly accurate account of physical activity or energy expenditure in children (Welk et al., 2000). In conclusion the results show that there is an increase of PA level from 6-12 yrs and then after the age of 12 yrs the physical activity level declines. This age period may represent a problem of the health related risk concerning children later during life. References Andersen L B, Riddoch C, Kriemler S, Hills A P and Hills A (2011). Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children., Br J SportsMed 45(11), 871–876. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011090333 Balla M,Muzaka D, Spahi A, Ushtelenca K and A. K (2012). Differences in the level of physical activity and body mass index in first grade elementary school children living in urban and rural area in Tirana., in 2nd International Social Sciences in Physical Education and Sport Congress Ankara TURKEY Caspersen C J, Powell K E and Christenson GM(1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research., Public Health Rep 100(2), 126–131. Crocker P R, BaileyDA, Faulkner R A, Kowalski K C andMcGrath R (1997). Measuring general levels of physical activity: preliminary evidence for the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children.,Med Sci Sports Exerc 29(10), 1344–1349. Gidding S S, Barton B A, Dorgan J A, Kimm S Y S, Kwiterovich P O, Lasser N L, Robson A M, Stevens V J, Van Horn L and SimonsMorton D G (2006). Higher self-reported physical activity is associated with lower systolic blood pressure: the Dietary Intervention Study in Childhood (DISC)., Pediatrics 118(6), 2388–2393. URL: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-1785 Hills A P, King N A and Armstrong T P (2007).


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The contribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviours to the growth and development of children and adolescents: implications for overweight and obesity., SportsMed 37(6), 533–545. Ogden C L, CarrollMD, Curtin L R,McDowellMA, Tabak C J and Flegal KM(2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004., JAMA 295(13), 1549–1555. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.295. 13.1549 Jarani J, Gallotta M, Muca F, Kasa A and Caporossi D (2012). Correlates of gross motor coordination with aerobic fitness in children 7 and 10 years of age in Tirana, Albania., in 2nd International Social Sciences in Physical Education and Sport Congress Ankara TURKEY Jarani J,Muca F, Kasa A, Caporossi D and GallottaM (2012). Gender differences and the relationship between coordination abilities and body composition indicators in first and fourth elementary school children in Tirana, in The 4th conference of the International Society for the Social Sciences of Sport (ISSSS). Jarani, J. Ushtelenca K and Spahi A (2014a). The current level of health and skills related fitness indicators in Albanian children; reference values from a country in transition, Faculty of Kinesiology University of Zagreb 1, 264– 268. Jarani. J, Muca. F, Spahi. A, Qefalia, D and Shaka, L (2014b). Threats of new generation on physical activity level in Albanian children, Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 40, 151–158. Jarani J (2013), The impact of exercise and games on physical fitness indicators in 1st and 4th graders in Tirana. Elementary school based intervention. ABC “5 on 5”project, PhD thesis.

Jarani. J, Ushtelenca. K (2014c). Development Coordination Disorder in Children Need for Information in a Transitional Post-Communist Country in Southeastern Europe. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3(4) 459463

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Kowalski K C, Crocker P R E and Faulkner R A (1997). Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children., 9, 174–186. Qose G (2012), ‘Development coordination disorder in albanian children’. Master thesis Sallis J F, McKenzie T L, Alcaraz J E, Kolody B, Hovell M F and Nader P R (1993). Project SPARK. Effects of physical education on adiposity in children., Ann N Y Acad Sci 699, 127–136. StrongWB,Malina R M, Blimkie C J R, Daniels S R, Dishman R K, Gutin B, Hergenroeder A C, Must A, Nixon P A, Pivarnik J M, Rowland T, Trost S and Trudeau F (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth., J Pediatr 146(6), 732–737. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2005 .01.055 164. Spahi A, Jarani J, Qefalia D and A. K (2012). The relationship between body mass index and coordination abilities in fourth grade elementary school children in Tirana, Albania, in 2nd International Social Sciences in Physical Education and Sport Congress Ankara TURKEY . US. and Services. (1997). ‘Guidelines for School and Community Programs to Promote Lifelong Physical Activity Among Young People’. Ushtelenca K (2012), An investigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them on 6-7 years old children in Tirana, Master’s thesis. Walther C,Mende M, Gaede L, MÃijller U,Machalica K and Schuler G (2011). [Effects of daily physical exercise at school on cardiovascular risk–results of a 2-year clusterrandomized study]., DtschMedWochenschr 136(46), 2348–2354. URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1055/s-0031-1292049 Welk G J, Corbin C B and Dale D (2000). Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children., Res Q Exerc Sport 71(2 Suppl), S59–S73.


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Original Article

A two-year monitoring study based on anthropometrics changes, coordination and motor skills in the age group 7 - 9 years in Tirana. Ushtelenca. K1 and Jarani. J Department of Social science and Education, Faculty of Movement Science, Sport University of Tirana, Albania. Correspondence : K. Ushtelenca, Department of Social science and Education, Faculty of Movement Science, Sport University of Tirana, Albania. E-mail : kushtelenca@ ust.edu.al Abstracts The aim of this research is to monitor and to compare anthropometric parameters, coordination skills and motor abilities on pupils from age 9 to 11 years old, (281 girls and 347 boys) respectively in four elementary schools in Tirana C. To fulfill this study we have collected data on anthropometric measurements, including body weight and height, circumference of waist and belly. Also by using a Caliper, we have measured Skin fold thickness on measuring three times the triceps and sub Scapular skin fold thickness. Results shows that are significant results on weight and height , BMI and all Anthropometrics data’s which came by child’s natural growth. Coordination Abilities showed that only on performing the Lateral Jump test children showed significant differences, so the development on lower limp was increased because the P value is >0.5 , and related to Plate Tapping and Balance Bean test children didn’t show any significant differences. Related to Motor Abilities we found out that by growing up, children‘s showed significant changes on performing Stand Long Jump which is strongly related with growth and power. But to the other side we do not see development on flexibility test. Children showed significant development on force of lower limb, measured by Stand Long Jump. Related to Motor Abilities children especially on flexibility children have no significant differences which lay ahead that physical education teacher responsibilities to work more on this aspect, and to consider flexibility as an tool to work and develop more specially in this age. Key words: coordination skills, motor abilities, anthropometric, obesity, weight, height, tests. Introduction Higher BMI, which is known to be negatively associated with body satisfaction, is affected by factors such as decreased physical activity and low generalized self-efficacy toward physical activity, both of which have been established among children with low motor proficiency (Field et al., 2001; Duncan et at., 2005; Gustafson Larson & Terry., 1992; Cairney, Hay, Faught, Mandigo & Flouris., 2005; Hay., 1992). There is a high amount of intervention studies centered on physical fitness outcomes (Stone et al., 1998; Serbescu et al., 2006; Zahner et al., 2006), whereas investigations focused on the

development of coordinative abilities and motor skills through manipulation of qualitative parameters of PA are less frequent (McKenzie et al., 1998; Theodorakou & Zervas., 2003; Di Cagno et al., 2006). Physical activity increases energy expenditure (Batch, 2005) and helps along the stages of childhood to create an active lifestyle (Huang et al., 2009) in terms of physical, mental and social aspects (Hills et al., 2010) as a major contributor and supporter on their overall growth and development (Strong et al., 2005). The phases before puberty (7- 11 years) are marked by a very good motor


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learning ability and are proven to be the best motor learning age in childhood (Meinel, 1960), considering this ages as a sensitive period (Hirtz and Starosta, 2002). Studies showed that the improvement of physical fitness indicators (Stodden et al., 2009) and fundamental movement skills (Barnett et al., 2008) in children may be fundamental for later maintenance of this state of fitness with the main purpose of promoting engagement in physical activity (Stodden et al., 2008). In Albania there are several studies focusing on sport participation, obesity and physical activity promotion on children (Jarani et al., 2014a; Jarani et al., 2014b; Spahi et al ., 2013), but a few of them have the main focus on motor abilities (Nicaj and Schoot 2013; Ushtelenca et al., 2013). The aims of this study were: monitoring and comparisons of Anthropometric parameters, motor abilities and coordination abilities during one year. Methods A total of 628 children, from age 9 to 11 years old respectively in four elementary schools as “Vasil Shanto”, “Dora` d Istria “,” Qazim Turdiu “and” Emin Duraku “ were randomly selected from a pool of 53 elementary school (Regional Education Directorate of Tirana 2014) located in Tirana participated in this study. Measurements Protocol 1.Monitoring and comparisons of Anthropometric parameters To fulfill this study we have collected data on: Anthropometric Measurements, including body weight and height, circumference of waist and belly. We have calculate BMI (height and weight): Procedure: Standing height is the measurement the maximum distance from the floor to the highest point on the head, when the child is facing directly ahead. Shoes should be off, feet together, and arms by the sides. Heels, buttocks and upper back should also be in contact with the wall when the measurement is made. To assess body weight the child is weighted standing on the weight with minimal movement with hands by his side. Shoes and excess clothing should be removed. Participants were asked to stand with back, buttocks, and heels against the stadiometer, with their feet together and flat on the floor

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and their head straightened in a neutral position. Body mass was measured in minimal clothing and to the nearest 0.1 kg. BMI may be calculated directly as weight (in kilograms)/ [height (in meters)]^2 or determined from published tables or normograms (Himes JH et al., 1994; Bray GA et al., 1998; Thomas AE et al., 1976). Many BMI tables, nomograms, and calculator programs are available online/ I have used Stadiometer for measuring body height and weight, which helped us to find out the health parameters. To measure Body fat Percent (Skin fold thickness) Procedure: Triceps and sub scapular skin folds thickness were measured to the nearest 0.2mm using a calliper (Harpenden, St. Albans, UK) on the right side of the body. All skin folds were taken three times by the same experimenter to ensure consistency in results with the average of the three values used as a final value. To predict body fat (%FM) the equation described by Slaughter et al. (1988) were selected. 2.Monitoring and comparisons of Motor Abilities To monitor and compare Motor Abilities I have used four tests from the KTK- Body Coordination Test for Children {Kiphard EJ, Schilling F 1974}. Balance Beam, The Purpose of this test is to assess active balance, while walking along on an gymnastics balance beam. The aim of this test is to walk the entire length of a standard balance beam, without falling off, and within a six second time span. The test is repeated three times Moving with plates, Performing this test The child is asked to move / shift while walking over two plates laterally as many times as possible over a period of 20 seconds. The number of moves are recorded. Jumping one leg, Children are asked to jump over the mets from the lower level up to theire maximum level, the maximum jump is recorded in both right and left leg . Lateral Jumping, Gross motor coordination measured by means of the KTK- Body Coordination Test for Children {Kiphard EJ, Schilling F 1974}. To assess gross motor coordination, pupils are asked to jump laterally as many times as possible over a wooden slat in 15 seconds, over a Wooden slat (60 cm _ 4


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cm _ 2 cm), and the number of jumps over two trials is summed. Standing long jump, Procedure : The child stand behind the line marked on the ground with feet slightly apart . With swinging of the arms and bending of the knees to provide forward drive. The measurements is taken from take – off line, the best of three attempts of the longest jumped is recorded. Sit and reach (Wells and Dillon ,1952) ,The sit and reach is a flexibility test, specifically measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. Scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest centimeter as the distance before (negative) or beyond (positive) the toes. Statistical Analysis In order to describe all the anthropometric data’s I have used Summary statistics and graphical summaries for describing the distribution BMI and weight. Graphics are used to show Motor Abilities, as sit and reach and stand long jump tests. To describe all the Coordination abilities, as Balance beam, moving with plates, jumping one leg and lateral jumping I have used SPSS ( Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Results Monitoring and comparisons of Anthropometric parameters, results shows that significant was reached on weight, height, BMI and all Anthropometrics data’s which came by child’s natural growth. Waist perimeter was not significant from the first year to the second

Figure 2. Weight in first and second year

Table 1. Paired sample test on weight, height and BMI

Monitoring and comparisons of Motor Abilities, measured by Stand Long Jump test, I found out that by growing up, children‘s showed significant changes on performing Stand Long Jump which is strongly related with growth and power.

Figure 3. Stand long jump in first and second grade

Figure 1. BMI in first and second grade.

While monitoring and comparison of Coordination Abilities, tests showed that only on performing the Lateral Jump test children showed significant differences, so the development on lower limp was increased because the P value is >0.5 . But elated to Plate Tapping and Balance Bean and Moving with plates test children didn’t show any significant differences.


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significant differences, so the development on lower limp was increased because the P value is >0.5 . Coordination Abilities was monitor also with Plate Tapping test, Balance Bean and Moving with plate’s test on which children didn’t show any significant differences.

Figure 4 Lateral test in first and second year.

Discussion We have investigate and made comparisons of Anthropometric parameters in 9 and 11 years old children in Tirana, Albania and we have measure motor abilities and coordination abilities, measured by balance beam, moving with plates, jumping one leg, lateral jumping, standing long jump and the sit and reach test, as well as percent body fat measured by skin fold thickness among children. Furthermore we have compare these data’s during one year. From these results we found out that significant was reached on BMI from 17.17 to 18.03 to nine years old children in one year and the eleven years ones had changes on BMI from 18.41 to 18.64. The same significant data’s we found out on weight which positively changes from 30.12 to 34.08 to 9 years children to 36.02 to 39.86 to 11 years old children. All this anthropometrics data’s had positive changes which came by child’s natural growth. From our results there were no statistical significant differences on waist perimeter, while we compared from the value from the first year to the second year. In our results from Standing long jump test on nine years and eleven years children, while we compare the Motor Abilities, which were measured by Stand Long Jump test, we found out that by growing up, children‘s showed significant changes on performing Stand Long Jump which is strongly related with growth and power. In the third year the differences has higher score (from 115 cm to 126 cm), while on second group values were from 119 to 129 to second one. Furthermore while we compare the Coordination Abilities, with Lateral Jump tests, results showed that only on performing the Lateral Jump test children showed

Conclusion Based on tests results i conduct that: • Anthropometric development which is related to growth, so we have increasing on all parameters as weight, height, BMI. • Related to Motor Abilities Children showed significant development on force of lower limb, measured by Stand Long Jump. • Related to flexibility children have no significant differences • Coordination Abilities, only on performing the Lateral Jump test children showed significant differences. • Related to Plate Tapping and Balance Bean and Moving with plates test children didn’t show any significant differences. Recommendations for Future Research o It is physical education teacher responsibilities, to work more on Flexibility and Coordination, especially in this age. o More needs to be done concerning qualification of the general teachers in the elementary school o Future studies should be concerned to investigate the level of PA and to test the correlation with health related variables (BMI, waist, %Fat mass, coordination) in Albania. o Increasing the level of motor abilities in children (by curricula especially those concerning coordination abilities and continuing to extend their focus in all age groups is needed. o More support is needed from our Albanian government to create or to build new space/ playgrounds for this generation.


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References Field, AE., Camargo, C.A, Taylor, C.B., Berkey, C.S., Roberts, S.B., Colditz, G.A. (2001). Peer, parent, and media influences on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting among preadolescent andadolescent girls and boys. Pediatrics, 1 07 (1), 54-60. Stone, E.J., McKenzie, T.L., Welk, G.J. and Booth, M.L. (1998) Effects of physical activity interventions in youth: review and synthesis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 15, 298-315 Himes JH, Dietz WH. Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services: recommendations from an expert committee: the Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services. Am J ClinNutr. 1994;59:307–316 Kipping RR,Jago R, Lawlor DA. Obesity in children. Part 2: Prevention and management. BMJ 2008;337:a1848doi10. 1136/bmj.a1848. Kiphard, B.J., & Schilling, F. (1974). Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder. Weinheim, Germany: Beltz. McKenzie, T.L., Alcaraz, J.E., Sallis, J.F. and Faucette, N. (1998) Effects of physical education programme on children’s manipulation skills, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 7, 327-341. Jarani, J. Ushtelenca K and Spahi A (2014a). The current level of health and skills related fitness indicators in Albanian children; reference values from a country in transition, Faculty of Kinesiology University of Zagreb 1, 264– 268. Jarani. J, Muca. F, Spahi. A, Qefalia, D and Shaka, L (2014b). Threats of new generation on physical activity level in Albanian children, Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 40, 151–158. McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Broyles SL, Zive MM, Nader PR, Berry CC, Brennan JJ. Childhood movement skills: predictors of physical activity in Anglo American and Mexican American adolescents? Res Q Exerc Sport 2002: 73: 238–244. Mei Z,Grummer-Strawn LM, Pietrobelli A, Goulding A, Goran MI, Dietz WH. Validity of body mass index compared with other bodycomposition screening indexes for the assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents. Am J ClinNutr. 2002;75:978–985 Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, et al. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: a follow-up of the Harvard

Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1350–5. Must, A., & Strauss, R.S. (1999). Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 23(Suppl. 2), 2–11. Nicaj G and Schoot N (2013). A preliminary epidemiologic study on development coordination disorder in Albanian children (710 years), Journal of Physical Activity and Sports 1 (1), 31-36. Spahi A, Jarani J and Harald T (2013). Schoolbased intervention within the physical education curriculum in promoting physical activity and fitness, Journal of Physical Activity and Sports 1 (1), 22-30. Batch J A (2005). Benefits of physical activity in obese adolescents and children., InternMed J 35(8), 446. Huang J S, Sallis J and Patrick K (2009). The role of primary care in promoting children’s physical activity., Br J Sports Med 43(1), 19–21. Hills A P, Okely A D and Baur L A (2010). Addressing childhood obesity through increased physical activity., Nat Rev Endocrinol 6(10), 543–549. Strong W B, Malina R M, Blimkie C J R, Daniels S R, Dishman R K, Gutin B, Hergenroeder A C, Must A, Nixon P A, Pivarnik J M, Rowland T, Trost S and Trudeau F (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth., J Pediatr 146(6), 732–737. Meinel K (1960). Volk undWissen Volkseigener Verlag, Berlin. Hirtz P and Starosta W (2002). Sensitive and critical periods of motor co-ordination development and its relation to motor learning., pp. 17–28. Stodden D, Langendorfer S and Roberton M A (2009). The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults., Res Q Exerc Sport 80(2), 223–229. Barnett L M, Van Beurden E, Morgan P J, Brooks L O and Beard J R (2008). Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?, Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(12), 2137–2144. Ushtelenca K, Pasha and Ommundsen Y (2013). An investigation study on BMI, percent body fat, coordination abilities and the relationship between them, on 6-7 years old children in Tirana, Journal of Physical Activity and Sports 1(1), 37-44


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Effects of the revenue growth and impact on the budget of university (case study of sports university of tirana ) Galushi. M1 and Gishti. E2 1 2

Sports University of Tirana(Albania) National Vocational Education and Training Agency,Albania

Contact: mgalushi@ust.edu.al Abstract This analysis is focused on the study conducted over a 14-year period from 1999 to 2013 on revenue growth at the Sports University of Tirana, (formerly Academy of Physical Education and Sports “Vojo Kushi” ). It examines the influence that the growth of revenue has had on the university’s budget, problems and barriers regarding the use of revenue through the 14-year period, the study of changes in legislation during these years in higher education system. The selected method of research for this case study is both qualitative and quantitative, involving the study of Higher Education Financial Legislation for the covered period, and statistical data analysis of these years on the generation and use of revenues by the Sports University of Tirana (formerly Academy of Physical Education and Sports “Vojo Kushi”) From the analysis of statistical and historical data we conclude that the present legislation regulating the generation and use of revenues demonstrates drawbacks. In the final part of the study we include recommendations on improvements to financial legislation; greater financial autonomy for universities; alternatives to revenues growth positively impacting not only the University budget intended to cover expenses, but also investments in the infrastructure of the University. Key words: revenue , budget, legislation, financial autonomy.

Introduction Education policy research pays considerable attention to the productivity and efficiency of the education sector, in particular of government expenditure in the sector. Building a modern and high quality Higher Education system contributes to the continuous professional and civic advancement of the young people and adults through provision of professional qualifications that meet the demands of economic and social development of the country. Being important to the human resources development, this sector has been going through permanent changes in order to fit in with the socioeconomic transformations. In

particular with those related either to the citizenship and social participation demands and the labour market and employment dynamics. A qualitative human resource development and their transition into labour market is the basic strategic goal of the Higher Education in Albania. Higher education in Albania, should anticipate and reply to labour market demand changes and the economic development of the country. The increased number of the higher education graduates is a challenge in terms of resources, especially financial ones needed for a qualitative education process and outcomes in the Higher Education Institutions.


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Due to the rules and the principles of the European space, the Higher Education Institution has an autonomy and academic freedom articulated, also in the Law No. 9741, on 21.5.2007 “For Higher Education System” in the Republic of Albania. Actually, state budget remains the main financial resource for Higher Education Institutions. Despite the attempt to redouble the budgeting of the HE, its real cost is still high, diminishing its impact in the overall budgeting. There is an emerging need to find efficient and effective ways for generating and using revenues. Based on the Albanian legal framework, the institutional autonomy includes: · Self governance of Universities/ Faculties (for organizational purposes and daily activities; · Developing independently studies programmes and research projects; · Defining students entry requirement; · Signing and implementing agreements with different bodies for issues such as: staff qualifications or research projects; · Collecting and administering funds from the state budget as well as other sources. The implementation of the financing scheme during last 14 years has had some distinct features. This study investigates: · Effects of the legislation changes in the University’ financing scheme · Problems and barriers regarding the use of revenues; · The influence of the growth of revenues generation in the University’s budget. Methodology The selected method of research for this case study is both qualitative and quantitative. It includes as following · Literature review (Higher Education Financial Legislation Framework, strategies on higher education system, Bologna process documents, other research reports, etc.) · Collecting data from different sources and verifying through interviews with peers in other higher education institutions, representatives from

·

Ministry of Education and Sports, Ministry of Finance and other stakeholders. Statistical data analysis of the selected period on the generation and use of revenues by the Sports University of Tirana.

Results During social and economic transition, the higher education in Albania has gone through an extraordinary masivisation in terms of the attendance not taking into consideration the existing institutional capacities, and resulting in a low quality of teaching and learning process as well as outcomes. The investments in higher education results to be some times less in comparison to our neighbor countries, and seems to be insignificant compared to the developed countries in Europe. Generally, the budget for higher education had never been more than 3% of the GDP, meantime due to a necessary objective suggested by UNESCO, UNDP, OCDE, EC, etc., it should not be less than 5% of GDP. During 1999-2006, the higher education system was further expanded in term of the profiles types as well as regions in Albania, without taking into consideration economic development and the labour market demand. In 1999, the new law on Higher Education was really necessary for regulating the higher education system and its components, especially in the context of its updating with the elements and mechanisms which were imposed by Bologna Process. For the first time, through this Law was stipulated the institutional autonomy of the universities expressed mainly in the electoral scheme for selecting the authorities and steering bodies in the Universities, in the academic decisionmaking process, as well as in their financial management and governance. On this context, due to the financial legal framework 14, Higher Education Institutions were budgetary institutions, where each Higher Education Institution has its own item in the whole education budget. Based on the article 12 of the Law on the Higher Education, the dedicated budget was detailed by the Higher Education Institution for each Rectorate and


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Faculty responsible to administer it in autonomous way.

funds from salaries/remuneration item to investment ones and vice versa.

Due to the legal framework of this period, Higher Education Institutions might generate revenues, but after discharging state obligations they could use no more than 10% of the remaining (based on the predefined items regulated by the Ministry of Finance). Tuition fees were determined by the Decision of the Council of the Ministers.

Some other weaknesses of the financial legal framework for the Higher Education system were as following: · The revenues generated over the Salaries item limit, were not possible to be used for other purposes. In order to approve the changes in their use it was needed a procedure which lasted for a really long time lacking the effectivity; · The investment item was really underestimated to be supported by this legal framework.

The revenues generated are separated due to the items of the state budget based on the Decision of the Council of the Ministers No. 424, dated on 09.07.1998 “For generating and administering of the revenues gained from the budgetary institutions” as well as in the other common instructions approved by the Ministry of Education and Science and Ministry of Finance for the distribution of the revenues. The Ministry of Education and Science (at the beginning of each year) approved the budget by defining the ceiling for each of these items 600/5 (salaries and remuneration), 231/5 (equipment, reconstruction, or buildings) and 602/5 (services and goods). The historical data of this period conclude that the majority part, around 80% of the revenues, goes to salaries and remuneration, and around 5% was dedicated to investments. If you had generated more revenues it was hard to change the defined limits. The revenues were used due to the instructions of Ministry of Education and Science and Ministry of Finance, without taking into the consideration the real needs of Higher Education Institutions. There were existing rigid procedures for Higher Education Institutions to make changes during the budgeting year (only with the approval of Ministry of Education and Science and Ministry of Finance). On the other hand, there were no transparent procedures because the investments were approved due to the objects and were not based on competitive grants. If the revenues exceeded the defined limits, it was really hard to have additional limits especially to be used for investments purposes (in fact the most needed field). It was not possible to transfer

During the period 2007-2013, there was approved by parliament a new Law No.9741, dated on 21.5.2007 for Higher Education which in turn created a new clime for financing Higher Education Institutions. New basic principles for financing Higher Education Public Institutions included: · All Higher Education Public institutions will function based on the financial autonomy principle; · The generated revenue may be used totally by universities, and also can be transferred in the successor year. · Unconditional transfers from the state budget, take into consideration also the transfers from the previous year. · Distribution of the financial resources and their use is done due to the rules and standards of the budgeting programme and the public financial management (the priority in use goes to the University generated revenues). · All the necessary transactions are done through treasury, based on the financial audit rules. For public transparency purpose each institution should provide an annual financial report. This report goes to both Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Finance. Higher Education Public Institutions are financed through the transfers from the state budget, their own revenues generation, and some other sources with predefined destination. The Council of Ministers, through the Ministry of Education and Science, gives


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to the Higher Education Public institution the necessary funds in order to accomplish their mission based on the predefined standards. Higher Education Public institutions have their own regulations on the ways they are going to use the funds generated from their own revenues in respect of the financial regulations stipulated in the Albanian legal framework. The revenues generated by Universities included: · Tuition fees. · Revenues from services (training, qualifications or other similar services) provided for different clients (based on respective agreements). · Revenues from services provided by universities linked with sports, arts and culture. · Revenues from research projects or other specialized services. · Revenues from renting. · Grants, legacy, public donations. · Irreversible financing, on the framework of bilateral or multilateral projects. · Other legal financing resources. Some of the advantages of the Higher Education Public institutions during this period are as following: · The new financial legal environment gives to universities a lot of space to use revenues generated, with much more flexible procedure. · Universities can use 100% of the revenues, without having any limits on the distribution schemes. · The financing from state budget comes in grant form, and its distribution is approved by University’ Steering Councils, than it goes to treasury by shortening significantly the procedures. · Through this financing scheme the university’ needs are addressed better But, on the other hand, the unconditional transfer was not sufficient to cover the personnel expenses concluding sometimes in the lack of the efficiency. Case study of Sports University of Tirana In 1958, it was established as Physical Education Institute, than in 2000 it was transformed in the Academy of Sports and

Physical Education “Vojo Kushi”, and from 2010 is established the Sports University of Tirana. During last 14 years the evidence shows that: • The number of graduates is around 10 fold increased • The academic staff is doubled • The infrastructure is significantly improved. University’s budget comes from the Ministry of Education and Sports defined in these items 600 (salaries and remuneration), 231 (equipment, reconstruction, or buildings), 601 (social insurance), 604 (internal transfers), 605 (external transfers) and 602 (services and goods). If one of the items was not planned as it needed, every 2 months a re-alocation of funds is demanded, through the Ministry of Education and Sports which got the approval from the Ministry of Finance. On the other hand, the Sports University of Tirana, has generated revenues from the tuition fees (which represent the majority part of the revenues generated); revenues from the usage by the third parts of the sports facilities out of teaching and learning process which has had a significant increase as a result of the investments form improving this infrastructure; other incomes from administrative procedures (secretary), registration to competitions and different specialization courses delivered. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, the effects of the revenues in the overall budget of the Sports University of Tirana are showed in the Figure 1. as follows

Figure 1. Effect of the revenues generations in the Sports University of Tirana budget


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Figure 2. Effects of the revenues in the budget (in lek) From this analysis is quite evident that the financial autonomy stipulated in the new law on Higher education after 2007 is reflected in larger share of generating and using revenues based on the needs of the University. This flexibility in generating incomes and the possibility to use these incomes had supported the new established Sports University of Tirana activity, in 2010, linked with improving

teaching and learning process and for other academic purposes. As this Figure 3 shows, because of the rigid procedures the majority of the budget went to the salaries and services. On the other hand, the revenues discharges to the state budget based on the existing financial legal framework during 1999 till 2003 are showed in the Figure 3, as follows

Figure 3. Revenues discharged to the state budget (in %)


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As this Figure shows, at the end 2002 all the revenues generated were discharged to state budget. The average of revenues discharging to state budget was from10% to 40%. On the framework of the new law, from 2008 all the revenues generated are used 100% mainly for investment and salaries On the other hand, the impact of the revenues generation in salaries and remuneration is showed in the Figure 4, as follows:

Based on the analysis of the historical data, from 1999 till 2012 the contributions of the revenues in salaries and remuneration of the University’ personnel varies from 3-11%. Only in 2013, the revenues generated covered around 22% of the salaries and remuneration evidencing the highest contribution of the revenues in the University’ budget linked with this item. During 1999-2013, based on the statistical analysis, there is no a regular share between the contribution of the state budget and University’ revenues in order to finance investments needed to improve University’s activity. Investment seems to be really affected by the University’s revenues generation, especially during 2012-2013, when the state budget contribution is not existing at all, Figure 4. Effect of the revenues generation in salaries and remuneration (1999-2013) and the investments were totally financed by the revenues generated within the University (100%) The impact of the revenues generation in services and goods is significant especially in 2013 covering around 99 % of University’s services and goods, as it is showed in the figure 6, as follows: Figure 5. Effect of the revenues generation in investments

Figure 6. Effect of the revenues generation in services and goods

There are some reasons behind this situation represented through the figures 4-6, that include: – The transferred grant form state budget had a slight increase till 2011 because of the increased number of University personnel as well as the increased salaries value. This is linked with newly established University of Sports of Tirana, and


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after that it was drastically reduced especially in the last two years. – Meantime, the revenues generation had played an important role in filling this gap, by covering the university needs in terms of salaries, investments and other services. Discussion and Conclusion The fact that higher education is been financed mainly by the state budget should not influence the autonomy of Higher Education Institutions for self governance, on the contrary it should raise the awareness of these institutions to be much more effective. Based on this above mentioned analysis, the revenues generated in the Sports University of Tirana are increased during 14 years and has had a positive impact in filling the gaps of under-financing from the state budget. The greatest impact of total revenues generation used for salaries is 22% in 2013 because the grant transferred from state budget was not sufficient to cover the salaries. The investments done till 2007, have had a great impact in improving financial situation in the forthcoming years, increasing the potential of the University to generate the revenues. In general, during 3 last years the revenue generation growth had created a sound basis for the Sports University of Tirana to sustain itself, especially in terms of investments and supporting services where state financial was absent. Through the actual financing scheme the university’ needs are addressed better, but anyway the overall level of higher education system financing remains very low. Although the Government each year gives the funds based on priority fields, there are not an efficient ways of creating and using revenues forecasted in the actual legal framework. Further implications The institutional autonomy and the diversification of the financial resources are crucial to develop higher education in a sustainable financial basis. If the higher education institutions will not be reformed in order to increase efficiency and autonomy, any

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effort to improve financing scheme will fail. It is really important to stress the fact that together with the increasing of the investments in the Universities should be reinforced their institutional autonomy, especially in terms of financial management and governance. In this perspective, further improvements on University’ financial legal framework addressing better their autonomy, in terms of the capacities in University’s managing levels to implement this status, as well as on the ways of using state budget funds as well as revenues generated on its own. The public-private partnerships should be promoted in terms of common financial projects. The provision of schooling is largely provided and financed by governments. However, due to unmet demand for education coupled with shrinking government budgets, the public sector in several parts of the world is developing innovative partnerships with the private sector. The main rationale for PublicPrivate Partnership (PPP) programs is the potential role of the private sector for expanding equitable access and improving learning outcomes. By providing demand-side financing and contracting private organizations to provide support services, governments can provide better choices to parents and grant them an opportunity to fully participate in their children’s schooling. The education market highlights the importance of effective regulatory frameworks and contractual instruments to ensure quality and effective use of public resources. The University opportunity to bond its own properties will allow capital investments, which in turn will provide a greater support to academic process and especially to scientific research (through getting loans, etc.). As Higher Education is really expensive, and in this context the diversification of the financial resources is one of the main challenges for the future. Actually, one of the main financial sources remains tuition fees. Another implication that might be taken in consideration is that the tuition fees should be based in the real cost for studing in the University, and in order to assure all inclusiveness there is a necessity to apply differentiated students tuition fees policies associated with a subsidizing system to address


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different target groups needs. For some specific higher education institutions part of being national strategic priorities such as sports, arts, military. etc., should be applied a special financing status by getting funds not only by the MOES but also by the line Ministries References Law No. 8461, dated on 25.2.1999 “For Higher Education in the Republic of Albania”. Law No. 9741, dated on 21.5.2007 “For Higher Education “ revised, Articul 76-81. Common Instruction No.34, dated on 10.11.1998, Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Finance. Instruction No.21 dt.07.11.2001 “For generating and administering of the revenues”. Instruction No.4 dt.04.02.2003 “ For generating and administering of the budgetary revenues buxhetore in the higher education system”. Decision of the Council of the Ministers No. 424, dated on 09.07.1998 “For generating and administering of the revenues gained from the budgetary institutions”. Law No.10025, dated on 27.11.2008 “For the State Budget in 2009”, Anexes 5, 6. Law No.8379, dated on 29.7.1998 “For compiling and implementing the State Budget in the Republic of Albania”. Decision of the Council of the Ministers No.1509, dated on 30.07.2008 “For the Approval of the National Strategy for higher Education, 2008-2013” Statistics from University of Sports of Tirana, on planning and implementation of the budget and the revenues generated during 1999-2013. Draft Report on Reforming Higher Education and Scientific Research, the Commision for Higher Education and Scientific Research, established by Council of Ministers. Authors Adrian Ziderman and Douglas Albrech, 2004, Financing Universities in Developing Countries. EUA PUBLICATIONS 2008 ,Financially

sustainable Towards Full Costing In European Universities. Europian University Association , 2007,Lisbon declaration . EUA PUBLIKATIONS 2005 , by Bernadette Conraths and Hanne Smidt 2005 ,The funding of university –Based Research and Innovation in Europë. James J. Duderstadt President Emeritus, University Professor of Science and Engineering, The University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, Michigan,The University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, November 29, 2000, Financing the Public University in the New Millennium Edited by Steve O.Michael &mark kretovics ,Financing Higher Education in a Global Market, Algora Publishing, Kent State University. Ben Jongkloed (Center for Higher Education Policy Studies) University of Twente the Netherlands, ESMU 2010, Modern Europian Platform Higher Education Modernization, Funding highereducation: Aview Across Europe.


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Chronic fatigue syndrome and physical activity benefits Pano. G1, Çitozi. R2 and Mitllari. J 1 2

Sport Sciences Research Institute, Sports University of Tirana. Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreation, Sports University of Tirana.

Abstract Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a disease which is characterized by fatigue and inability for at least a 6 month period, which is also accompanied by other different health symptoms. This review gives an overview of the studies related to CFS and the benefits of physical activity/physical therapy to those individuals. This paper’s main objective was searching the latest studies regarding the recommendations for testing and programming of physical exercises and the type of physical activities that this group category should practice in order to prevent and improve their health conditions. We have searched in PubMed, one of the main searching motors in this field, where the main focus was the CFS related with physical activity and physical therapy. Results showed that from 336 possible studies only 5 fulfilled the criteria’s to be part of this review. There are scientific evidences which prove that CFS patients can benefit from physical activity and physical therapy. It is necessary that CFS patients should have personalized physical activity and physical therapy programs in order to have more positive health benefits. Based on the studies included in these review we can say that, physical activity and physical therapy are some of the best methods for treating CFS and in most of the cases their health related benefits are almost the same with medical therapy benefits. In order to have more reliable and convenient results it’s very necessary to perform further studies involving a larger number of subjects. Key Words: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, physical activity, physical therapy. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterized by persistent medically unexplained fatigue of more than six months duration. Sufferers experience significant disability and distress, which may be further exacerbated by a lack of understanding from others, including health professionals. Chronic fatigue syndrome is a condition of prolonged and debilitating fatigue both physical and mental, which is accompanied by characteristic (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians. 2002). Quality of life, functional impairment, bodily pain, social function and mental health has been found to be more markedly diminished in people with chronic fatigue syndrome when compared to other chronic illnesses such as chronic heart failure, end stage renal disease and multiple sclerosis (Anderson

JS, Ferrans CE., 1997; Komaroff AL et al., 1996). The high levels of fatigue and impaired physical functioning experienced by individuals with ME/CFS can often result in drastic life changes affecting physical, social, and mental well being as well as overall quality of life (Anderson & Ferrans, 1997; Prins et al., 2001; Van Houdenhove & Luyten, 2008). While a specific cause for CFS has yet to be identified, several triggers have been proposed These conditions include, but are not limited to: • Viral infection, • Immunologic dysfunction, • Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis activity, • Neuraly mediated hypotension, • Nutritional deficiency, and


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Profound psychological stress. Consequently, CFS is defined primarily by its symptoms, which in addition to fatigue may include; • Frequent sore throats, • Painful lymph nodes, • Headache, • Difficulty with concentration and memory, • Low-grade fever and others. Therapies including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), graded exercise therapy (GET) and counselling, have been associated with reduced fatigue in primary care patients six months later (Ridsdale L et al., 2001; Ridsdale L et al., 2004). Only cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy have been proven to consistently ameliorate symptoms (Wallman KE et al., 2005) and improve function (Chambers D et al., 2006; Rimes KA, Chalder T., 2005) in chronic fatigue syndrome. Objectives 1. Main objective of this study was to review all randomized controlled trials of exercise therapy for adults with CFS and effectiveness of exercise therapy alone or as part of a treatment plan 2. To investigate the latest literature recommendations regarding exercise testing, programming and types of physical activity that Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients should be involved.

controlled trial studies which used PA intervention as a weapon for delaying or treating symptoms of Chronic Fatigue patients. Keywords: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Physical activity, Physical exercise Results From 651 items, filters selected only 16 possible studies but only 6 have been identified to fulfill the selection criteria’s: The six included studies were: 1. Gordon B. A., 2010 2. Meeus. M., 2010 3. Hlavaty L. E., 2011. 4. Figuera R.S., 2012. 5. Marques. M., 2012. 6. Ridsdale. L., 2012. Description of the involved studies Number

Nr:

Study ID Gordon B.A

1

of

Age of

Time of

subjects

participants

intervention

22

13-18

4 weeks

Type of intervention Exercise therapy

et al., 2010 78 (26 Sub maximal aerobic

2

Meeus. M.,

with

2010.

CFS)

18-65

-------

E., 2011.

82

18-65

12 months

Exercise therapy

Figuera

163

-

6 months

Exercise therapy

Exercise

Hlavaty L. 3.

R.S., et al 4.

2012. Standard care (SC) or standard care plus a self-regulation based

Methods Criteria for considering studies for this review Types of studies • Publication dates (last 10 years) • Only randomized controlled trials, • Free full text available, • English language, Types of participants • Subjects were adult men and women of all ages with a clinical diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or • Subjects that used in the same time other medication treatments for physical and/or psychological problems • The search has been made mainly, focusing in PubMed, for randomized

physical activity

Marques. 5.

M., 2012.

82

18-65

12 Months

222

16-75

6 months

program (4-STEPS)

L.Risdale, 6.

2012

Exercise therapy

Table 1. Studies Characteristics

Results · Therapeutic regimens were from 4 weeks to 12 months and in all the studies exercise therapy was combined with other adjuvant therapies. · All the Studies had a total of over 713 participants. · Subjects age was from 13 years old to 75 years old, also the main used exercise therapies were: · Exercise therapy; standard care (SC) or


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standard care plus a self-regulation based physical activity program (4STEPS) Results. 1. Gordon B.A et al., 2010 study In Gordon B.A et al., 2010 study were recruited 22 adolescents aged 13–18 years diagnosed with CFS were randomized to either graded aerobic exercise training or a progressive resistance training program, for five days/week for four weeks. The graded aerobic training consisted of 20–40 minutes of stationary cycling and treadmill exercise. The progressive resistance training involved 16 exercises performed with single set, moderate load and high repetitions. Results. 2. Meeus. M., 2010 study In Meeus. M., 2010 study were recruited 26 patients with CFS suffering of chronic pain, 21 patients with chronic low back pain and 31 healthy subjects. Participants underwent a submaximal aerobic exercise protocol on a bicycle ergometer, preceded and followed by venous blood sampling (nitric oxide) and algometry (hand, arm, calf, low back). Patients with CFS presented overall lower pain thresholds compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain. Results. 3. Hlavaty L. E., 2011. Study In Hlavaty L. E., 2011. study were recruited 82 participants with ME/CFS which were randomly assigned to one of four nonpharmacological interventions. Each intervention involved 13 sessions over the course of six months. Change scores were computed for self-report measures taken at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Results. 4. Figure R.S., et al 2012. Study In Figuera R.S., et al 2012 the participants consulting for fatigue of over three months’ duration were recruited from 31 general practices in South East England and allocated to one of three arms. Outcomes and use of services were assessed at 6-month follow-up. The main outcome measure used in the economic evaluation was clinically significant improvements in fatigue, measured using the Chalder fatigue scale. Cost-effectiveness was assessed using the net-benefit approach and

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cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Those receiving the active therapies (GET and COUN) had more contacts with care professionals and therefore higher costs, these differences being statistically significant. Results. 5. Marques. M., 2012. Study In Marques. M., 2012. study the author has developed a brief physical activity program for patients suffering from unexplained chronic fatigue which focuses on the training of selfregulation skills, the “4-STEPS to control your fatigue” program. This study has taken place in local primary care centers and at the Portuguese Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients Association. Patients were 18-65 years old and fulfilling criteria for Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue (ICF) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and were randomly allocated to standard care (SC) or standard care plus a self-regulation based physical activity program (4-STEPS). Patients were assessed at baseline, after the intervention (3 months) and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome was fatigue severity. Results. 6. L. Risdale, 2012 study In L. Risdale, 2012 study the main objective the main outcome measure was the change in the Chalder fatigue score between baseline and 6 months. Also to evaluate the effectiveness of graded exercise therapy (GET), counseling (COUNS) and usual care plus a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) booklet (BUC) for people presenting with chronic fatigue in primary care. Secondary outcomes included a measure of global outcome, including anxiety and depression, functional impairment and satisfaction. Results of this study revealed a reduction in mean Chalder fatigue score at 6 months was 8.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6–10.4]. Conclusions · In Gordon B.A et al., 2010 study, physical capacity and quality of life significantly improved in both groups, while fatigue severity and symptoms of depression improved only with aerobic training. · In Meeus. M., 2010 study results showed that after submaximal aerobic exercise, mean pain thresholds decreased in patients with chronic


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·

·

·

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fatigue syndrome, and increased in the others (p < 0.01). In Hlavaty L. E., 2011. study the findings revealed that those who completed a maximum amount of homework had greater improvement on a number of self-report outcome measures involving role, social and mental health functioning. Figuera R.S., et al 2012. study does not reveal a clear recommendation about which therapeutic option to adopt, based on efficiency, for patients with chronic fatigue. Conclusions of L. Risdale, 2012 study suggest that fatigue presented to general practitioners (GPs) tends to remit over 6 months to a greater extent than found previously.

Reccomandations Based on the reviewed studies we can say that: • Findings from Hlavaty L. E., 2011, study suggest that homework compliance can have a positive influence on some aspects of physical, social, and mental health functioning in participants with ME/CFS. • The lack of significant changes in physical functioning and fatigue levels suggests a need for more multidisciplinary treatment approaches that can elicit improvement in these areas. • L. Risdale, 2012 study suggest that GPs ask patients to return at 6 months if their fatigue does not remit, when therapy options can be discussed further. • Exercise therapy is one of the most appropriate ways for improving health in CFS patients. • More studies for CFS patients involving larger groups of randomized subjects with different ages should be conducted using individualized exercise interventional programs, in order to have more concrete recommendations regarding exercise testing and programming for these patients category.

References Anderson JS, Ferrans CE. The quality of life of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Nerv Ment Dis 1997; 185: 359–367. [PubMed: 9205421] Chalder T, Wallace P, Wessely S. Self-help treatment of chronic fatigue in the community: A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Health Psychology 1997;2:189–97. Chambers D, Bagnall AM, Hempel S, Forbes C. Interventions for the treatment, management and rehabilitation of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: an updated systematic review. J R Soc Med 2006; 99: 506–520. Komaroff AL, Fagioli LR, Doolittle TH, Gandek B, Gleit MA, Guerriero RT et al. Health status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and in general population and disease comparison groups. Am J Med 1996; 101: 281–290. Prins JB, Bleijenberg G, Bazelmans E, Elving LD, de Boo TM, Severens JL, van der Meer JWM. Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: A multicentre randomized controlled trial. The Lancet. 2001; 357:841–847. Rimes KA, Chalder T. Treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome. Occup Med (Lond) 2005; 55: 32–39. Ridsdale L, Godfrey E, Chalder T, Seed P, King M, Wallace P, Wessely S, Group tFT: Chronic fatigue in general practice: is counselling as good as cognitive behaviour therapy? A UK randomised trial”, British Journal of General Practice, vol. 51, pp. 19–24. Br J Psychiatry 2001, 51:5. Ridsdale L, Darbishire L, Seed PT: Is graded exercise better than cognitive behaviour therapy for fatigue? A UK randomized trial in primary care. Psychol Med 2004, 34(1):37–49. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical practice guidelines 2002. Med J Aust 2002; 176: S23–S56. Van Houdenhove B, Luyten P. Customizing treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: The role of perpetuating factors. Psychosomatics. 2008; 49:470–477. [PubMed: 19122123] Wallman KE, Morton AR, Goodman C, Grove R. Exercise prescription for individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. Med J Aust 2005; 183: 142–143.


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Leisure and Recreation Sport Elmazi. R. e-mail:rd.elmazi@gmail.com

Abstract This paper will focus on spending free time in a healthy way. Nowadays, it is evident that children spend most of their time sitting on their desks at school, or sofa at home while watching TV, or chair while playing games in a PC or laptop. This is an indicator of a considerable lack of movement which to a certain extent results in the limitation of the psychomotor development of the child. The various sports activities are the best and healthiest way to spend free time. Sportâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aim is the comprehensive and harmonious development of children, i.e through sports activities they acquire physical skills, have their will shaped, become disciplined, persistent, daring and build selfconfidence. Sport guarantees overall development of personality, as it prepares the individual both at practical and psychological aspect. Moreover, sport is key to the anatomical-physiological development of the elasticity of muscles, functioning of the systems of the body, improvement of the neuromuscular processes, protection against overweight and obesity.

Key words: movement, sport, psychomotor development, anatomical-physiological development.

Introduction Doing sports activities, in addition to fresh air, sun and nutrition, is of special importance in the healthy raising of children. Sport plays an extraordinary role in the development of children. It serves not only to the protection and boosting of the health of the children, so that they have a strong body, perform graceful movements, but also development and education of their personality. The main indicators of the physical development depend on factors which include external environment and socio-economic factors. These factors are constantly changing in our country and consequently, physical development of children is subject to changes from one groupage to another, but their development must not be left to the spontaneous situations. As of the early childhood they must be well-organised by their parents, educators and teachers at school. After a tiring day at work you probably think that you will relax laying on the sofa or

reading a novel, without considering the fact that you child is there watching TV or playing computer. The best relaxation for both parents and children, is going out for a walk and strolling in the fresh air. Methodology The study is based on my experience as a teacher of physical education and trainer of different group-ages. The main question of this study is what is the role of leisure and recreation sports in the harmonious and overall development of children, but before answering to this question, it is important to know how to use free time in the healthy way. Are the sports activities a healthy way and what is the result of leisure and recreation sports? In order to answer to these questions and draw the conclusions of this study I have made use of the following methods. Parent - teacher meetings. Talking to parents is quite useful to me because I understand their progress and deficiencies during the class or training and


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come to relevant conclusion. When establishing my first contacts I address questions, like: Do they talk to their children to inform them of the sports activities impact on their development: How much time do they spend playing with the children? How do they organize their free time? Etc. Observation: following the progress of every single child and carefully studying all the psycho-motor development changes. Results Motor development. From my experience so far I have found that the psycho-motor development varies from one child to another. The children who from early childhood have been actively involved by their parents in simple games within the family environment, various open air games, collective sports, demonstrate their priority in development of anthropometrical parameters of superior height, fit and straight body, wide shoulders and proper body weight. One can visibly identify in them the development of physical skills, as they are faster in running, higher in jumping and better in coordination. The children up to three years of age are agile and flexible, but the level of the general motor development is still low. To this end, it is necessary for the efforts of the parents to affect the development of some elementary movements, including: walking, running, jumping etc, movements which, in this age, are still quite imprecise. Major differences are observed in the development of the physical skills. The children who have been involved in games during the pre-school age, are agile and flexible. They have a better coordination of the limbs, especially the arms. Anatomical-physiological development. Responsibility for such development starts from the efforts invested in the children from their early age, because the development and boosting of the health, muscle elasticity, functioning of the systems and apparatuses of the body, improvement to perfection of the neuromuscular processes and coordination of the movements, are acquired from childhood. In order to have the proper effect on the body of the children, the movement activities must be done systematically adapted to the age of the children, their physical and psychological development.

Intensive development of bones and muscles. Pre-school age is extremely important for the physical development of the child. During this period, it takes place the intensive development of bones, muscles, nervous system and motor system in general. Such development requires efforts and the proper physical functioning and bodily construction of the child will depend on such efforts. Nervous system development. Thanks to the outdoor strolls, blood circulation will be improved, fresh air will be breathed, and the blood will be supplied with more oxygen which is very important for the nervous system. Better functioning of the heart. Big quantities of food and lack of movements and insignificant use of energy and failure to respect the daily regime, result in the depositing of the fat and sugar in fatty masa, distortion of harmony of functioning of the organism, breathing difficulties, and the heart is covered by a fatty layer which will make its functioning difficult. Development of the respiration apparatus. The process which starts with the strolls, continues with a change of the pace, from a slow pace to a quicker pace, and then running. Such sports activities affect the development of the respiratory system so that it supports the body in case of various physical burdens, starting gradually from the low intensity movements to the high intensity movements. Swimming is a sports discipline of few and simple movements, but considerable results in the development of the muscles of the body and especially the back muscles. Swimming is advantageous for the strengthening of the muscles of the arms, legs, muscles and improving blood circulation. It is a sport which in addition to the development of the muscles of the body, helps the better functioning of the heart and respiratory system. Prevention of scoliosis and rickets. Not only the air, but the sun as well adds vital activity of the cells and helps the body to stimulate calcium and phosphorous which lack results in rickets disease. This is the reason why mothers are very often advised by the paediatrician to expose their babies to the sun. Prevention of obesity. I will write a few lines about the nutrition of children, because it must be considered of primary importance for the


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healthy raising of children, which starts from pre-birth when the body of the child is being formed. It affects their raising, development and protection from illnesses which are a direct threat to health. Consumption of fatty food and sugars distorts the balance of proper nutritional diet, which is a main factor for the healthy raising of children. Very often the kids want to have an ice-cream, sweets, chips, soda which are not strictly forbidden, but they must not be consumed in an uncontrolled way. Doing the contrary, results in increase of calories which the body, if they are excessive, converts them into fat and consequently overweight and obesity problems. In order to avoid these problems with your children, the best and healthy solutions is their active involvement in sports activities starting from early age. This is the only possibility of balancing the calories so as to maintain proper body weight. Discussion The aim of this study is to understand the importance of organising free time of children with various sports games and activities and the development of children through such activities. It is important to understand that: free time must be spent in a healthy way. The example of parents who love sport, play, walk for leisure, because they consider sports important for the healthy body, is better than convincing the children to be involved in sports activities. Children must know that the parents are in favour of sports and consider sports to be important part of life. Sports is the main instrument of the free time. Educating self-responsibility so that the children are willing to spend free time though games, sports of different disciplines, is the best help we could give to our children in our times, where there is lack of premises and green areas for the children to play and where technology has occupied our free time. We cannot avoid the pertaining responsibility to help them organise our free time, because parents are responsible for their better development. The same responsibility must be assumed by the educators and teachers of physical education who must insist and make them understand the values of sport in the perfect development of the body. Various sport activities are the best healthiest ways. In order to avoid health problems with

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kids it is best to have them actively involved from early pre-school age. They may be involved in various manners and forms by their parents at home, teachers at school or educators in the kinder-garden. Of similar importance is their involvement in sports including: swimming, baseball, volleyball, sports dance, etc. During different training sessions, or even physical education sessions, the children learn running, jumping, dancing, crawling etc. They enter into a relationship with the surrounding environment, they act themselves, do mistakes and correct mistakes. A healthy child is eager for playing and very much interested in improving own movement. The child wilfully tries to do as many things on his own, and properly, as possible. Participation in an activity that they enjoy. After getting to know the weaknesses of your child, talking to and discussing with your child, you must choose a sports discipline which is suitable for the age of the child. Initially this effort seems impossible and it must become a challenge to the will to learning and self-discipline. Interests are formed and developed during the leisure activity of the children at an early age, and they are fable and unstable. The interests of the child concerning walking and playing different games are developed during 2-3 years of age. The interests for games is still persistent even in the preschool age, but with the different that during this period such interest is further developed through movement games and sports activities. Outdoor walk. Movements, physical exercises and various games under the sun and open air play and important role in the harmonious development and growing of children. Air is extremely important for our health. It fills our lungs with oxygen and it has a significant effect on our health. Oxygen is the most important part of life and activity of human life. It is thus obvious the important value of strolling outside and breathing fresh air. Staying in closed premises, within the house and school, result in headache because of considerable lack of oxygen and increase of carbon dioxide. The physiological impact of air is vital for the apparatus which regulates body temperature, improves the heartbeat, blood vessels functioning, and it strengthens the


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nervous system. The positive effects of air may be identified in the differences that we see in our children. After staying for long hours inside the house and they hear the parents calling them to go out, their emotional situation changes, they start jumping, instead of walking, laughing, moving, and playing all the time. Play different games. Games are a special type of the activities used for the physical development, entertainment and relaxation. Children as of their childhood must deal with different activities during the process their personality is developed. In their pre-school age, the main activity of children is game, as the most appropriate form of entertainment and active involvement in social life. The children learn to make movements and games which satisfy their wishes and affect their physical, moral and cultural development when playing outdoor, in open air and green areas. Conclusion Recreation sport is the component part of the overall education of children. It contains the entirety of methods which aim at improving their psycho-motor skills. It aims at the overall and harmonious development of children so that they are able to run, jump, swim, acquire physical expressions, master their will, be

disciplined, persistent, daring. Such qualities help them be more competent and agile, physically. It is for these reasons that special attention must be paid to this area. Involvement in activities, above all, educates them to stay away from unwanted social problems damaging to the body including smoking or doing drugs. References Wlodkowsli , R. Washington DC. Motivation and teaching Cratty, B, J. Intelligence in Action. Englewood Cliffs ,NJ :Prentice-Hall (1973) Cratty , B,J. Perceptual and Motor Development in Infans and children. New York : Collier-MacMillan Co.(1970) Angela Glenn, advisory teacher at Medway ICSS Jacquie Cousins, manager at the referral unit of elementary pupils Alicia Helps, psychologist of Education Gallahue , D. L. Understanding Motor Development in children. New York : John Wiley and Sons (1982) Volumes: Play and learning in early years / Eliminating barriers to learning in early years Terry F Pettijon : Ohio State University Psychology, volume 1 and 2 Gerhardt, L.A .Moving and Knowing :The Young Child Orients Himself to Space. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (1973)


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Sports Contracts, A Novelty In European Labour Law Shatku. S 1 and Agalliu. P 2 1

Department of Organization and Management, Faculty of Physical Activity and Recreacion, Sports University of Tirana

2

Faculty of Law, Albanian University, Tirana-Albania

Abstract: With this study, we have tried to make a general overview of Sports Contracts, watching them from a legal point of view. As mentioned on the title, “Contracts matter” on sports does not have a traditionally stretched-in-time development, like it may have on other social and economic fields. Thus, the legal framework regulating this field in Europe will have the proper attention in making this study. Amongst the questions risen in this study, will be questions like: “How European labour law treats the Sports Contracts”; “Whether this issue is specifically regulated by EU law”; “How this kind of Contract stands compared to other traditionally recognized Contracts”; “What importance has had its development in Sport” etc. Expect analyzing the European legal framework on Sports Contracts, we will see also famous cases which have made history in this field and a standard Contract sample used widely in European Football Clubs. Keywords: Sports Contracts, European Legislation, European Labour Law, legal framework, football.

Introduction Contracts and labour are amongst the most ancient and important institutions of law, where parties assess between themselves mutual engagement, innovations, potentials, evaluations and capacities. In our case, the sports labour contract is one of the newest fields of the contractual system, and amongst the best paid in the sports labour market. A century ago, no one would have imagined that Sport and Sport Activities would have this kind of economic interactivity, development and significance that it has lately. International community has invested a lot in sports, which is seen as strong social component in entertaining and connecting people. Nowadays some of professional sports are “million dollars” industry, being also an important point in the economy of most Nations. Amongst

other sports, Football has taken the lead in most parts of the world, particularly in Europe (taking season 2010-11, over 3 billion Euros was the total value of transfers in European football, compared to the 27 million Euros in basketball). European Football Clubs spend every season tens and hundreds million of Euros to enforce their squads with talented players, which serve to their club in exchange for wealthy remunerations, reaching up to millions of Euros. Therefore, in these conditions it is crucial for this industry to be well regulated by specific rules and laws, which in the first place shall guarantee the protection of fundamental rights of sportsmen. The study goals of this review were: to highlight the importance of scientific, practical, legal protection of labour athletes and their contract; the importance of increasing demand for legal


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support in sports competitions; to stress the value of sports contracts in the labour market. 1.1 The importance of Sports Contracts There are several theories focused on the contractual nature of human and financial relationships in sports activities. Nowadays we cannot refer to contracts only as legal tools, but much more than that, they are used as powerful guarantors of basic rights and liberties of human kind. Sports and labour brought peace without the existence of contract.1 There are undoubtedly several question marks related to the efficacy, jurisdiction and potentials of signing, continuation and termination of the sports labour individual contract. Many facts related to the contract are important: professional sportsmen and professional sports associations, the sportsman as sole entrepreneurship, and bearer of rights and obligations. Sportsmen, always referring to their contracts are destined to sell their sports work, talent and fame for the achievement of results. 2 On the other hand, the sports associations are public entities, with public or private legal character, which aim to support the sportsmen through subsidizing and financial or promotional treatment. It is clear that the Contract itself and the legal background supporting it are strong legal instruments fully-protecting both the sportsmen and the entities employing them, in a time when professional sport is confronted by new challenges, such as: - A debt crisis which threatens financial and contractual stability in the sector; - The influence of criminality on the game (trafficking of players, illegal betting, corruption and fraud, abusive terms of employment); - New forms of investment in players which endanger the capacity of sporting bodies to 1

regulate their activities (Third party ownership – TPO); - The questioning of federations’ role and power in organizing and regulating the game in the face of more powerful clubs, run like businesses and, sometimes quoted on the stock exchanges with an obligation to deliver financial results to their shareholders.3 1.2 International and European Legal Framework of Sports Contracts At European level, a sportsman is legally seen as a regular labourer entitled with all the rights and obligations that EU’s acquis communautaire provides for them. But, of course the employment practices in sport are not exactly the same due to unequal characteristics of sport activity. The rules are examined in relation to sport’s alleged specificity as an activity deserving specific treatment in the implementation of general law and which, to a large extent, justifies the autonomy of sports institutions in regulating their competition. The EU institutions and notably the European Court of Justice are playing a key role in defining the scope of sport’s specificity.4 The most famous decision of the ECJ (European Court of Justice), which shaped forever the relationships in professional football, regarding to Contracts standards, player transfers, touching also other fundamental principles of EU Law such as “free movement of workers”, is “The Bosman ruling”.5 The Bosman ruling had a decisive influence on the development of professional football in Europe and beyond by reinforcing the social rights of players and by abolishing nationality requirements in the composition of teams at club level. Remarkably, the Court assessed the proportionality of the rules in force at that time in relation to an important criterion: the ability of a rich club to recruit the best players and therefore to undermine the balance of competition.6

Kaufmann-Kohler, G. et al (2003). “Legal Opinion on the Conformity of Certain Provisions of the Draft World Ant-Doping Code with Commonly Accepted Principles of International Law” February. Available at www.wada-ama.org. 2 S. Cassese, E. D., Alterio, M. D. Bellis (2011). The Enforcement of Transitional law Private regulation, Public Law and private regulation in the global legal space. 3 KEA(European Affairs) – CDES(The Centre for the Law and Economics of Sport): “Study on the economic and legal aspects of transfers of players”, January 2013. 4 Ibid. 5 C-415/93 Union Royale Belges des Societes de Football Association and others v Bosman and others, (1995) ECR I-4921. 6 KEA(European Affairs) – CDES(The Centre for the Law and Economics of Sport): “Study on the economic and legal aspects of transfers of players”, January 2013.


JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & SPORTS, 2014 Volume 2 Issue 1

However, the approach that EU Institutions have toward the interpretation of sport’s specificities is essential to understand sporting bodies’ self-regulatory powers. EU institutions emphasize the importance of rules aimed at supporting solidarity, redistribution of resources amongst clubs (to promote fair and balanced competition) and youth development as key reasons for justifying derogations from traditional implementation of EU Treaty rules.7 Other important documents at international level, such as the European sports chart, the recommendations of Council of Europe and the UN Conventions aim to support the engagement of employers, either public or private, in the encouragement, harmonization, and improvement of sports labour, not only in national but also in European and Olympic levels. In addition, an important European document in European football is an agreement among important football institutions in Europe (UEFA, EPFL, ECA and FIFPro Division Europe), having the support of European Commission and titled “Agreement regarding the minimum requirements for standard player contracts in the professional football sector in the European Union and in the rest of the UEFA territory”. 1.3 The Minimal Requirements Agreement As mentioned above, a decisive document regulating football Contracts in Europe and setting the minimal requirements of standard Contracts is the “Agreement regarding the minimum requirements for standard player contracts in the professional football sector in the European Union and in the rest of the UEFA territory”. This is a joint autonomous agreement between player associations, leagues, clubs and federations and it is considered as a great achievement for all parties and an example for the value of the European Social Dialogue for all stakeholders in sport supported by the European Commission. It is important to underline the autonomous character of this document due to the

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approach that EU Institutions hold toward sport and its institutions, seeing them as selfregulated-bodies. This agreement is also a first step in offering minimum social and legal standards as to the form of players’ contracts being implemented in the EU and in all 53 UEFA countries.8 To ensure that player contracts throughout Europe meet certain minimum standards such as: i. Contracts must be in writing; ii. They must define the rights and duties of club and player and they must address matters such as salary, health insurance, social security or paid leave; iii. Contracts also must refer to the duty of players to participate in training, to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to comply with disciplinary procedures; iv. They must contain provisions on dispute resolution and applicable law; v. Another important point is the duration of the contracts which the minimum period would be 1 year and the maximum 5 years;9 These conditions and others are binding to all European Football Clubs (in the position of the employer in this case), to be applied when preparing the standard Contracts. 2.1 Conclusions In conclusion of this review it is important to be underlined, that every athlete has the right under the European Sports Charter and the rules of the Council of Europe to be protected by law and assignments. Finally sports contracts of employment should be based only document and fulfil several minimal requirements to enable the process of movement and transfer of athletes from one club to another and from one country to another according to European legal requirements, to avoid abuse and corruption in the work and process sports, and therefore fundamental rights of every sportsman to be fully protected and guaranteed.

Ibid. FIFPro, UEFA, ECA, EPFL sign agreement on minimal requirements, 20 April 2012, EU Athletes (www.euathletes.org). 9 The Federation Internationale de Footballeurs Professionels Division Europe (FIFPro Division Europe), Press Release, 20 April 2012. 8


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References Kaufmann-Kohler, G. et al (2003). “Legal Opinion on the Conformity of Certain Provisions of the Draft World Ant-Doping Code with Commonly Accepted Principles of International Law” February. Available at www.wada-ama.org. S. Cassese, E. D., Alterio, M. D. Bellis (2011). The Enforcement of Transitional law Private regulation, Public Law and private regulation in the global legal space. KEA (European Affairs) – CDES(The Centre for the Law and Economics of Sport): “Study on the economic and legal aspects of transfers of players”, January 2013. C-415/93 Union Royale Belges des Societes de Football Association and others v Bosman and others, (1995) ECR I-4921. Shatku S., Mema B., Vinciguerra S., Journal of Physical Activity & Sports, pg.8-12; vol.1 Issue 1 december 2013; The Federation Internationale de Footballeurs Professionels Division Europe (FIFPro Division Europe), Press Release, 20 April 2012. “Agreement regarding the minimum requirements for standard player contracts in the professional football sector in the European Union and in the rest of the UEFA territory, 19 April 2012” Internet sources: www.euathletes.org, FIFPro, UEFA, ECA, EPFL sign agreement on minimal requirements, 20 April 2012. AJN, Albanian Jurisprudence Newsletter, Gajus extra 2, March 2013; Dokumenta te Politikes Nderkombetare Sportive I, Tirane, qershor 2006; Sanino, M., &Verde F., Il Diritto Sportivo, III edizione, CEDAM, Padova, 2011; Shatku S., Mema B., Çela K., Academic Jornal of Interdisciplinarity Studies, Vol. 3, No.1, (ISSN 2281-3993/print; ISSN 2281-4612/ online) Rome, March 2014;


Guidelines for Authors: Categories of Manuscripts Journal of Physical Activity & Sports invites, considers, and publishes manuscripts in the following categories: Full-Length Original Articles: Full-length original articles comprise reports of empirical research and other studies of up to 3,500 words of text (abstract of up to 250 words), plus tables and figures, and references. Review Articles: Review articles present state-of-the science literature reviews of up to 4,000 words of text (abstract of up to 250 words), plus tables and figures, and references. Manuscript Submission Requirements All manuscripts should be submitted online at the Journal of Physical Activity & Sports submission email address jpas.contact@ust.edu.al at website http://www.ust.edu.al The site contains detailed instructions on how to submit and information of the review process. All manuscripts will be assigned a manuscript number, and authors will receive email confirmation after the reviewing process. Authors should not transmit hard copies of their manuscripts to the journal office or email address. Inquiries regarding a manuscript or the journal should be directed to jpas.support@ust.edu.al. Style and format: All manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the style and format requirements of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). The manuscript, including captions, footnotes, tables, and references, must be double-spaced with 1-inch margins in a 12-point font. The elements of a manuscript should include: title page, abstract, body of text, references, and tables, figures or other graphic images. Title page: The title page should include the title only so as to blind the work to reviewers. Abstract: An abstract of up to 250 words (unless otherwise indicated) followed by up to 6 keywords, must accompany each submission. Body of text: Introduction, methods, results, and discussion (including implications for theory, policy, and/or practice). References: All references should be prepared in accordance with the format and style requirements of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) as: Sallis J F (2004). Behavioral and Environmental Interventions to Promote Youth Physical Activity and Prevent Obesity, Childhood Obesity Task Force. Philanthropic Collaborative for a Healthy Georgia pp. 16–29. Sallis J F and Glanz K (2009). Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic., Milbank Q 87(1), 123–154 Stodden D, Langendorfer S and Roberton M A (2009). The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults.,Res Q Exerc Sport 80(2), 223–229. References to unpublished material are discouraged. Footnotes to the text should be avoided. Tables and figures: All tables, figures, and graphic images should be cited sequentially in text, numbered, and accompanied by explanatory captions, and constructed in accordance with the style and format requirements of the APA Publication Manual. Do not include tables and figures within the body of the manuscript; tables and figures can be included at the end of the document or sending via email in separate document files. Language and other requirements: Manuscripts must be submitted in English. Manuscripts reporting the results of an intervention should provide a detailed description of the intervention in the methods section. Appendixes and supplemental material: Appendixes should not be included in the manuscript. However, appendixes containing questionnaires and instruments, intervention materials, supplemental data analyses, or other materials or information that are proposed by the authors(s) and deemed to be valuable by the editor may be made available for public access via links to a section for such material at the Sports University of Tirana website. Copyright Since the order of the Albanian Minister of Education and Science for regulation of Ethics in Publishing Research Activity dated 03/23/2012, the transfer of copyright from author to publisher, heretofore implicit in the submission of a manuscript, must now be explicitly transferred to enable the publisher to ensure maximum dissemination of the author’s work. A copy of the agreement executed and signed by each author is required with each manuscript submission. The agreement can be found on the website www.ust.edu.al. No manuscript can be considered accepted unless a signed copyright transfer agreement is executed and submitted. Authors transfer all copyright ownership of manuscripts to the Journal of Physical Activity and Sports


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The Official Journal of Sports University of Tirana Volume 2 Issue 1 August 2014 Rruga “Muhamed Gjollesha”, Tiranë, Shqipëri. hptt: www.ust.edu.al

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ISSN 2308-5045

JPAS Volume 2 Issue 1  

Revista Shkencore JPAS Volume 2 Issue 1 Gusht 2014

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