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A JOURNAL FOR INDUSTRIAL SOLUTIONS

RUSSIA’S GROWTH POINTS

Special Edition 2 June 2011

  

AEROSTATIC ARCHITECTURE FOR OLYMPIC ARENA

ACADEMY WAITS FOR INVESTORS


Foreword

SPORTS FACILITIES

The growth points are now in the spotlight of foreign partners, as Russia has been actively developing large-scale sports construction projects. The top venues to host International tournaments are not the only projects that attract investors today. Tourist and recreation zones where development of sports infrastructure requires new investment flows seem to be perspective projects as well. The Academy of Winter Sports in Krasnoyarsk is one of the most ambitious sports projects that Russia has finally started developing in recent years. As of today, all design works and project-related documents are ready, submitted, and approved by Russia's Federal Government. Definitely, the project needs investments in order to proceed with the infrastructure facilities located there. Please, read about the Academy in our today's Growth Points section. Realization of large-scale events and projects is impossible without involvement of private investors. That is why PPP schemes are now in the spotlight of Russia's top authorities. Today, the best experts and lawyers specializing in PPP schemes discuss this and other problems concerning investment risks, legal support, and appropriate models to push the public-private partnership projects forward. Please, read about the PPP schemes in our Management section. We, as a journal for industrial solutions, do pay attention to who and how will design, build, and reconstruct our future Olympic venues and mass sports facilities. It is not the first time SF publishes student business plans, researches, and architectural projects. Typically, these publications have a feedback, as many domestic and foreign architects, planners, engineers, technologists, and professors of architecture and building schools have comments and ideas relating to the proposed student projects. It is generally good for Russia to see that our future architects do pay attention to sports facilities and their legacy. We believe this trend will only continue with time, and certainly, high school and university departments and faculties are of the same importance to the country as its future growth points. Russia's state officials should not only focus on the large-scale investment projects nowadays. In this particular SF issue, we decided to publish another student research in our Architecture section. We believe that our publications would help identify the most talented young architects to further work with federal projects. In such a way, we promote the best innovative architectural and design ideas in the field of sports facilities.

Chief Editor Svetlana Arkhipova


Contents

GROWTH POINTS

Investing in the future

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Academy Waits for Investors

The Academy of Winter Sports in Krasnoyarsk is one of the largest projects being realized in Russia in the field of sports development. The design has been already finished and approved by federal authorities. The construction has started. The only remaining problem is to find investors to build the infrastructure

ARCHITECTURE

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Aerostatic Architecture for Olympic Arenas

Not only athletes dream of overcoming the force of gravity. Sports facilities architects also tend to the aeronautics. Projects of flying domes were published worldwide. The upcoming Olympic Games in Russia inspire future architects to actively use those ideas. Today, we present a project of an Olympic Park Sochi 2014 Ice Arena that Larisa Povysheva, student of the Civil Engineering Faculty of Izhevsk State Technical University, is trying to realize

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Alex Hoppe: The Uniqueness of Sochi Stadium Is in its Purpose

The International POPULOUS architectural bureau jointly with Mosproject-4 developed a concept of the Sochi Central Stadium to host the 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Today, SF is discussing this and other issues of the project with Mr. Alex Hoppe

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Contents

FUTURE STADIUMS

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Publisher Alexey Antonov

Stadiums of the Future in the Eyes of Industry Experts

On the first day of the VIII International Exhibition SPORT’11, Sports Facilities journal and sportsfacilities.ru portal organized the Roundtable. Investors, developers, facility managers, architects, consultants, customers and general contractors came to participate in the event to discuss what sports facilities of the future really are in terms of design, technology, and management

Experts and Speakers Tim Leiweke, Tim Romani, Michael Woollen, Robert Mankin, William Crockett, William McCullough, Anton Shatalov, Robert Gruman, Alex Hoppe, Alexander Vasyukov, Victor Myakonkov, Evgeny Lomov, Natalia Chistyakova, Alexey Tarasenko, Irina Tereshchenko, Horst Huber, Alexander Dolgov, Konstantin Makarevich Editor in Chief Svetlana Arkhipova Chief Editor of Special Projects Vladimir Kolosov Senior Secretary Anatoly Ageev Proof Reader Vladimir Kolosov Art Director Eugenia Gordeeva Designer Andrey Vankurov Color Corrector Igor Novikov Cover and Infographics Evgenia Gordeeva

MANAGEMENT

SUPPORT

VENUE IN FOCUS

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Big Ice Arena: From Plan to Realization

In May 2012, the Sochi Big Ice Arena is scheduled to open. This will be the main arena where the Olympic hockey games will be played. The Ice Palace, located in the Olympic Park, is designed for 12,000 spectators. In December 2012, the first test competitions will take place there

Subscription and Distribution Daria Rozhkova d.rojkova@sportsfacilities.ru Commercial Department Irina Gaidukova info.project@sportsfacilities.ru

E

INESS READ EST V TO IN

Right after the announcement of Russia’s victory to host the FIFA World Cup 2018, the Russian government announced it would involve a lot of private investors to participate in various PPP schemes

KEY FACTORS TO PROCEED WITH PPP PROJECTS LEGAL IN RUSSIA

AC AN TUA D E LIT XP Y ER IEN C

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World Cup 2018 in Russia to Depend on PPP

Photo Andrey Mikhalchenkov Press Service Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee Photo banks: Shutterstock, Wikimedia Foundation, Sports Facilities

Founder and Publisher MediaProm Publishing House Mailing Address P/O 34, Moscow, 117208, Russia Tel./Fax: +7 (495) 781-6744 www.sportsfacilities.ru E-mail: info.project@sportsfacilities.ru Print Run 999 Printed in Russia Magma Ltd. 4/1 N. Krasnoselskaya St., Moscow, 107140, Russia The publication is registered with the Federal Service for Communication, Information, and Technology on July 20, 2009 Registration Certificate PI #FS77-40111 Copyright © MediaProm Publishing House All rights reserved. Reproduction of materials in full or in part without permission is prohibited. The editorial team is not responsible for promotional materials. Editorial opinions may not coincide with those of authors. The materials submitted to the journal are not criticized or returned.

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NEWS

2014 OLYMPICS HAVE VISUAL IMAGE The Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee has introduced its unified visual image of the XXII Winter Olympic Games and the XI Paralympic Games in 2014. The image concept logically reflects the sochi.ru brand philosophy and unity of different cultures, traditions and nationalities The idea of the new Sochi Olympics image belongs to BOSCO, which presented its concept to the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee for further development of visual solutions. The design is based on the patchwork principle that combines 16 ornaments of the most famous national crafts of Russia, from Gzheli to Khokhloma. Dmitry Chernyshenko, President of Sochi 2014, said: “The Organizing Committee welcomes the BOSCO initiative as an excellent example of real partnership. The 4

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results exceeded our expectations. The key idea developed by the BOSCO team incorporates a variety of impressions and emotions that the Sochi Games will bring to our country and the whole world. We see it quite natural that the company working with the Olympic movement in Russia for over ten tears has developed the visual design concept.” The developed brand is based on the idea that every Russian citizen participates in the Olympics one way or another. It re-

flects such characteristics as restraint, delicacy, and expression - in short, the features of the Russian character. The Olympic image is a unified concept of stadiums and urban environment, which will be unique for the 2014 Olympics and later on. It is a combination of perfect graphic design solutions that will put together sports facilities, infrastructure, streets, and avenues, in order to create an emotional background as the first impressions of the country that hosts the Olympic Games. The Sochi images will become recognizable globally for millions TV viewers, as the Olympic partners, sponsors, and licensees will actively use them during the Olympics and in the future. 


NEWS

SOCHI 2014 CELEBRATES 1,000 DAYS TO GO

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO ADDRESS SPORTS MARKETING

The OMEGA countdown clock for Sochi 2014 was unveiled in the center of the city. The clock is 4.15 m high and 4.4 m long. Its weight is 3,500 kg, and its design is intended to capture and reflect the spirit of a dynamic and diverse region, which is defined as much by its history and tradition as by its contemporary outlook The clock’s size, shape, and colors communicate the contrasting landscape in Sochi, which features both majestic snowy mountains and the warm Black Sea. One side of the clock countdowns to the Olympic Games opening, while the reverse side counts down to the opening of the Paralympic Games. 1,000 days to go is a traditional event that organizing committees celebrate all around the world. It symbolizes the final stage of the Olympic construction.

A countdown clock was first introduced for the Torino 2006 Olympic Winter Games and since then, these clocks have become one of the most photographed Olympic images at the Games. In Russia, the events to mark this significant milestone in the Games preparations were held nationwide and were principally themed around the environment, healthy living, education, and culture. The events included 1,000 Olympic lessons, a 1,000-meter dash, an Olympic warm-up, a hot-pot banquet, tree plantings, litter clearing, and Olympic days for youngsters in children’s homes. Sochi 2014’s partners also got heavily involved in the day’s celebrations, running a number of events in cities across the territory. Jean-Claude Killy, Sochi 2014 Coordination Commission Chairman, IOC, said: “It was great to see the whole of Russia getting involved in Sochi 2014’s 1,000-days-to-go celebrations. The excitement and engagement that we witnessed across the country were exceptional, and will no doubt continue to increase with the nationwide opening of Sochi’s volunteer centers. In addition, the unveiling of the stunning countdown clock serves to remind us all that this great country will soon be playing host to the world and its finest winter athletes. With 1,000 days to go, the clock is now really ticking and I’m confident that the Olympians of 2014 will receive a fantastic welcome when they arrive in Sochi in  just a few years’ time.”

In May 2011, the Russian Plekhanov University of Economics hosted an International conference called the Marketing in Russia. The Plekhanov University and the Russian Marketing Association were the event organizers this time. Sports Facilities journal and sportsfacilities.ru portal participated in the conference as major informational partners. The conference participants presented their views concerning the sports marketing and related problems and solutions. It is no surprise that this particular business direction is underdeveloped in Russia, as of today. That is why the list of the conference speakers and guests mainly included Russia's and foreign leading sports marketers, business professionals, federal executive authorities, and lawyers. The most interesting part of the event was the section called the Marketing in Sport, organized jointly by the Graduate School of Sports Industry and the PricewaterhouseCoopers Russian branch (PwC). In order to push the discussion forward, a number of the conference speakers reported on practical application of marketing ideas and strategies in specific sports niches. The Moscow-based Graduate School of Sports Industry plans to proceed with more detailed training courses to discuss problems facing the whole system of higher education in the sports marketing industry in Russia. The conference organizers also note that the Graduate School of Sports Industry is interested in cooperation with foreign counterparts that solve the same prob lems on a daily basis.

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NEWS

SPORT’11: MORE PARTICIPANTS, MORE IDEAS The Sport’11 International Exhibition in Moscow is definitely the most significant event in Russia’s sports industry held in H1 2011

The exhibition is a perfect opportunity for the sporting industry leaders to show their competitive advantages

250 Russian and 15 International sports industry companies took part in the Sport’11 exhibition in Moscow this year. The total area of the exhibition exceeded 11,000 sqm. Over 15,000 people visited Sport’11, which is 25% more than in 2010. Exhibitors, visitors, and conference speakers from all over the world came to Moscow to exchange their expertise and establish business relations. The list of Sport’11 6

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visitors included the world’s leading sporting goods manufacturers, Russia’s government officials, top managers of the Ministry of Sports and Tourism, representatives of various Russia’s sports federations, as well as directors of the Sports Engineering Federal State Enterprise. The business program of the three-day forum was quite eventful. The key topic that the speakers discussed concerned

the Federal Program of Sports and Physical Culture in the Russian Federation for 2006-2015. Alexander Vasyukov, CEO of the Sports Engineering Federal State Enterprise, focused on the latest trends and achievements in the domestic and International sports industries. “The builders nowadays try to get away from small-scale construction formats in or-


NEWS

The third day of the exhibition was focused on sporting projects of the United Russia party

der to build venues suitable for sports competitions of any level. We have set clear goals that we are able to achieve.” On the first day of the VIII International Exhibition SPORT’11, Sports Facilities journal and sportsfacilities.ru portal organized the Roundtable “Sports Facilities of the Future.” The list of participants included investors, developers, facility managers, architects, consultants, state clients, and customers. They discussed every aspect of financial and image success of modern day sports venues, innovations, latest technolo-

The Association of Sports Industry Enterprises and the Committee for Sports Industry Entrepreneurs of the Russian Chamber of Commerce discussed problems of sports retailers. They organized the Roundtable “Sports retail and its impact on mass sports.”

party. The party is actively involved in sports and physical culture in the country. Svetlana Zhurova, a State Duma Deputy and an outstanding athlete, Andrey Vorobyev, Head of the Party’s Election Committee, presented the projects of sports venues construction and the 500 Swimming Pools project. Irina Rodnina and Vyacheslav Fetisov presented the Yard Coach and School Sports projects. 

The third exhibition day covered various projects of the United Russia political

Photo: Andrey Mikhalchenkov and the Sport’11 Press Service

gies, architect concepts, facility management techniques, equipment, and TV broadcasting problems.

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NEWS

at MIPIM 2011

Sports Facilities journal and www.sportsfacilities.ru Internet portal visited the MIPIM International commercial real estate exhibition, which took place in Cannes, France, in March 2011 “Generally speaking, the global economy is on the rise today,” Fabrice Rosi, Reed Midem manager, MIPIM organizer, told SF. “I would not say that the crisis is over, but at least the market is moving in the right direction. So I think we are close to the end of crisis in the real estate sector.” Sergey Sobyanin, the new Mayor of Moscow, is sure to solve transport problems in the city. As Vladimir Resin, First Deputy Mayor of Moscow, pointed out at the opening of Moscow’s first stand in Cannes, special attention will be paid to design and construction of roads and bridges. “The city plans to build 46 transport facilities, including road interchanges, overpasses, and reserve highways,” Mr. Resin says. “One of the top priorities for the Mayor of Moscow is good relationships with foreign investors in order to further integrate the city into the international financial community.” Year after year, the Russian regional representatives are more and more active in Cannes. Yekaterinburg, Volgograd, Nizhny Novgorod, Ivanovo, and Krasnodar stands were exhibited at the MIPIM this year. “We can see a growing number of Western investors interested in Russia,” Timothy Fenwick, Managing Director at Quantum Potes, says. “The interest of investors in Russia’s regions is still weak, but one day they will start attracting foreign capital.” Oleg Sheveyko, Chief Architect, Head of Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of Sochi, informed SF and other MIPIM visitors about a project to build an all-season ski sports center in Gelendzhik. Architects from the Modern company developed a draft of the ski resort project that is worth 75 million euros. The project includes two mountain ski tracks (600 m and 500 m, correspondingly), sand track (400 m), ice rink, playground for children, SPA-saloon, solarium, fitness and bowling centers, numerous bars, cafes, restaurants and shops. VTB Arena representatives stated that the Dynamo stadium project in Petrovsky Park, initially developed by the Dutch architect Erick van Egeraat, would be finalized by David Manica. His company, Manica Architecture, presented its project in Cannes. The project is different from the one of Erick van Egeraat that successfully won the competition in the summer of 2010.  8

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NEWS

DONBASS ARENA CHECKS SECURITY FOR EURO 2012 Donbass Arena is an epicenter of large-scale security check exercises held by the military and police in light of the Euro-2012 that Ukraine’s Donetsk region will conduct. The purpose of such exercises is to develop effective interaction between different agencies involved in the football championships games that Donbass Arena will host

MIPS-2011 INTRODUCE NEW SPORTS FACILITIES At the 17th MIPS International Exhibition held in Moscow on April 26-29, 2011 all 400 participating companies presented their latest developments in the security industry

Security services typically develop individual scenarios for every large-scale event that Donbass Arena has. For example, the latest police maneuvers held in early 2011 targeted a special emergency case. According to plan, there was a terrorist attack as a bomb exploded during a football match. The security personnel including the police, emergency and medical services of Donetsk needed to work out a set of quick actions to assist victims inside the stadium and beyond it. As a rule, students of the Donetsk Law Institute imitate football fans during such security checks at the stadium. Donbass Arena had already hosted a number of local and international football matches. Every game is a test for the police and military. Shortly before the start of the given security check, Berkut Special Forces together with the police patrol department captured a group of criminals near the stadium. Under the scenario, the football hooligans attacked a woman selling football souvenirs, wounded and robbed her, and then tried to escape on a shuttle bus. Boris Adamov, Deputy Governor, Head of Regional Headquarters of Euro 2012, comments: “It is the first time we involve so many services and agencies acting on the territory of the Donetsk region. We plan to conduct a number of other special events of that kind in 2011 to check how effectively our police units, the Emergency Ministry, and the security service of Donbass Arena interact with each other. In 2012, the total number of such security trainings will increase significantly.”  Donbass Arena Media Center

Many exhibitors showed new technologies and products to serve sports facilities and sporting events To date, MIPS is the most representative International business event in the security industry of Russia and the CIS. The exhibition traditionally has all the industry leaders as its exhibitors, of which 30% are foreign manufacturers. This year, some countries’ representatives decided to exhibit as united national groups, namely the UK, Germany, China, and Taiwan. Integrator is the company that presented to the audience its new optical turnstiles called Fastlane. These are turnstiles without barriers, bars, or glass doors. Design of such turnstiles is based on the one by one system and, what is especially important nowadays, gives people in wheelchairs easy access to sports facilities. The MIPS business program was quite eventful. Sports Facilities journal and sportsfacilities.ru portal helped the organizers implement the business program. The list of speakers included both Russian and International security experts working at major sports venues that host International competitions. As many as twenty seminars on security issues were organized during the three days of the MIPS exhibition. 

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EVENT

FROM THE CITY OF ANGELS WITH LOVE The Sports Facilities journal and sportsfacilities.ru portal took part in the Stadia Design & Technology Expo 2011, North America’s mustattend Annual Convention organized by UKIP Media & Events in Los Angeles on April 12-14. The event is for anyone involved in the operation, refurbishment, and new-build of sporting venues. London 2012 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup Brazil 2014 were in the spotlight this year

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EVENT More than 100 exhibitors from all around the world came to LA to participate in Stadia Design & Technology Expo. The business program was eventful as well, as 250 owners and operators of sporting venues came to LA as headline speakers and panelists to discuss key industry topics through two conference streams running on all three days of the event. Stream 1 covered Architecture, Engineering and Construction. Stream 2 covered Sports Venue Operations, Technology and Professional Development. AEG President and CEO Tim Leiweke made a keynote presentation to open the conference business program. AEG currently owns or controls more than 100 venues worldwide, including facilities such as STAPLES Center (Los Angeles, CA), American Airlines Arena (Miami, FL), Acer Arena (Sydney, AU), Wukesong Arena (Beijing), Ahoy Arena (Rotterdam, NL), Globe Arenas (Stockholm), Qatar National Convention Centre (Doha), and finally a collection of O2 arenas including the one in Eastern London. Tim Leiweke spoke about PPP schemes and recent trends in sports industry. “The private sector is a leader of sports facility construction worldwide. We know how to push our industry forward and we are able to discover real ‘diamonds’ in the market to invest and get them built. That is why the public sector people have to establish partnerships with the private sector. That is what a real partnership has to be! The State officials are absolutely dependent on the crazy people like me who are able to spend $400 million and more to finance construction of stadiums and arenas. That is reality. Why do we do that? Because it is the private sector that takes the risk! It is the private sector that pushes the industry forward to serve the entire community. However, it is the public sector’s responsibility to help us figure out the way the projects should be done and to take the responsibility of creating the right environment for everyone involved in the projects. The game has changed. It is very little of public subsidies left in the market to finance the projects nowadays. 90% or maybe even 100% of the investment in

our industry is the private money,” Tim Leiweke said. Tim Romani, President and CEO of ICON Venue Group, refers to O2 stadium in London as the most successful project of his company. “It is no secret that a property owner’s headache starts when he acquires assets. After that, he keeps spending money on their improvements. Later on, he begins to understand that his assets can earn money. If we talk about the O2 arena, its economics and operation processes were originally planned very cleverly. With AEG’s ambition and ICON’s ingenuity, London’s O2 immediately became the most spectacular arena in the world. The venue starts generating cash flows from its entrance, parking, food and beverages, and ending up with a football game or concert tickets. We have established a centralized profit making mecha-

Odell Associates, is sure that before designing food service facilities in a sports venue, it is important to clearly define a detailed program of requirements that should include food service space requirements and equipment requirements based on an anticipated menu of catering and concession needs. “This process ideally begins with a feasibility analysis of your targeted market and expected clientele so that food service requirements can be defined for both anticipated sports and entertainment events in your venue and for anticipated catered events on nonevent days. The program should also include an analysis of the required number of points-of-sale for concessions. Years ago, one point-of-sale might accommodate 300 people on average; but today’s expectation is for a much higher quality of service that may range from 200 people per point-of-sale down to 60-75 per point-

With the investment in space, equipment, and personnel, it makes good financial sense to find other uses for your venues. Ideally, the F&B operator should be engaged as early as possible to provide input on the market, menu, and space and equipment needs nism that brings money from each visitor as long as he stays with us at O2. I just want to emphasize that the world standards do exist. Why invent something new instead of replicating proven facility management solutions?” Tim Romani also notes that stadiums become obsolete with time. “Our experts have recently inspected the top 12 stadiums in Italy for their compliance with the latest requirements of FIFA and UEFA. I should say that none of these stadiums fully met those requirements. Mainly, the security requirements. According to experts, at least 700 million euros should be invested in them. It is easier for Russia, as this country has to build every stadium from scratch to host the FIFA World Cup in 2018.” Michael Woollen, Managing Principal of

of-sale for premium club areas. The more aggressive concession coverage allows for more diverse food and beverage offerings and higher F&B revenues. Gone are the days of just hot dogs, popcorn, peanuts, and beverages. Today’s menus are much more diverse to meet growing customer expectations. Properly sizing concessions is a key design and operations issue, affected also by the extent of any planned food and beverage portable thematic carts and the extent of hawking in the stands. If concessions are undersized, you can expect longer lines and congestion in concourses along with a loss of potential F&B revenue. If concessions are oversized, then expected returns-oninvestment may not be realized. Likewise, the design of catering operations is critical to realizing the greatest revenue potential from your F&B operations. In addition to

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EVENT

STADIA DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY U T RB IN HE S AN C CO PO AT MM RT AL UN S C YST ITY OM : DE PLE VE X LO PM E

IN SO NOV DE LU AT CO SIGN TION IVE NT L N C S EN FR ESS STR HA TO GIN OM ON UC LLE SP EE SIG S LE TION NG ORT RIN ES S G NA AR : TU NE RE D PR OJ EC TS

A & RCH BUILD CO IT IN E NS C G GREE GL TR TU N OB AL UC RE, PR TIO EN OJ EC TS N GIN SH ST E OW CA RE ER SE AM ING

R A EG ON ND IONA ST ITS L C A A I C “L UT DIA MPA LIMA EW S I D CT TE TA GH AB P I R AC NG DI TW OV ESIG RE ECO KAG COL U E IN VE E: ’S N M EIG E: VE R HO S NT AS W TIM RI HT TH SET DE UL S E E S SIG US ER ” XP AN N S ER D CAN

William Crockett, AIA, Managing Director of Sports Architecture, AECOM: “We create the atmosphere where you are treated as you would a guest in your own home. Everything we can do is to enable the facility operator to deliver a quality product, and sense of a good value.”

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providing kitchens and catering pantries to service private suites and premium club facilities, consideration should be given to what non-event days might be attracted to your venue – based on an initial analysis of your targeted market needs. With the investment in space, equipment, and personnel, it only makes good financial sense to find other uses for your venues on normal “dark” non-event days to cater for other hospitality functions. One ongoing challenge is designing to the needs to the eventual F&B operator, especially since the operator is frequently brought on board late in the design or construction process. Ideally, the F&B operator should be engaged as early as possible to provide input on the market, menu, and space and equipment needs. Normally, this is not the case. Therefore, it is important that appropriate consultants be engaged early to provide guidance on F&B needs; but it is also important to design for future changing needs. Meeting the requirements of future F&B operators and changing menus is always a challenge. This can also be

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If a sports facility is 5 or 7 years old, it is very likely in need of renovation or major updating. A lot of our work now is in fact renovation work accomplished by designing F&B facilities for greater flexibility – perhaps by using a more modular infrastructure “plug and play” type of approach that more easily allows for re-arranging equipment when menus change.” Robert Mankin, AIA, LEED AP Partner, NBBJ, presented to the conference audience the Olympic Sports Center in Chinese Guangzhou. “This is an integrated area development project that includes commercial and residential real estate. Our company focused on a new 80,000seat stadium that we have designed. Our architectural solution was based on light metal structures, which makes the stadium 50% lighter than similar venues in the world. As of today, this is the most modern stadium in China.”

William Crockett, AIA, Managing Director of Sports Architecture, AECOM, is sure that architects always strive to create venues where the customer must come first. “We create the atmosphere where you are treated as you would a guest in your own home. Everything we can do is to enable the facility operator to deliver a quality product, and sense of a good value. We should never underestimate the importance of doing that. Today’s customers demand many choices. The common trend for us as architects is to build in the flexibility to allow our clients to constantly invent something new inside. Venues are becoming more sophisticated. If a sports facility is 5 or 7 years old, it is very likely in need of renovation or major updating. A lot of our work now is in fact renovation work. The U.S. mar-


EXPO

W IS HE SU SM N B ST AL IG AI L N A LIK A B L N D E C E VI ORR NEW IN DEO EC A T G T DE HE SCR ING AIN F C IN I E L : AN SE ISIO ELD ENS ED D CU N M EV RI A EN TY KI NG TS MA NA GE ME NT

EVENT

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Michael Woollen, Managing Principal of Odell Associates: “Years ago, one pointof-sale might accommodate 300 people on average; but today’s expectation is for a much higher quality of service that may range from 200 people per point-of-sale down to 60-75 per point-of-sale for premium club areas.”

T HO ECHN C W O AD AN H TH LOGY D E E I ST ITIO LP FAN N YO N GE E UR F AD FA OOD IUM AL R NER XPE VEN CIL A A E A R U ITI ND ND VEN TE IENC E  ES BE A U E OF VER REN E TH AG A EF E UT UR E

SP REVEONRE TH TE OR UE S AN A DE CH TS TREAMGAME FOACOU VE NO VE S O : CR R ST STIC LO LO NU UTSIDEATIN ADIUMAND PM GY E ET GN S AV HE EW AND CON O EN & PE FAC A S T S PR RA ILITY RENAIDSERAT IO NS TR OFE TIO EA SS NS M IO , NA L D VE EVE NU LO E R PM OO EN FIN TS G IN S

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ket is mature, and the competition for customer’s entertainment dollars is tremendous. We advocate a total experience mentality. Most of our clients these days think of a major sports facility in terms of to what extent it is healthy to be active, open, and accessible 365 days a year, not just during professional games. Such well-designed, managed, and operated facilities can and should become a treasured part of a community’s culture. We should develop passion and loyalty to the facility, in addition to that of the professional teams playing there.” William McCullough, Principal, EwingCole, who has over 15 years’ experience in programming, planning and designing sports and entertainment projects, spoke about planning concepts and design strategies in the current economic climate. “Many of our clients today are focused on preservation, reuse, and reimagination of existing assets. Our goal is to engage each client and their stakeholders in the planning process to create a pragmatic strategy

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Today’s customers demand many choices. The common trend for us as architects is to build in the flexibility to allow our clients to constantly invent something new inside for development that includes an in depth look at the value of existing structures. The right design strategy will help investors and developers reduce their project costs and increase the value of their assets. We have noticed a trend in the world of sports and entertainment architecture, which gives equal consideration to recreating existing facilities, as well as designing new ones. Planning and design must also take into account the legacy or continued use of sports facilities. This is an important consideration for venue owners and operators in order to sustain use for their stadiums and arenas long after global events such as the Olympics or the FIFA World Cup are over,” he said. William McCullough is working in the CIS – on the design of an Olympic caliber Sports Center in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. Existing

assets of the Sport Club Meteor include a 24,000-seat football stadium, a 6,000 seat Ice Palace for hockey, figure skating, concerts, and exhibitions, and a 50-meter, Olympic size natatorium with 2,000 seats. “The football stadium will be re-imagined for 10,000 permanent seats with the ability to expand to 40,000 for large-scale international events when needed. The initial investment for 10,000 seats is appropriate for the scale of use expected at the stadium annually. The EwingCole design team worked with Sport Club Meteor, local and state officials to develop a new site master plan that transcends the idea of sport. The Meteor Complex will provide citizens of Dnepropetrovsk and its visitors a new educational, commercial and social infrastructure that creates an inspiring  place to live, learn, work, and play.”

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GROWTH POINTS

ACADEMY WAITS FOR INVESTORS The Academy of Winter Sports in Krasnoyarsk is one of the largest projects being realized in Russia in the field of sports development. The design has been already finished and approved by federal authorities. The construction has started. The only remaining problem is to find investors to build the infrastructure Coach rooms at Tramplin, Sopka Hotel and ski jumps

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GROWTH POINTS Demand is High

so tn ay a St re et

Marketers are sure that the Academy will be popular among tourists and sports amateurs. Despite the fact that the region has

Vy

The same principle to cover the costs of professional sportsmen at the expense of mass sport amateurs became the idea of the Krasnoyarsk Academy. The project will be certainly demanded by federations and professional athletes, as the Krasnoyarsk region has been defined by the Ministry of Sports and Tourism of Russia as a base to develop 10 of 15 Winter Olympic sports. The Academy has its potential to train biathlon, luging, ski (except super giant slalom), masters of the sled and snowboard.

SCHEME OF SPORTS FACILITIES LOCATION

Elena

Stasov

a Stre

et

Vetluzhanka Sports Stadium

SFU Sports Complex Raduga Children's Camp

Nikolayevskaya Sopka Ski Center

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Academy of Biathlon

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Sports Arena Indoor Arenas

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Indoor Arenas

The Krasnoyarsk Academy project will be certainly demanded by federations and professional athletes, as this region has been defined by the Ministry of Sports and Tourism of Russia as a base to develop 10 Winter Olympic sports. The Academy has its potential to train biathlon, ski, and snowboard several ski resorts, including a very successful commercially Bobrovy Log (Beaver Log) and Divnogorsk, the number of winter sports in the region is growing steadily. Sports industry market players note that over the past five years, the turnover in this segment increased by almost 2.5 times, mostly because of the growth of goods sold for winter sports. This industry was the first to recover from the recent economic crisis in 2009. Since that, it has been steadily developing. According to Leonid Ipatov, a famous Russian skier who now heads the Moscow office of Rosengineering, the ski resorts market in Russia is currently occupied by only

30-40%. “Given our natural conditions, almost every Russian city with a population of 300,000 can build a successful ski center. As of today, only a few cities with a population of 1 million can afford such venues,” he says.

Infrastructure is the Most Expensive However, given the existing favorable conditions and external factors, the construction of the Academy goes slower than expected, although the project started in 2008. The main reason for that is the project cost that is estimated at $400 million.

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GROWTH POINTS

A cafe on the top of the mountain

The project ideologists do not consider any half measures. They want to build the Academy of biathlon and two cores – Sopka and Raduga. All presentations of the project indicate the following distribution of funds: 2010 - $400,000, 2011 - $52 million, 2012 - $108.6 million, 2013 - $125.5 million, 2014 - $61.7 million. These are the funds needed to build three basic centers – Tramplin, Lyzhny, and Freestyle. At the same time, investors perfectly know that most of investments in sports facilities are usually spent on infrastructure, including residential and entertainment real estate and logistics. A typical “classic” winter sports resort has a simple structure: sports facilities themselves, a hotel (camping or group of chalets), public catering, engineering networks, and access roads. However, a large-scale multi-purpose project that is designed to train national teams and to host International competitions is a more complicated thing to build. It happens because the professional athletes cannot reside there permanently, so the infrastructure area of the Academy in this case is the entire city of Krasnoyarsk, starting from the International airport and train station, and

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The project cost is estimated at $400 million. The project ideologists do not consider any half measures. They want to build the Academy of biathlon and two cores – Sopka and Raduga ending up with a hotel chain of at least four stars. The whole Academy project has necessary design solutions concerning extensive construction works in the city, namely the extension of Svobodny Avenue and adjacent roads, a multi-level car parking and new transport routes to bring the people to the Academy.

Pros and Cons of Construction Zones The Academy project with its entire infrastructure has many challenges and problems. On the one hand, its location is convenient: the Western part of Krasnoyarsk has clean recreational areas next to the Siberian Federal University to the East, and a ski stadium to the North. There is a former children’s camp on the territory as well. The camp has a road connection to Stasova Street. There is a high-voltage

power transmission line running through the construction zone. These are the pros. As for the cons, the asphalt road leading to the camp is accessible only from a dirt road. Secondly, the children’s sports camp belongs to the Raduga core and is currently nothing more than ruins, so the area needs to be cleared and built up again. Finally, the power transmission line is not sufficient to meet the needs of the Academy (a lot of energy goes into the building of the Federal University), so the builders will need another transformer there. In the Sopka core with old ski jumps, the builders will have to demolish all buildings, as they do not meet modern requirements. The supporting structures are outdated as well. Since there are no centralized engineer-


GROWTH POINTS ing utilities in the area of the Academy, the project designers decided not to install any centralized heating there. Instead, they plan to develop an autonomous electric heating of the buildings. It is estimated that this plan will increase the load on the Academy electricity network up to 13 MW, which is critical . The final problem is a cableway. This is not an ordinary elevator, which brings athletes to tracks and jumps, but, according to the designers, is a large cableway that goes across the Yenisei river. Its purpose is to connect the Beaver Log fan zone with the Academy. This seems the best route for potential clients of the Academy, but the whole project looks ambitious and expensive: the length of the cable way is estimated at about 5 km.

Sopka Multifunctional Sport Complex

Technology is Everything The list of infrastructure of the Academy has a number of additional points. The ski slopes need snowmaking systems and snow compactors, ice-freezing systems and local lifts. According to specialists, construction of 1 sqm of a typical ski resort costs about $1,000. As for such centers as the Academy, this figure will certainly be higher. Here is the price list to equip the ski center: cable lifts - $3-12 million, a snowcat - $50-300 thousand, snowmaking systems - $100-150 thousand per one track, snow cannons - $20 thousand and more.

Raduga Public Service Center

According to Vladimir Gordeichik, Development Manager of the Blagodat ski center located in Belokurikha, Altai Territory, the purchase of equipment is not expensive compared with other costs. “The first thing you need to do is electricity, communications, and roads. Any winter sports center should have convenient roads to access cars and public transport. This issue is very critical to the city transport park,� says Gordeichik. Finally, it pays to think about some commercial projects to reduce the payback period of the Academy. All ski resorts of the world typically have special sites for extreme sports - tracks for snowmobiling, dog or reindeer sledding. Another income source is bars and restaurants located on

A Ski Stadium

the territory of a ski resort. On the other hand, additional infrastructure normally requires 30-40% more investment.

Ten-Year Payback If we talk about payback, we should understand that the Academy would take a

long time to pay for itself. Today, even local Krasnoyarsk officials cannot tell exact dates. If we take into account comparable industry statistics on ski resorts, according to Vladimir Gordeichik, investors that built in Russia such centers initially think about payback periods of ten years and above. According to Stanislaw Tischenko,

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GROWTH POINTS projects without personal contacts with regional top officials. A ski center, in my opinion, is a symbiosis of commerce, sports and social policy. Normally, such projects involve government agencies, businesspersons, and athletes. The joint team of those basic market players can make a good and successful product,” says Dmitry Svischev.

Why Investors Should Care?

Raduga Hotel Complex

The Academy of Winter Sports in its present development stage is an ambitious and problematic project. However, serious investors engaged in a promising partnership have nothing to be afraid of. Especially given certain guarantees and advantages of the project.

Sopka Public Service Center

Freestyle Administrative and Coach Center

Director of the Samara ski resort Krasnaya Glinka, a ski center is not the place where people come for quick money. “This theory applies to a compact, purely commercial project designed for the mass tourism and sports. A multifunction academy, designed to serve a dozen of professional winter sports will pay for itself even longer.”

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Dmitry Svischev, Vice President of Russia’s Federation of Skiing and Snowboarding, believes that a minimum payback period for a ski project outside Moscow and St. Petersburg is 10-11 years. He also thinks that a public-private partnership is the key to the success. “Money is really big and long there. It is impossible to start building such

First and foremost, it is a friendly attitude and support of both local and federal authorities. The project of the Academy was presented to Russia’s Prime Minister Vladimir Putin at a recent Krasnoyarsk Economic Forum. The Prime Minister highly appreciated the presentation and promised to talk


GROWTH POINTS about it with the Minister of Sports and Tourism of Russia Vitaly Mutko. The result was fast to come: the Academy is included in the Federal Program of Financing the Construction of Sports Facilities. $7 million of the Federal budget

Northern District. The regional economy earned more than $8 billion, of them 53.8% were investments in fixed assets. Over 20% of foreign investment in the Siberian regions targeted Krasnoyarsk. This is 3.4 times more than in 2009.

A typical “classic” winter sports resort has a simple structure. However, a large-scale multi-purpose project that is designed to train national teams and to host International competitions is a more complicated thing to build will go to finance the project by the end of this year. In 2012, the sum will grow up to $12 million. In addition, over the next three years, the Siberian Federal University will receive $33 million from the local Krasnoyarsk budget, the major part of which will be used to finance the construction of the Academy. The general economic development is another favorable issue for investors to consider in this respect. In 2010, the Krasnoyarsk territory was recognized as the most attractive for investors in the Federal

Such positive statistics affected domestic and international investment ratings of the region. According to Expert RA Russian agency, the Krasnoyarsk territory was No. 8 in Russia in 2009-2010 based on its investment potential. Standard & Poor’s International agency not so long ago assigned its ‘stable’ rating to Krasnoyarsk, confirming the long-term credit rating of ‘BB+’. The agency issued a comment in which it forecasted a further economic growth in the Krasnnoyarsk territory in 2013

based on high budget performance and low debt burden.

Who Is the First? We can state that the Krasnoyarsk region today has favorable conditions for longterm investments. Perhaps the only thing that the Academy misses is promotion of the project internationally. The local authorities do everything they can, but the only foreign company interested in the project is the France-based Gorimpex, which manufactures equipment for ski resorts. The company is ready to build a 5-kilometer cableway across the Yenisei to the Academy. Another French company Accor, which specializes in the hospitality industry, demonstrates its desire not only to build new hotels in Krasnoyarsk, but also to co-invest in the whole project. However, this is not enough. The huge sports and tourism potential of the Krasnoyarsk region awaits strategic investors. The first of them to occupy this niche will get higher dividends in the long term.  Text: Anatoly Ageev

Спортивный комплекс и центр обслуживания населения «Сопка»

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KRASNOYARSK ACADEMY OF WINTER SPORTS MAKES A GOOD START A professional athletes training camp in Krasnoyarsk is waiting for investors, contractors, and the day its construction will start. Currently, the project is in the process of obtaining necessary permits, approvals, and registration of land plots. All planning and design documents needed for the project start-up stage have been submitted to the authorities. Anton Shatalov, Chief Architect of the project, told SF about its initial concept and subsequent changes in design

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ARCHITECTURE

Sports Complex Project

– What was the general project concept originally?

– Is the current project different form the original plan?

Extreme Sports Center Project

– The Academy of Winter Sports is located on Nikolayevskaya Sopka on a territory of a sports-training camp that was built for the USSR Winter Games of 1982. It consists of 5 ski jumps (K18, 32, 56, 90, 120) and 3 ski slopes that range in height from 100 m to 150 m. The uniqueness of the territory is in its location. On the one hand, it is within the city, on the other – it is a green area surrounded by the forest. Some old-days sports schools are still operational there. However, the project idea belongs to the athletes. The Academy is a good example how average people’s initiatives can reach top-level executives. Our design team started developing the project concept in late 2009 free of charge, as Mr. Klimenkov, President of the Regional Ski Jumping Federation, wanted us to help him. Initially, we planned to restore the existing sports facilities, to build a hotel, a small sports center, and three new tracks for slalom and freestyle. We intended to build up the area of a nearby Sopka, the Vetluzhanka ski stadium, and the Biathlon Academy with its ski tracks. Then the whole process started. In March 2010, the Krasnoyarsk Ministry of Sports contracted us to develop a concept of Nikolayevskaya Sopka. Later on, in June, we started developing its design, which we fully completed in December 2010.

– The Academy is an all-season training camp for professional athletes as well as for mass sports and high school students. Initially, the customer worked jointly with our team to design a project covering 35,000 sqm where we planned to reconstruct ski jumps, mountain-ski and freestyle tracks, as well as to build new elevators, and install snowmaking equipment. We intended to build a summer freestyle track, a ski stadium, climbing walls, a skate park, and a bobsleigh center. In other words, we were targeting infrastructure needed to develop more than 10 winter sports for professional sportsmen and amateurs, including students and townspeople. – What changes did you make and why? – After analyzing the territory, we concluded that the Sopka would not be enough to build all that. More over, its relief was not suitable for a number of facilities. As the customer wanted us to preserve the natural landscape and its greenery, it was decided to expand the territory of the future Academy. We have chosen an almost ruined children’s sports camp called Raduga (Rainbow), just a kilometer away to the Northwest. The idea was fully supported by the local authorities, so we moved SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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ARCHITECTURE A Hotel Complex

the ski stadium with tracks and climbing walls to Raduga. Since we wanted to build a “bipolar” academy, we needed to duplicate some of its facilities, namely a sports center, a hotel, a customer service, and an indoor parking. When we studied the territory in detail, we developed a special design plan to facilitate training and competition processes. We decided to share some of the facilities with our neighbors - the Siberian Federal University. As a result, the total project area increased by more than two times to 237.9 ha.

A Hotel Complex

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a multi-level underground parking in order not to cut down the forest. Instead, we decided to rebuild previously urbanized areas and to design new transport, walking, and ski routes to replace the existing ones.

– How did you manage to preserve the unique landscape when planning the project? The project site is located in Western Krasnoyarsk, in environmentally friendly areas away from industrial zones. In order to minimize human influence on the natural landscape, we refocused our project on reduced construction areas, a better use of the local relief and a better integration of facilities into the landscape. The so-called vertical urbanism. We have also designed

We plan to locate the service centers above the multi-level car parking. The roofs will be built with special terraces and stands that give a nice view of the sports facilities. We also need to design a stadium to substitute for former administrative and technical buildings. We plan to build coach and locker rooms close to transit sidewalks and the stands. We use the natural relief to build exits of different levels to each of the coach and locker rooms and a bobsleigh track. Flat roofs of other multipurpose sports facilities are used as outdoor athletic fields during the summer. For instance, there will be a skate park on the roof of Complex 1B. The hotel car parking and the Sopka sports core will be integrated into the landscape to isolate the transport from public areas. – Did you use someone else’s expertise in you project?


ARCHITECTURE

SCHEME OF INFRASTRUCTURE OBJECTS Sopka core

Raduga core

Beaches and coastal rest zones Hotels Rental equipment

The way to the top of Sopka Inner road Cable and towing lifts Cable and seat lifts Ski and roller route (for tourists, 2.5 km) Ski and roller route (for sportsmen, 5 km) Ski and roller route (for sportsmen, 1 km) Ski and roller route (for sportsmen, 5 km) Sopka core boundary Raduga core boundary Roads to city highways

– We have been constantly studying and analyzing both Russian and International expertise when doing our project. We spent a week on the construction site of Tchaikovsky, Perm region, which somehow resembles the project we do. We also visited a bobsleigh track in Paramonovo. We have been to Germany, Austria and Switzerland as well. We worked hand in hand with athletes, who helped us a lot. Many experts from all over Russia were coming to Krasnoyarsk to help us design our facilities. Leonid Ipatov and Alexei Yanvarev consulted us on ski slopes, ski lifts, and

Mass entertainment zones Public transport terminals Rescue and medical services Ecological transport terminals Intercepts parking Indoor parking

snowmaking systems. Professors Oleg Orlov, Alexander Shakhnazarov, and Alexander Ostroumov as the authors of Paramonovo bobsleigh tracks helped us a lot with our bobsleigh track. Prior to designing the sports facilities and service centers, we organized an international workshop, including three young French architects and three Dutch architects. Then, our team rethought the concept, but their ideas definitely influenced the architecture of our facilities. All our design solutions meet the existing requirements of local sports federations, as well as Russia’s federations

located in Moscow. We did take into account their comments and ideas. Finally, we presented our project to Prime Minister Putin, Sports Minister Mutko, and other Russian sports officials. On March 1, 2011, the project received the final approval of the Krasnoyarsk Master Planning Council. The officials gave us the project assessment and recommended us to keep the project developing. Currently, we are negotiating with prospective contractors to develop the bobsleigh track.  Interviewed by Svetlana Arkhipova

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ALEX HOPPE: THE UNIQUENESS OF SOCHI STADIUM IS IN ITS PURPOSE The International POPULOUS architectural bureau jointly with Mosproject-4 developed a concept of the Sochi Central Stadium to host the 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Today, SF is discussing this and other issues of the project with Mr. Alex Hoppe

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ARCHITECTURE - Alex, you are the Project Architect of the Olympic Stadium in Sochi. Your company is engaged in design of sports facilities around the world for nearly 30 years. - That is right. We specialize in the sports facilities design worldwide. Our portfolio has over a thousand projects. With regard to the one in Sochi, we were the design architects that participated in the project together with our Russian local partners from Mosproject-4.  - The stadium in Sochi looks different from most of the stadiums that you ever designed. What is so special about it?

 - Our aim is always to design bespoke and site related buildings. The distinctive design and the flexibility make the Sochi stadium special. The stadium was designed and constructed for various events, not just the Olympics. The main purpose of the stadium however is to be the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympics and the medal awards. Therefore, the stadium itself becomes part of the show. Especially the opening ceremony will be in the spotlight of the TV audience worldwide, so the stadium will become a symbol of Russia for two weeks. - Do you remember the day the project started? - We won an architectural competition in 2009. The initial project has undergone several changes as we took into account our client’s requirements, mainly regard-

Mr. Alex Hoppe, Project Architect of the Olympic Stadium in Sochi was to put the main architectural emphasis on the South – North axis, which is also the connection between the sea and the mountains.

The Central Olympic Stadium in Sochi will be multifunctional. After the Olympics 2014, the stadium will host Russian football league matches, concerts, and live shows. We managed to achieve an optimal balance between its architecture and functionality ing the external envelope of the building. Our primary goal was to link the building visually to its surrounding environment, especially to the winter snow landscape of Sochi. At the same time, we managed to achieve an optimal balance between architectural shape of the building and its functionality. We wanted to make all of its features logically supplement each other. We also put some stress on the peak of the building to make it visible from far away. In a similar way to what we did at the Aviva National Stadium in Ireland the whole roof structure is clad with polycarbonate panels. The surface of the polycarbonate panels has a certain resemblance to ice and snow, as it can change its appearance depending on the angle of the sun and the reflections of the sky and clouds. This makes the whole building look lively and interesting. That was one of our key ideas. Another one

- What about a legacy of the Sochi stadium after the Olympics? - Any stadium should not be built for just one occasion. It should have a legacy. The Sochi stadium will carry out its Olympic mission for only two weeks or four weeks if the Paralympic Games are counted in. Then the building will be used to host the FIFA World Cup in 2018, and it also has to be a normal football stadium for a local professional football club. On top of that, the stadium is built in flexibility to become a concert venue. That is why we as architects have been thinking about its functionality since the very beginning of the project. - What are the stadium specifics that particularly relate to the Olympics opening and closing ceremonies?

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- Our design concept does take into account the requirements for all the broadcasting and stage equipment, including fireworks and laser shows. For example, the arches are designed in a way that cables can be span between them to suspend equipment, like cameras and lights. - How is the stadium structured? Generally, the stadium premises are located at various levels. The ground floor is not accessible to the public. There will be changing rooms, central kitchen, cargo docks, parking, workshop, machine rooms, and a VIP-entrance. The first floor of the stadium has a number of service premises. It is partially accessible to the public. Here we have the first part of the VIP-lounge, large toilet blocks, and office spaces. The next level is the podium level that is fully open to the public. Spectators enter the stadium on this particular level. First, they go up the external staircases and then they can circulate around the stadium. From here, they go to the upper levels or directly towards their seats in the lower tier. The second part of the VIP-lounge and kiosks are also located there. The third floor of the stadium is the

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Given the location and a relatively warm climate in Sochi, we designed a lot of open spaces, which do not need mechanical ventilation and receive natural daylight. We also use “green” and energy-saving technologies box level including the president lounge, VIP-lounges, the press area, the area for the police, announcers, and video surveillance operators. Every location on the third floor provides a direct view of the whole stadium. The fourth floor has many toilet

and disassembled at the fourth floor of the stadium. There are seats accessible via the fifth floor as well. In a word, based on the Olympic and FIFA requirements, we tried to make the stadium very flexible.

Our design concept does take into account the requirements for all the broadcasting and stage equipment, including fireworks and laser shows blocks and kiosks. Based on our concept, the stadium can operate in different modes. For example, the FIFA mode differs significantly from the Olympic mode. According to the FIFA requirements, the stadium during the World Cup should seat at least 45,000 spectators. The Olympic mode capacity is 40,000 spectators. Therefore, the additional 5,000 seats can be assembled

-What ‘green’ and energy-saving technologies and solutions did you use in the stadium construction? Our aim in accordance with the IOC requirements was to design an environmentally friendly building. Given the location in Sochi and the relatively warm climate, we designed a lot of open spaces in the


ARCHITECTURE

building, which do not need mechanical ventilation and receive natural daylight and therefore reduce the energy consumption. We also use “green” and energy-saving technologies. - Sochi is located in a seismic zone. In addition, the city suffers from natural aggression of the sea and soil. Was it difficult for you to ensure reliability and durability of your building when dealing with local state authorities? Believe me, it was a long process. We dealt with numerous organizations, committees and public offices, whose experts checked the design documents many times before they finally approved them. As you can see, our building looks quite light from the outside. As for the inside, we have to use a lot of concrete and steel in its construction in order to ensure its reliability and durability. - How do polycarbonate panels you use provide for good acoustics inside the stadium? - A comprehensive acoustic analysis of the venue has been conducted. I should say

Inside the stadium, we tried to find an optimal balance between echo and non-echo in order to create a special atmosphere to hear roaring crowds getting into a good mood that our stadium fully complies with all existing acoustic requirements and standards. Inside the stadium, we tried to find an optimal balance between echo and non-echo. Because if you do not have any kind of echo you feel as if you are in a field. Maybe it is not that important for an Olympic Stadium, but when a stadium is used for football you need to create a special atmosphere to hear roaring crowds getting into a good mood. - What are the specifics of the integrated security system at the stadium in light of the latest FIFA requirements? - It is a complicated issue as the IOC and FIFA have different security requirements. Our facility has been designed to operate in different operational modes. The Olympics are generally considered as more peaceful as there are no “tribal” rivalries that typically exist between football fans. There is less aggression and violence and, thus, there

is almost no need to separate different fan groups from each other at the stadium. In the Olympic mode, the security means different levels of barriers and control zones. The security check is the first thing you will see in the Olympic park. There you have to show your ticket and to go through personal inspection. The second security check is just around the stadium. Once you get through, you can walk further more or less freely. Typically, there will be more security checks during football matches, maybe the third and the fourth control zones, but as for the Olympics – two checks are OK. The police and special security forces will be engaged as well, but these are issues that our local Russian partners will have to decide. As I have already told, all corresponding video surveillance systems are located at the third level where the police and security people have a direct view of the entire stadium.  Interviewed by Vladimir Kolosov

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AEROSTATIC ARCHITECTURE FOR OLYMPIC ARENAS Not only athletes dream of overcoming the force of gravity. Sports facilities architects also tend to the aeronautics. Projects of ying domes were published worldwide. The upcoming Olympic Games in Russia inspire future architects to actively use those ideas. Today, we present a project of an Olympic Park Sochi 2014 Ice Arena that Larisa Povysheva, student of the Civil Engineering Faculty of Izhevsk State Technical University, was trying to realize

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ARCHITECTURE

Facade in the context of axes

Project Author: Larissa Povysheva  Average humidity: 74% Manager: Daniel Shevkunov  Estimated weight of snow cover: 50 kg/sqm Initial data  Prevailing winds in December Construction area: Sochi, February: Southwest Imereti Lowlands  Average annual rainfall:  Climate region: 4B 1,644 mm  Average annual air  Average annual sunshine temperature: 13° C hours: 2,154  Duration of heating season  Construction site is located in 152 days Southern Sochi on the Black Sea coast.  Average wind speed: 2.2 m/s

A piece of the master plan

Functional Solutions The first floor zone is the 0,000-height point, which is designed for athletes and their representatives. The areas are separated by locker rooms, lounges, points-of-sale for concessions, registration areas, doping control checkpoints, the Olympic premises, health and medical centers, media centers, and technical premises. The second floor is the 3,900-height point that is designed to host the spectators. It includes sanitation zones, recreation zones, and points-of-sale for concessions. The third and the fourth floors are located at 7,800 and 11,700 height points, correspondingly. Those areas give access to the spectators and contain VIP-zones, business boxes, and fan club stands. The project envisages standing seats for spectators isolated by a fence of 1.2 meters.

The Olympic Park master plan

5

Technical and economic parameters: 1 – Designed building 2 – Administrative zone 3 – VIP 4 – Walking zone (forum) 5 – Guest parking 6 – Technical zone 7, 8 – Guest zone 9, 10 - Parking for athletes 11 – Pay desks

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Prospect architecture aspects

The fifth floor zone contains a guest bedroom area, lounge area, restaurant, and gives access to the stands.

The Project Architecture The project architecture is based on balloon coating, which is visible from any stand of the arena. The building has an oval shape and resembles a stadium as its primary function. The contour of the building resembles a shape of fish, while the balloons are air bubbles in water. In such a way, the SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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In the context of axes

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ARCHITECTURE project author emphasizes that the venue is located near the sea. The design also contains circle shapes that are green courtyards with art galleries and restaurants. This creates a single composite structure.

Functional scheme Vertical communications

The project focuses on specific requirements to International format stadiums and worldclass music venues, given the security and weather in this particular climate zone.

Restaurant Cafe

Space-Planning Solutions The hockey stadium of the oval configuration is a 5-storey public building with an artificial ice and 12,000 seats. It is located at the Black Sea coast in the Imereti Lowlands. The key idea of the proposed architectural concept is based on balloons that substitute for columns and walls. The balloons are of a streamlined shape with the 2.53.0 thickness ratios. Reinforcement of the supporting structures is made horizontally like spokes of a bicycle wheel. The balloons have internal hermetic compartments and gas cylinders to ensure safety. The hermetic membrane compartments are located horizontally, given that the gas is lighter than the air. The upper part of this “flying plate” is filled with helium, and its bottom part is filled with the hot air. This is how the Big Ice Arena in Sochi’s Olympic Park might look like if the Izhevsk State Technical University students were to design it. In reality, you can read about its construction project on page 42. 

Gallery

5th Floor: guest rooms

Underground parking

Walking ramp on the 2nd level

+11,700

4th floor: Media

+7,800

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FUTURE STADIUMS

STADIUMS OF THE FUTURE IN THE EYES OF INDUSTRY EXPERTS

On the ďŹ rst day of the VIII International Exhibition SPORT’11, Sports Facilities journal and sportsfacilities.ru portal organized the Roundtable. Investors, developers, facility managers, architects, consultants, customers and general contractors came to participate in the event to discuss what sports facilities of the future really are in terms of design, technology, and management

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FUTURE STADIUMS

The Roundtable participants and guests exchanged their opinions concerning financial success and image of the largest sports facilities. The key issues of the event related to innovation and unique technologies in design and construction, methods of effective facility management and operation, as well as AV solutions. Robert Gruman, Director of Business Consulting, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) in Russia, discussed the role of independent consultants in managing large sports facilities of the International level Alex Hoppe, Architect of the International POPULOUS Architectural Design Bureau, presented to the Roundtable audience the Sochi Central Olympic Stadium project Alexander Vasyukov, CEO of the Federal State Enterprise Sports Engineering, focused on the latest achievements in the sports industry. In particular, he told that builders nowadays try to get away from small-scale construction formats in order to build venues suitable for sports competitions of any level.

The Olympic stadiums and arenas that are currently under construction are the sports facilities of the future. In order to make those facilities commercially successful after the Olympics, all the parties involved should focus on their legacy and should integrate them into a uniďŹ ed city infrastructure Victor Myakonkov, CEO of the Russian Association of Sports Facilities (RASF), and Horst Huber, Vice President of the International Association for Sports and Leisure Facilities (IAKS), noted that Russia needs to optimize its certification system of sports facilities. Evgeny Lomov, Deputy Head of Construction Projects at Transstroy (general contractor of Zenith stadium in St. Petersburg), discussed the problems of his large-scale project. Natalia Chistyakova, Development Director of Consulting at GVA Sawyer, noted that investors are the major real estate market players that focus on project’s economics.

Natalia Chaikovskaya, Head of TV Projects, CHL Marketing, said that relations between managers of arenas under construction, contractors, builders, broadcasters, and sports federations should be established at initial project phases. Alexei Tarasenko, Adviser to the President of the Russian Football Union (RFU) was talking about security at Russian stadiums, which is still a serious problem in the country. Irina Tereshchenko, PhD, Director of the Sports Facilities Center at High School of the Russian Plekhanov Academy of Economics, announced the establishment of a new educational center for training sports facility managers and administrators. SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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FUTURE STADIUMS rubles. Please, address all the questions relating to the stadium budget directly to the customer.

Evgeny Lomov: We took the idea of the project to realize it in concrete, metal and equipment

Horst Huber: Our cooperation with the RASF has been actively developing

DIRECT SPEECH

course, over the past five years, we have not achieved all the set goals, but the most important thing is that we finished almost all long-term projects and put into operation the facilities, which were under construction for years. We have gone away from small formats and are now very close to building large complex venues that can host competitions of any level. The built sports facilities are the main indicator of our work.

Robert Gruman The Olympic stadiums and arenas that are currently under construction are the sports facilities of the future. In order to make those facilities commercially successful after the Olympics, consultants should be involved in the Olympic project not only as appraisers and financial advisors, but also as experts in the field of their integration into a unified city infrastructure. Alexander Vasyukov We focus on building large modern sports facilities. This is our main achievement as all the goals and objectives that the Ministry of Sport sets for the Federal State Enterprise Sports Engineering to implement are clear, specific and achievable. Of

Evgeny Lomov Transstroy is the main contractor building the Zenit stadium in St. Petersburg. We took the idea of the project to realize it in concrete, metal and equipment. Today, many journalists write a lot of incredible things about our project. The cost of the stadium, according to its customer, the St. Petersburg Government, is 33.4 billion

Alexander Vasyukov: We have gone away from small formats and are now building large complex venues

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June 2011 / Special Edition 2 / SF

We build the stadium in the Western part of Krestovsky Island to replace a former Kirov Stadium, realized by the architect Nikolsky. We dismantled old constructions and started building the new stadium there. The customer organized an International competition, where five architectural projects were presented. Kisho Kurokawa from Japan became the winner of the competition. The stadium capacity will be 69,000 permanent seats, which is obligatory to host the semi-finals of the FIFA World Cup 2018. Of them, 7,000 seats will be assembled and disassembled. Transstroy, in turn, won the competition to become the general contractor of the project. We developed all necessary documents and obtain all corresponding permissions. When we started building this unique for Russia elite-class stadium; we adjusted some of our initial plans together with the 6-th workshop of Mosproject-4 architects. In December 2010, we received the final project approval from the Main State Expert Bureau. To date, on-site works are underway as we are building the fundamental structures. We have already achieved the 25th construction point out of the total 40. We also plan to build a unique fixed roof over the entire stadium surface of a 300-meter diameter that would slide over the football field. In this particular case, the roof does not need to be based on walls. Instead, it will stand on special racks and towers. It resembles a flying plate. There are no similar design solutions in Russia today. The football field can slide and rollout of the stadium. Initially, the project was designed as an analogue of the stadium in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, that HBM built. Later on, it was decided to design a special field that uses rollout mechanisms. The whole stadium will be heated, including the stadium bowl. This will allow using it as a venue for concerts in winter. That is why we designed a football field that can turn into a stage and the stalls. We do pay attention to security issues. The sliding roof of the stadium was developed by a Germany-based Vector Foiltek, which was one of the contractors building Allianz Arena in Munich.


FUTURE STADIUMS This company is now engaged in the design and construction of the sliding roof. Victor Myakonkov In large Russian cities, small towns and settlements the builders should approach sports facilities differently. Of course, the venues must be built with a possibility to minimize budget expenditures, but as we can see globally, except perhaps the U.S., many public sports facilities are subsidized from the budget. Today, we can see a general disconnection between organization, economy, and social policy. I mean pubic facilities and those built by private businesses. I would like to draw your attention to the venues that are built according to new public-private partnership (PPP) schemes. Although we do not have many PPP projects today, but this will become a general trend in the future. I would also like to focus on the sports facilities management. Design and operation are always interrelated. Today, we must use new technologies. In many cases, it makes sense to design and build more expensive venues in order to save on their operation in the future. Not so long ago, we examined one of our major facilities, namely the Zenit stadium, which total construction budget exceeds 30 billion rubles. How this money will be repaid in the future? It is clear that it will never pay for itself. In this regard, the facility managers should think about paying off at least the operational costs of this stadium. As we see in other countries, the existing norms and standards can be successfully applied to other venues construction. However, the stadium in St. Petersburg is unique, so we cannot use its special norms and standards in Russia’s other sports facilities. Together with the Organizing Committee of the Sochi-2014 Olympics, we are involved in development of national regulatory documents concerning affordable sports facilities. The main idea is that we should forget about the existing SNiPs (Russia’s federal standards) in order to develop a new set of rules in accordance with the norms and standards of the IOC to make the sports facilities affordable for our citizens. Now we are having a public discussion of this document.

Alex Hoppe: The Olympic Stadium in Sochi will be the sports symbol of Russia in the eyes of the world

One of the biggest Russian problems is that the regional administration establishes separate committees for the construction of sports facilities and their operation Horst Huber I would like to emphasize that we are working closely with the RASF. This association is a member of the International Association for Sports and Leisure Facilities. Our cooperation has been actively developing. One of the biggest Russian problems is that the regional administration as the customer establishes separate committees for the construction of sports facilities and their operation. This is the reason why many aspects of a future sports facility operation are not taken into consideration at the design stage. This often leads to increasing operating costs in the future. Natalia Chaikovskaya TV broadcasting is a very important commercial component, without which any modern sports facility cannot become economically successful. We do everything we can to let millions of fans watch the games live when they cannot physically come to a stadium or an arena. If you want your club to look attractive and its matches realistic, we should start cooperating with each other at the initial design

and construction stages, but not when your sports facility becomes operational. Every now and then, we can see that there are no communication cables installed in the venue when we have to start broadcasting. Unfortunately, this is a very serious problem for many broadcasting companies in Russia. At the same time, all recommendations for communications do exist, and there is nothing special and complex in them. Of course, the communications cost money, but as we know, a greedy man pays twice, as laying back communication cables costs less at the initial construction stage than in the process of alteration.  Natalia Chistyakova Today, we are facing a difficult task to build stadiums in accordance with FIFA International standards to host the World Cup 2018. An even more important task is to achieve an appropriate ROI and profitability ratios of those expensive projects. The most effective cash-flow option is to combine the sports facilities with other real estate segments that are more functional and can make the whole project look more profitable and liquid.  Photo: Andrey Mikhalchenkov

SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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MANAGEMENT

WORLD CUP 2018 IN RUSSIA TO DEPEND ON PPP Right after the announcement of Russia’s victory to host the FIFA World Cup 2018, the Russian government announced it would involve a lot of private investors to participate in various PPP schemes. The key issue is to develop a comprehensive PPP model using right legal schemes in order to meet both private and public requirements and corresponding interests

KEY FACTORS TO PROCEED WITH PPP PROJECTS IN RUSSIA

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June 2011 / Special Edition 2 / SF

LEGAL SUPPORT

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MANAGEMENT Many Russian regions have positive experience in doing PPP projects, including the cities that will host the World Cup 2018. However, the risks for private investors are high enough. Alexander Dolgov, Partner, Head of Project Financing and PPP, and Konstantin Makarevich, Lawyer, Head of PPP in Sports and Project Financing at an International law firm, are discussing these and other problems with SF today. The 2018 World Cup games will be held in 13 Russian cities, grouped by clusters: the Northern cluster (Kaliningrad, St. Petersburg), the Central cluster (Moscow), the Volga cluster (Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Samara, Volgograd, Saransk), and the Southern cluster (Krasnodar, Rostov-on-Don, Sochi). The final list of the cities will be published in a year, so there will be some changes in it. However, it is understood that the whole project will cover construction of sports facilities and infrastructure of those cities, including roads, airports, railway stations, hotels, etc. The Russian government, understanding the costs of such events, announced that it would cooperate with private businesses to organize the FIFA World Cup. In particular, the State officials publicly announced that Spartak stadium will be built by LUKoil that is the sponsor of Spartak Moscow football club. VTB bank as the sponsor of Dynamo Moscow football club will build Dynamo stadium. As of today, the both projects have started. The PPP schemes seem to be ideal to realize the projects via public and private interaction. At least, the both sides are interested in such schemes concerning the sports industry. Russia has never done such large-scale PPP projects. As for the Sochi Olympics, nearly all venues are financed by the State there. Experts note that the Sochi budget including private investment funds will amount to $3.5 billion, of which $2.6 billion will be invested in the tourist infrastructure, $500 million – in the Olympic venues, $270 million – in transport infrastructure, and approximately $100 million in energy facilities. Not a single Olympic project in Sochi has been realized based

RUSSIA'S REGIONAL LEADERS IN PPP PROJECTS (REGARDLESS OF INDUSTRIES) 1 St. 1. St Petersburg P t b The Neva Water project, one of the largest PPP projects in Russia's water supply

3

2. Tatarstan and Samara Region Special economic zones of industrial type

1

2

3. Kaliningrad The tourist recreation zone

on PPP schemes. At the same time, Russia has the potential to do PPP projects in the field of sports infrastructure. Talking about the potential, some experts mention the following factors: many regions and cities in Russia

with PPP and concession projects. Many regions do have experience in implementing large-scale investment projects. The Center for Development of Public-Private Partnerships has been established in Russia. Such tools as infrastructure bonds help realize the PPP projects as well. The

The Russian government announced cooperation with private businesses to organize the FIFA World Cup. Spartak stadium will be built by LUKoil that is the sponsor of Spartak Moscow football club. VTB bank as the sponsor of Dynamo Moscow football club will build Dynamo stadium have appropriate legislation developed; some regions successfully implemented concessionary and other large PPP and investment projects. Some cities succeeded in such PPP tools as infrastructure bonds. The State officials say they would further develop the PPP legislation in order to attract financial institutions to finance the projects. Russia as a whole and its regions in particular have potential to realize PPP projects in the field of sports and infrastructure. The federal and local legislation supports such projects. As of May 2011, half of the Russian regions adopted the necessary legislative documents to proceed

State is generally ready to develop and improve the necessary rules and regulations, while financial institutions seem to be ready to finance the projects. Both Russian and foreign investors seem to be interested in investing in the projects. Many regions that plan to host the World Cup 2018 have already implemented projects to develop the local sports infrastructure. For example, in October 2010, the Government of Nizhny Novgorod and the Volga-Sport, a subsidiary of the Leader property management company concluded a concession agreement on financing and building three sports and recreation centers in Lukoyanovo and Krasnye Baki

SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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MANAGEMENT

Reconstruction of Football Stadium in Yekaterinburg Major Investor: Sinara Group Financing: Globex Bank loans Estimated Investment: 1.5 billion rubles

districts of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The document is based on the Regional PPP Law, adopted in March 2010. The Volga-Sport will be operating the centers for ten upcoming years, and will become their owner after that. According to the Leader property management company, special bonds will be issued to finance the whole project. Many foreign investors and pension funds say they are interested in buying these “infrastructure bonds.” A football stadium in Yekaterinburg is currently under reconstruction. The only project investor is Sinara Group. The construction is financed by Globex bank’s loans (the bank is owned by Vnesheconombank).To date, the company has invested 1.5 billion rubles in the proj-

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June 2011 / Special Edition 2 / SF

The PPP schemes seem to be ideal to realize the projects via public and private interaction. At least, the both sides are interested in such schemes concerning the sports industry ect, mostly in social infrastructure. Given the project nature, it is sponsorship, not PPP, although it has some PPP features. A list of potential PPP projects may include all the cities that will host the World Cup 2018 games. For instance, football stadiums in Samara, Kaliningrad, or Nizhny Novgorod. These regions have the necessary legislation base needed to proceed with PPP projects locally. The Samara regional Administration adopted the concept of regional projects based on the PPP principles in 2009. Last year, the Administration adopted a corresponding regional law. A number of Russian regions successfully implemented PPP projects. St. Petersburg with its PPP projects is known

in Russia as a leader in this field. In 2011, the city announced a tender called “The Neva Water,” one of the largest PPP projects in water supply in Russia. Tatarstan and Samara have established special economic zones to develop industrial projects. Kaliningrad has its tourist and recreation projects. Other cities have succeeded in municipal and airport infrastructure (Pulkovo and Koltsovo airports). However, there are little to none finished PPP projects in Russia, as many of them are currently under development. The investment risks are high enough, while the federal legislation needs to be improved. In this regard, it is useful to study the best International practices. Russia is currently doing necessary steps to improve Federal


MANAGEMENT and regional legislation documents concerning the PPP schemes based on International practices. The authors of this particular article are the developers of a regional PPP law in the Perm region. Other regions are doing the same.

KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRASTRUCTURE BONDS The government uses them as an instrument to develop infrastructure in the country. This is also an attractive investment tool for private persons and organizations. The bonds are subdivided into two groups: bonds with a compulsory reserve ratio and project-based bonds.

The foreign experience shows that PPP projects can be successful only if the State approaches them in the right way, creating a PPP model suitable for the both private and public sectors. A number of large-scale PPP projects in the field of sports infrastructure were implemented in Europe and Asia. There are specific projects in Canada, USA, Australia, India, and South Africa. The PPP schemes used in International sports tournaments should be studied in detail. Each country has its unique experience in doing PPP projects based on different formats, models, legislation, economic and social conditions. Several schemes are currently used in the world to build stadiums (please see the table below). 

to finance specific objects

Purpose of the issue

Basis

Repayment

a concession agreement between federal and local administrations

Key Characteristics

Major buyers

Security

state guarantees

Public Sector

15 – 25 years

PPP

Club

investment and pension funds, insurance companies, banks

Developer and Club

Procurement

Traditional procurement

PPP

Club

Developer / Club

Public sector participation

State / local budget, subsidies, grants, planning and building permission

Payment for operations, subsidies, grants, rents, planning and building permission

Grants, planning and building permission

Grants, planning and building permission

Private sector participation

Bank loan

Bank loan, concessionaire's investment

Bank loan, club's investment, developer projects

Bank loan, sale of property / real estate, developer's / club's investment, business development

Ownership

City or government

JV or remains in public ownership

Sports teamt

JV, developer or sports team

Management

Public sector or JV

JV or concessionaire

Sports team

Sports team

Examples

Hull City football stadium (England); Manchester City football stadium (England)

Lilles football stadium project (France); Singapore Sports Hub

Arsenal football stadium (England); Liverpool football stadium (England)

Oxford United football stadium (England); Everton football stadium project (England)

 Source: From dressing rooms to conference rooms / / The risks and rewards in funding sports stadia. Available at: http://www.pwc.com.

SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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MANAGEMENT

WORLD EXPERIENCE IN PPP PROJECTS: SINGAPORE SPORTS HUB SF repeatedly raises the topic of PPP projects realized in the sports facilities infrastructure worldwide. Today, we present to our readers the Singapore Sports Hub project that is considered as one of the most promising today

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June 2011 / Special Edition 2 / SF


MANAGEMENT The Singapore Sports Hub has recently become the world’s largest PPP project in the field of sports infrastructure realized at the Singapore National Stadium. According to plans, the Singapore Sports Hub will substitute for the Singapore National Stadium where a multipurpose sports and entertainment center will be built to seat 55,000 spectators. The project will also include a multipurpose indoor arena, multiaqua arena, a mixed zone consisting of entertainment centers, conference rooms, restaurants, shopping areas, fitness centers, sports information, and research zones, medical and scientific centers,

parking, as well as commercial real estate of 41,000 sqm.

Key Characteristics of the Singapore Sports Hub Project  PPP format: concession.  Term of concession: 25 years.  Scheme: concessionaire develops the project, carries out construction, provides financing, and operates the center (Design-Built-Finance-Operate).  Concedent makes a unitary payment

The project will include a multipurpose indoor arena, multiaqua arena, a mixed zone, conference rooms, restaurants, shopping areas, medical and scientific centers

starting from facility operation date, as well as regular payments that relate to the agreed services / availability parameters.  The project also generates revenue from a variety of concessionaire’s activities.  Risk sharing under the concession agreement corresponds to applicable international PPP practices.

Specifics:  sharing of revenue upside;  possibility of involving subcontractors to perform certain types of work;  mechanism of service company replacement;  stadium event days and profit of third parties;  payments based on price indexation.  Criteria for bidders:  ability of a bidder to do the project in specified time frames;  valuation of technical and functional characteristics of the project, including its integration in the city landscape;  implementation of the PPP agreements developed by the Singapore Board for Sport; financing of the construction;  initiatives of technical support when managing and operating the facility. Tender winner: Singapore SportsHub Consortium (HSBC Infrastructure Fund – major investor, Dragages - general contractor, United Premas – facility operator, Global Spectrum - operator of the National Stadium).

Project Financing:  type of financing: limited recourse financing;  loan: US$1.8 billion;  creditors: syndicate and 11 foreign and Singapore banks;  term: 10 years.

Project Stages:  start of tender procedures: 2007;  re-tender to attract financing: 2009 (was necessary because of the global financial crisis);  finance close date: August 2010;  construction start date: October 2010;  planned opening date: April 2014. 

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VENUE IN FOCUS

BIG ICE ARENA: FROM PLAN TO REALIZATION In May 2012, the Sochi Big Ice Arena is scheduled to open. This will be the main arena where the Olympic hockey games will be played. The Ice Palace, located in the Olympic Park, is designed for 12,000 spectators. In December 2012, the ďŹ rst test competitions will take place there

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VENUE IN FOCUS

Architectural Concept The architectural concept of the arena is based on a frozen drop image. For the first time in the Russian modern history, the ice arena’s dome will have a complex shape.

Typically, the roof of such a facility was flat. Now, the builders will construct a dome of over 7,000 sqm to be located 50 meters above the hockey arena. The Big Ice Arena will have six levels. The whole venue of 52,000 sqm is divided into technical zones located in a stylobate part and the top two floors of the building, an area for athletes with locker rooms and access to the ice field, a press center, a VIP-zone, as well as food and beverage premises. The arena will also have the main and reserve hockey fields, fitness and sports facilities, rooms for judges and teams, medical centers, garages and parking. It will be equipped with lighting and video surveillance sys-

tems covering 24 locations. The arena will have a lot of cafes and two restaurants. To date, the ice arena is 50% ready. Concrete works on the site have been almost finished. During the first construction stages, the builders used nearly 100,000

SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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VENUE IN FOCUS poses. It will consist of composite LED panels. These LED devices will form a network to be able to reflect any images that will change the whole sports facility image. Designers are currently developing a visual content for the show during the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympic Games. All glass parts will be fixed without clamps in order to bring joints to the same level with glass parts. This technology will make the whole surface of the dome ideally plain. The total area of the roof is nearly 26,000 sqm.

cubic meters of concrete, of which 40% went to fill up the foundation. Now the builders are erecting walls of a technical floor to separate the main arena premises from the lobby. This will create a special climate system above the stands and the ice field, and will also provide appropriate acoustics for both competitions and cultural events.

Dome Installation of the metal dome over the central part of the hockey arena has been

profiled sheets of roofing. In particular, the Kalzip technology has been used in sports facilities such as the International Tennis Center in Shanghai Kichzhong and the Dubai Ski Center. The Sochi builders have started assembling aluminum sheets to cover the ice arena dome. Special complex equipment produces flat rolled sheets of various shapes. As a result, the grooved roof becomes very strong and reliable. The builders also use concealed roof fastenings, whose installation is done without a single hole in the

The freezing equipment is designed for ice making, as well as for cooling the air indoors. At the same time, coldmaking compressors heat up themselves. Part of this energy will be used to heat the floor, water, and air in indoor premises. Thanks to «green» technologies, the total energy efficiency of the arena will reach 90%. finished. The builders are now installing a Kalzip roofing system to ensure a strong and hermetically sealed roof, which is flexible to become convex, concave, elliptic, or hyperbolic.

coating. Grooved locks protect the roof from leaking. The grooved roof is the central layer of the shell. Below, there is a steel dome, soundproofing, and heat-proofing layers.

This unique facade system technology has been used globally in 80 million sqm of

On the top of this grooved roof, there will be a final layer installed for aesthetic pur-

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June 2011 / Special Edition 2 / SF

Installation of a metal frame of the dome continues as well. Each day the arena is getting closer to its original shape that resembles a frozen drop. By June 2011, the builders plan to assemble all steel parts over lobbies, which consist of 68 steel arches that look like sabers because of their unusual shape. Engineers made 17 sabertype arches ranging from 27.5 m to 40 m in length. According to plans, all those arches will be installed by the year-end. At the same time, in order to accelerate the arena construction, the builders will keep decorating exterior walls of the facility.

Lower Level Finishing works at a lower level of the ice arena are nearly finished. In particular, the builders have finished doing 16 premises with a total area of about 2,500 sqm. Primary flooring works in the basement (36,000 sqm) have been completed. Starting from the ninth sector, the builders were moving in two directions. The floor consists of two layers: a macadam base of 60 cm and a 4-cm layer of concrete. The finishing flooring works started in auxiliary premises of the venue. Tile floors have been built in half of the premises while the other half are reinforced floors made with hardeners. These floors are ideally plain and resistant to mechanical pressure or chemicals.


VENUE IN FOCUS

International Tennis Center in Shanghai Kichzhong

The unique facade system technology has been used globally in 80 million sqm of profiled sheets of roofing. In particular, the Kalzip technology has been used in sports facilities such as the International Tennis Center in Shanghai Kichzhong and the Dubai Ski Center

Freezing Installation The freezing equipment of the Big Ice Arena will be installed soon. As of today, a separate building of 940 sqm has been built to place refrigerators and compressors. Seven refrigerators and compressors with a total of 1.6 megawatts will be installed there. The freezing equipment is designed for ice making, as well as for cooling the air indoors. At the same time, cold-making compressors heat up themselves. Part of this energy will be used to heat the floor, water, and air in indoor premises. Thanks to «green» technologies, the total energy

efficiency of the arena will reach 90%. Ruben Reddy, Architect from South Africa, has developed the concept of interior design that will show the global impact of ice hockey as the Olympic sports and the history of hockey in the USSR and Russia. The hockey dynamics will be displayed by using various colors and building materials. The interior will have mostly bright and silver colors applied to glass, metal, and concrete parts. The builders plan to use only modern, safe, and environmentally friendly materials. The interior finishing works will speed up as soon as the whole arena is roofed and its facilities are hermetically sealed. 

Characteristics of Kalzip Facade System - Light weight combined with high structural strength - Beauty and aesthetics - Environmental friendliness - Good heat and sound insulation - Efficiency and durability - Short installation time - Possibility of recycling and dismantling - No additional maintenance and repair needed SF / June 2011 / Special Edition 2

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THE LARGE-SCALE SPORTS CONSTRUCTION STEP BY STEP:

TWO DOMES BUILT FOR THE OLYMPICS

The Sochi Big Ice Arena is 50% ready. The monolithic concrete frames have been installed. The roofing works are performed. Metal structures have been fixed to form a frozen drop image of the arena. Once the roofing works are over, hundreds of professional decorators and ice-making staff will start working there. Two ice-making technological slabs have been installed inside the building. According to plan, the installation of the ice-making equipment will be finished by September 2011. The first frozen ice will appear in the arena in December 2011. The first test competitions will be held there in late 2012. A truncated cylinder will be placed in the center of the figure skating arena. Special supporting structures were installed in the venue to place the cylinder with 36 radial trusses. The whole long-span covered area will be located on the frame of the building. When the installation is complete, all the supporting structures will be removed. The total weight of the dome will be 200 tons. The figure skating ring will be put into operation in 2012.

Ice Arena for Figure Skating Capacity: 12,000 (seats) Opening date: 2011 International test competitions: Figure Skating Grand Prix Finals (December 2012), World Cup Short Track (February 2013)

Big Ice Arena Capacity: 12,000 (seats) Opening date: 2012 International test competitions: Euro Hockey Tour (December 2012), World Junior Championships (April 2013)


OLYMPIC PARK VENUES IN RIVERSIDE CLUSTER

Ice Skating Center Capacity: 8,000 Opening date: 2012 International test competitions: World Single Distance Speed Skating Championships (March 2013)

Ice Arena for Curling Capacity: 3,000 (seats) Opening date: 2012 International test competitions: World Wheelchair Curling Championships (February 2013), World Junior Championships (March 2013)

Small Ice Arena Capacity: 7,000 (seats) Opening date: 2012 International test competitions: World Junior Championships (April 2013), Sledge Hockey World Championships (May 2013), Women's Hockey Championships (October 2013)

Central Stadium Capacity: 40,000 Opening date: 2013


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