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The SmartPen Vanessa Berenguer, Valter Candelaria University of Madeira

Abstract In our work, we describe a new writing device created by Livescribe: the Smartpen. This is an intelligent pen that is very much used now, especially in the academic community. It distinguishes itself from the ordinary pens due to its innovative and computational functionalities, because this type of pen allows the user to record his notes, audio files and also gives him moments of leisure with the many different applications. In this work, we also suggest some improvements that we consider important, according to our experiments, as well as some different features.



What is the Smartpen? The Livescribe Smartpen is an advanced paper-based computer in the form of a pen that records everything that we hear and write. It synchronizes the audio that we are hearing to what we are writing, so we never miss a word. To do so it is only necessary to tap on our notes and the Smartpen will play back what we recorded from that exact moment in time. The Smartpen provides both audio and visual feedback, powerful processing capabilities, and substantial built-in storage. The Smartpen integrates several components and technologies. It also uses firmware and application software to support the interaction of all of its components and to enable built-in handwriting recognition, and applications such as Paper Replay, among many others. When we switch on the Livescribe Smartpen and begin writing on Livescribe dot paper, the Smartpen captures and stores the notes that we write. To capture our writing, the Smartpen uses its built-in infrared camera to take digital snapshots of a special dot pattern on the paper as the tip moves over the paper while we write.

Features of the Smartpen


The SmartPen is able to write, to record, to replay audio files and also to transmit information to other devices. Beside these basic features, the SmartPen has other applications such as a translator demo, a dictionary, games, and it also possible to personalize it in the way that the user wants. These features are described as follows :

The Smartpen

After we had tested all the available applications in the SmartPen Pulse, we had registered some observations. Starting with piano application, we found it very explanatory because the pen itself informs the user about what he has to do. We tested all the different rhythms as well as all the existing instruments. For that, we used the symbols r for the rhythm and i for the instrument, stating its good efficiency. The second application that we tested was the Paper Replay. Initially we had some difficulties when we wanted to replay a recorded session. Since we had never used this type of pen before, in our first utilization we found the navigation between the menus a little confusing, and only after some interactions we could understand and use this application quit well. The third application tested was the Translator Demo. In this application we did not find any difficulties on accessing it. However, we had noticed that the number of words that it is possible to write and therefore being translated is very limited, as well as the number of languages. We also observed that it is not possible to neither record the text nor write big texts. During our research on the newest models of the SmartPen, namely the Echo version, it has much more possibilities in this type of application. At last, we also tested the Livescribe Desktop application. In our experiments, we observed that this application is only useful to the smartpen’s owner or for who has their personal data, because it is not possible to perform any interaction with the computer; the application always requests for login authentication. In general, when we use this smartpen for the first time, the navigation menu can be a little confusing. However, after some exploration and more usage of the menus, the user’s options becomes simpler and more understandable, leading him to make less mistakes and get less confused.

• Paper Replay - When we begin recording with the Smartpen, it automatically The objectives of this work are mainly focused on making a thorough study about the Smartpen, specifically about its operations, features and applications. It will also be done a demonstration of the functionality of the pen, from where we will take some conclusions. Finally, we will make some improvement suggestions based on the demonstration made, as well presenting new useful features.


links the audio to anything we write on the dot paper. The recorded audio (and any associated written notes) is called a Paper Replay session. A session begins when we start recording audio and ends when we stop recording audio. A paused recording is still one session. A session always contains audio and optionally can contain associated written notes. The Paper Replay playback controls such as jump, position bar, and bookmark, function within a single session. It is possible to jump forward or back or speed listen to only one Paper Replay session at a time.

Once we had concluded the verification of the Smartpen features, we can affirm that this pen has been improved over the years and becoming an extremely useful device to all kind of people, but particularly in the field of the education. This pen can be used in everyone’s day-to-day, or even to professional purposes, such as conferences or lectures.

• Translator

Demo - With this feature, we can translate a small set of words and the numbers zero to nine from English into Spanish, Swedish, Arabic, or Mandarin. By writing a word in English in the notebook, it is possible to see and hear correct translation from the Smartpen.

•Piano -

With the Piano application, we can draw a piano keyboard on our dotted paper and play music with the Smartpen. Also, we can change the sound of our piano, add rhythm tracks, and add sharp and flat notes. Writing the letters i and r allows the user to change the instrument and the rhythm, respectively, by simply tapping on them.

Features of the Smartpen

After this study had been done, we believe that the Smartpen that was used in our tests was a little limited because some of its features were just for demonstration. However, with all our research we found that the new versions of the Smartpen already are more evolved because they contain much more complex and even more useful features, which in turn makes people want to buy it. Even though the cost is a little high, we think that it does not represent a limitation to acquire the Smartpen. This new pen will be a tool with a constant evolution because it will have more and more beneficial features to the user.

Augmented Reality and the Smartpen


The Augmented Reality is an environment that evolves either the virtual reality as the elements of the real world, creating a mixed environment in real time. The most remarkable distinction made between the AR and UC is that the second does not focus on the disappearing of the conscientious and intentional interaction, as much as the AR focuses. The UC systems, like the diffused computational devices, keep the concept of the interaction very explicit and intentional, which is involved in a typical work of AR, as Ronald Azuma’s. The Smartpen is a real object which we can interact computationally, becoming an Augmented Reality tool. This smart pen, besides writing like a regular pen, presents some technological features that allow the user to play a piano with it and with a draw on his dot paper notebook

New Features An infrared pen is actually a very useful tool that allows a computerized interaction in an interactive whiteboard. The utilization of the Smartpen on interactive whiteboards would be a good feature to be implemented on it, because these two objects, when together, could form a much more powerful device on educational environments. Therefore, the tip of the Smartpen should be adapted with an infrared LED to be used as an infrared pen in an interactive whiteboard. As the new versions of the Smartpen already have a Bluetooth connection, it is not necessary a receiving device besides the computer. Therefore, the Smartpen itself would be capable of sending the data to the computer via Bluetooth, which in turn would be projected on the whiteboard.

Copyright Information Here

The Smartpen and the interactive whiteboard

1.; Livescribe, Inc. 2011 2., Livescribe Echo Digital Smartpen, 2011 3. 4. eiro=3928, 5., Quadro interactivo baseado no Wiimote 6., Send Handwritten Notes to Internet Using Livescribe Smartpen, Copyright 2011 7.; Smart Pen Pulse, 2008 8., Livescribe 9., Livescribe Smartpen: Applications in Education, Copyright, 2009-2011 10., Livescrive Echo Smartpen Review, 2010 11., Realidade Aumentada.

Fon share WiFi at home… …enjoy WiFi everywhere

WHAT IS FON? Fon was founded by Martin Varsavsky, with the goal of free, ubiquitous WiFi for everyone. enen

Today, Fon is the largest WiFi community in the world, with over three million Fon WiFi spots and over five million users. The idea of Fon is that every person that have a WiFi connection in their home can become a hotspot for others to use. The members of Fon agree to share their WiFi at home and get free roaming at all the Fon spots worldwide in return. Besides the free WiFi connection all over the world that the Fon community offers, it also offers ways to make profit with the hotspot; who is registered as a bill receives 50% of revenue for each alien member that decides to buy a pass and access to his hotspot. This is a good way to attract members and small business.

USER REVIEW The speed and performance of my home network was not affected. The only visitor on my hotspot indicated was me, so I decided to test the performance of the network having two laptops online in the home network and one in the fon; The bandwidth for both was the same 54mb, the speed and response from the web browsing was equal for both networks, so even if there is a significant amount of people connected in the hotspot the home network would not be affected. In my way to Garajau I had my smartphone detecting WiFi signals and for my surprise I found 11 free fon hotspots between Caniço centro and Garajau (Figure 2). I attribute this to the difficulty that is to set the right localization for the hotspots or is also another possibility that the new Zon routers have the fon setting activated without people taking knowledge of this.

Figure 2 - rout with hotspots discovered

CONCLUSION Fon is the only initiative that based their idea in a community, so their growth only depends of people interest. If people wanted connectivity everywhere they can buy one of the fon routers call “fonera” or if they are lucky their telecommunication company had a partnership with fon and their router already allows to become a fon hotspot. Fon provides access to the internet without almost any cost and if members choose to receive part of the profit made with his hotspot it can make a significant amount of money (it needs to be in consideration the localization of the hotspot); that’s why their service also attract coffee shops, restaurants and private parks because is a win-win situation. I can say that Fon is the only company that is really making internet connection ubiquitous. In the big cities we can found innumerous fon hotspots and even in Madeira a small island we now find a significant amount of fon spots. Sandra Perdomo

Dropbox Adriano Lopes, António Carvalho University of Madeira


Introduction Abstract

Why do you use Dropbox? Backing up

Portability Very Satisfied



Satisfied Mobile access


25% Neutral

Sync files beetween computers

57% Unsatisfied

Sharing files and folders Cloud computing [1] refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. The Dropbox [2] is a virtual disk that uses cloud computing to enable users to store and share files and folders with others across the internet using file synchronization. Once your files are correctly uploaded to the Dropbox server, the files are going to be available from any place, with internet access. One of the main benefits of the Dropbox, besides the fact that it is easy to use, is its compatibility with different uses. It is available using a simple web browser or through applications for Windows, Linux, Mac OS, Android, iPhone and Blackberry. It is ready to use in English, French, German, Spanish and Japanese language, and it is available in different sizes. The free Dropbox account comes with 2GB that you can use for as long as you like, but by referring the Dropbox to other people you can win 250MB for each affiliate, to a maximum of 1GB. If you need more space you can opt for the Pro 50 plan with 50GB which costs $9.99/month or the Pro 100 plan with 100GB for $19.99/month.

Comparison between services


Fig. 1 – Method used to motivate users to answer Dropbox questionnaire The online questionnaire was easy to answer and had the participation of xxx users in total, from around the World. The questions included in the questionnaire were:

Very Satisfied


Free Plan

Paid Plans

SugarSync 5GB

30GB $4.99/month

100GB - $19.99/month

60GB $9.99/month 100GB $14.99/month 250GB - $24.99 / month

Public Internet file hosting Maximu m per-file size Server location( s) Supports

English, Japanese, German, French and Spanish





Very Unsatisfied

English, Japanese, German, Spanish and Chinese


No Limit




Windows, Linux, Mac OS, iPhone, Android, Palm Pre


Table 1. Comparison between Dropbox, SugarSync and ZumoDrive [4]

Copyright 2011 Adriano Lopes, António Carvalho

This application takes the best of cloud computing to provide an easy, fast and safe tool to share and backup our academic, professional and domestic life. We conclude that Dropbox is a ubiquitous system and its use is recommended to everyone.

30 - 39

Very Satisfied




> 40 Neutral


88% Unsatisfied


Very Unsatisfied


How have you found about Dropbox? Other



Very Satisfied





Neutral Invite

Throught friends

References Invisibility


4% Unsatisfied


From the data retrieved from the questionnaire, we conclude that Dropbox is very popular between young people, mainly students and workers, who see the application as an easy and sage tool to share and have the files safe and available in several locations. We also can get to the conclusion that most of the users are happy with the features already provided with Dropbox, sharing the same opinion in terms of usability, portability and invisibility (some of the characteristics of a ubiquitous system). The overall disappointment is on the space provided for the free account, which could be bigger as Dropbox’s competitors.




Windows, Mac OS, iPhone, iPad, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Symbian http://www.sugarsy


3% 19 - 29

500GB $79.99/month English, Japanese, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Korean and Chinese



100GB $19.99/month 9%


Are you happy with Dropbox?


200GB $37.99/month




50GB - $9.99/month




25GB - $6.99/month

300 MB on the web interface; none for the desktop app

Windows, Linux, Mac OS, iPhone, Android and Blackberry





10GB - $2.99/month

50GB - $9.99/month

Languag e(s)




Domestic Academic

• How old are you? • How have you found Dropbox? • Why do you use Dropbox (choose one or more options) • Type of use • Are you happy with Dropbox? • Rate the application in the following characteristics • Usability • Invisibility (your awareness that the application is running) • Portability • Available space


Available space

Yes Dropbox 2GB (but you can win 1GB by referring it to your friends)

Very Unsatisfied

Type of use Other



Very Unsatisfied



1. Cloud Computing,, 19-05-2011 2. Dropbox, 3. Dropbox (service), 2005-2001 4. Comparison of online backup services,, 20-052011 5. Sanjay Jalona, Arindam Banergi, Bhavin Jayantilal. Business Value Architecture for Cloud Computing, Infosys, 6. White Paper: Introduction to cloud computing, ThinkGrid, 7. Cloud Storage for Cloud Computing, Storage Networking Industry Association and the Open Grid Forum,

Paper Computing Diamantino Ferreira, Roberto Dias University of Madeira

Abstract In this work, we will introduce the main features of a paper computing system, their advantages and how they can be used to improve our everyday activities. We will understand the main advantages of paper when compared to digital systems and analyze some examples of paper computing systems. The final part of our work is about future speculations in this area and how it has evolved during the last few years. We will conclude that a vision of a paperless world is far from true and that paper based systems can and will be a part of our future.

Examples - Searchable Books Paper books remain popular, as many readers prefer the reading experience that paper books provide, which digital interfaces cannot. In this example, the goal is to improve users’ reading experience by enhancing books with digital functionalities. This application can be used on a mobile phone to scan trough a book with a camera, recognize the information, and ultimately be able to search any contents within the text. In essence, we are virtualizing books, keeping both the physical and virtual paper advantages.

Direct Latitude/Longitude Identification of Paper Maps Using a Camera Phone This system adopts a new technique to embed geographical coordinates into paper maps and directly identify them using a camera phone, which is particularly useful for travelling. Through a simple photo from the camera, the system can easily trace back the map coordinates for that region, which can be exchanged with GPS devices to find the way around. This provides real-time recognition via print maps on most commercial mobile phones. .

Goals The main goal of this research is to understand the real application uses of paper computing and the advantages that we can acquire by using it on some tasks mainly on enterprises, but also in some personal applications. We will present some examples of the utility of this technology and try to understand what kind of future it will have.

Why paper computing? Various studies confirm paper has inherent advantage over electronic platforms in many forms of activities. Paper sheets can be bent, folded, shredded, recycled, stapled and written on at a very low cost and without the need for software upgrades or everlasting battery supplies. Despite the prediction of a paperless future, paper documents are still widely used in our everyday activities. Paper is not dead [2].

Discussion The development of interactive paper solutions has become a very active research area. While different interactive paper frameworks support the application development, the question is whether these frameworks are missing a common abstraction layer. It might be the right time to reflect and share some wisdom. The definition of common data formats and design guidelines could be a first step towards real cross-application and cross-framework interoperability. There is also the need to debate whether these applications, despise being useful in practice, can be an economically viable source of investment. There can also be many technical constrains in this kind of development, such as device independence (so that different devices can communicate with each other in an optimal way), digital ink abstraction and application deployment. One of the most challenging obstacles to overcome would also be the need of precise cross-application operability, as well as more advanced data recognition, data processing and rendering algorithms that fit a useable device on our everyday use. Afteral, that is the main premise of Weiser’s vision.

(a) (b) (c) Figure – Snapshots of the system, (a) the paper map and the mobile phone, (b) the latitude/longitude indicator shows the latitude/longitude coordinates (green number) of the center cross, (c) photos pop up over the camera image.

(a) (b) (c) An illustration of book content search via a mobile phone. (a) shows the application capturing the book’s ISBN barcode, while (b) illustrates using the book’s cover page (c) illustrates a user entering a search after the book has been identified.

- TheNeverendingStorytellingMachine A conceptual system that would augment storybooks with 3D and anaglyph content that is oriented according to the reader’s posture and registered right on the paper. The system allows direct finger interaction with the projected graphics to create an immersive and entertaining user experience during reading. This system has been used with a great outcome in teaching lower aged students. Engaged by both physical and digital dimensions, users are no longer constrained by traditional story writing means, but instead, are encouraged to explore stories as multisensorial experiences .

References - A Paper Interface for Code Exploration This augmented reality system is designed to offer active exploration tools for programmers confronted with the problem of getting familiar with a large codebase, methods, classes and relations. In a typical scenario, new programmers coming to an institution have to learn about a project in order to start their own contribution. With this application programmers can easily browse through classes, edit methods trough simple steps, and preview their changes on a large class diagram display. One of the main advantages of this application is the quick and intuitive code editing; the user only needs to select a class to edit its contents, and by selecting a method or variable will automatically highlight it. He can thereafter apply the changes he wants in the computer and update them in less than a second.

Coelho, M. et al. “Pulp-Based Computing: A Framework for Building Computers Out of Paper.” Proc. Ubicomp 2007, ACM Press ed. Káplan, F et al. “ First International Workshop on Paper.” PaperComp 2010. Wellner, P. “Interacting with Paper on the DigitalDesk.” 1993, ACM Press ed. Singer, B et all “Interactive paper: Past, Present and Future”, 2010 Paper Comp Bonnard, Q et all, “A Paper interface for code exploration”, 2010 Paper Comp Chong, M et all, “Improving paper books: Searchable books”, 2010 Paper Comp

Integration areas

Follmer, E et all, “The Never Ending Story telling Machine: A Platform For Creative Collaboration Using a Sketchbook and Everyday Objects”, 2010 Paper Comp Olberding, S et all, “Towards Understanding Erasing-based Interactions: Adding Erasing Capabilities to Anoto Pens”, 2010 Paper Comp

There are a variety of interactive paper applications covering different domains. In addition to different hardware solutions, there exist a number of software frameworks for the digital pen and paper technology. In the remaining part of this paper, we would like to outline some future technical as well as non-technical challenges to stimulate a discussion between interactive paper application and framework developers [4] as well as which areas of knowledge can take use of this technology.

Signer, B et all, “Interactive Paper: Past, Present and Future”, 2010 Paper Comp Figure 2- Three classes are used for this illustration. The paper command show source is applied on MyClass, and projects its result in red. The paper command print group has been used to produce the paper object representing the three classes circled by the yellow box. The paper command show occurrences is applied on one of the methods of MyClass, and the resulting set of class is restricted to the previously mentioned group. The results are projected in blue.

Figure 1– Here we can see an example of this kind off books and how the images will be projected into the paper. This images can be in 3D by adding the 3D effect with special glasses.

WarDriving António Franco / Pedro Camacho Universidade da Madeira

Abstract The use of wireless networks is the technology most commonly used nowadays. Every home, professional environment or university has it, sharing information through cables is becoming part of the past. The use of wifi technologies can be unsecure because of the lack of physical security and with this new methodologies like wardriving were invented. This methodology gives the ability to find wireless networks. Although not legal, many people use it because of the benefits, a good database of access points can save you a lot of money since you do not need to pay to access the internet. Over time it became increasingly easy to do it, many applications are available for all kind of Operating Systems.


Applications Comparison

Methodology The first step was to search for applications that could do this kind of work, we found some good applications, but they needed external GPS support. We started to test KisMac and NetStumbler, both gave us a good feedback on Wi-Fi networks like the SSID (Service Set Identifier), channel, gain and security but unfortunately GPS functionality did not work. Since the collected information did not have GPS support it became difficult to organize it. Then we tried the WarDrive application for Android, but like the other applications, we started to have problems and the collected data was incomplete, due to many problems with the GPS on this application. We did not give up, many other testing were done, since the results were not what we expect, we tried another application named G-Mon. After analyzing the following applications, NetStumbler, KisMac, WarDrive, WiGLE and G-Mon we concluded that the one with better results was G-Mon 2.x. G-Mon is a powerful WarDriving scanner and GSM/UMTS net monitor and dive test tool which can be used on Android platform. It scans for all Wi-Fi networks in range and saves the data with GPS coordinates into a file on a SD card. A kml file for Google Earth can be also created. It shows the encryption, channel and signal strength. G-Mon gives the ability to collect and map all detected Wi-Fi access points. It is also a 2G/3G net monitor and field test drive tool for radio planning engineers. Needs enabled GPS for correct position in map.


In this section we will make a brief comparison between the four wardriving application tested, NetStumbler, KisMac, WarDrive and G-Mon. NetStumbler is an active wireless network detection application that does not passively listen for or receive packets. Its interface also provides filtering and analysis tools. KisMAC is a passive network detector on supported cards (e.g. Apple’s AirPort), packet sniffer and an intrusion detector system. After using WarDrive service we’ve noticed that the GPS locator showed up for two seconds and disappeared again. Location gets fixed if we start another GPS location fixing application (i.e. GPS status) that records WarDrive locations properly. After exporting the kml file, only two locations were mapped. WiGLE (Wireless Geographic Logging Engine) is a website for collecting information about the different wireless hotspots around the world. Anyone can use it, and share a local on WiGLE’s website, so anyone can see a global map with all the access points available. Finally, G-Mon application was the one that gave us better results. It is an easy to use application because we just need a mobile phone with embedded GPS and wireless internet. After wardriving, a kml file with the daily export is saved on SD card. That kml file can be opened in Google Earth, and lets us see all the access points scanned. Note that we made three approaches, within approximately one month each, and different samples were collected.

Definition The name of "wardriving" is often misunderstood. "Wardriving" is the act of searching for Wi-Fi networks. This term derives from the term "wardialing", when modems were used to connect networks a long time ago. Basically this technique consists of collecting information from Wi-Fi networks like the security type, location and network name, and then this information can be used for statistics of Wi-Fi network security and usability. This collection can be done in various ways either by car or by foot, through a portable phone, Sony PSP, Nintendo DS, in short, any hardware that supports Wi-Fi. Despite the importance of using a GPS to collect the exact location of each network, there is the possibility of using a map to mark the locations if you do not have a GPS. There is a great variety of available software for this purpose. The best known are NetStumbler [1], Kismet [2] and inSSIDer [3] (for Windows), KisMAC [4] and iStumbler [5] (for Mac OS) and WiGLE [6], WarDrive [7] and G-Mon [8] (for Android). The use of such applications although not completely legal, can be very useful if we think that people around the world have the possibility to use such applications of wardriving. The use of a website (database) to share the gathered information through the internet gives the ability to anyone to see and connect to the internet free of charge. But like everything else, there is always a bad side. This technology when used by people with bad intentions could create ethic and safety problems. Although there are very different security algorithms, there is always someone that figures out how to break them. Often the security problems are more due to the lack of information from people or weak password access. There are no laws that forbid the wardriving if done passively (no connections), just listening to the network broadcasts. But the use of these network services is illegal without permission from the network provider (individual or company).

Investigation Area Initially we thought we would get better results near the Funchal city center. However, after the first WarDrive analysis, we decided that the Forum Madeira area would best correspond to our expectations. We chose Forum Madeira surrounding area because it is a very popular area for offices (enterprises), housing, coffee shops, restaurants and shopping centers.

Conclusion WarDriving is a technique that can be very valuable to the technology community, assuming that it is used with the intent that it was planned on. WarDriving can be both fun and informative and can be done by anyone, it does not have to be done only by computer professionals. The easy use of this technology has made that people take care about their wireless network configurations. Wardrivers can help anyone to set their networks more secure. Many of the insecure networks can illegally be exploited by crackers and attackers. We have to adapt to new technologies, wardriving is not going away, we have to learn and improve security. After reviewing several applications we found that wardriving is very easy to do. With this project we acquire knowledge in security and wifi networks. The security of networks can be improved, many alternatives can be done to make a wifi network secure.

Surveys 1st Survey

2nd Survey

3rd Survey

On April 10th, 2011, we made our first approach to the "Forum Madeira’s area" in order to gather information about the access points available in that area. For that, we used two mobile phones, Samsung Galaxy S I9000 and HTC Magic, and at the end joined the two kml files in order to see the "Google Earth access points map". The car we used while wardriving has been driven at an average speed of 40 km per h.

On May 10th, 2011 we made our second approach on the same area. For that we used again two mobile phones, a Samsung Galaxy S I9000 and an HTC Desire HD, and at the end we joined the kml files exported. Unfortunately, a small area has not record any data, maybe the application crashed out. This time, the car we used while wardriving has been driven at an average speed of 50 km per h.

On 19th June, 2011, we made our final approach to the area of study, and this time, we got more access points near the Forum Madeira Commercial Center. We used for that only one mobile phone, Samsung Galaxy S I9000. The car we used while wardriving has been driven at an average speed of 40 km per h.

WarDriving Funchal @ 2011

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

NetStumbler (2011) - Kismet (2011) - InSSIDer (2011) - KisMac (2011) - iStumbler (2011) - WiGLE (2011) - WarDrive (2011) - G-Mon (2011) - Minkyong Kim, Jeffrey J. Fielding, and David Kotz (2006), Risks of Using AP Locations Discovered Through War Driving, Department of Computer Science (Dartmouth College) 10. Chris Hurley, Russ Rogers, Frank Thornton, Daniel Connelly, Brian Baker (2006), WarDriving & Wireless Penetration Testing 11. H Berghel (2004), Wireless Infidelity I: War Driving

Epi - Epidemic Diffusion Cátia Afonseca/ Pratrícia Nascimento / Vanda Trindade Universidade da Madeira

Replace w/ Logo

Epidemic Diffusion Conclusion Functioning

Epidemic EpidemicDiffusion Diffusion

Definition The spreading epidemic is under constant study, being considered a high level of innovation in area of technology science. In figure above we have a schematic illustration of epidemic diffusion on a complex network, where the centre denotes the original seed. The numbers 0,1,2,… denote the distance from the original seed, and the arrows denote the possible infection paths. In diffusion when a node is infected, one of its neighbouring nodes will be infected at the next step, reducing so the density of infected nodes. It is in fact a kind of reaction diffusion process and uses a gossip protocol in order to establish the connection within the network. Because of the form of gossip is seen in social networks, this protocol is a style of computer-to-computer communication protocol. Several distributed systems often use gossip protocols to solve problems that it could be difficult to solve by using others ways, either because the underlying network has an inconvenient structure, or is extremely large, or because gossip solutions is considered the most efficient ones available.

Epi is an application that allows the exchange of messages between the users connected to the same Wi-Fi access point without need of the internet. The messages exchanged in a given location, are stored and distributed again in other places where Epi is used. Users can use a Wi-Fi network interface to connect to a network in ad-hoc mode; they can even create their own ad-hoc network or can be connected to an access point without having internet access.


Epi Description Epi is an application that, using Wi-Fi interfaces, facilitates the spread of text messaging between users that are close, since there is no need to Internet connection. For example, one possible scenario for sending and receiving messages between users of Epi is when we are in a public establishment with one or more Wi-Fi networks, we turn on the laptop and some of these networks presents us with the registration on the network without prior authentication, and provided us with an IP address. Consequently, when we are trying to access the Internet through a browser, we are headed to a service provider authentication site. Then, it is made a record on this network, even without Internet access, and it is possible to use the Epi application. A special feature of this application is that messages that are sent at a specific location, in which there is no Epi user, are stored and, subsequently, propagated in other areas where Epi is being used. This application lets you send messages between the users that are connected to a network, even if this connection has been made in differently forms. In other words, the user may be using the Wi-Fi network interface to connect to a network in ad-hoc, can possibly create an own ad-hoc network, or even be connected to an access point that does not have an Internet connection.

Problems It does not work in any other operating system besides Windows; It is available in one language (Portuguese); It only work on the computer; The users who intend to carry out the exchange of messages are not exactly on the same network, they will never receive the messages of the other user that is in a different network; The interface: Cancel button, in the sending interface, displays the same function to minimize;

Improvements It should be possible to choose the language to be used; It should be compatible to any operation system; Extend this application for mobile phones and Bluetooth interfaces; It could jointly enable the user to send files to your neighborhood; It should, consequently, have security and privacy protocols to this sends;

The purpose of conducting this article was to demonstrate the importance of using an application that uses the diffusion epidemic as a means of communication, named as Epi (Epidemic diffusion). Initially we installed the application and we test, so we can draw some conclusions. It was found, as many of the comments made ​by users on Facebook that this application sometimes did not sent messages and took a lot of time to receive messages sent by others. Another problem diagnosed and may induce the user to error, is that, in the same infrastructure, may exist several available networks. So, if the users who intend to carry out the exchange of messages are not exactly on the same network, they will never receive the messages of the other user that is in a different network. Finally, we conclude that this project needs more study and exploration to meet all the needs of the USERS, but we think it can make a positive impact in the future because this is viable.

References XIAO-YAN, Wu; ZONG-HUA, Liu - Epidemic Diffusion on Complex Networks, January 2007; A dissertation by ZENGWANG XU - Small-World Characteristics in Geographic in Geographic, Epidemic, and Virtual Spaces: A comparative Study - May 2007,; ; MONTEIRO, M. João; PEREIRA, José; RODRIGUES, Luís – Integração do Flight Simulator 2002 com um protocolo de difusão epidémica – July 2003; KHELIL, Abdelmajid; BECKER, Christian; TIAN, Jing; ROTHERMEL, Kurt – An Epidemic Model for Information Diffusion in MANETs – University of Stuttgart; Epi community on facebook –; Wikipedia – Gossip protocol-; XU, Zengwang Xu; SUI, Daniel Z. -Effect of small-world networks on epidemic propagation and intervention –


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