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VOLUME 92 ISSUE 4 A P R . / M AY 2 0 1 8

When there are opportunities to present a workshop, or go to a conference, or help another coach who is starting a program, seize those chances. That service is how this organization grows stronger. And you gain so much from that as well.” — Don Crabtree, NSDA Board President, Hall of Fame Member, and Nine-Diamond Coach


MEAN GREEN COMET D E B AT E I N S T I T U T E PROGRAMS, SESSIONS AND PRICING The 2018 Mean Green Comet Debate Institute at The University of Texas at Dallas offers both novice and advanced tracks allowing students in Policy CX, Lincoln Douglas, Public Forum, Congressional Debate, Individual Events, Middle School, Model UN, and Mock Trail debate formats, to learn at a pace appropriate for their skill level. The MGC offers a residential camp experience at UT Dallas’ state-of- the-art dormitory and a commuter option for students who live near campus. The Mean Green Comet Debate Institute focuses on building effective speaking and strategic skills for debaters at any level. Affordable pricing – Our sessions range from $400 – $2,200, offering affordable tuition options for every student. Exceptional Staff – Over the last 15 years UTD and UNT have provided students with exceptional and award winning staff by bringing together some of the best strategic thinkers and educators from the high school and college debate communities.

Policy Debate Session





June 24 - July 3




June 24 - July 14







10-Day Public Forum & Extemp

July 1 - July 10



July 10 - July 15




Public Forum

Congressional Debate Session



10-Day Congress & Extemp

July 1 - July 10



July 10 - July 15








July 8 - July 17




July 17 - July 22



Middle School

Lincoln-Douglas Session





July 1 - July 14



Practice debates, performances and congressional sessions with experienced judges – Get one-on-one time with our exceptional staff in structured practice sessions.

Extemporaneous Speaking

Small lab sizes for more contact with nationally recognized staff – Receive more direct feedback and interaction with exceptional staff in smaller classroom settings.

Mock Trial

Follow us on Twitter at @MeanGreenComet






July 10 - July 15








July 8 - July 17







June 24 - July 1




Coaches Camp

R E G I S T R AT I O N D E A D L I N E : J U N E 1

Complete rate and date information available by session at

The University of Texas National Institute in Forensics is one of the largest and most successful summer speech and debate workshops in the country. UTNIF has a reputation for engaging students from across the nation in the kind of training that leads rather than follows performative and argumentative trends. UTNIF students have won championships and final rounds at the National Speech & Debate Association National Tournament in Extemp, Humorous Interp, Dramatic Interp, Poetry, the House, the Senate, Policy Debate, Public Forum, and more. Our students consistently excel at the TOC and NIETOC. Join us this summer and see for yourself why UTNIF has made such an impact on speech and debate education for over 20 years.

2018 UTNIF Program Dates Individual Events main session

June 30 – July 14

Individual Events (with extension)

June 30 – July 18 June 24 – Aug 7

CX 6 Week Summer Survivors CX Session 1 (Skills, Theories of Power & Resistance, Sophomores) CX Session 2 (Skills, Theories of Power & Resistance)

June 24 – July 14 July 18 – Aug 7

CX Novice

July 21 – July 29

Public Forum Session 1

June 30 – July 12

Public Forum Session 2

July 21 – Aug 2


July 21 – Aug 4

Lincoln-Douglas (with extension)

July 21 – Aug 7

UTNIF Individual Events UTNIF debate camp UTNIF Contact


1925 SOCIET Y The National Speech & Debate Association is grateful to acknowledge the following 1925 Society members for pledging a generous planned gift contribution. Phyllis Flory Barton

Albert Odom, Jr.

James Copeland

Capt. Joseph L. and Jan Pizzo

Don and Ann Crabtree

Dr. Polly and Bruce Reikowski

Dr. Mike Edmonds

Donus and Lovila Roberts

A. C. Eley

James Rye, III

Vickie and Joe Fellers

Steve and Anna Schappaugh

David and Judy Huston

David Seikel

Jennifer Jerome

Sandra Silvers

Harold Keller

Richard Sodikow

Kandi King

William Woods Tate, Jr.

Cherian and Betsy Koshy

Nicole and Darrel Wanzer-Serrano

Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr. Pam and Ray McComas H. B. Mitchell Lanny and B. J. Naegelin

Cheryl Watkins J. Scott and Megan Wunn Joe and Pam Wycoff

To join the 1925 Society, or to learn more about making a planned gift to the National Speech & Debate Association, please contact Nicole Wanzer-Serrano at

In this Issue : V O LU M E 92 : I S SU E 4 : A P R I L / M AY 2018

From the Cover




From the Editor


2017-2018 Topics


News + Notes


2017-2018 School Year Individual Donors

Don Crabtree: A Legacy of Service

Governance and Leadership 9

Board of Directors March Minutes


Thirteen Seek Board Election in 2018

Community 22

2018 NSDA National Conference Overview

30 Competing Standards: A Critical Look at Gender and

Success in Debate and Extemporaneous Speaking by Julia Lynn and Rich Kawolics 34

National Speech and Debate Education Day Recap


Building a Culture of Kindness by Emily Weaver


Actions Speak Louder Than Words by Megan Munce


Tips from USA Debate: How to Achieve Success in World Schools by Ella Michaels

Recognition 56

Student Spotlight: Brandon Schloss


Coach Profile: Mary T. Gormley by Andrew Hong


Diamond Coach Recognition


Donus D. Roberts Quad Ruby Coach Recognition


Triple Ruby Coach Recognition


Student Service Citations


Academic All Americans


Welcome New Schools

Member Resources 24

Curriculum Corner


Resource Roundup


What We’re Reading

National Tournament 16

Overview of High School Tournament Logistics


Overview of Middle School Tournament Logistics

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OUR MISSION Rostrum shares best practices, resources, and opportunities that connect, support, and inspire a diverse community committed to empowering students through competitive speech and debate.


From the Editor

Board of Directors

At all times a member is prepared to work constructively to improve the lives of others. The coaches and students profiled in these pages have gone above and beyond the service tenet of our Code of Honor to serve their schools and communities. This issue focuses on stories of service and how members across the country are making a difference.


Our cover story features NSDA Board of Directors President Don Crabtree. For 30 years, Don has provided guidance and leadership to our membership. Like many of you, I first met Don when he was an ombudsperson at the National Tournament. Over the course of our working relationship, Don has taught me a great deal about what it means to be a leader. I have come to know him as a dedicated educator, a champion of our mission, and an incredible friend. I am proud to share more about Don’s legacy of service.

Pam Cady Wycoff, Vice President Minnesota

I hope you will find inspiration to think about your own program in a new way in these pages. We take a look at how Dario Camara and the South Florida Catholic Forensic League incorporate a cause into each of their invitationals. When Dario realized they had a captive audience at their tournaments, he seized the chance to give the service component of debate a voice and a platform, while also producing tangible benefits for causes and foundations in their community.

David Huston Texas Jennifer Jerome Nebraska

You won’t want to miss the latest installment of Curriculum Corner! As students across the country grow more interested in protesting as a way to have their voices heard, we share resources and what students and their teachers should know about student rights.

Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr. California

Finally, we chat with two award winners, 2018 National Educator of the Year Mary Gormley and 2018 Exemplary Student Service Award recipient Brandon Schloss. Each represents the best of our activity as they use speech and debate to make a difference in others’ lives.

Pamela K. McComas Kansas

I hope you are inspired by the contributions our members are making to speech and debate and their communities at large on a daily basis. If you have a story of service you’d like to share, drop me a note at! I’d love to hear from you. Sincerely,

J. Scott Wunn Executive Director National Speech & Debate Association



401 Railroad Place, West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730 | Phone (920) 748-6206 J. Scott Wunn, Editor and Publisher Steve Schappaugh, Managing Editor Vicki Pape, Assistant Editor Amy Seidelman, Content Editor Deano Pape, Copy Editor Emily Bratton, Graphic Design Assistant Emily Kriegel, Advertising Coordinator

Newsstand Price $9.99 per issue Member Subscription Price $24.99 for one year (5 issues) Non-Member Subscription Price $34.99 for one year (5 issues)

Rostrum (ISSN 1073-5526), Copyright © 2018 by the National Speech & Debate Association (NSDA), is published five times per year (Sept., Nov., Feb., Apr., and Aug.) by the NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730. Business and Editorial Offices: NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA, 50265-4730. Accounting and Circulation Offices: NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730. Call (920) 748-6206 to subscribe. Periodicals postage is paid at Des Moines, IA 50318, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to Rostrum, c/o NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730. Rostrum provides a forum for the speech and debate community. The opinions expressed by contributors are their own and not necessarily the opinions of the NSDA, its officers, or its members. The National Speech & Debate Association does not guarantee advertised products and services unless sold directly by the NSDA. ROSTRUM | APRIL/MAY 2018

James W. “Jay” Rye, III Alabama Timothy E. Sheaff Iowa


P.S. Help us improve Rostrum magazine! For a link to the online survey, turn to page 11.


Don Crabtree, President Missouri

Dr. Polly Reikowski, Admin Rep Minnesota Monica Berkowitz Siverstein New York Thomas Rollins Virginia Robert Runcie Florida

To learn more about the Board and for contact information, please visit meet-the-team.



Current topics, voting links, and resources available at: Member students and one chapter advisor per school are eligible to vote!


Public Forum Debate Resolution will be released May 1, 2018, at


Congressional Debate Legislation 2017 NATIONAL TOURNAMENT

Lincoln-Douglas Debate Resolution will be released May 1, 2018, at

The national office will release the high school docket by May 10, 2018, which contains 25 preliminary legislation, 12 semifinal legislation, and 5 final legislation..


Policy Debate Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding and/or regulation of elementary and/ or secondary education in the United States.


Extemp Areas for IX, USX, Commentary Topic areas will be released May 1, 2018, at


World Schools Debate Prepared motions will be released May 1, 2018, at

Storytelling Any Theme

Coaches and Students: We need your input! The PF and LD Topic Wording Committees are seeking PF topic areas and LD resolution

ideas for the 2018-2019 school year. Access the online submission forms by visiting our website: Submission

deadline is May 15.


Dear Administrator, When I arrived at Laurel School in 2004, an energetic science teacher approached me about starting a speech and debate team. I agreed instantly. Activities that cultivate voice for girls in a society that too often diminishes women’s voices are essential. Speech and debate has had a transformative impact on our school culture; our girls, who have been hugely successful, have gained skills and confidence to carry them for a lifetime. Speech and debate team members embody growth mindset; they understand that persistence and effort can improve outcomes. From late fall through the spring, team members practice every afternoon, compete every weekend, often juggling the most demanding academic schedules with their fervent commitment to speech and debate. Why do they do it? Why do they rise early each Saturday, take a bus to a school that is sometimes far away, compete in round after round? There’s the esprit de corps that comes from being part of a team, of course, but I think there’s also the great satisfaction that our girls derive from knowing that their voices matter. They spend time with other students who share a seriousness of purpose. Their relationships—with their teammates, coaches, even with competitors—matter. Speech and debate attracts very smart girls. On a weekday afternoon, it is not uncommon to find every Upper School classroom filled with girls in different events, practicing for their peers, giving and receiving feedback, honing their arguments, thinking about articulation, vocal variety, physical presence. They talk and listen, offer constructive criticism, work to improve. They take themselves seriously. Last month, we took 12 girls to Fort Lauderdale for a tournament. That same tournament was attended by students from Marjory Stoneman Douglas High. Today, some of those same students are speaking on the national stage in the wake of the tragedy that struck their school. Their courage and resilience speak to the power of voice and emphasize the type of community that speech and debate builds across the nation. My own daughter grew from being a more tentative, soft-spoken girl to a winner through her time delivering speeches for Laurel’s team. Her pride in being recognized helped her develop courage and confidence as she claimed her voice and learned to speak with both authority and authenticity. It heartens me to see young alumnae returning to school to coach our current competitors—the investment of our alumnae in mentoring younger girls speaks to the power of the program. If you have the opportunity to launch a speech and debate program in your school, no matter its size or scope, don’t hesitate. Invest in coaches who believe in the power of student voices. Get started. Perhaps your school, like Laurel School, will come to understand more quickly than you might believe possible, the power of words well-chosen and words well-spoken. Sincerely,

Ann V. Klotz Head of Laurel School, Ohio

Find this and other letters of advocacy on our website: 6


West Coast Publishing THE ULTIMATE PACKAGE includes all 4 sets listed below

Affs, DAs, CPs, Ks Monthly updates

Every NSDA & UIL Topic, Values, Philosophers

Every NSDA PubForum Topic, Extemp Articles

Textbooks, Teacher Materials, Dictionary

Go to More Info, Previews, On-line & printable Order Form at the web site

Climb the Mountain Speech & Debate Camps High School: Policy-CX, LD, Public Forum, Congress, IEs Middle School: Parli and Public Forum Sessions occur . . . July 16 - 21, 2018 July 23 - 28, 2018 July 30 - Aug 3, 2018

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Go to: More Info, Lab Leaders, Registration, Details at the web site.


Leadership Board of Directors Minutes


he NSDA Board of Directors held a virtual online meeting March 5, 2018. Present were President Don Crabtree, Vice President Pam Cady Wycoff, Dave Huston, Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Pam McComas, Dr. Polly Reikowski, Tom Rollins, Jay Rye, and Tim Sheaff.

Committee Updates The Board received updates from Dave Huston on the work of the internet ad hoc committee, Dr. Reikowski on the work of the Public Forum ad hoc committee, and Pam Wycoff on the work of the Hall of Fame ad hoc committee. All three committees have met multiple times this school year and will be bringing forth recommendations for Board consideration at their Spring meeting.

Staffing Update The Board received an update from Executive Director Scott Wunn concerning the Director of Business and Finance transition. He discussed current roles and responsibilities among the staff and announced the intent to hire Laura Stein as the new Director of Business and Finance.

Revised Budget Proposal Moved by Wycoff Rollins, seconded by Rollins: “Adopt the revised budget as proposed.” Passed: 9-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Lindsey, McComas, Reikowski, Rollins, Rye, Sheaff) The Executive Director provided a mid-year review of the financials to the Board of Directors. Board members reviewed several financial documents and asked appropriate questions. The ED proposed several revisions

March 5, 2018

to the budget affecting the 3rd and 4th quarter revenue and expense projections. These proposed revisions are designed to ensure a strong financial position for the association at the end of the fiscal year ‘18. After review, questions, and comments, the Board passed the revised budget proposal unanimously with the recommendation and endorsement of the finance committee.

Board Composition and Expectation Survey Results The purpose of the survey was for the Governance Committee to know where to start when working on Board best practices and future items for discussion and consideration. Board members showed interest in all of the topic areas and believe the Governance Committee can take this on according to the proposed timeline with general affirmation from the group.

Executive Director Evaluation Tool The Governance Committee of the Board has worked on creating a new instrument with which to evaluate the Executive Director. The new tool will be introduced to the Board at the Spring meeting for full implementation for the 2018-2019 fiscal year.

Strategic Plan The Board continued its work on the strategic plan. Assistant Executive Director Amy Seidelman presented for consideration six strategic priorities and corresponding measurable objectives based on the Board’s discussions over the summer and fall, and in focus groups this winter. The Board then spent time narrowing a large list of initiatives down to some core priorities for the staff to build out into a full-fledged five year plan. The Board will approve a final 2018-2023 strategic plan at its Spring meeting.



Thirteen Candidates Seek Board Election in 2018 This April, the National Speech & Debate Association will once again hold its biennial election, which will choose four directors to serve on the national Board of Directors and establish an order for alternates. The four elected directors will each serve a four-year term.

Heather Walters

Byron Arthur

Jay Rye




ELECTION OVERVIEW Voting via electronic balloting is now open for all active member schools. Voting concludes Friday, April 27, 2018. Each school shall vote for up to four candidates. ALL ACTIVE SCHOOL CHAPTERS WILL COUNT AS ONE VOTE. This is a change from the strength based voting system of the past. The votes will be officially audited and then announced by May 4, 2018. The four individuals receiving the most votes will earn seats on the Board from August 1, 2018, to July 31, 2022. The remaining candidates will be alternates. If an elected Board position should become vacant prior to the next election, alternates, in order of finish, will be invited to the seat.

Jay Stubbs

Crawford Leavoy


North Carolina

Jeffrey Miller

Chris Riffer

Steve Meadows




Renee Motter

Adam Jacobi



For an explanation of Board roles and responsibilities, please visit our website at The following names appear in an order drawn by lot. For complete candidate statements, please refer to the February/ March issue of Rostrum starting on page 10.



Jan Pizzo

David Huston

Martha Benham





NEWS + NOTES Alumni in the Headlines Celeste Ng to Produce Limited Hulu Series » NSDA alum Celeste Ng’s bestselling novel Little Fires Everywhere is headed to Hulu! The limited series will star Reese Witherspoon and Kerry Washington as two women in small town Ohio who are brought together when their children become friends. Ng will also work as a producer on the series. | Ng is a 1998 graduate from Shaker Heights High School in Ohio. Jordan Peele Makes Oscar History » First-time filmmaker and NSDA alum Jordan Peele took home an Oscar for his film Get Out in February. With his win, Peele became the first Black person to win an Oscar for best original screenplay. | Peele graduated from The Calhoun School in New York in 1997. For more updates on speech and debate alumni, visit our website at

Rostrum Redesign on the Horizon In September 2018, quarterly issues of Rostrum magazine will arrive in mailboxes with a fresh new look. “We received such positive feedback after producing the full color Nationals Chronicle edition last August that we have been exploring ways to bring that same look and feel to our other issues year-round,” explains Steve Schappaugh, Director of Community Engagement and managing editor for Rostrum. “We are excited to offer our readers the same great content—including helpful resources and engaging profiles—in a full color, glossy format starting this fall.”

Each member school will receive one copy of Rostrum for all five issues, which are mailed in mid-September, mid-November, mid-February, mid-April, and mid-August. Members already have the option to purchase individual copies or additional subscriptions via the NSDA Online Store (see for details.) Discount codes for member pricing are available by emailing

Take Our Rostrum Survey and Win!

As we continue to look at ways to improve our efforts in providing information and communicating with our members, we want your opinions on Rostrum magazine. We have developed a brief survey that will allow us to gain feedback on the magazine, while providing a better understanding of our readers and your needs. All coaches and students who complete the Rostrum Readership Survey by May 15, 2018, will be entered into a drawing for an NSDA Words Matter sweatshirt. We appreciate your taking time to help us out and enhance our efforts! Get started using the link below.





* Pick up shirts in Fort Lauderdale starting Sunday, June 17. Limited quantities available during the National Tournament. Pre-ordering is recommended to ensure we have your size selection!


THANK YOU! Your support makes the life-changing benefits of speech and debate possible. 2017-2018 School Year Individual Donors FINALIST ($5,000 and up) Anonymous David and Katherine Abel In Memory of LaVoy and Jo Ann Abel Ed and Liz Holland The Lanier Law Firm, P.C. Lynne and Andrew Redleaf Foundation Victoria and Tom Rollins

SEMIFINALIST ($2,500 - $4,999) David C. and Sophia Frederick In Memory of B. J. and Lanny Naegelin The Kettles Law Firm Simon Greenstone Panatier Bartlett, PC Joan Van Wyke and Jennifer White Joe and Pam Wycoff

QUARTERFINALIST ($1,000 - $2,499) Hunter and Michael Arton Teri L. DiGiulian Robert J. Feldhake In Memory of Carmendale Fernandes Jason Fernandez In Memory of William Woods Tate, Jr. Shelly and Greg Lanier David Lopez In Memory of B. J. and Lanny Naegelin Michael Morris Christopher Regan Donus and Lovila Roberts Texas Forensic Association J. Scott and Megan Wunn

OCTAFINALIST ($500 - $999) Anonymous Kristen Soltis Anderson Dianna and Brett Bordewick Kirby Chin In Memory of Richard B. Sodikow Betsy and Cherian Koshy Michael and Linda Langford In Memory of Joy Robbins and In Honor of Jim Robbins David Mainiero J. E. Masters In Memory of Carmendale Fernandes Deano and Vicki Pape Poetic License, Inc. Joshua D. Swartsel David A. Wendt



DOUBLE OCTAFINALIST ($250 - $499) Stefan Bauschard Joel Butterly Peter L. Coffey and Kristine H. Cleary Barbara and David Dansky Robert Ickes In Honor of Jenny Cook Drs. Jill Irvine and Ron Halterman Jeffrey Miller Julie Nelson Ed Purdy Monica Rego Dr. Polly and Bruce Reikowski Rotary Club of Algiers James (Jay) Rye Susan Sprung and Christopher Keyser Jacqueline Whisman Anne White

COMPETITOR ($100 - $249) Anonymous (2) Arlene Akerman Marcia Allen Marisa and Kyle Anderson Susan Anderson Dr. Kenny and Nancy Barfield Patrick Bishop Judith Brisman In Memory of Dr. Alfred “Tuna” Snider Jennifer Burton Gregg T. Campbell Virginia Tyler Campbell Charlton Campbell-Hughes Alden B. Chace Jr. In Memory of Carmendale Fernandes Ben Churba Sydney Conrad Helen S. Corry Grant Ebenger Celeste and Jim Egger In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Thomas Evnen In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Jacqueline Evrard-Vescio Mark Ferguson Mariano y Helena Fiallos In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Charlton G. C. Friedberg Trust Betsy Hanmer

(contributions received as of March 30, 2018)

Steve and Lynn Hanon Aaron Hardy Elena Herskowitz David Hingstman David and Judy Huston Adam Jacobi and Dr. J. Scott Baker Jennifer Jerome David and Dianne Johnson Norisha Kirts Sarah Knobloch Megan Koester Karen and Garry Kravit Vicki Larsen Joseph Leary Dr. Robert S. Littlefield In Memory of Harry and LeVoyne Littlefield Tim Luke and Kay Heidbreder Louie Mattachione Ray and Pam McComas In Honor of Emily Bratton Chase and Lauren McCool Steve Meadows The Mersol Family Johnny Molson In Memory of William Woods Tate, Jr. Varsha Monick Laura Natzke Jackie and Michael Oakes Chris Palmer Dr. J. W. Patterson In Memory of William Woods Tate, Jr. Dr. Randy Patterson In Memory of William Woods Tate, Jr. Lois Pierson Warren Poschman Jim and Colleen Reisener Michael Reszler Krysta and Ernie Rose Anna and Steven Schappaugh Alexandra Shilko Deborah Simon St. Andrew’s Episcopal School In Honor of Tanner McGee and In Memory of Perry Tyner Tate James Stage Danielle Strait Margaret Owen Thorpe

Cindi and Aaron Timmons In Memory of Dr. Alfred “Tuna” Snider Daniel Tyree Jill Van Wyke Maureen Voll In Memory of Carl Grecco Lisa and Darrell Vossekuil Gregory F. Wells Chase Williams Jonathan Wolshuck Carol and Dave Zanto In Memory of William Woods Tate, Jr., and Brother René Sterner

DONOR ($0 - $99) Anonymous Tim and Lauren Averill In Memory of Phyllis Barton Michael Bole Roger and Doris Brannan Emily and Arthur Bratton Sarah Brazier Lauren Burdt Christine Campbell Karan Choudhary Genna Cohen Scott Cox In Memory of Carl Grecco Don and Ann Crabtree Kendra Dahlstrom Daniel DeBois Katie DeSimone Walker Desing Liberty Dunn Shannon Duus Kirsten Ellermann Antonia Espey Tracey Faenza Dalton Feeley Matthew Feng Katherine Ferman Stacey Freeman In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Steve and Ari Gloss In Honor of Robin Gloss Nancy Gordon Sarah Gordon Mary Gormley

PLEASE CONSIDER THE NSDA’S WILLIAM WOODS TATE, JR., FUND IN YOUR GIVING PLANS THIS SPRING. 100% of donations to the Tate Fund will be used to support under-resourced schools attending the National Tournament. To make your tax deductible gift, please visit: Jane Hagedorn David Harper Katie Hines Mina Hoffman F. Patrick Hughes Jessica Hughes Robert and Gail Ihrig Amber Johnson Marian Joss Michelle Kelsey Kearl Robert J. Kelly Peter Klein In Honor of Nicole Wanzer-Serrano Jason Kline William and Valerie Koeber Jennifer Konfrst In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Emily Kriegel Susan Kriegel Jason Kurth Clare Lascelles Ken and Michelle Law In Memory of Carmendale Fernandes Walter Lemanski Anthony Leys Matthew Linn Colin Malinak Scott and Beth Maltzie Elliot Mamet Kalie Marsicano In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Karen Martin In Honor of Steve Schappaugh Rev. and Mrs. David C. Marx In Memory of Marian Milstead Virginia J. Mayes Randall McCutcheon In Memory of Amy McCutcheon Edward McGuire James Menchinger In Memory of Margaret Miller Amy Miesel In Honor of Rachel Carlson Jason Moore In Memory of Carl Grecco Susan Napier and Alex Berger Natasha Naseem Grant Nelson Ryan L. Nelson

Patrice Ott Lisa Pelton Scott and Melody Crick Peters Sister Mary Patricia Plumb, S.N.J.M. Kate Polit Kenneth Posner Donald Randolph Daniel Rego Michael Reid Annie Reisener Reece Ristau Joan Roberts Fred and Amy Robertson Maria Ruhe Brooke Ryan Yvonne Schaeffer Natalie M. Schira Joshua Schmidt In Memory of Carl Grecco Liora and Ehud Schmidt Christy Schneider Amy and Ray Seidelman Maria Nubia Serrano Paul Sevigny Louie Sloven Micki W. Smith Gail Stage Steve Stein Ron Steinhorst Gregory Stevens Anthony Tovar Rhianna Urban In Honor of Megan and J. Scott Wunn Jill Van Wyke Scott and Stephanie VanderBruggen Peeranut Visetsuth Chad Wagner Nicole and Darrel Wanzer-Serrano Libby Waterbury Brett Campbell Alcarese Welch Betty Whitlock In Honor of Kathy Owens Lonny and Linda Wunn Drew Young Ryan and Shelby Young Claire Zawistowski Nicole Zeoli

You’re Invited! First Time AT NATIONALS

Coach Reception Sponsored by the generous contributions of the NSDA staff, their friends, and their families

SUNDAY, JUNE 17 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA If you are a new(er) coach attending the National Tournament for the first time, we hope you’ll join us! Don’t miss one-on-one facetime with the organization’s Executive Director, J. Scott Wunn, members of the Board of Directors, and senior NSDA staff. You will have an opportunity to ask questions, become oriented to the tournament in a more personal manner, and enjoy the company of other new coaches. For details about the Sunday schedule and more, visit



National Speech & Debate Tournament JUNE 17-22, 2018 | Fort Lauderdale, Florida OVERVIEW OF HIGH SCHOOL TOURNAMENT LOGISTICS SUNDAY • JUNE 17 (Registration and Expo) This year, tournament registration and the expo will take place Sunday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. at the Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center in downtown Fort Lauderdale, Florida. For more Sunday schedule highlights, please refer to the section above.

MONDAY AND TUESDAY • JUNE 18-19 (Prelim Rounds/Early Elims/NSDA Student Party) Six venues will be used for preliminary competition Monday and Tuesday. All main event preliminary and early elimination competition on Monday and Tuesday will occur between 8:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. High school Congressional Debate will be hosted at the Bonaventure Resort & Spa, which also serves as the host hotel for the tournament. Western HS will host preliminary rounds of Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Public Forum Debate, and Big Questions Debate. Everglades HS will host preliminary rounds of Policy Debate. West Broward HS will host World Schools Debate competition. Cypress Bay HS and Falcon Cove MS will host preliminary rounds of Humorous Interp, Dramatic Interp, Duo Interp, Program Oral Interp, Extemporaneous Speaking, Original Oratory, and Informative Speaking. The NSDA Student Party will take place Tuesday evening at America’s Backyard in downtown Fort Lauderdale. Coaches of students eliminated from main event competition Tuesday will re-register for Wednesday supplemental events at Revolution Live, adjacent to America’s Backyard, during the NSDA Student Party. Provisions for completing supplemental re-registration online will also be made available.

WEDNESDAY • JUNE 20 (Elim Rounds/Supplemental Events) Six venues will be used Wednesday. All competition will occur between 8:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m. Students who qualify for elimination round 9 of all main speech and debate events (including World Schools and Big Questions Debate) will compete at Cypress Bay HS and Falcon Cove MS. High school Congressional Debate semifinals will be held at the Bonaventure Resort & Spa. Those students re-registered in Extemporaneous Debate will compete at Western HS. Those students re-registered for supplemental speech events will compete at Cypress Bay HS and Falcon Cove MS. International Supplemental Public Forum Debate also will occur at Cypress Bay HS and Falcon Cove MS. Note: Middle school competition begins Wednesday at Everglades HS and Glades MS.

THURSDAY • JUNE 21 (Elim Rounds/Supp-Cons Events/Interp Finals/Diamond Awards) Thursday morning, debate elimination rounds (including Big Questions Debate and International Supplemental Public Forum Debate) will continue at Cypress Bay HS and Falcon Cove MS. High school Congressional Debate will hold its final round sessions at the Bonaventure Resort & Spa. All supplemental speech and consolation events and Extemporaneous Debate will occur at Cypress Bay HS and Falcon Cove MS. Note: Middle school competition continues at 8:00 a.m. on Thursday at Everglades HS and Glades MS. Thursday afternoon and evening, attendees will enjoy the national final rounds of World Schools Debate, Program Oral Interp, Humorous Interp, Dramatic Interp, and Duo Interp, as well as the Donus D. Roberts Diamond Assembly, at the Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center. Note: All details are tentative and subject to change. Times are shown in ET.

FRIDAY • JUNE 22 (Supp-Cons/Main Event Finals and National Awards Assembly) The remaining main event final rounds (Informative Speaking, United States Extemp, International Extemp, Policy Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Public Forum Debate, and Original Oratory), as well as the Big Questions Debate, supplemental/consolation event, and middle school finals, will be held throughout the day on Friday at the Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center, culminating with the National Awards Assembly Friday evening.

The National Speech & Debate Association has appeared on the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) National Advisory List of Student Contests and Activities since the origination of the list. 16


Save money by staying within the National Tournament hotel block! Guarantee the best hotel rates and keep your tournament entry fees low by visiting the online booking system at IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS WHEN SELECTING AND RESERVING HOTELS Please review before selecting lodging! NEW IN 2018: If your team stays within the National Tournament hotel block, you will receive a $25 discount off the current year’s main event entry fee per student. See our FAQ section at for more information. 1.

All schools should stay at one of the NSDA recommended hotels in downtown Fort Lauderdale or the surrounding areas. The lowest rates have been negotiated for our members. Please do not stay outside the block. The large volume of room sales within the block allows the NSDA to continue to negotiate the most affordable rate list. Properties that do not appear on this list are likely inconvenient for participation in the tournament, including lack of safety, amenities, and proximity to restaurants and provide no benefit to the overall cost of the tournament. Morning and afternoon traffic could add substantial time to your commute if you are located outside the block. In addition, hotels not on the list have no contractual obligation to the NSDA, and therefore, we cannot provide any level of reservation protection at these properties. Middle school teams are encouraged to stay in western corridor hotel properties as they are closest to the middle school competition venues.


All coaches must use the online booking system. Please do NOT call the hotels directly to book your hotel rooms. Larger teams requiring ten or more rooms, or those teams wishing to pay by check, may call the Greater Fort Lauderdale Housing Bureau. Details can be found on the online booking site. Up until May 1, 2018, coaches may update or cancel room reservations using the online booking site. After May 1, all room reservations within the block are subject to an automatic two-night, nonrefundable deposit per room at the time of booking.


All hotel properties in the National Tournament hotel block are within 20-35 minutes of the competition venues by interstate or surface streets. Be sure to check out the interactive Google map online to preview these sites. You can print all needed maps before ever leaving home! This year, tournament registration and the expo will take place Sunday at the Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center in downtown Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The final rounds and awards assembly will also take place at the Convention Center later in the week. The waterfront hotels located near the Convention Center will be ideal for attending registration, the NSDA Student Party, finals, and awards. Teams staying in any of the recommended properties will find these venues conveniently located.


The high school Congressional Debate headquarters is the Bonaventure Spa & Resort. It is recommended that high school teams with Congressional debaters stay at the Bonaventure host hotel or at one of the western corridor hotel properties to avoid substantial rush hour traffic issues. These hotels are an excellent choice in both price and feature.


It is recommended that all coaches visit the online booking system to determine which property fits the needs of their program. All hotels on the list are conveniently located to various aspects of the tournament. The waterfront properties are the most conveniently located hotels for access to tournament registration, the student posting party, final rounds, and the National Awards Assembly. Schools are encouraged to book early as hotel blocks will fill up quickly.


PLEASE LOOK AT A MAP! Before reserving hotel rooms, all coaches should consult a map of the Fort Lauderdale area (available at the link below) to get a better perspective on travel logistics. The key to a less stressful week is to consider following the above lodging suggestions provided by the national office.

Additional tournament information is available at ROSTRUM | APRIL/MAY 2018 17

TRANSPORTATION GUIDE • FORT LAUDERDALE NATIONALS Receive discounts off your flight when you book online with recommended carriers. Some restrictions may apply. Get started below!

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Hertz is the National Speech & Debate Association's Hertz Meeting Servicesofficial rental car company! ReservationsFor

more information, call (800) 654-2240 or visit today. General Some restrictions Informationmay apply.

To reserve special meeting rates, please include your CV# when making reservations.

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Meeting rates include unlimited mileage and are subject to availability. Advance reservations are recommended, blackout dates may apply. Government surcharges, taxes, tax reimbursement, General Information airport related fees, vehiclemileage licensing fees Meeting rates include unlimited and areand optional items, such as refueling or additional subject to availability. Advance reservations are driver fees,blackout are extra. Minimum rentalGovage is 20 recommended, dates may apply. (agesurcharges, differential charge for reimbursement, 20-24 applies). ernment taxes, tax Standard rentalvehicle conditions and qualifications apairport related fees, licensing fees and ply. items, Vehicles can returned most Hertz locaoptional such asbe refueling ortoadditional Florida. drivertions fees,within are extra. Minimum rental age is 20 the continental and Canada weekend (age In differential chargeU.S. for 20-24 applies). rentals are conditions available for pickup between apnoon Standard rental and qualifications ply. Vehicles benoon returned to most Hertz be locaThursdaycan and Sunday and must retions turned within Florida. no later than Monday at 11:59 p.m. In theThursday continental U.S. and Canada weekend pick-up requires a minimum three-day rentals are available for pickup between noon twokeep. Friday pick-up requires a minimum Thursday and noon Sunday and be reday keep, and Saturday andmust Sunday pick-up returned no later than Monday at 11:59rentals p.m. are from quire a one-day keep. Weekly Thursday a minimum five topick-up seven requires days. Extra day ratethree-day for Weekly Fridaywill pick-up a minimum be 1/5requires of the Weekly Rate.twoday keep, and Saturday and Sunday pick-up require a one-day keep. Weekly rentals are from five to seven days. Extra day rate for Weekly rentals will be 1/5 of the Weekly Rate.

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Additional tournament information is available at 18



Middle School Overview | JUNE 19-22, 2018 Tentative Schedule TUESDAY • JUNE 19 Middle school registration will be held from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. at Revolution Live adjacent to America’s Backyard in downtown Fort Lauderdale. WEDNESDAY • JUNE 20 Middle school competition begins Wednesday at Everglades HS and Glades MS. Rounds begin at 8:00 a.m. and last until 6:00 p.m. Time has been built in for lunch. THURSDAY • JUNE 21 Middle school competition continues Thursday at Everglades HS and Glades MS. Rounds begin at 8:00 a.m. and last until 7:45 p.m. Time has been built in for lunch. FRIDAY • JUNE 22 Beginning at 8:00 a.m., final rounds of Speech, Congress, and World Schools Debate, as well as semifinal and final rounds of Policy, Lincoln-Douglas, and Public Forum, will be held at the Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center. The middle school awards assembly will commence at 4:00 p.m. followed by the high school awards assembly at 6:30 p.m., where the middle school circle of champions will be recognized on the high school stage!

Important Middle School Dates • Coaches can register online at • Entries are due April 24. All entries will be placed on a waitlist. Entries will be taken off the waitlist once payment has been received (space permitted, up to four). Additional entries will remain on the waitlist until the payment deadline of May 12. Entries will be taken off the waitlist based upon the payment date and not the registration date. • Congressional Debate legislation is due April 24. • Title, author, and ISBN information for Interpretation events must be posted on the registration website by May 1. • Media release forms, signed by each student’s parent/ guardian, must be submitted by May 12. • All fees, including judge bond, must be received in the national office by May 12. • A late fee of $200 will be assessed for fees and forms received after May 12. A school risks forfeiting participation if fees and media release forms are not received by May 19.

Other Details • Coaches are asked to carefully review all information on the tournament website. • Please note that each school is limited to four (4) entries per event. A team may place an additional four entries in the system to try to secure additional spots. Students will be moved off of the waitlist on a rolling basis after payment has been received. Any slots beyond the four will not be available until after the payment deadline of May 12. • Middle schools are required to bring judges for each division in which they have students (Policy, LD, or PF, Speech, Congress, and World Schools) as a condition for registering.

Review Before Selecting Lodging Middle school coaches should read all information relative to lodging on page 17. Middle school teams are encouraged to stay in western corridor hotel properties as they are closest to the middle school competition venues. NEW in 2018: If your team stays within the National Tournament hotel block, you will save an additional $25 entry fee per student. See our FAQ section at for more information.

Membership Notice The Board of Directors affirms the creation, support, and development of speech and debate programs at the middle and secondary levels through accredited public and private schools. All members of the National Speech & Debate Association must be schoolbased. For any club or organization that does not currently have a school-based membership, the NSDA is eager to work with you to create school-based speech and debate teams. Students who are currently members through their area non-school-based clubs and organizations may request to have their memberships transferred to their accredited public and private schools. Homeschools and virtual schools that are recognized by the state in which those schools compete may join the National Speech & Debate Association.

World Schools Debate Pilot World Schools Debate is being piloted at the 2018 Middle School National Tournament. All judges must attend the on-site judge training. The only exception that will be made is for high school students who competed in elimination rounds on Wednesday morning at the National Tournament and, as a result, could not attend training.

Additional tournament information is available at ROSTRUM | APRIL/MAY 2018 19



T U E S DAY , J UN E 19 | 6:00 P.M. TO 9:00 P.M .


– Supplemental Re-registration – National Tournament Expo – Speech & Debate Store – Middle School Registration Find details at

America’s Backyard & Revolution Live Located at 100 SW 3rd Ave, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312

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Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs Resort Join Us This Summer!

July 28-31

Phoenix, Arizona Radiant, as defined by MerriamWebster, is “vividly bright and shining.” This July, we will assemble hundreds of coaches, teachers, and leaders from the speech and debate community to shine a light on how speech and debate can empower students, coaches, and communities. At the conclusion of the conference, attendees should leave with a vividly bright vision for how to enhance their classroom, team, or district in the coming year. We look forward to kicking off the conference with a keynote address by LaToya Green. LaToya is the Director of Debate and Professor in Human Communication at California State

University-Fullerton. She has been a keynote speaker for the Blake Debate Tournament Inclusion Conference, the Women’s Debate Institute, and more. Attendees of LaToya’s speeches have left with a renewed sense of focus and determination to be present and meet the needs of their students. Shane Stafford, coach at The Blake School (MN), highlights why LaToya is such a powerful speaker: “Toya is a master at motivating audiences. Every time I have heard her speak, I think about ways I can improve my work with students. The application between her ideas and how they relate to my teaching and coaching is crystal clear. And, she does this in a way that I don’t feel guilty, but inspired!” LaToya’s engaging and humorous style captivates audiences and introduces listeners to tips and techniques that foster a stronger foundation of purpose. She believes that “inspired people, inspire people” and threads that idea through all of her presentations. In addition to LaToya’s speech, we will hear from the 2018 National Educator of the Year, Mary Gormley.

REGISTER TODAY! Pricing Ends June 30, 2018 LEARN MORE 22

Mary is a teacher of more than 40 years who was not only recognized as our National Educator of the Year, but also her school’s educator of the year! Mary has shined a light on thousands of students’ voices in her storied career, both inside and outside of the classroom. When Mary wrote about her personal educational philosophy, and the importance of speech and debate education, she shared: “Today, the classroom has become the sole surviving portal where words matter more than ever.” The conference will be another opportunity for you to hear about the power of words—not just from Mary, but a number of our sessions. While we will have one other keynote speech during the conference (surprises are fun!), there are a number of engaging sessions you may consider attending. As noted in the previous issue of Rostrum, this year’s conference will feature an NSDA Leadership Track. The track is open to anyone who is interested in leadership within the

$299 – Members $399 – Non-Members



NSDA! We will offer a dynamic session on distributive leadership from David Ross, the CEO of P21 (Partnership for 21st Century Learning). Additionally, we will solicit feedback from leaders to determine other sessions, which could include any of the following topics: • Prioritizing the NSDA Core Values: Integrity, Inclusion, Service, Leadership • Leading via Communication Excellence • Building a Thriving and Growing NSDA District • Communicators in the Classroom: A Vehicle to Successful Growth and Development • Understanding District Finances • Finding Regional and State Partners • Finding your Voice as a Regional and National Leader • Roundtable: The Impact of School Size and Type on District Composition • Roundtable: Expanding the National Tournament to New Audiences • Roundtable: Using the NSDA Tools of Leadership: Website, Dashboard, and More In addition to the NSDA Leadership Track, the conference will host dozens of sessions for individuals who are coaches and/or classroom teachers. Topics range from incorporating technology to event-specific strategies to the continuation of speech and debate from high school to college. Below are just a few of the sessions we are excited to feature at this year’s conference:

Finding the Honest Voice of the Character » In modern society with ever-changing identities, interpers need to bring to life the voices of characters without judgment and or appropriation. This session will examine the need to move beyond beginning level development that often results in stereotypical portrayals of characters and caricatures of race, disability, class, gender, and sexuality.

Big Fish, No Pond: Teaching Debate in Isolated Regions » Whether you’re new to teaching or just new to a district, this session is for those rogue debate coaches operating in isolated regions and communities who want to connect students into the national Policy Debate circuit.

A New Era of Advocacy: Our Engagement With Civil Discourse » Fake news, sponsored content, and alternative facts are three of the most notable barriers to achieving objective argumentation. This session will discuss these argument trends and offer suggestions for practical, new ways to advance critical thinking in the classroom to create effective and ethical advocates for society.

Fostering Inclusivity and Safe Spaces at Tournaments: Best Practices » In this session, the scope of issues surrounding marginalized student communities and their needs will be explored along with solutions that teachers, coaches, and tournament directors can use to improve the experience of students in the activity. Classroom activities, practical solutions, and best practices will be shared with materials for making your class, team, or tournament a safe space for all participants.

Joining the Conversation: Bringing Middle School Voice to Life through Speech and Debate » Calling all middle school teachers, coaches, and administrators! The value of a middle school speech and debate program has community-wide benefits. This session will dispel myths about middle school students, make the argument to include speech and debate as vital components of curricular and after-school programs, and provide ways for middle school coaches and teachers to form a community.

even when you can’t all be in the same place at the same time. Participants will have the opportunity to engage with the technology and plan by bringing a connected device to the session.

Radiant Speakers: Reconsidering our Communication Criteria » While teachers of public speaking have long evaluated the traditional tenets of verbal and nonverbal delivery as part of their public speaking evaluation instruments, this workshop will help teachers and students employ a mentor approach to rubric development and self-reflection models. Students are encouraged to model their performance and presentation skills after a communicator whom they hold in personal esteem and who matches their performance and personality style. Workshop attendees will evaluate their own communication mentors and envision the communication behaviors criteria they personally and professionally seek to achieve. Whether you are a new or veteran coach, a high school or middle school educator, or an elected district leader or aspiring leader—this conference has something for you. A complete listing of sessions with descriptions and presenters can be found at conferences. We are thrilled with the momentum that has been built in such a short period of time for the NSDA National Conference. Each and every coach in our organization works to empower students. This July, we will come together and celebrate the work we do collectively while sharing best practices so we can all improve. The 2018-2019 season will shine brighter because of our time together in Phoenix!

Empowering Your Team with Technology » Keeping a team organized is one of the most difficult tasks one encounters as a coach. Learn to use Google Forms, Google Drive, and Zoom to keep your team humming

Steve Schappaugh is the Director of Community Engagement for the NSDA.



Curriculum Corner Check out these practical ideas for speech and debate teachers to use in the classroom.

Critical Classroom Conversations Across the country, students are growing more and more interested in protesting as a way to have their voices heard. As they do, so these students (and their teachers) should know what their rights are as students. The following resources may be useful and thought provoking for students and teachers alike.

Primers – from the First Amendment Center at the Newseum Institute

• “The 1969 landmark case of Tinker v. Des Moines affirmed the First Amendment rights of students in school. The Court held that a school district violated students’ free speech rights when it singled out a form of symbolic speech – black armbands worn in protest of the Vietnam War – for prohibition, without proving the armbands would cause substantial disruption in class.”

Student Rights, Protests and Free Speech, a Webinar – from the American Library Association /advocacy/intfreedom/webinar/ protests • “Stay informed on how to nurture student activism and protect the free speech rights of the young people around you. You can’t always anticipate what will trigger emotional and passionate responses, but you can respond appropriately and intelligently, while trying to respect legitimate, guaranteed rights.” /first-amendmentcenter/primers/

Perspective Texts – from Teaching Tolerance, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center

• These “primers are designed to get you up to speed on First Amendment issues–from the basics to cutting edge topics–in a minimal amount of time. We use interactive graphics and visual aids to simplify and explain complicated issues.” Topics covered include: protected speech, classroom walkouts and protests, free expression on social media, protesting, and fake news. /classroom-resources/texts

Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) – free lesson plan from The Bill of Rights Institute /educate/educatorresources/lessons-plans/

• A searchable library of short texts that offer a diverse mix of stories and perspectives. This multi-genre, multi-media collection aligns with the Common Core’s recommendations for text complexity and the Teaching Tolerance Social Justice Standards. Of particular note are the texts relating to rights and activism throughout history. Teachers could use the texts as the foundation for a variety of activities using provided lesson plans but some of these texts may also be compelling selections for an Interp piece or performative debate argument.

Have an idea for our next Curriculum Corner? Email 24


Impromptu Speaking At the National Tournament, students have the opportunity to compete in Impromptu Speaking as a consolation event. Impromptu is a limited prep event where competitors draw a topic and the speaker has seven minutes in which to prepare a response and present a speech without consultation of prepared notes. Students may consult published books, magazines, newspapers, and journals, or articles therefrom (with a few exclusions—see page 53 of the High School United Manual). To help students better prepare to compete in Impromptu, Iain Lampert, the 2017 national champion Impromptu Speaking coach from iLEAD North Hollywood in California, has students build an impromptu journal. In these journals, students gather resources and examples to refer to when preparing. The students do not take these journals into the round, but refer to them in practice and between rounds for inspiration and ideas! An example has three parts: a summary, a moral or a lesson, and a citation. Iain provides his students the following example: PHILIP ASHTON A. SUMMARY: Philip Ashton was traveling the seas near Nova Scotia when his schooner was set upon by a band of pirates. When Ashton refused to join the buccaneers’ ranks, he was kept as a slave for nine months. The beleaguered fisherman finally made an escape in March 1723, when he sprinted into the jungle after the pirates stopped for fresh water at a small island off the coast of Honduras. Though stranded with no food or tools, Ashton managed to construct a crude shelter and ate fruit and raw turtle eggs to ward off starvation. He wasted away on his island alone. He would eventually spend another seven months enduring extreme heat, insects, snakes, hunger, a near-deadly fever and even an attack by the Spanish before he was rescued by a British ship in June 1724. B. LESSON: Ashton’s story reminds us to never give up, despite incredible odds. C. SOURCE: As a class activity, consider having students collect these examples—even one a day for a few weeks could greatly improve their Impromptu Speaking skills. Encourage students to select examples that are both informative and entertaining. Remind them that for something to be properly informative, it cannot be overly well-known (think about Barack Obama, Gandhi, Helen Keller, Martin Luther King Jr., J.K. Rowling/Harry Potter, etc.). Also help them remember that the best examples are lesser-known historical figures (Calvin Coolidge > Barack Obama), historical events (the Great Emu War > World War II), stories (Parade the Musical > Star Wars).

Once students have gathered a variety of examples, one drill Iain suggests is having them work in pairs to give speeches as rapidly as possible. Have student A give student B a topic to speak upon with no prep time. As soon as student B stumbles when speaking, student A will give them another topic, and student B immediately begins giving their next speech.

Public Forum Debate At this point in the year, many students are wrapping up their seasons and looking toward national championship tournaments. It is a time for case writing, drills, and scrimmages. Jeff Miller, coach at Marist School in Atlanta, shares the Public Forum Debate drill he finds most effective— he calls it, “Stop and Judge Debates.” Jeff explains, “After each crossfire, all five participants in the round (four debaters plus the judge) will independently write a full reason for decision, or RFD—but not disclose until the end of the round.” He uses the following order: • Constructives – 4:00 each • Crossfire – 3:00 • Everyone Writes RFDs – 5:00 [Note: This one is a little tougher because not much has happened yet in the debate. However, in this RFD, students should help realize where in case they’re already winning the debate and how they should frame weighing moving into the rebuttal.] • Rebuttals – 4:00 each • Crossfire – 3:00 • Everyone Writes RFDs – 5:00 • Summaries – 2:00 each • Grand Crossfire – 3:00 • Everyone Writes RFDs – 5:00 • Final Foci – 2:00 each • Everyone Writes RFDs – 5:00 After the students have completed the round, take approximately 20 minutes to disclose each of the RFDs and discuss. Jeff suggests that disclosures go in order. “Let’s say, as an example, the first RFD was ‘a 3-2 decision for the neg.’ Have the students discuss some of the commonalities in the decisions. It is an interesting discussion to see how the decisions evolved from the first RFD to the last. It teaches students that no matter the debater, there is at least one point that each team is winning—and if making smarter, more strategic decisions, they can learn how to keep the ballot for their team.”

Compiled by Lauren McCool, Education and Recognition Coordinator for the National Speech & Debate Association



Res 8urce Roundup In one of our newest resource collections available on CONNECT, we help you navigate how words matter both inside and outside of the classroom.


ach person has a voice. As coaches and educators, we don’t help students find their voices—we provide a platform for their voices to be heard. Student-centered teachers listen to the opinions, thoughts, and needs of their students in order to meet their needs and to keep them engaged in the learning process. Before students can “have a voice” concerning what happens within their school or classroom, they must be able to effectively communicate about both academics and their personal preferences and desires. Each student (and teacher) has something uniquely valuable to add to the global conversation. As teachers who value student voices in our classrooms and in our schools, we must develop our students’ skills to know and believe

that their words matter both inside and outside of the classroom space. For those who teach speech and debate courses, speaking and listening is the foundation for what we do. But if you look beyond the textbook and formal curriculum, the words you choose and the way you appreciate your students’ (and their families’) opinions demonstrates what you value about them and their communities. We have to evaluate how we as educators speak before being able to evaluate and guide our diverse learners. Our words matter, too. There are several different areas where we as educators need to be conscious of our word choices. Some may be easier than others. Sexist, racist, ableist, heteronormative, and xenophobic language permeates society, and you may be thinking

that you would never purposefully say anything that is hurtful and harmful to your students. But there are many ways where these kinds of words, even if unintended, creep into our curriculum, our conversations, and our daily lives. We as educators cannot allow such language to be part of our classrooms and our teams. In order to assist our members as they strive to create spaces where all are welcome, we now offer a free collection of professional development resources (articles, research, activities, and apps) to help you navigate how Words Matter both in and outside of the classroom. You can find this collection on Additionally, as the leaders in speech and debate education, the NSDA is pleased to offer educators a new professional development course—Words Matter: Speaking and Listening for Diverse Learners. This premium course offered via our CONNECT virtual PLC is designed to provide strategies and resources to assist educators as they strive to offer authentic speaking and listening opportunities and instruction to all students. The course is $50.00 and is written so that is can be used in all content areas. As the title of this course implies, our students’ words matter, and we have the opportunity to help them cultivate and demonstrate speaking and listening skills that will serve them throughout their lives and communities.








What We're Reading by Amy Seidelman Speech and Debate as Civic Education Edited by J. Michael Hogan, Jessica A. Kurr, Michael J. Bergmaier, and Jeremy D. Johnson

“If we were to build a stone wall comprising the features of strong, participatory democracy, certainly we would include large boulders representing the importance of public debate and discussion.” — Mitchell Thomashow, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society


hat is the best argument in favor of speech and debate education and competitive opportunities? Often our focus settles on individual students, their 21st century skills and their academic potential. This volume, published in 2017 and touted as a “collection of the best ideas for reinventing and revitalizing the civic mission of speech and debate for a new generation of students,” advocates for a stronger framing of the activity as a public good. In his forward, David Zarefsky of Northwestern University describes his personal experience with speech and debate and how, through it, he gained a civic education without knowing it. This occurred by learning about timely and important public policy topics, being exposed to cultural differences during competition, experiencing democratic decision-making through repeated exposure to a third party arbiter, or judge, and more. Zarefsky argues, in sum, that “speech and debate would be better off if we made this realization [regarding civic education] explicit and deployed it far more prominently in our justifications of our competitive activities.”



Although the volume more consistently references collegiate forensics, there is much a middle or secondary level educator (or an NSDA employee!) can take away. I’ll highlight two of the contributor chapters, but note I found something of value in each. In Chapter 4, The Intersection of Debate and Democracy: The Shifting Role of Forensics in the History of American Civic Education, authors Michael D. Bartanen and Robert S. Littlefield shine a spotlight on the role of education in citizenship training. They share possibilities for measuring the personal and social outcomes of civic education based on the Association of American Colleges and Universities’ (AACU) Core Commitments Initiative. Namely: • Striving for excellence, • Cultivating personal and academic integrity, • Contributing to a larger community, • Taking seriously the perspectives of others, and • Developing ethical and moral reasoning and action. Bartanen and Littlefield argue that these “dimensions of learning allow

concrete assessment but also are flexible enough to provide great latitude” in shaping curricula. They also discuss the perceived and real conflict between competition and civic preparation, starting with the introduction of the tournament format in 1924, which led to honor societies losing influence in the effort to balance competition with values like academic performance, civic engagement, and ethical behavior. They argue that the competitive model is an excellent vehicle for achieving the AACU outcomes, but advocate for a rebalance between the private and public benefits of participation, largely by reintegrating forensics into curriculum, reimagining the reward system to deemphasize competition, revising competitive standards to welcome back a more general audience, and reestablishing dialogue within the speech and debate community to find common interests and goals. In Chapter 5, Public Debate and American Democracy: Guidelines for Pedagogy, Robert C. Rowland also addresses the need to provide skills that adapt strong arguments to diverse audiences—the “universal audience.” Of particular interest in this chapter is the Transfer Challenge: how the skills of speech and debate play in the world beyond the classroom. Rowland shares techniques like coalescent argumentation and cooperative argumentation that can be modeled in the classroom to provide something closer to a real world experience. This volume’s remaining chapters cover much more! Because of its focus on civic education, there are many practical strategies and approaches shared for use in a classroom environment, in advocating for and structuring curricula, and for more dialogue in our community about the best way to ensure this activity thrives in the future.

Amy Seidelman is the Assistant Executive Director for the NSDA.

Lincoln-Douglas Debate Two Weeks June 25 – July 8 $2700 Three Weeks June 25 – July 14 $3700 Kritik Lab Three Weeks June 25 – July 14 $3700 Congressional Debate Two Weeks June 25 – July 8 $2700 World Schools Debate Ten Days June 27 – July 8 $2500 World Schools/Lincoln-Douglas Sixteen Days June 27 – July 14 $3400

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Competing Standards: A Critical Look at Gender and Success in Debate and Extemporaneous Speaking by Julia Lynn and Rich Kawolics


n a Friday afternoon at the beginning of last summer, the NSDA community watched as three women took the stage as finalists in Public Forum and LincolnDouglas Debate, the first time in recent memory that so many women had been represented at the highest level of debate in the National Tournament. The presence of three female competitors—and the subsequent victories by two of them—offered one of those watershed moments where the rest of us might be inclined to pat ourselves on our collective backs in celebration of the achievement. Look at the progress we’ve made! On an entirely different level, however, why was the presence of three women in the finals of two debate events notable at all? It certainly shouldn’t have been. After all, Public Forum Debate has been contested at Nationals since 2003 and Lincoln-Douglas for much longer; certainly women must have been well represented at the highest levels of debate competition during that time. Unfortunately, though, this assumption would be dead wrong. In the first phase of a planned threeyear research program directed

toward understanding the relationship between gender and societal perceptions of speech, we have found that female competitors are significantly disadvantaged in Public Forum Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, and Extemporaneous Speaking. This finding adds an additional level of impact to the deeply troubling revelations on the experiences of women in debate presented by Shuntá Jordan at last summer’s inaugural NSDA National Conference. Our results show that over the past eight years—and perhaps longer—female competitors have been consistently and pervasively disadvantaged in Debate and Extemp competition.

A Little Background Laurel School is a 120-year-old school for girls located in Shaker Heights, Ohio. In 2007, Laurel founded the Laurel Center for Research on Girls (LCRG) with the intention of examining and developing best practices in education for girls of all ages. In recent years, LCRG has expanded its research focus to include both the impact of societal variables on girls inside and outside the classroom, as well as conducting research programs that examine the


effect of gender both on behavior and impact in educational settings. After years of anecdotal evidence from debate coaches and female debaters themselves about perceived gender bias in debate, and fueled by frequent commentary that unfolded during the 2016 presidential campaign, we approached LCRG about sponsoring a study of perceived differences and success of male and female speakers in argumentation and analytical speaking. Our study, which began in the summer of 2017, has three primary objectives: • Determine if the gender of a speaker impacts that speaker’s reception and success in argumentation and analytical speaking. • Identify possible causes of any apparent differences correlated to gender. • Determine strategies for audiences to mitigate the effects of any latent bias linked to the gender of a speaker.

Beginning the Program Because of the ready availability of so many tournament records online through SpeechWire™, Joy of, and, we decided to focus first on determining if a statistically significant difference in success rate

Our results show that over the past eight years—and perhaps longer— female competitors have been consistently and pervasively disadvantaged in Debate and Extemp competition. 30


existed for female vs. male debaters and speakers. Our lead student researcher— co-author Julia Lynn—downloaded the entry and result data for Public Forum Debate from 50 tournaments nationwide, including both local fixedround tournaments and national circuit elimination tournaments. Through this process, nearly 4,000 tournament participants were counted, and the gender distribution of all Public Forum competitors was determined for each tournament. For the fixed-round (nonelimination) tournaments, the gender distribution of the top six teams—the typical number who “make the stage”— was also recorded. For elimination tournaments, the data analysis included the gender distribution of the octafinal, quarterfinal, semifinal, and final rounds. One particular challenge has been the precise determination of gender identity for all participants given the absence of that information in the tournament record. This issue was primarily addressed by making extensive use of school websites and social media profiles, both of which proved to be extraordinarily helpful in determining the gender identities of participants where a determination could not be made by name alone. We must admit, however, that we cannot claim perfect accuracy of gender identification for every subject, and that the implicit assumption that gender can be addressed as a binary is itself flawed. In addition, we must acknowledge that any intersectional impacts of race, national origin, physical ability, or gender presentation were impossible to determine.

The First Finding: Reason for Concern Data from weekly tournaments showed that male participants outnumber female participants in Public Forum Debate to a statistically significant extent. On average, initial female participation in Public Forum Debate is approximately 42 percent, a ratio that holds true for both elimination and non-elimination tournaments. However, in all cases the percent of females experiencing competitive

success is lower than the percent of females participating. As illustrated in Figure 1 (above), the proportion of female debaters drops from an average 42 percent participating to an average 32 percent award winners in non-elimination tournaments (p = 0.002). In elimination tournaments, the result is more stark; the average 42 percent female participants drops to an average 24 percent female quarterfinalists (p = 0.001) and an average 6 percent female finalists (p = 0.00001). Data in Figure 1 are presented in box-whisker format, where the “box” shows the range of data points from the 25th to the 75th percentile, and the median is represented by a horizontal line in the box. The upper and lower “whiskers” show the maximum and minimum data values, respectively. The most striking feature of Figure 1 is that the median value for female debaters in the final round of elimination tournaments was zero; that is, half of all elimination tournaments studied placed four male debaters in the final round. In no elimination tournament studied did we find more than a single female debater in the final round. These data indicate that female debaters are competitively disadvantaged in some way in Public Forum Debate. Without some competitive disadvantage, it would be expected that the proportion of girls placing or reaching

high elimination rounds in weekly tournaments would be statistically the same as the proportion participating. So our data, which reflect a high degree of statistical significance, paints a very disheartening picture for female debaters.

Expanding the Study In the beginning of the 2017 school year, we recruited 12 additional student researchers to conduct similar analyses of Lincoln-Douglas Debate, United States Extemporaneous Speaking, and International Extemporaneous Speaking. This work added three thousand participants to the total data set. The researchers also analyzed gender and success of participants in NSDA national tournaments from 2010 through 2017 for the same four events. When we compared the percent of female participants in Lincoln-Douglas Debate to the percent placing, we found very little difference between the two groups. Similarly, we did not find a statistically significant difference between female participation and female success in either United States or International Extemporaneous Speaking on a weekly basis. The results changed dramatically, however, when we looked at qualification to the NSDA National Tournament. Table 1 (next page) compares weekly participation rate in 2016-2017 for all four events to qualification rates to the


Table 1: Female Participation in Debate and Extemp and Female Qualification to Nationals Percent Female Participants in Percent Female Qualifiers to National Tournament for the Weekly Tournaments, 2016-2017 Nationals, 2010-2017 period from 2010 through 2017. 34 Over this eight-year period, Public Forum Debate 42 p = 0.0001 we observed that qualification by gender in all four events 37 Lincoln-Douglas Debate 42 was essentially constant; p = 0.007 we found no indication of a 35 United States Extemp Speaking 39 decrease or increase in the p = 0.2 (not significant) number of females qualifying 32 International Extemp Speaking 34 to Nationals other than random p = 0.5 (not significant) variation around the mean. What was clear, however, is that females are significantly outnumbered by males must be viewed as an anomaly. The fact limited scope has expanded almost in all four events at Nationals. that one or two female debaters won weekly as our work has uncovered The data summarized in Table 1 a championship in a single year cannot new findings—and new questions. show a statistically significant drop detract from the story these data tell: We hope that the speech and from the weekly participation rates female debaters and extemporaneous debate community will take our for females to the number qualifying speakers are systematically findings to heart and will ask their own for Nationals in both PF and LD. disadvantaged year after year when questions. We welcome comments Although the drop from participation compared to their male counterparts. and questions on our work and look to qualification for Extemp is not as forward to sharing future findings in What Next? large, it is also apparent that fewer girls the months and years to come. are participating in Extemporaneous The obvious question is “Why?” and we Speaking in the first place. The net would certainly like to be able to answer result of this analysis is that there that question. For now, though, we have seems to be a ceiling of sorts on female only more questions and conjectures: Julia Lynn is an 11th Grade student qualification to Nationals in these four Are women evaluated differently at Laurel School in Shaker Heights, events. In fact, for each of the four because of how they speak? What Ohio. She took on this research events studied, females qualifying to role do socially-constructed gender project as her objective for Laurel’s Capstone program. Although Julia did not Nationals reached 40 percent only norms play in speech and debate? Are participate in speech or debate prior to one time over an eight year period. female and male participants taught beginning this study, her involvement Once these female competitors differently by their coaches and at prompted her to join her school’s team in reach Nationals, the outlook is even summer camps? Are female students United States Extemporaneous Speaking, and more bleak. Figures 2, 3, and 4 (opposite she recently qualified to the Ohio state finals in being discouraged by their coaches that category. page) show the progress through from participating in Debate or Extemp the National Tournament for female because those coaches do not expect Rich Kawolics started the speech competitors from 2010 through 2017. In success from female competitors? and debate program at Laurel all three categories (Extemp is shown What role does the background or School in 2004. Since that time the program has grown to be the on a single chart), female representation gender of judges play? All these largest extracurricular activity at Laurel; steadily declines from preliminary rounds questions deserve some consideration. between 20 and 25 percent of students through eliminations, top 14, and top 6. For our part, our work continues. participate in speech and debate during their The conclusion we reach from Our student research team has begun a Upper School careers. He is also a science teacher who teaches AP Chemistry and these data is twofold. First, we clearly carefully-controlled analysis of debate Honors Chemistry, and has recently completed find that female participants are ballots to determine if judges give a two-year term as the Board Chair of the underrepresented in PF and LD Debate different types of feedback to male and Ohio Speech and Debate Association. and Extemporaneous Speaking. Second, female debaters. Beyond that, we are it is clear that the rate of success for continuing to comb through tournament The authors are grateful to Research Associates Kate Amaddio, Katie Arendt, Sophie female competitors in all these events is records, trying to determine, for Bravo, Emi Cummings, Lydia Dray, Abby Knetig, below what would be expected based example, if this gender disparity has Katelyn Lacor, Tuyen Reed, Bess Sullivan, on participation and qualification rates. always existed at these levels or if it Simran Surtani, Elizabeth Thompson, Viva The success of three female debaters has changed with time. A research Vasquez, and Olivia Wenzel who contributed to this study. in the 2017 National Tournament, then, project that began with a somewhat







A Look Back at How Members Honored Our Activity in 2018





EDUCATION DAY by Shelby Young


ational Speech and Debate Education Day was a huge success this year! Thousands of students, educators, coaches, and alumni from across the country participated in celebrations on Friday, March 2, 2018. The day was dedicated to celebrating and promoting speech and debate educators and inspiring students to transform tomorrow. We are proud that members and alumni celebrated this special day in 48 states. Many state and local legislatures, school boards, and city councils passed resolutions and declarations recognizing the importance of speech and debate. The NSDA also worked with the United States Senate to pass Resolution 415, which declared March 2, 2018, as National Speech and Debate Education Day. Along with the support of lawmakers, one special alum also advocated for speech and debate. Actor, singer, and comedian Josh Gad shared his story of how speech and debate has impacted his life. From his first speech practice to winning



NSDA national championships in both Original Oratory (twice) and Humorous Interpretation, earning a college scholarship, and later starring in countless movies including Olaf in Frozen, Josh attributes his many successes to speech and debate. He shared funny memories and a heartfelt thank you to speech and debate coaches everywhere. If you missed any of his videos, visit the NSDA channel on YouTube! Josh Gad’s videos weren’t the only excitement on National Speech and Debate Education Day. The NSDA recognized Mary Gormley from Montville High School in Montville, New Jersey, as the 2018 National Educator of the Year. With the help of her team and school principal, Mary was surprised with the award at an assembly shared on Facebook LIVE. If you missed the video on March 2, you can still watch the presentation on our Facebook page at To learn more about Mary Gormley and the National Educator of the Year Award, see page 60.

Earlier that week, we also recognized Brandon Schloss from Wellington High School in Wellington, Florida, as the 2018 Exemplary Student Service Award recipient. Brandon was selected by a panel of past National Student of the Year Award winners for his work with the Palm Beach County Sheriff’s Office Gang Prevention Unit, his experience as an ambassador for the National Campaign to Stop Violence, and his efforts with Stomp Out Bullying. Brandon was surprised with the national award by his coach Paul Gaba at a tournament. To read more about Brandon and the Exemplary Student Service Award finalists, see page 56. Along with presenting these two national awards, National Speech and Debate Education Day focused on recognizing and promoting the hard work and countless hours speech and debate educators dedicate to their students and this activity. Students and alumni had the opportunity to send complimentary Thank You Grams to special teachers and administrators in



A resolution designating March 2, 2018, as “National Speech and Debate Education Day”.



Whereas it is essential for youth to learn and practice the art of communicating, with and EDUCATION apartDAY from technology; Whereas speech and debate education offers students myriad forms of public speaking through which to develop their talents and exercise their unique voice and character; Whereas speech and debate gives students the 21st century skills of communication, critical thinking, creativity, and collaboration; Whereas important ideas, texts, and philosophies have the opportunity to flourish when they have been analyzed critically and communicated effectively; Whereas personal, professional, and civic interactions are enhanced by their participants’ abilities to listen, concur, question, and even dissent with reason and compassion;


Whereas National Speech and Debate Education Day acknowledges that most achievements, celebrations, commemorations, and pivotal moments in modern history begin, end, or are crystallized with public address;



Whereas teachers and coaches of speech and debate devote in-school, after-school, and weekend hours to equip students with lifechanging skills and opportunities;

EMV Speech Team

Whereas students who participate in speech and debate have chosen a challenging activity that requires regular practice, dedication, and hard work;


(opposite page) The team from Apple Valley High School (MN) displayed their speech and debate pride. • (near left) Read more about the accomplishments of Brandon Schloss, class of 2018 (page 56) and five-diamond coach Mary Gormley (page 60). • (below) Students and coaches from across the country took to social media to share their stories about how speech and debate has changed their lives. • (right) Thanks to Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA), Senator Christopher A. Coons (D-DE), Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), Senator Richard J. Durbin (D-IL), and Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) for sponsoring U.S. Senate Resolution 415.

United States Senate Resolution 415

Whereas National Speech and Debate Education Day emphasizes the lifelong impact of providing citizens with the confidence and preparation to both discern and share their views;

Whereas National Speech and Debate Education Day recognizes that learning to research, construct, and present an argument is integral to personal advocacy, social movements, and the making of public policy; Whereas the National Speech & Debate Association, in conjunction with national and local partners, honors and celebrates the importance of speech and debate through National Speech and Debate Education Day; and Whereas National Speech and Debate Education Day emphasizes the importance of speech and debate instruction and its integration across grade levels and disciplines: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, That the Senate— (1) designates March 2, 2018, as ‘National Speech and Debate Education Day’; (2) strongly affirms the purposes of National Speech and Debate Education Day; and (3) encourages educational institutions, businesses, community and civic associations, and all citizens to celebrate and promote National Speech and Debate Education Day.


their life. On March 2, more than 1,000 thank you notes were sent to educators and administrators across the country. The NSDA also worked with more than 300 teams from 48 states to celebrate National Speech and Debate Education Day in their local schools and communities. We created a resource and idea toolkit sent to participating teams that included free posters, flyers, buttons, stickers, fundraising tips, ideas on how to celebrate, resolution templates, thank you notes, classroom activities, and more. Additionally, thousands of speech and debate supporters used their voice to celebrate our activity on social media. From sharing personal stories about how speech and debate has impacted their lives, to creating videos about their team, posters with testimonials from speech and debate students, and photos of resolutions from state capitals across the country, #SpeechandDebateDay was visible across social media. Many changed their profile photos on Facebook to celebrate the day or used one of many Snapchat filters at district tournaments that weekend. As someone who participates in speech and debate, you know the impact this activity can have on young people. Seeing and hearing thousands of stories of how speech and debate has changed lives is inspiring. We already are looking forward to National Speech and Debate Education Day next year. Mark your calendars for Friday, March 1, 2019!

Shelby Young serves as Communications Specialist for the NSDA.

“As a coach or educator you may never realize the impact you have on a student… You are shaping the future.” — Josh Gad, actor and NSDA alum

Thank you for your support! To start planning for National Speech and Debate Education Day 2019, download various resources provided for you at: 36


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SUMMER CAMP “Speak the truth in love.” - Eph. 4:15

Explore the Christian faith in relation to science, history, and philosophy. Learn to think carefully and imaginatively. Acquire invaluable skills in public speaking and debate. Learn to argue lovingly. SUMMA Theological Debate Camp is a fantastic experience for anyone who wants to deepen their knowledge of the Christian tradition through reason and debate, all while having a lot of fun on one of the most beautiful college campuses in the country!

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DON CRABTREE A Legacy of Service by Annie Reisener


s a nine-diamond coach, Hall of Fame member, Distinguished Service Award record holder, and national champion coach, Don Crabtree’s awards and accolades could easily fill these pages. Don has received the Ralph E. Carey Trophy for Distinguished Career Service, been named Outstanding Teacher by the Missouri Speech and Theater Association, and was presented the Distinguished Service Award by the High School Activities Association. He has been a district leader, a district chair, a member of the National Speech & Debate Association’s Board of Directors, and has served as both vice president and president of the Board. There is no doubt about it, Don has dedicated his life to speech and debate. He is a familiar figure in our community, well-known for his Hawaiian shirts, his even temper in high-pressure situations, and his calming presence on stage at the National Tournament. Even if you don’t know him personally, you probably know at least a little bit about him. When I spoke to Don’s friends and colleagues, they didn’t reference all of the recognition he’s received. Rather, without exception they mentioned his kindness, his gentleness, his peacemaking nature, and his incredible listening skills.


He has put the success of others, both individual coaches and the organization as a whole, before himself. Don will retire this year after 30 years of service on the Board of Directors. Before he passes the torch, I want to pause for a moment to share a little more about the man behind the podium. Don is modest, remarkably so. Convincing him to talk about his legacy is a challenge, but there is no doubt in my mind that he will have a great one.

Becoming a National Figure In 1965, Don Crabtree was a sophomore in high school looking for his niche. He found it on Mrs. Jackson’s speech team. Don began attending four or five tournaments a year, competing in Duet and Drama. While Don enjoyed speech, he had his sights set on medical school. Then, in his senior year, Mrs. Jackson told him he should go into teaching. She planted a seed and, over time, Don decided to take her advice. He graduated from Missouri Western State University in 1972 and, with the support of Mrs. Jackson, he began his coaching and teaching career at Bishop LeBlond High School in St. Joseph,

Missouri. It was there that Don was first introduced to the National Forensic League. He became a member coach in May of 1972. Don spent five years at Bishop LeBlond High School. During that time, he received his Master’s Degree and a Specialist Degree in Education from Northwest Missouri State University. Don then took a job at Park Hill High School and built a powerhouse speech and debate program that remains incredibly successful to this day. Former NSDA Executive Director Jim Copeland remembers Don’s success well. “His chapter was regularly the largest in the district and often among the nation’s top ten. He qualified more than 70 students to the National Tournament and coached a national champion in Dramatic Interpretation.” Jim played a role in that victory, Don remembers. “David Getzendaner won DI at the 1986 Nationals in Tulsa. He actually got the piece from Jim Copeland. I was really proud of David. He came from a bad situation and stuck with it and won.” Don’s perspective on the National Tournament has been shaped by his three experiences as a host, first in 1983, then in 1994, and finally in 2010. “It’s tremendous work. You’ll never hear a complaint from

Help us celebrate Don’s career of service to speech and debate during the 2018 National

Tournament! Join us in Fort Lauderdale on Tuesday, June 19, from 6 to 9 p.m. at Stache (adjacent to America’s Backyard & Revolution Live, where the NSDA Student Party sponsored by the Institute for Speech and Debate will take place). 40


me about where we go or what might go wrong because of how hard it is,” Don says. When I suggested it must have been easier in ’94 with a successful year under his belt, Don laughed. “Everything you did right the first time was immaterial because so many things changed,” he remembers. “Between ’83 and ’94 the tournament had grown drastically, plus we were using different schools and dealing with different economics.” In fact, the only thing that remained the same over his three tournaments was the support from the speech and debate community, his school district, and his wife, Ann. As I spoke to those who worked alongside Don during his time as a host, they remember it much the same way. Kyle Howe was helping with concessions and running errands at the ’83 tournament. It was there that he met Don for the first time, and consequently informed him he’d be joining the team as a student in the fall. Kyle remembers their biggest challenge involving archery gone wrong. The day before the tournament began, someone shot an arrow into one of the main air conditioning units on the roof. Incredibly, Don had a friend with a pilot’s license who flew to pick up a part needed to fix the unit, and repairs were completed before students descended upon the school. Not only was Don making strides in building his own program, he was working behind the scenes to bring new events to the national stage as a member of the Board of Directors. He and two-diamond Texas coach Lanny Naegelin wrote the rules for Duo Interpretation, a process which involved some trial and error. “The first time we wrote the rules, we totally missed the boat and had to redo it. One of the first rules we had was that each actor only be able to play one part. This eliminated pieces with multiple actors.” They reconsidered and opted to widen the scope of potential literature. Duo was performed on the final round stage for the first time at the 1996 National Tournament. Don remembers feeling amazed as their work came to fruition, but the event was leaps and bounds from what it is now. “Oh, there is no comparison to today! The evolution of the event has brought in so many cool

things in techniques and blocking. The first ones were very conservative.” When Don hosted his third Nationals in 2010, he was assisted by Jennifer Holden, a local coach he had mentored, and two of his former students, Kyle Howe and Tyler Unsell, both now coaches of their own teams. Kyle remembers this Nationals as the hardest of the three, but also the best. “In a way, we were three generations of Park Hill Debate working together.” Kyle had been taught and mentored by Don, while Tyler had been taught by both Kyle and Don. The 2010 tournament was one of Scott Wunn’s favorites as Executive Director because of the way Don and his team approached hosting. “The great thing about Don is that he doesn’t change due to stress. He’s one of the greatest hosts, and buds, because his personality and desire to serve remains constant in tense situations. Not only that, but all the people on his team at the tournament were the same way.” Scott believes part of Don’s success from hosting comes from those he inspired and the leadership structure he created. “When you’re training people to become leaders, there is inevitably a little residual left over. He has created a legacy of leaders. There is a little of

“Don is so present. He’s present on social media, during committee meetings, at Board meetings, and at tournaments. He is always engaged. To be a true leader, you need to be willing to put yourself out there and do the hard work that is demanded of you.” — J. Scott Wunn

Don in Tyler, Kyle, and Jennifer.” After speaking to the three of them, I would argue it’s more than a little. Don’s legacy is strikingly present in the three Missouri coaches. With the experience of co-founding Duo under his belt, Don also assisted in the introduction of two new debate formats: Public Forum, first called Controversy, and World Schools. Then in the summer of 2015, the NSDA announced the pilot year of Program Oral Interpretation, another event for which Don advocated. “I thought POI was a great blending of materials,” he says. “You can take an argument, like what we do in almost every event, and build literature based around it to prove that argument. I had seen it done a few times at the collegiate level, and I thought kids would jump on it.” With help from the collegiate speech and debate community, Don crafted the rules for POI and has watched as the event has grown over the last three years.

Leading the Organization Along with developing new competition events, Don was also overseeing drastic changes to the organization, including an official name change and rebranding, moving the national office from Ripon, Wisconsin, to West Des Moines, Iowa, the growth of the National Tournament, Constitutional changes, the introduction of the National Conference, the growth of the NSDA staff, and the addition of appointed members to the Board. The path to change hasn’t always been smooth. Throughout bumpy patches, Don has been a peacemaker. “He hates confrontation,” says Don’s fellow Board member and frequent travel partner Pam McComas. “He wants everyone to get along, but fully realizes this is not always possible when dealing with multiple personalities and temperaments. Don is a peacemaker.” Scott believes Don’s biggest leadership strength is his approachability. “He has created such a strong connection between the community and the organization. He’s an outstanding listener and is incredibly approachable. When Don joined the Board, Billy Tate


Through the Years “[Don] qualified more than 70 students to the National Tournament and coached a national champion in Dramatic Interpretation.” — Jim Copeland

was vice president. Billy believed the mark of a great leader is that they are present,” Scott says. “Don is so present. He’s present on social media, during committee meetings, at Board meetings, and at tournaments. He is always engaged. To be a true leader, you need to be willing to put yourself out there and do the hard work that is demanded of you. You must have the ability to see the differences in personality, character, and motivation of all people, and he’s able to do that. He understands that the world has a lot of different faces but that every one of them has something to contribute. He disregards no voice.” Don’s approachable nature and friendly smile are known well both on and offline. “He’ll be remembered for having the most friends on Facebook,” Pam jokes. At the time of publication, Don has an astonishing 4,245 friends on Facebook. “I get razzed a lot about this,” Don laughs. “I was so against it when it came out. I wanted no part in it. But then, in 2008, the economy was tanking, and we were trying to get ready to host the 2010 National Tournament. I wanted to get in touch with alumni, and it seemed like a good way to do that.” Things grew from there. Don began getting requests from students he worked with at camps, national finalists, coaches, and on and on. Now he finds himself connected with a vast number of our community members, and frequently provides support, advice, and mentorship to coaches via the social media platform. Much like he was mentored by Mrs. Jackson, Don has been there to lend a hand to hundreds of new coaches over the years.



Below, left, with daughter Alicia and “Mr. Congress,” Iowa coach Harold Keller, attending the 2010 Hall of Fame dinner.

Don earned his second coaching diamond in 1982 (above, left) and was awarded a fifth diamond for his key in 1997 (above, right). Most recently, he was named a nine-diamond coach in 2017. At right with fellow host committee members Kyle Howe, Tyler Unsell (seated), Arianne Fortune, and Jennifer Holden during the “Jazzin’ It Up in KC” 2010 Nationals.

“I think Don will be best remembered for his time as a bud—for being the person who deals gracefully with protests and problems and for doing so with kindness and a smile.” — Tyler Unsell

Seizing the Chance for Service In the spring of 1997, Jennifer Holden was going through a divorce. As a single mother of three children under the age of seven, she needed a job that would work with their schedules. She took a job at the newly created Park Hill South High School as an English teacher/Debate coach. At the time, her only experience with debate was judging a few poetry rounds as a student teacher. Her

instructions? Call the coach at Park Hill High School. “The nervousness I felt as I made the call immediately dissipated when I heard that voice and that laugh,” Jennifer remembers. “One of Don’s gifts has always been making those with whom he speaks feel as though they are the most important person in the room—or in this case, on the phone. When I met him in person a few days later, it was as though we had already known one another forever, and I trusted him when he told me that I would be fine and he would get

me through that first year. He was true to his word that year, and the many that have followed. I would never have made it, personally or professionally, without Don’s wisdom, friendship, and most importantly, I think, his sense of humor.” While Jennifer would be coaching at a rival school, it was never a question of competition to Don. Creating a program at Park Hill South was in the best interest of those students, so of course he would lend a hand in getting it started. “Helping Jennifer made us all stronger,” Don says. “I never thought of them as competitors. I think that’s the wrong mindset. You are a stronger force as a district than you are as just Park Hill and Park Hill South.” The rest of that first year, Jennifer and her team traveled with Don’s squad, following their tournament schedule. “He taught me something new with every tournament we attended,” Jennifer says. This is the perfect example of Don’s approach to coaching and leadership; he always thinks of the kids first. “I think service is one of the single most important things we have to do—more than just coaching your own kids and worrying about your own team. When there are opportunities to present a workshop, or go to a conference, or help another coach who is starting a program, seize those chances. That service is how this organization grows stronger. And you gain so much from that as well.” Helping others is second nature to Don, but to those who know him, this is what makes him so special. “Service is the essence of Don Crabtree,” Pam says. “He serves others before thinking of himself. Don will be the last person at a tournament. He desires the best for everyone. When he has to make difficult decisions as a National Tournament official, he worries about hurting the student involved.” Don has played many roles in the National Speech & Debate Association, but his favorite by far has been National Tournament ombudsperson, a responsibility he’s gladly taken on for 23 years. An ombudsperson (or “bud”) at the National Tournament is often faced with difficult rules challenges, angry coaches, and disappointed students. It’s a role that requires a cool head, a listening ear, and a great deal of kindness; a combination that fits Don to a T.

“I just like people,” Don says. “I found so many times that situations could end up okay if you just listen to someone and give them time to explain a situation. I met some of my closest friends in the activity through a protest, sometimes one that didn’t go their way.” It takes a special person to have someone walk into a room to file a protest and walk out with a friend. Scott remarks upon Don’s ability to bring levity and humor to tense situations. “I mean, Don wears a referee shirt to Nationals! That sends a message to a coach walking into the bud room. It really lightens the mood and shows that he doesn’t take himself too seriously.” It’s this ability to make the best of any situation that Don’s former student Tyler Unsell thinks will be Don’s legacy. “I think Don will be best remembered for his time as a bud,” Tyler says, “for being the person who deals gracefully with protests and problems and for doing so with kindness and a smile.” Don has dedicated more than 46 years of his life to speech and debate. When anyone shows that kind of unwavering loyalty to something, you can’t help but wonder why. To Don, it’s always been all about the kids. “I love what I saw this activity do for young people; how I saw it change their lives. Whatever tagline you want to put on it—it does change their life.” And when he says that, Don means every kid. “It’s wonderful that we have so many gifted students who go off to ivy league schools. That’s a blessing. But this activity saves so many kids who would fall through the cracks. The kids you brought in from other classes and told them to try it. They may never win tournaments, or even win a round, and that’s of no importance. They find their niche and a safe space in speech and debate. They find a place to belong. They find a family. We don’t hear a lot about those kids, but I have seen how speech and debate saved them.” Kyle Howe, Don’s former student turned coach, describes his debate skills as “exceptionally average.” Yet, that wasn’t what was important to Don. “Crab didn’t care that I wasn’t the most successful, didn’t win the tournament, or come home with the most trophies. He wanted me, and all of his students, to enjoy the activity, to grow, and to

become a better person because of speech and debate. I’m going to be 50 this summer, and I still get up every morning and go to Park Hill High School. I still get to go to debate tournaments and work with some amazing young people and watch them grow into some pretty wonderful adults. I owe much of that to Crabtree.” Don’s belief that speech and debate can help students in need has motivated him over the course of his career, and is one he’s passed on to those he has mentored.

Quiet Support, with a Smile The best moment in Don’s career came during the 2006-2007 school year when he passed off the Park Hill program to his former student, Tyler Unsell. Tyler had worked as Don’s assistant coach through college and had one year of experience under his belt teaching at Ruskin High School. It meant the world to Don to be able to hand off his program of 35 years to a man he’d coached and hand-picked for the job. “I wasn’t nervous about what he would do with the program, just about what I would do,” Don laughs. “We had an agreement: it was his program now. If he wanted me to be a part of it or wanted advice, he had to ask me. I told him I would always do it, but he would have to ask.” Tyler perfectly recalls an early piece of advice he solicited from Don. “One of the first things Don told me as a colleague was that it’s the kids whom you like the least who probably need you the most.” That stuck with Tyler, and it’s something that still impacts him to this day. Tyler

“I would never have made it, personally or professionally, without Don’s wisdom, friendship, and most importantly...his sense of humor.” — Jennifer Holden


“I’m going to be 50 this summer, and I still get up every morning and go to Park Hill High School. I still get to go to debate tournaments and work with some amazing young people and watch them grow into some pretty wonderful adults. I owe much of that to Crabtree.” — Kyle Howe remembers Don’s quiet support in the background and his trust that both Tyler and the team would succeed. “His support is honestly part of the reason why I’m still teaching,” Tyler says. Even so, Tyler felt relief when he qualified his first student from Park Hill to the National Tournament in 2007. “To me, it was a burden lifted—but to him, it was proof of what he’d known all along; that I could do this and do it well.” Over the years, Don has continued to coach at Park Hill in his retirement, and he and Tyler have grown closer than ever. “The highlight of my professional life has been watching him continue to build relationships with our kids, and to have that impact and influence on their lives,” Tyler says. “It reaffirms that I picked the right path. I’m lucky to have had him first as a teacher, but also as a peer, as a friend, and as someone I count as family.” As Kyle describes it, Don still enjoys every tournament like it is his first. “Time with the kids is a vacation for him. Watching them experience the joy of competing in debate never gets old for him. Crab knows that tournaments aren’t about him or the coaches; it’s about the kids. So, let’s give them the best experience we can. I have enjoyed being his student, his colleague, and most importantly, his friend all these years. It’s not the public recognition, or standing on a stage with him that makes me feel proud. It’s the handshake afterward when



he thanks me for help with whatever we were working on.” Don isn’t one to use the word “I.” When I ask what he thinks his legacy will be, he speaks of where he hopes the organization will be. “My wish is that we still have people committed enough to continue this activity, even though it’s a tough job and takes so much time. You need great family support, and I was blessed to have that from my wife and my daughter. I hope that we will have the financial support we need from people and corporations who realize what a lifelong skill this is and the value it brings to communities and companies.” Don has certainly done his part over the years to set us up for success. To learn more about what Don’s mark will be on our activity, once again I turn to those who know him and his contributions to the organization best. “His stories speak volumes about our history as an organization,” Pam McComas says. “So many changes for the better have occurred during Don’s tenure. He is a visionary. He knows this organization is more than just a national tournament— it’s a coach’s professional organization; it’s a student’s honor society. The NSDA is a key part of everyone’s legacy. Don will be remembered for being kind, fair, and understanding of all students and coaches; for always taking the time to stop and listen.” Scott Wunn suspects we will never truly know the extent of Don’s impact on the organization. “Some people lead because they believe it will benefit them. Servant leaders like Don are purely driven by their desire to fill a need that requires their efforts. Their mission is

less about receiving gratitude and more about seeing the success and happiness of others. Don is incredibly humble; he doesn’t seek out affirmation of the result of his efforts. He just moves on to the next need. Because of that, he himself likely has no idea how many people he’s helped.” “I think he will be remembered as one of the founders of Duo,” Tyler Unsell says. “And of course for serving on the Board, for being a leader for the advent of Public Forum, and, as a bud, for being a person who solves problems rather than creating them.” “It has been 20 years since Don and I first met; we have shared lots of laughter and a few tears along the way, and perhaps more importantly, more sheet-pans of Ann Crabtree’s infamous brownies than any two people should be allowed to have,” Jennifer Holden jokes. “There have been birthday parties, graduations, weddings, and grandchildren. Through the years, students and colleagues have asked how I

Service Points: A Primer became a debate coach. The short version is that without Don Crabtree, I would not have become a debate coach. I am not alone in this statement; Don has influenced decades of competitors and coaches and will continue to do so long after his NSDA presidency is over. Don is my mentor, my colleague, and most importantly, my dear, dear friend. Thank God he picked up the phone that first day I called. And all the days after.” Don’s legacy is at work every day in the lives of the thousands of students he has coached over the last 46 years. It is at play in the careers of Kyle, Tyler, and Jennifer, and now also in the students they have coached. It’s present at tournaments across the country every weekend as students compete in events he championed and coaches act on advice he’s given over the years. I can think of no way more fitting to end a profile about Don than with his advice to those by whom he’s been motivated his whole life. “My advice to a freshman student would be come in to my classroom. You’ll learn, even if you don’t think you will. You will. Come in. Try it. Find a place to belong.”

Don Crabtree has earned more service citations than any other coach in the history of our organization! Read here to learn how students and coaches can earn service points through the NSDA. The National Speech & Debate Association’s Honor Society recognizes middle school and high school students for participation in speech and debate activities. Students earn distinction through speech and debate competition as well as community service, public speaking, and leadership activities. Many coaches and students have questions about earning service points. Many of those questions are answered in the High School Unified Manual, starting on page 10. Some of the most frequently asked questions:

How does a coach enter service points for students on their roster? Service points are entered in the same system as merit points. Instead of selecting the debate or speech event, coaches should select Service, then enter a description of the service, select a coach, and then select what type of service has been done. When all fields have been entered, click Finish.

How many service points can a student earn in a year? Students may record up to 200 service points per year. Service activities can be recorded retroactively for the current and immediate past school years only.

Can a high school student earn service points for judging? High school students may earn two points per novice or middle school round judged, with a limit of four rounds per day.

Can a high school student earn service points for coaching? High school students may earn two points per hour of coaching middle school practice sessions, which does not include tournaments. A maximum of 50 points per year may be recorded for coaching. Students may not earn points for coaching their fellow high school teammates.

Can a high school student earn service points for theatre performances?

“So many changes for the better have occurred during Don’s tenure. He is a visionary. He knows this organization is more than just a national tournament— it’s a coach’s professional organization; it’s a student’s honor society. The NSDA is a key part of everyone’s legacy.” — Pam McComas

Annie Reisener serves as Operations Specialist for the NSDA.

High school students may earn points for acting/theatrical performances and/ or theatre/festival competition. The student will earn five points for each performance of a play in front of an audience or in competition. They may earn a maximum of 20 points for any particular play or particular competitive readers theatre selection, one act team, ensemble, choral reading group, etc. However, mime and non-speaking roles may not earn points.

Whoops! I entered service points incorrectly! What should I do? Points of any kind cannot be edited. They must be deleted and re-entered. Use the red trash bin icon next to a points entry to delete incorrect points.

What about coaches? Can coaches earn service points? Yes! The NSDA recognizes the service of coaches through our Distinguished Service Award. This award is earned by coaches who perform service for the National Speech & Debate Association, such as hosting tournaments, serving on District Committees, volunteering at the National Tournament, or doing a variety of other eligible activities. Those who earn 20 citations are given a special gold key. Those who receive 50 citations are presented with a bronze plaque. Starting this April, the entire process is going digital and all citations will be recorded through a coach’s online NSDA account! More information can be found under the Honor Society » Coach Recognition tab of the NSDA website (


The American Legion Oratorical Contest

LOOKING FOR COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIPS?  LOOK NO FURTHER. As part of the National Speech & Debate Association’s ongoing partnership with The American Legion, the top three finishers from the Legion’s National Oratorical Contest may earn the right to compete in Original Oratory or United States Extemp at the National Speech & Debate Tournament! The first-place finisher is awarded an $18,000 scholarship, second-place $16,000, and third-place $14,000. The scholarships may be used at any college or university in the United States.

Want to get involved? Follow these simple steps! • Visit to learn more.

Andrew Steinberg of Massachusetts placed first at the 2017 Oratorical Contest.

• Click “Request Information” or contact your state’s American Legion Department to learn when the first contest will be. • Also click on “Assigned Topics” to learn the extemporaneous topic areas. • Prepare your original oration on some aspect of the Constitution with emphasis on the duties and obligations of a citizen to our government.

Watch examples of past winning orations online at

17 n @ yale 20 o i p m a h c i di & Po 7 i @ toc 201 top 2 in po 2017 nsda & toc @ n o i p m ha 017 us extemp c p @ nsda 2 u r e n n u r int. extemp nsda 2017 @ e c A l p d r -3 17 int. extemp ce @ toc 20 a l p d r 3 y r orato 7 @ nsda 201 y r t e o p n i top 2

ion: s s e s r regula 1.18 2 . 8 8 1 . 8 8. on: extensi 4.18 2 . 8 8 1 . 1 2 8.


Building a Culture of Kindness by Emily Weaver


peech and debate coaches and judges tend to be trained observers of students—constantly critiquing arguments and evaluating performances. In the Tall Cotton District of Texas, two individuals are working to turn those observations into something even more meaningful by encouraging kindness and integrity among their students. Volunteer judge Zachary J. Zachary and forensic coach Donna Mullins Forbis share an example of a Congress student who refused to take advantage of someone else’s mistake. “This fall, Zachary was judging a Congress round and saw a selfless act on the part of one of the competitors,” Donna explains. “The presiding officer was inexperienced and called on a speaker who did not have precedence. That student declined to speak. The girl very easily could have gone ahead and given a speech— probably helped herself out in the round, gotten some more points—but she did the right thing. Students need to be recognized for doing the right thing.” “I spoke with the young lady and her coach afterward,” Zachary explains. “They were both happy that a judge noticed good citizenship and took the time to note it on her ballot (even though it could not be scored) and to tell her in person. The joyful smiles of the student and coach exceeded the smiles of the state-bound champions announced later that afternoon.” Zachary and Donna realized the inherent need for rewarding positive actions of students—whether in the classroom, during practice, or at tournaments—and the immediate benefit that encouragement has on students. In their essay, “We Need to Be M.O.O.R.E. [Motivating Our Own Regarding Ethics],” the authors explain how “pride cards” are used to recognize students for displaying positive traits. On these special index cards, which can be customized to reflect one’s school or district, educators can record “S.A.I.L.” information— describing the “Situation” in which the student responded, the “Action” the student took regarding the situation, the



“Not everyone’s going to win, but everyone can be nice.” — Donna Mullins Forbis “Impact” the student’s actions had on the situation, and the “Link” that the student’s behavior had on the team’s values. These cards encourage students to actively display positive citizenship traits, which can range from picking up trash in a hallway to holding a door for a fellow student or coach. “I think pride cards help influence positive behavior habits becoming more habitual and less effortful,” Zachary says. Donna reiterates this idea, explaining how Eagle Way Pride Cards given out in the O’Donnell Independent School District have encouraged her own students to act purposefully in ways that help others.“We wanted to recognize the students who have good character or who help out somebody,” Donna explains. “I’ve seen students drop papers, books, and then nobody helps them, or they snicker. We’re trying to instill better character in some of these students, and recognize those who do the right thing… Even if it’s not intrinsic in the beginning, it becomes a habit.” Donna has also worked to incorporate grading for kind acts into her weekly homework assignments. “Usually, for a couple of points, I add a random act of kindness,” she says. “It’s nice to read the things that they’ve done. Even though it was part of their assignment, it becomes a habit. They always look for something good to do.” As an added incentive, pride cards can be collected by schools for some sort of reward or entry into a drawing.

As Donna explains, these prizes are often donated coupons or gift cards from local businesses. Both Zachary and Donna have noticed a positive effect on their school communities stemming from rewarding positive behavior. “I think students are just more willing to go beyond civil indifference when their peers and teachers recognize positive behaviors,” Zachary says. “Leaders, regardless of setting, should spend as much effort rewarding positive behavior as they do correcting negative behavior. This leads to a transition from purposeful behavior to habits that just become natural. This has the dual effect of decreasing the likelihood of negative behavior and increasing positive behavior.” Pride cards can be used to celebrate behavior that anyone can choose to do. In school settings, as Zachary and Donna write, “Students who are not normally recognized for academics can have a sense of accomplishment through pride cards.” “Not everyone’s going to win, but everyone can be nice,” Donna says. “There’s a level playing field there.” Donna and Zachary believe using pride cards in an educational setting has led to students being more proactive in acting out of kindness. “It is our hope that students will instill these acts of kindness and chivalry into their everyday habits that they may be forever strong as scholars and as citizens of the world,” they write. “Integrity is having good character when no one is watching. As educators, we are also challenged with teaching students to have good character.”

Zachary J. Zachary and Donna Mullins Forbis

To read the complete essay, “We Need to Be M.O.O.R.E.” (dedicated to Dr. Kerry Moore of Muleshoe Independent School District in Texas), visit

Emily Weaver is a senior at Ann Richards School in Texas. She currently serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.


Middle School Camp June 25 to June 30 $600 per student

High School Camp June 30 to July 16 $1,000 per student

For more information contact Dr. Courtney Wright at or 217.245.3206.


Dario Camara: Actions Speak Louder Than Words by Megan Munce Service projects at local tournaments in Florida bring the advocacy element of speech and debate to life!


peech and debate is centered around students utilizing their voices to amplify the stories of themselves and others, whether it be through critical argumentation in debate or bringing relevant themes to life in speech. In the South Florida Catholic Forensic League (SFCFL), this objective is taken a step further. Dario Camara, threediamond coach and director of speech and debate at Western High School in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, serves as president of the SFCFL, which holds four invitationals throughout the year servicing the Dade and Broward County school districts. These tournaments not only offer students the opportunity to share their voices and the voices of others, but to serve their community in more tangible ways. Each invitational incorporates a cause—mostly decided by the students themselves, but occasionally aligned with national movements—for which students do direct service or provide support by fundraising. The first of the SFCFL’s serviceoriented invitationals, “Speaking for the Cure,” was inspired by Breast Cancer Awareness Month in October. The first iteration of the tournament allowed students to swap out their suits for pink T-shirts that were sold for $10 each to benefit a foundation for breast cancer research. It has since expanded to include ribbons, bracelets, and even pink trophies.

Other invitationals have taken on other themes. “We’ve had a huge range of service projects that have been very meaningful to the community,” Dario explains, “including the Humane Society, where we had pet adoptions and awareness; Toys for Tots; supplies for veterans; awareness of concussions in sports, etc.” He adds, “We wanted to do something with the captive audiences we had weekly. Tournaments were gathering between 750 and 900 students and more than 200 adults every weekend. I thought, ‘What a great opportunity to get service projects a voice.’” Dario believes these service projects allow students to bring the advocacy element of speech and debate to life. “The mission was to give the service component of debate a voice and platform,” he says, “and eventually, to give a tangible end product to issues we advocate at tournaments every weekend.” Dario’s personal favorite has been an invitational known as “Helping Hands,” initiated by a student who attended one of SFCFL’s other service invitationals. The student was inspired to design his own invitational to help students with disabilities partake in speech and debate. “The project, which started about four years ago, was inspired by the ongoing goal of tying the tournaments with service,” Dario explains. “The whole project and mission was shaped right in the middle of a speech and debate tournament.”

“I am truly inspired by the students who are giving back.” — Dario Camara 50


As part of the project, students volunteered to be a “helping hand” for other students with physical or speech disabilities, allowing them to participate in the activity. Four years later, some of those same students with speech disabilities were invited to present at awards. “The student was inspired by our mission, created something meaningful, and changed lives,” Dario says. “It was a direct influence of the work we had done for years. Hopefully, the projects continue to inspire other projects and motivate other students to create new missions.” “I am truly inspired by the students who are giving back,” Dario concludes. “I want to make sure the adults are setting the example; therefore, our coaches and judges are also involved, either providing funds or spreading the message. Personally, I have made sure to always allow time for service and helping others. If not, our voices do not matter. Our voices are powerful, but our actions are even more so.” Megan Munce is a senior at Presentation High School in California. She currently serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.


Tips from USA Debate: How to Achieve Success in World Schools by Ella Michaels Three: Play to Your Strengths

USA Debate members Ranen Miao, Piper Doyle, Ella Michaels, Leila Saklou, and Emily Grantham

Six Tips on How to Apply for the USA Debate Team

you get an idea of how to structure your speech and prepare the video element of your application, even if you’ve never done the format.

One: Develop a Foundation in the World Schools Format

Two: Do Another Debate Event

This is the format in which USA Debate competes! Demonstrating some experience or familiarity with it will help with your application and will also help you be more successful once you make the team. Find a tournament near you that offers the format or compete in Worlds on your district team at Nationals. However, if you’re in the same boat I was when I was applying for the team and never got the chance to compete in Worlds, team member Emily Grantham points out, “Watching USA Debate videos on YouTube or on the NSDA website can be incredibly helpful in setting yourself apart in the application process.” Just seeing the format in action will definitely help

Having some experience in Worlds is valuable, but competing in another format as well is just as, if not more, important. Doing so helps you gain more competitive practice and develop your skills even further. As team member Shreya Agarwala adds, “It’s really helpful for practicing quick thinking.” Furthermore, each individual member brings something different to the table, and this often ties back to what debate format in which they specialize. For example, extempers often have a background in current events that’s useful in impromptu motion prep, while members with an LD background know how to use strategy and identify important issues in the round.

If your strength is being a national finalist, congrats! Highlight the skills that helped you get there. But if you haven’t taken home national awards, not to worry. Team member Piper Doyle shares, “I had done pretty well locally, but didn’t have any major titles. What I do have is a strong work ethic, so I emphasized that in my application, and that ended up being incredibly important to the USA Debate coaches.”

Four: Start Early! The application to join the USA Debate team involves some brief questions about your background, short essays, and perhaps most importantly, a video of you delivering a speech. It’s worth taking your time on the last two components. As team member Shreyoshi Das suggests, “make sure your passion for the team comes across through the essays and don’t rush through them.” And while you should definitely invest time and effort into preparing your speech for the video component, she acknowledges, “Imperfections are okay. You don’t have to spend hours stopping and starting your video just because you mess up one word in the entire speech.”

Five: Ask for Help You are applying to be a member of USA Debate, so the primary person

Follow #USADebate on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter | speechanddebate 52


working on your application and letting their personality and talents shine through should be you—but it’s more than fine to get some support. Team member Ranen Miao recommends, “Ask for someone you trust to review your essays and video so you can get feedback on how to improve.” This second pair of eyes could be anyone from your coach or a parent to a friend with experience in the Worlds format.

Six: Apply! (No, Really. Just Apply.)

on and learn about different topic areas (e.g., health care, immigration, education, feminism) so you cover a broader range of knowledge going into prep.

Two: Practice, Practice, Practice The best way to get better at doing impromptu debates is to do a lot of impromptu debates. This will help you learn how to think on your feet and develop an approach to impromptu prep that works best for you and your team.

If you ask a USA Debate member how they felt when they made the team, most of us will list some combination of feeling ecstatic, overwhelmed, and surprised. None of us thought we were lock-ins for the team when we applied, and some of us didn’t think we even had a chance. But we shot our shot and have a life-changing opportunity to show for it. Do not count yourself out. You have nothing to lose and absolutely everything to gain. After all, as Shreyoshi explains, “How do you know you won’t make it if you don’t apply? Never let your own doubts prevent you from putting yourself out there and taking a risk. Things might just work out!”

Three: Go in with a Plan

Three Tips on How to Take on Impromptu Motions at Nationals

• Silent Brainstorming (~9 minutes): Every member of the team independently brainstorms arguments, framework ideas, examples, etc.

One: Read, Read, Read During your hour of impromptu prep, you’re only allowed one dictionary and one almanac. Being well-informed prior to the round so you can provide deeper examples and analysis will serve you well. As Shreya Agarwala recommends (yes, in all caps): “READ A LOT.” Get into the habit of keeping up with what’s going on in the world—and remember that the world includes more than the United States. International examples are your friend. Have each member of your team focus

To use your hour of prep to its fullest, go in with a clear idea of how you’ll spend each minute. Put someone (e.g., your captain) in charge of making sure the team adheres to that plan, and prep will become a lot more productive. For the USA Debate team, our general approach to prep, though it will vary somewhat, has largely been streamlined to this: • Clarifications (~1 minute): Make sure everyone knows what the motion means to minimize confusion later on. If you’re not sure of a definition, this is a great time to use your dictionary.

• Team Discussion (~5 minutes): Everyone shares what they came up with during silent brainstorming. Be careful not to repeat things your teammates have already shared. • Structuring the Case (~10-15 minutes): Organize the material you brainstormed into structured arguments. Fill in examples and write framing, too. • Writing the Case/Brainstorming Answers and POIs (~15-20 minutes): The first and second speakers start

Learn more at

fleshing out the arguments and adding rhetoric to the case that the whole team worked on. The other members of the team (third speaker and those sitting out) either assist them or start brainstorming potential responses and points of information. • Reviewing the Case/Solidifying Answers and POIs/Finishing (~1015 minutes): The first and second speakers review the finished prepared arguments with the rest of the team to make sure everyone is on the same page and to fill in any gaps. The whole team finalizes prepared answers to possible arguments from the other side. People might start briefly practicing speeches and doing whatever else is necessary to perform well in the debate.

Join the USA Debate Team! STAGE ONE: APRIL 2 – JUNE 1 Students should complete the online application form. This includes uploading the two-page “USA Debate Signature Sheet” acknowledging any potential travel date conflicts, signed by the student, parent/guardian, coach/advisor, and principal/ administrator. Students should also prepare an 8-minute First Proposition or First Opposition speech responding to the motion, “This House believes that the environment is more important than the economy.” Students will be asked to copy/paste the unlisted YouTube video URL during the online application process.

GET STARTED! More details at: usa-debate/#join

Ella Michaels is a senior at North Hollywood High School in California. She also serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.



Missouri State™ TM




Learn how to move to the next level in your debate career Learn the strategies that DEBATE CHAMPIONS use to win tournaments It's a BLAST! Although you work hard and learn a lot, it will be a fun-filled camp with many lasting memories

Listen to what Nick Ramsey said about the MSU Debate Camp



2 Week Polley (July 1 - July 14)

$600 Commuters • $1,400 Dorm

3 Week Polley

(July 1 - July 21) $900 Commuters • $2,000 Dorm

1 Week Novice

(July 15 - July 20) $200 Commuters • $500 Dorm

Event Camp Week

(July 16 - July 20) Uncoln-Douglas • Public Forum College Credit Options for 2 & 3 week camps $200, 3 credit hours, public speaking


MSU debaters have been in elims of all major national tournaments, including NDT semifinals. Recent MSDI alumni have been offered over $400,000 in college debate scholarships.

New 3-week options.

Three-week students may choose from a traditional judge, kritik, or event camp track for their final week.

Focus is on skill development:


JUNE 8, 2018

Space is limited. To register go to and select MSDI For more information contact


417.496.7141 I

This is the most effective means to rapid debater development. You will be in more practice rounds and speeches at the MSU debate camp. You will be in practice rounds and speeches by day 2 of camp, far faster than most debate camps.

Pragmatic approach for your circuit:

Many of our attendees come from middle of the topic circuits that use lay judges. MSDI will cover EVERY core case on the Immigration topic and negative strategies that will work on YOUR circuit. We will teach you how to adapt arguments to your circuit.


MSU Debate Camp is about half the expense of many debate institutes, but with staff comparable to top labs in other camps. By adding the college credit option, you might save an amount comparable to full tuition.


BRANDON SCHLOSS: Exemplary Student Service at its Finest in Florida by Annie Reisener and Allie Kelly


aul Gaba has been coaching debate for nearly 18 years. Over the course of his career, a few students have stood out above the rest. One of those students is Wellington High School senior Brandon Schloss. This winter, Brandon was recognized as the 2018 NSDA Exemplary Student Service Award winner. This award is given annually to a student who serves their school, community, city, region, or state using skills they honed through speech and debate. Coaches and administrators nominate students who uphold the highest standard of service, one of the core tenets of the Association’s Code of Honor, for recognition. The Code states, “A member exercises their talents to provide service to peers, community, and the activity. At all times, a member is prepared to work constructively to improve the lives of others.”



Brandon’s drive to improve the lives of others began in middle school, after he wrote an essay for the National Campaign to Stop Violence and was selected to travel to Washington, D.C., as a youth ambassador. There he met with other students who had been directly impacted by gang violence and drug trafficking. “That experience showed him he had a responsibility to serve the community by working for positive change and improving the lives of others,” Paul says. “This epiphany was not a calling to seek a specific career path, but rather an understanding that being a true leader is not a role but a responsibility.” Brandon began giving back as an eighth grader when he gave his first presentation at an elementary school. He then began working with Stomp Out Bullying to spread awareness about the impacts of bullying, traveling to speak at schools, events,

and to the media. For four years he has worked with the Palm Beach County Sheriff’s Office Gang Prevention Unit, where he coordinates events, recruits and trains other volunteers, and speaks to elementary school and after-care programs about youth violence and bullying. He has worked with the Palm Beach County School District, Children Services Council, and the Literacy Coalition of Palm Beach County in organizing and speaking at schools and camps. Brandon hopes that he has made a difference by using his voice to advocate for kindness and acceptance. “One of the more challenging aspects of my volunteer work is seeing the effects bullying has on children,” Brandon says. “It is difficult to hear how a child is afraid to go to school. The fact that I can potentially help a child who is being bullied, change the heart of a child who is a bully, and convince other children to be upstanders instead of bystanders should they witness bullying is very rewarding. I know that I am participating in shaping the character of our youth.” To Paul, Brandon is more than a debater or a community speaker. “If fluent communication skills, the ability to win accolades, and volunteerism was all there was to life, Brandon would already be ahead of most of the population,” Paul says. “It is his pleasant smile, ability to assist other students, and all-around personality, which makes him a true winner.”

MEET THE FINALISTS These five seniors were selected as finalists for the Exemplary Student Service Award and evaluated by a panel of three past William Woods Tate, Jr., National Student of the Year winners. Learn a little more about the service they provide their communities below!

that every little thing matters and any action can make a difference.” Madison is committed to using her tools from speech and debate to teach others in her own community, making a positive impact on the lives of those around her.

Lincoln High School (OR)

Chloe Higgins

Chloe Higgins has been recognized by local organizations for her outstanding philanthropy, and has served on the Community Foundation Youth Advisory Council. Her leadership has inspired her to organize schoolwide blood drives through the Red Cross as well as actively recruit new students to the NCHS forensic program. Chloe also uses her creative spirit to volunteer at the Nebraska City Dance Studio. Reflecting on her high school experience, Chloe says, “The lessons of communication that speech has taught me will take me further in life than anything I could have learned in a classroom.”

Madison Alliston

Sacred Heart Catholic School (MS) Madison Alliston is passionate about fostering communication skills beyond the classroom. Madison’s hard work has recently culminated in her original workshop SPEAK UP, SPEAK OUT, a program that builds speaking confidence in young adults with disabilities. “Change has to have a beginning,” explains Madison’s coach. “[She] experiences the reality

in speech and debate, I not only cultivated my critical thinking, communication, and collaboration skills

Jamie Bikales Nebraska City High School (NE)


“Through my participation

Jamie Bikales’ civicmindedness and confidence in the classroom has translated to his life of service. He recently used his speaking experience to volunteer for Mission: Citizen, a program that helps non-citizens pass the U.S. Citizenship Test. He also enjoys writing, expressing himself through poetry, and working as the editor of his high school newspaper. A leader on his school’s speech and debate team, Jamie believes that forensics allows him to “make a greater impact on the world around [him].”

Patrick Childress

Valdosta High School (AL) Patrick Childress has a passion for serving the needs of those around him. “It is his ability to see those in need as fellow human beings that is most striking to me,” says his coach. Along with balancing life as an IB student and speech and debate competitor, Patrick finds time to be active in his school community. In the aftermath of January 2017’s tornado devastation in Georgia, Patrick worked with first responders, as well as school administrators, to organize a schoolwide hygiene product drive—with great success.

but also became inspired to use these skills for the benefit of my community.” — Brandon Schloss 2018 NSDA Exemplary Student Service Award recipient from Wellington High School (FL) Suan Sonna

Sumner Academy (KS) “I always knew I had a voice,” Suan says. “Speech and debate helped me find that message—and myself—in the process.” Sonna is an active competitor on the local, state, and national level, and hopes to spark meaningful discussions in his community. In the spring of 2017, Sonna created the Sumner Forum, a program dedicated to cultivating conversation between adults and students about politics and civil issues. Since its beginning, the program has only grown, tackling topics such as education reform. Suan’s application of his speech and debate skills has helped family and friends, too, find their voice.

Annie Reisener serves as Operations Specialist for the National Speech & Debate Association. Allie Kelly is a junior at Denver East High School (CO) and a publications intern for the NSDA.

Visit our website to learn more about celebrating students at



About the Public Debate Program

The Public Debate Program offers integrated class/critical thinking instruction and debate competition for secondary schools. Major educational and civil rights non-profit organizations in the US and abroad use PDP materials and programming for critical thinking, professional communication, language development, and girls’ and women’s empowerment instruction. The PDP proprietary competitive debate formats were designed by graduate education school faculty, secondary school administrators and teachers, and education and debate professionals. They were developed to maximize student educational outcomes and accelerate standards-based learning, as well as professional communication practice. The PDP promotes sophisticated public speaking, critical thinking, note taking, research, argumentation, and refutation skills. In 2017-18, the Public Debate Program will serve more than 800,000 teachers and students in 29 countries. Students learn skills appropriate for success in any debate format. Students trained in the PDP format have won high school policy and LD national championships, as well as the college BP/WUDC championship.

Middle School/High School Debate Summer Sessions

Middle school and high school students may participate in MSPDP and HSPDP parliamentary debate programs. The summer residential/commuter debate sessions feature an extraordinarily innovative curriculum, low 4-1 student-faculty ratio, small group instruction, certified staff and judges for all program instruction, and student-directed elective and open forum sessions. The 2018 summer program integrates student assessment portfolios for individual feedback and best practices updates during the 2018-2019 academic year. Students may attend one or more than one session – all sessions are appropriate for new and advanced debaters. High school students will have the opportunity to learn and practice the most popular college debate format, British Parliamentary/World Universities. All debate students receive a textbook and other curricular information designed for their format.

Other Information


Claremont Summer, in its 18 year, is an official program of the Claremont Colleges Debate Union, centered at Claremont McKenna College. Supplementary Programming – Essay writing training is integrated in all summer programs. It is offered by the staff of Claremont McKenna’s Center for Writing and Public Discourse. In addition, college admission officers meet with high school student groups to help students understand the intricacies and opportunities of the college application process. Debate students may arrive early for leadership/professional communication programming. The Leadership Program (high school) and Scholars Program (middle school) offer public speaking, discussion, multimedia presentation, interviewing, social networking, and team/group management training. High school students participate in an academic conference. Information is available online. About the Claremont Colleges – The Claremont Colleges consist of five extraordinarily prestigious and highly selective undergraduate colleges and two graduate schools. The Fiske Guide to Colleges noted that Claremont constituted “a collection of intellectual resources unmatched in America.” Claremont rd McKenna College is ranked as the 3 finest higher education institution, according to the College Consensus, an aggregation of leading college ranking services worldwide, including the Center for World University Rankings, Forbes, Times higher Education, QS World University Rankings, US News, and Washington Monthly.


CLAREMONT SUMMER Residential/commuter sessions for 500 debate and leadership communication students. For comprehensive Information and applications, visit MIDDLE SCHOOL DEBATE Three sessions, with training in the Middle School Public Debate Program (MSPDP) format. Comprehensive instruction in advanced public speaking and argumentation – appropriate for MSPDP and other debate formats. The third session includes a summer championship tournament. Session 1 – June 16-21 Session 2 – July 6-11 Session 3 – July 28-August 4 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE One session, with training in the High School Public Debate Program (HSPDP) and supplemental training in the leading college parliamentary format, British Parliamentary debating. HSPDP Session – July 15-22 OTHER SUMMER PROGRAMS There are leadership/professional communication programs for high school and middle school students, including public speaking, writing, and digital and social media training, These sessions are organized so that students may attend a communication scholars program and a consecutively scheduled debate session.

PROGRAM DIRECTOR John Meany Director of Forensics Claremont McKenna College Claremont Colleges Debate Union



FALL CONFERENCE Conference on Electoral Reform

An effort to stimulate informed discussion, deliberation, and debate on general election politics and policy issues. The conference includes 3 keynote speeches and opportunities for high school students to present papers, engage in roundtable discussions, and offer multimedia presentations. Awards in each category.




Advanced communication training for academic and career success. The Claremont program uses the same instructional sessions, practice exercises, and curricular materials now used by higher education institutions, non-profit and government organizations, and businesses for training tens of thousands of individuals. Through the application of conference programming, case studies, training simulations, and roundtable discussions, students will develop the ability to identify problems, propose technically-achievable solutions, express vision, and motivate and manage others. The program offers professional training in public speaking, deliberative discussion, multimedia presentation, digital and social media, interviewing, report writing and editing, and team/organization management. In addition to diverse skills practices and topic-based research, students will prepare organization manuals, participate in a public policy case simulation, and engage in an academic conference. The summer program includes the opportunity to present papers, make presentations, and engage in discussion panels in the 2018 Conference on Health Care Policy. Students may participate in this session and the following summer debate session.


The middle school sessions offer primary professional communication and leadership training for younger students. These programs feature an age-appropriate version of the public speaking, roundtable discussion, multimedia presentation, club/organization management, and report writing and editing training and practices as the high school leadership session. Students may take the opportunity to join academic year political and social leadership and civic engagement programs for their schools and communities. Sessions are schedule to permit students to attend a consecutively-scheduled debate session. The session is appropriate for experienced and new speakers. Essay writing training is integrated in all summer programs. It is offered by the staff of Claremont McKenna’s Center for Writing and Public Discourse. In addition, college admission officers meet with high school student groups to help students understand the intricacies and opportunities of the college application process.

Claremont’s Civics in Action program features opportunities to learn and apply management communication skills and participate in national and international leadership projects and conferences. Programming is based on the Claremont Colleges Debate Union’s successful professional communication programs for higher educational institutions, non-profit organizations, businesses, and government agencies. National and international photojournalism, healthy eating, and civic engagement projects are underway.

SUMMER CONFERENCE Conference on Health Care Policy July 2018 – Integrated in the summer leadership session For Claremont Summer leadership communication programs, please visit For Conference and CivAc Information, visit

Program Director John Meany Director of Forensics Claremont McKenna College


MARY T. GORMLEY: An Inspired Woman Who Inspires Others by Andrew Hong

“It is my pleasure to tell you that you, Mary Gormley, are the 2018 National Speech & Debate Association’s National Educator of the Year!” As Executive Director J. Scott Wunn congratulates Mary Gormley of Montville Township High School, New Jersey, her anxious and faithful entourage—comprised of 50 students, the entire school administration, and local news staff—bursts into cheers and applause. She reaches out and accepts the trophy with watery eyes; her proud, tearful students are in a similar predicament. This is the kind of respect Mary Gormley commands. As an educator for 38 years, Mary continuously integrates the values of the National Speech & Debate Association into her teachings, transforming the lives of her competitors, students, colleagues, and children. From a national roster of more than 5,000 coaches, Mary has been singled out by the NSDA’s selection committee as the worthiest recipient of the prestigious National Educator of

Mary Gormley is a fivediamond coach from Montville Township High School in New Jersey.

the Year Award. The longest-serving active coach in New Jersey, Mary has coached thousands of students over the course of her career. Under her tutelage, more than 50 of her competitors have qualified to the NSDA National Tournament, with many advancing in and championing tournaments across the nation. While the secretly-planned congratulatory event may have been a shock for Mary, her colleagues were not so surprised—they were confident in her achievements as both a coach and as an educator. Previously, her exemplary performance as New Jersey district chair had been recognized by the NSDA administration, as she was named the District Chair of the Year in 2015. “As an educator, Mary frequently contributes her knowledge and experience in workshops and classes,” says fellow coach David Yastremski of Ridge High School. “Throughout the year, one will frequently find Mary mentoring new coaches through the point recording process at

tournaments, bringing her own computer and results.” But her successes as a coach and educator were not without their hardships. Mary initially overtook the coaching responsibility for Montville Township High School’s forensic team in 1988—the conditions of her employment demanded her supervision of the activity. After the previous coach resigned, leaving the team fragmented and in disarray, Mary was forced to reunite the bitter, disorganized remnants of a once-highly successful team. Yet with only a handful of students— most of them recruited freshmen from her English class—the odds of nationallevel success were not in the favor of Mary and her small group. “We forged ahead intrepidly, traveled near and as far as Harvard, and completed the season with minimal rewards,” Mary recounts. “It took me until February to acquire, after endless returned point sheets with red marks, the accumulated 25 points needed to be a coach of record. But, I powered on.” Despite the initial obstacles, Mary

Mary Gormley

Montville Township High School, NJ

Steve Meadows

Danville High School, KY

Tara L. Tate

Glenbrook South High School, IL

Sal Tinajero

Santa Ana Unified School District, CA

Rosie Valdez

Little Rock Central High School, AR




I love speech and debate because it empowers children... It shows them that what they have to say matters and that they do have the power to make changes in the world. It forever renews my faith in humankind.” — Mary Gormley

exponentially expanded her team’s ranks and reputation through years of hard work, sacrifice, and unwavering dedication to the activity. Her past struggles have motivated her to reach out and support other starting coaches. Driven by memories of a difficult past, Mary is determined to ensure that no one should face as arduous a journey as she: “I have never forgotten that year, and bear it in mind every time a new coach reaches out, or dons that look of panic when forgetting to do something when registering.” Sympathetic with the plight of struggling schools, Mary strives to help her fellow New Jersey teams survive, flourish, and progress as a unit. Mary has inspired the New Jersey circuit to head toward a path of competitive camaraderie—rivalries still exist, yet a state of inherent, mutual respect is maintained among competitors and coaches. And her efforts to increase inclusivity have not gone unnoticed, nor unappreciated. “For me as a young coach, Mary has been an excellent mentor to me. She has helped me

understand what it means to be an educator who is a team player in their district,” says fellow coach Martin Page of Delbarton School. “Mary has made me want to stay in speech and debate for longer, and she has changed thousands of lives.” As her program and her surrounding district expanded, so did Mary’s love for the activity. “I love speech and debate because it empowers children with a voice of their own,” says Mary. “It shows them that what they have to say matters and that they do have the power to make changes in the world. It forever renews my faith in humankind.” The importance of student discourse is a hallmark of Mary’s curriculum, both inside and outside of the speech and debate community. As a well-respected teacher of AP English Language and Composition and her school’s Forensics class, she inspires her students to articulate and defend their beliefs through classroom discussions, analysis essays, and mock debates. She states, “Today, the classroom has become the sole surviving portal where words matter more than ever.” During the summer of 2017, she visited Colorado to give a presentation about the significance of instilling speech and debate values into the school environment. Mary also spoke at the NSDA National Conference, urging coaches to incorporate debate skills into the classroom setting. Connecting the

NSDA curriculum with the recent Florida high school tragedy, Mary states, “As tragic as Parkland was, I think the impact of speech and debate really shows itself in the voices those students have and how well they’re able to represent themselves.” The reciprocity of respect is not lost among her students. Samuel Brumer, the president of Mary’s speech and debate team, explains, “Mrs. Gormley labors tirelessly to ensure that Montville is a place where every student, whether on the forensic team or in her classroom, is given the chance to make themselves heard.” For Mary, speech and debate is more than a simple, Saturday-consuming extracurricular activity. To her, it is a lifestyle; a constantly-changing learning experience where she can witness her competitors experience transformation and growth. “The lives placed within our hands, educators’ hands, are evolving, unfolding,” Mary states. “We dare not let them blend, or be forgotten. They need to embrace the value of the voice. And, they need to know we care. I still do.” Mary’s unhindered determination, commitment, and ability to inspire epitomize the values set forth by the speech and debate community. Mary Gormley is the 2018 NSDA National Educator of the Year—an appointment overwhelmingly supported by her colleagues and competitors, whose lives she has transformed forever.

Andrew Hong is a senior at Montville Township High School in New Jersey. He currently serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.


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Diamond Coach Recognition

Sixth Diamond u SIXTH DIAMOND u STAN AUSTIN Wheaton North High School, IL February 18, 2018 • 16,094 Points

Stan Austin has been involved in the National Speech & Debate Association for more than 40 years and will be bringing his last national qualifier to the Fort Lauderdale Nationals in June. He is retiring from active coaching, and this award is a fitting culmination of a long coaching career. Stan was a lawyer and then a sitting circuit court judge in Illinois and so he never taught in a classroom setting. Instead, he came into the school from the outside and did his coaching late in the afternoons and in the evenings and traveled with his students to tournaments on weekends. He did this because he believes that involvement in speech and debate is the best training of life skills that a young person can receive. That is why he became involved and has remained involved in the NSDA.



In his 40-plus years of coaching, including the past 30 at Wheaton North, Stan has had the honor of coaching dozens if not hundreds of students to Nationals, including a national champion and a national runner-up in Impromptu, national finalists in Extemp and Prose, and national semifinalists in Humorous Interp, Storytelling, and Extemporaneous Debate. As the head coach for Wheaton North’s team, he has had Illinois state champions in Extemp, Impromptu, Dramatic Interp, Oratory, Prose, Verse, Original Comedy, Radio, and Special Occasion Speaking. He says he is blessed and grateful for his family, his assistant coaches over the years, and his thousands of students who have done so well, all of whom have helped him to this award. He is honored to receive his sixth diamond.

Fifth Diamonds

u FIFTH DIAMOND u JAMES W. RYE The Montgomery Academy, AL April 2, 2017 • 14,772 Points Jay Rye began his teaching and coaching career in 1991 at The Montgomery Academy in Alabama. With a high school enrollment of 220 students, he started the program from scratch with participation in all speech and debate events. He was named Coach of the Year in Alabama in 1993 and was the recipient of the McLemore Award for Excellence in Teaching in 1995. Jay has coached 134 students to the NSDA National Tournament, including the national champion in Dramatic Interpretation in 2006. He served as the chair of the National Tournament Host Committee for the NSDA in 2009, 2013, and 2017. Jay’s involvement in speech and debate began as a high school competitor, which led to his involvement at the University of Alabama. Jay has been a member of the Deep South District Committee since 1993 and was district chair from 1999 to 2017. In 2010, he was elected as first alternate to the National Board of Directors and was elected to a full term in 2014. As a member of the NSDA Board, he serves as chair of the Development Committee and is active with the Strategic Planning Committee. He was inducted into the Alabama Speech & Debate Coaches Hall of Fame and the National Speech & Debate Association Hall of Fame in 2017.

u FIFTH DIAMOND u BROTHER ANTHONY K. CAVET Catholic Memorial School, MA November 11, 2017 • 13,001 Points Brother Anthony K. Cavet competed at Bergen Catholic High School (NJ). He began coaching at Essex Catholic High School (NJ) in 1970 and the next year introduced speech and Congress at Brother Rice High School, Bloomfield Hills (MI) as additions to the debate program. In 1972, he revived a speech and debate program at Blessed Sacrament, New Rochelle (NY). From 1978-1984, 19941998, and 2004-2005, he was at Iona Prep in New Rochelle (NY) where he added speech and Congress to the debate program, was head coach and, in later years, was assistant coach to a former student. He coached a national winner in Congress and assisted in coaching an NCFL Declamation champion as well as several state champions and overall state championships in speech and in congress in 1998, the same year that Iona Prep was an NCFL speech co-national champion. In 1998, he became principal at Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame in Miami (FL) restoring the speech program there and eventually becoming head coach. There he coached an NSDA Humorous Interp champion in 2001 and state champions in Oratory and Humor. From 1984-1994 and from 2005 to the present, he was head coach and now is assistant to a former student at Catholic Memorial, Boston (MA). As head of the program, he coached with a 1998 NCFL Congress winner and NFL Congress runner-up, and as assistant he worked with NCFL Oratory and Declamation champions and helped coach Catholic Memorial to an overall state speech championship in 2017. Catholic Memorial won the NCFL’s Paul Ward Congress trophy in 1994 and became an NCFL co-national speech champion in 2012. He was inducted into the MFL Hall of Fame in 2003. Some 15 of Brother Cavet’s former speech students have become high school and middle school coaches. He has been a Christian Brother for 52 years. ROSTRUM | APRIL/MAY 2018 65

Fifth Diamonds u FIFTH DIAMOND u MARTHA BENHAM Cherry Creek High School, CO December 11, 2017 • 22,635 Points Marti Benham joined the Columbine High School speech and debate team when she was 15 and has been involved in the activity ever since. During college, she coached at J. K. Mullen High School for one year. Then, she returned to Columbine High School as an assistant coach for one year and served as the head coach for 12 years. In 2003, Marti moved to Cherry Creek High School, where she has been coaching and teaching for the past 15 years. While she would love to have even more students involved in speech and debate activities, she is proud to have 240 to 270 students each year. Marti works to provide a safe, welcoming, and challenging atmosphere in her classroom and on her team. She is very happy that many of her students consider the debate room their second home. Cherry Creek often ranks in the top 20 largest programs in the NSDA. During her coaching tenure, she has had 189 students qualify to represent the Colorado District at the NSDA National Tournament. Cherry Creek has received several Schools of Excellence awards and won the Bruno E. Jacob Sweepstakes Award in 2015.

Marti strongly believes in serving others. In addition to her work as a district chair, Marti has served in a variety of roles in Colorado and with the NSDA. Knowing how important the activity is and how valuable her relationships are with other educators and coaches, she is very proud to have hosted the first NSDA National Conference in 2017 and often hosts the Colorado Coaches’ Conference. Marti is active in her school as a sponsor of the National Honor Society and an active member of both the Technology and Graduation Speaker committees. While teaching and coaching take a great deal of her time, she loves spending time with family and friends, especially her two nieces.

u FIFTH DIAMOND u STEVE MEADOWS Danville High School, KY January 22, 2018 • 13,173 Points

Kentucky’s first five-diamond coach, Steve Meadows, is a 27year veteran who has spent the last 24 years with a program he resurrected at Danville High School after leaving a program and NSDA chapter he started at Beechwood High School, both in Kentucky. During his tenure, he has been active in district and national leadership roles, serving 20 terms as Kentucky’s district chair and another two on the District Committee. As a longtime district chair, he founded the state’s annual professional development conference (SPEAK), an alliance of all Kentucky



speech and debate organizations spearheaded by KYNSDA. He has been a member of the NSDA’s national conference planning and curriculum committees, helping organize the first national speech and debate education conference as well as the upcoming one plus guiding the League as it expands its offerings to classroom teachers. His students have advanced to national finals in United States Extemp, International Extemp, and Oratory plus Prose and Expository, and Danville’s chapter has won District and Sweepstakes titles multiple times despite the school’s stature as one of the smallest schools in the Kentucky District. Meadows has been a member of the National Tournament speech tab staff for more than a decade and has served as a category chair as well as the last two years as the Director of Public Speaking events. The National Communication Association named Meadows its 2015 K-12 Teacher of the Year. In 2016, Meadows was honored with the Ralph E. Carey Career Service Award at the National Tournament. He treasures his friendships with coaches from Hawaii, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Indiana to South Carolina, Alabama, Colorado, and New York, forged in Nationals tab rooms as well as at the NSDA Summer Leadership Conferences (he’s attended all of them).

Fifth Diamond u FIFTH DIAMOND u ELOISE WEISINGER BLAIR Lamar High School, TX February 2, 2018 • 19,603 Points In her 55-year classroom career, 28 of which have been spent coaching debate in the National Speech & Debate Association, Eloise has received an impressive array of awards in recognition of her achievements. Included among this plethora of plaudits are National Speech & Debate Association – Hall of Fame; National Federation of High Schools Association – Citation Award; Texas Speech Communication Association – Secondary Educator of the Year; University Interscholastic league – Sponsor Excellence Award; and University of Houston College of Education – Distinguished Alumni. She also has coached numerous qualifiers, finalists, and champions for the National Speech & Debate Association, Texas Forensic Association, and University Interscholastic League. Her greatest pride is seeing many of her former debate team members at Aldine High School and Lamar High School, both in Houston, go on to attend some of the nation’s finest colleges including Yale, Stanford, Princeton, Duke, Vanderbilt, and many others. From there, many of her students have achieved successful professional careers in law, medicine, journalism, and the political arena.

u SECOND DIAMOND u DAVID M. POWELL Vincent High School, WI and Milwaukee High School Of The Arts, WI April 29, 2013 • 3,605 Points

u SECOND DIAMOND u SUSAN ONTIVEROS Albuquerque Academy, NM November 30, 2017 • 3,619 Points

u THIRD DIAMOND u SUSAN M. DELAY New Castle High School, IN November 19, 2017 • 6,001 Points

u SECOND DIAMOND u LAURA WHITCOMBE McCutcheon High School, IN December 9, 2017 • 3,010 Points




u FIRST DIAMOND u GARY D. PETERS Wirt-Emerson Vis Perf Arts, IN October 13, 2017 • 1,504 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u MARK STOWITTS Cajon High School, CA October 22, 2017 • 1,503 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u CRAIG WALL Teurlings Catholic High School, LA November 19, 2017 • 1,500 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u KATHY RUPPERT McQuaid Jesuit High School, NY November 22, 2017 • 1,952 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u ROGER MCCULLOUGH Butte High School, MT January 14, 2018 • 1,509 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u DAVID R. HOLMES Dripping Springs High School, TX January 15, 2018 • 1,502 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u TIMOTHY SLAGLE Owensville High School, MO January 20, 2018 • 1,516 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u DAVID HARPER Denmark High School, WI February 18, 2018 • 1,502 Points

u FIRST DIAMOND u PAUL H. MILLER Appleton East High School, WI February 20, 2018 • 1,539 Points


Donus D. Roberts Quad Ruby Coach Recognition The Association is proud to honor coaches who have earned their first 1,000 points.

Crystal Huddleston Frank Rivera Nathan Harmon Gavin Wong Kimberly Gwizdala Sarah Piper Erica Cooper Shawn Nix Joel Brown Robin Emery Victor Rivas Umana Jim Poyner Alex Glanzman Claire Haflich Dominic Henderson Alex Gray Seth Phillips Kevin McDougal Grant Bent Benjamin Niewoehner Marissa Pena Jamie Wills DeLona Campos-Davis Jerrad Willis Barb Shofner Sterling Willford Andrew Chadwell Evelyn Conley Ricardo Jordan Jeremy Beckman Arturo Feliz-Camilo Anna Payne Melinda McCormack Morgan Coffin Paul Manning Laura Humphrey Keith West Kaitlyn Clark Wanda Harrell Jennifer Schraeder Michelle McIntyre Jeff Saunders Shelly Venema Terrill Caplan John Rickert Sara Menssen Aaron Langerman Levi Smith Suzanne White Molly Harris Victoria Freeman Angi Burns Deborah Brown Hannah Zarzour Shastyn Wright Mark Iannelli Andrea Michelle Speer Melanie Popovich Cody Morris Heather Beach Doug Lasken

Stockdale High School, CA Chaparral Star Academy, TX Bolivar R 1 High School, MO Monta Vista High School, CA Glenbard West High School, IL Stevensville High School, MT DuPont Manual High School, KY Cary Academy, NC Har-Ber High School, AR Newsome High School, FL Milpitas High School, CA Summit High School, NJ Lawrence High School, KS Louisburg High School, KS McNeil High School, TX Robbinsdale Armstrong High School, MN Prosper High School, TX Perry High School, OH Dublin Jerome High School, OH Rock Bridge High School, MO A & M Consolidated High School, TX Cherokee High School, GA Hood River Valley High School, OR Hutchinson High School, KS Orono High School, MN Madison High School, ID Gig Harbor High School, WA Marshall County High School, KY Del Valle High School, TX Discovery Canyon Campus School, CO New Horizons Bilingual School, DR John F. Kennedy High School, IA Half Hollow Hills HS East, NY Bozeman High School, MT Bishop Carroll Catholic High School, KS Dobyns Bennett High School, TN Boston Latin School, MA Gothenburg High School, NE Alief Early College High School, TX Archbishop McCarthy High School, FL Washington High School, SD Stansbury High School, UT Saline High School, MI The Dalton School, NY Waterloo High School, IL Glacier High School, MT Bellarmine College Prep, CA Resurrection Christian School, CO Woodbury High School, MN Durham Academy, NC Lincoln High School, NE McKinney North High School, TX Research Triangle High School, NC Hoover High School, AL Robert E. Lee High School, TX Montville High School, NJ Bentonville High School, AR Gloria Deo Academy, MO Mount Pleasant High School, TX Valparaiso High School, IN William Howard Taft High School, CA

1,496 1,477 1,475 1,468 1,465 1,462 1,436 1,427 1,399 1,389 1,389 1,380 1,358 1,351 1,323 1,313 1,313 1,298 1,286 1,284 1,280 1,280 1,272 1,264 1,256 1,244 1,244 1,242 1,235 1,234 1,233 1,232 1,232 1,229 1,225 1,224 1,222 1,221 1,215 1,214 1,204 1,200 1,200 1,192 1,185 1,172 1,162 1,161 1,159 1,158 1,157 1,147 1,141 1,138 1,137 1,133 1,128 1,126 1,124 1,121 1,119

Donna Love Andrew Hanson Quentin Maxwell Hardt Tyler Dalton Pipkin Mary Kay Waterman Ronnie Swango Joanne Stowitts Marie L. McDonald John Crabill Lindsay Vecchio Eric Luchs Cadi Kadlecek Michael Jacobsen Joyce Pasel Bonnie K. Cohen Ann Petersen James Sheldon Kaelyn East Mary Drayer Smeelakes Dewey Steven Wang Leilani McHugh Nicole Kroepel Tim Waters Jordyn Faith Kuehn Lajuan Foust Annette Mills Deb Fink Kimberly R. Sloane Chris Stinson Chris Adamcyk Chris Hamel Kayla Fleming Ashley Felton Richard Haber Cindy Clapp Sean Conaway Rosemary Cundiff Brown Kristine M. DiColandrea Angella Curran Mark Allen Gideon Amanda Daquelente Chase Reed Juan Moya Cristina Cuevas Courtney Stern Melissa Ann Kent Mitchell Kline Richard Michael Burns James Kingsmill Kevin Lee Briscoe Eleanor Tinio Nishioka Erica Brown Skyleen Willingham Grant Thomas Jessica Patterson Zachary Mapes Pauline Elaine Buis Nicholas Ernst Elysia Adi

(August 1, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

Louisa County High School, VA West Plains High School, MO Des Moines Roosevelt High School, IA Yukon High School, OK The Lovett School, GA Richmond High School, IN Cajon High School, CA Modesto High School, CA Nampa Sr. High School, ID Elkhorn South High School, NE Foothill High School, NV Battle Ground Academy, TN Watertown High School, SD Logansport High School, IN Park Vista Community High School, FL Pinecrest High School, NC Champion High School, OH Gig Harbor High School, WA Jericho High School, NY Evanston Twp High School, IL North Hall High School, GA Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy, CA Belvidere North High School, IL Rolling Meadows High School, IL Carroll High School, TX Delbarton School, NJ Elko High School, NV Lovell High School, WY Chireno High School, TX South High School, MN Glacier High School, MT Omaha Brownell Talbot College Prep, NE Chesterton High School, IN Lebanon High School, MO Chagrin Falls High School, OH Great Falls Russell High School, MT Douglas High School, WY North Oldham High School, KY Achievement First Brooklyn High School, NY Frontenac High School USD #249, KS Hillcrest High School, MO Howland High School, OH Chanute High School, KS Immaculata-LaSalle High School, FL Deerfield Beach High School, FL Advanced Technologies Academy, NV Solon High School, OH Smithville R-II School District, MO Buchholz High School, FL Dayton High School, TX Rock Ridge High School, VA Wm S. Hart High School, CA Oakville Sr. High School, MO Okmulgee High School, OK Strive Prep - Smart Academy, CO ILEAD North Hollywood, CA Crete High School, NE Niceville High School, FL Kamehameha Schools, HI Gabrielino High School, CA

1,115 1,112 1,111 1,111 1,105 1,103 1,101 1,101 1,098 1,096 1,093 1,092 1,089 1,089 1,085 1,082 1,081 1,079 1,076 1,074 1,073 1,073 1,072 1,067 1,066 1,064 1,063 1,060 1,058 1,058 1,057 1,056 1,056 1,054 1,050 1,046 1,046 1,036 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,028 1,026 1,026 1,025 1,023 1,022 1,015 1,013 1,012 1,012 1,009 1,003 1,002 1,002 1,001 1,000


Triple Ruby Coach Recognition Celebrating speech and debate coaches who have earned their first 750 points.

Kathleen Uhnavy Jason Grubb Alexander Corzo Angela Hill Charles Walts Bob Hinshaw Dawn Tucker Brandon Johnson Elise Dirkes-Jacks Lyle Wiley Adam Leonard Brian J. Winckler Shree Awsare Charles Bowler Kit Rodgers Kris Freitas Greg Titman Tim Anderson Bryan Winn Arielle Latiolais Jon Dunnick Davis Schrock Brandon Stewart Gia Karpouzis Sandra Welty Dalton Hellman Rachel Christoph Scott Pyle Caleb Smith Liz Koop Emily Rountree Katy E. Russell Taylor Parks Jeffrey Clapper Laurel Brashears Sasha K. Davidson Michael C. Ferguson Allen Pino David Umstot Christopher Brannen AnnElise Hatjakes Steven Zelubowski Jannetta Carney Mariel Cruz Chad Jensen Andrew Tichy Cameron Vaziri Christopher Bryant Ryan Baber Alysha Nordwall Jenny M. Neel Miranda Berry Dennis Savill Jennifer Purcell Beau Woodward Taylor Bennington Jessica DeWit Mathew Cameron Walker Stephanie Cozzens Michelle Lemyra Boswell Matthew Grimes Ashley Freeman


Eagle Valley High School, CO Green River High School, WY South Plantation High School, FL Catalina Foothills High School, AZ Hockaday School, TX Hamilton Southeastern High School, IN Jonesboro High School, AR South Albany High School, OR Ravenwood High School, TN Torrington High School, WY Hunterdon Central Regional High School, NJ Grain Valley High, MO North Broward Preparatory School, FL Coronado High School, NV Sioux Falls Lincoln High School, SD Buhach Colony High School, CA Danville Area High School, PA Anoka High School, MN Victoria East High School, TX Teurlings Catholic High School, LA Aberdeen Central High School, SD Muscatine High School, IA Mission San Jose High School, CA Bonita High School, CA Columbia-Hickman High School, MO Westview High School, OR Cheyenne South High School, WY Pekin Comm High School, IL The Cambridge School, CA Cheyenne Mountain High School, CO Pittsburg High School, KS Louisville Senior High School, OH Kickapoo High School, MO Sioux Falls Christian High School, SD Veterans Memorial High School, TX Thunder Basin High School, WY Harding Charter Prep High School, OK Cheyenne East High School, WY Golda Meir High School, WI Barbers Hill High School, TX The Davidson Academy Of Nevada, NV Chaminade High School, NY Russellville High School, AR Notre Dame High School, CA Stansbury High School, UT Moorhead High School, MN Hebron High School, TX Cranbrook Kingswood Upper School, MI The Pembroke Hill School, MO Flathead High School, MT Bethlehem High School, KY Hoehne School, CO Crossings Christian School, OK Theodore Roosevelt High School, TX Lakeridge High School, OR Highland High School, OH Sioux Falls Christian High School, SD Copper Hills High School, UT Rock Springs High School, WY Cumberland Polytechnic High School, NC Brentwood High School, TN Alief Elsik High School, TX


989 984 977 976 976 966 960 958 953 950 949 940 939 933 928 920 915 914 912 912 912 910 907 906 904 901 900 896 894 892 889 882 882 881 878 876 873 872 870 868 868 868 868 868 864 863 857 856 853 853 850 849 848 848 838 838 836 833 829 827 823 822

Emily Feder Steve Stanley Samantha Johnson Alex Lamon Mallory Gebers Thomas Tobin Victoria Gram Danielle Lopez Lynn M. J. Holsinger Stephan Voudris Katherine Dannemiller Laura Steele Ryan Newman Mark Little Sergio Sauceda Emily Mandile Irene Fabig Burton Davis Sherri Perry Donald Speth Lisa Sobb Jessica Jones Catherine Hepworth Jeremy Pena Salena Pereida Aubree Hansen Yvonne Robbins Kylie Wurgler Dustin H. Drake Philip Balmores Nathaniel Graziano Andrew Hart Diane Worman Caryn Burstein Gene Mandell David Basler Abigail Connolly Paul J. Owen Robert Munoz Chasity Louise Hance Andrew Wolf Eric W. Forslund Stephany M. Anderson Lyndsy S. Denk Meagan Deutch James Thompson Charlie Stokes Angela M. Rosen Kelsey Bosten Paul Jaycox Christina Luna Eddie Young Andrew Torrez Gordon Ladd Danielle Ligtenberg Debra Orendorf Heather Marie Brown Ryan Wiegert Daniel J. Smith Kimberly R. Stanley Richard J. LoSardo

(August 1, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

Seattle Academy Of Arts & Science, WA Oakwood High School, OH Fayetteville High School, AR Livingston High School, NJ Sylvania Southview High School, OH Willard High School, MO Orono High School, ME Delta High School, CO Bozeman High School, MT Kenston High School, OH Wadsworth City School, OH Jenks High School, OK Coral Glades High School, FL Oregon Episcopal School, OR Pharr San Juan Alamo Southwest High School, TX Reservoir High School, MD Paradise Valley High School, AZ Franklin High School, WI St. Agnes Academy, TX Earl Wooster High School, NV Sylvania Southview High School, OH Olmsted Falls High School, OH Franklin High School, WI Albuquerque Academy, NM Gregory Portland High School, TX La Cueva High School, NM Manchester Essex Regional High School, MA Marquette High School, MO Dixie High School, UT Damien Memorial School, HI Kent Denver School, CO Parkview High School, MO Plano East Senior High School, TX Freehold Township High School, NJ Ashland High School, OR West Des Moines Valley High School, IA Glacier High School, MT Westminster School - Augusta, GA Conroe High School, TX Springfield Catholic High School, MO Wooster High School, OH Greenhill School, TX Cody High School, WY Falmouth High School, ME Shawnee Mission North High School, KS Chapin High School, TX Lakeville North High School, MN Columbiana High School, OH Oak Grove High School, MO Lafayette High School, MO Horizon High School - El Paso, TX Kent Denver School, CO Catonsville High School, MD Woodstock Union High School, VT Spearfish High School, SD Berlin Brothersvalley High School, PA Riverside High School, SC Millard West High School, NE West Lafayette High School, IN North Little Rock High School, AR Martin County High School, FL

820 820 818 816 814 813 811 806 805 803 800 799 798 797 797 796 794 794 793 793 792 789 789 787 786 786 783 783 782 781 781 780 780 779 778 778 778 777 775 773 771 771 770 770 770 767 766 760 759 759 758 758 758 756 754 754 753 753 752 752 751

Art of Debate "Art of Debate" is an online course that offers an introduction to policy debate that will prepare students to compete at a tournament. Through this course, students will learn: -The primary roles of affirmative and negative speakers -Strategies for approaching speeches, including the negative block and the first affirmative rebuttal -Technical debate skills such as flowing, signposting, & roadmapping -How to recognize/produce quality research -Basic persuasive rhetorical strategy -And more...

Dates: July 9th - August 3rd, 2018 Program Fee: $300 (3 credit option available) Visit: For questions, please contact: | 540-568-4253


Student Service Citations The following students have received Student Service Citations from the National Speech & Debate Association in recognition of outstanding service to speech and debate education. Students receive a citation for every 100 service points earned through activities such as community speaking or outreach. A single act of service usually garners between two and five service points. The following citations were earned between October 1, 2017 and March 5, 2018.


Student Service Citation, 7th Degree (700+ points) Joseph Delorto Downers Grove North High School, IL Raymond Fang Palo Alto High School, CA William Lloyd Egan Enderlin High School, ND Jack Valentino Chaminade High School, NY

795 748 741 700

Student Service Citation, 5th Degree (500+ points) Carson Kroenke Kickapoo High School, MO Twyla Luella Gross Enderlin High School, ND Evan Baldonado Palo Alto High School, CA Angel Alex Roy Fonseca Aldine Sr. High School, TX Jeylin Yavas Chanhassen High School, MN Kadie Thomas Kickapoo High School, MO

599 564 530 525 525 519

Student Service Citation, 4th Degree (400+ points) Chris Smith Harlingen High School South, TX Hannah Grace Kelly Conway High School, AR Joseph David Stark Glendale High School, MO Kristijan Barnjak Chaminade High School, NY Logan Pratt John F. Kennedy High School, IA Ari J. Moore ILEAD North Hollywood, CA Adrianna Belskis Dirigo High School, ME Isabella Connell Harlingen High School South, TX Hallie Malsbury North Platte High School, NE Enrique Alvarez Trimble Tech, TX Ashley Hitchings Palo Alto High School, CA Benjamin Elliott Noblesville High School, IN Andrew Won Dublin High School, CA Madison Leigh Geer Hebron High School, TX Henry Lininger South Eugene High School, OR Emily Reynolds Canon City High School, CO Autumn Andrews Bixby High School, OK Micky Horstman Hinsdale Central High School, IL Justin Cotter West Plains High School, MO Zander Hodge John F. Kennedy High School, IA Brayden Remerowski John F. Kennedy High School, IA

498 475 468 460 454 453 442 438 438 430 424 420 416 415 415 415 410 405 400 400 400


Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Tanay Krishna Palo Alto High School, CA Britton Musall THEO Christian, TX Valentina Wolf Westlake High School, OH Grace Romesberg Berlin Brothersvalley High School, PA Kai Vetteth Palo Alto High School, CA Mallary Ackerman Willard High School, MO Gabrielle Wahe John F. Kennedy High School, IA Matthew Aaron Jordan Bentonville High School, AR Samuel Zhang Palo Alto High School, CA Kallie Hudson Rogers High School, TX Desarae Gorney Carrollton High School, OH Elena Cecil Larue County High School, KY Lexi Nolletti Wooster High School, OH Noah Caruso Pillager Public Schools, MN Alex Crow Rogers High School, TX Caitlyn Juliette Woitena J. Frank Dobie High School, TX Kaden Griesfeller North Platte High School, NE Triniti Krauss Palisade High School, CO Ainsley Thimes North Platte High School, NE Lilah Molina Buffalo High School, TX Meghan Johnson Hinsdale Central High School, IL Harriet Thompson Southeast High School, FL Zachary Ochsner North Platte High School, NE Anusha Vajrala Cherry Creek High School, CO Cooper Lee Boss Henry Clay High School, KY Colton Mason Corvallis High School, MT Terra Wells Bixby High School, OK Caity Berry Palo Alto High School, CA Emily Goggin Hinsdale Central High School, IL Moizuddin Rizwan College Preparatory School Of America, IL Elise Williams John F. Kennedy High School, IA Lauren Bernard Apple Valley High School, MN Alex Martin Hinsdale Central High School, IL Dallin Myers Conway High School, AR Annemarie Cuccia Norman High School, OK

382 380 380 370 368 367 365 360 360 355 353 352 352 351 350 345 340 340 340 337 335 335 333 333 330 330 330 328 325 324 324 320 320 320 319

Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Sarah Syed College Preparatory School Of America, IL Saurim Khan College Preparatory School Of America, IL Kelly Li Hattiesburg High School, MS Wyatt Lawson Skala South Anchorage High School, AK Iris Yuan Palo Alto High School, CA James Russo Chaminade High School, NY Ujwal Srivastava Palo Alto High School, CA Lloyd Kwan Gabrielino High School, CA Daniel Hepworth Chaminade High School, NY Jordan Clements Jack C. Hays High School, TX Natalie Knapp John F. Kennedy High School, IA Nirvana Mendoza North Platte High School, NE Caleb Stadler North Platte High School, NE Isabel Cholbi Cajon High School, CA Colby Camp Comeaux High School, LA Spencer Ehrenberg ILEAD North Hollywood, CA Brandon K. Schloss Wellington High School, FL Noah Smith Conway High School, AR

317 316 316 314 314 310 310 307 306 305 305 305 305 304 302 300 300 300

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Noah Loehr John F. Kennedy High School, IA Dominic Thibault Palo Alto High School, CA Tim Moser Hinsdale Central High School, IL Christina Blake Thomas Jefferson High School Science & Tech, VA Anusha Chakraborty Kickapoo High School, MO Rashon Lorenzo Leday Comeaux High School, LA Josh Singh Palo Alto High School, CA Isaac Spanjer Fargo North High School, ND David Foster Palo Alto High School, CA Trissa Gross Enderlin High School, ND John Kenny Notre Dame Preparatory, MI Katherine Schaber Hinsdale Central High School, IL Neil Yeung Palo Alto High School, CA Jessica Walker Orono High School, ME Zachary Mundt Apple Valley High School, MN Keegan Wolfe Madison High School, ID Sana Rahman Pine View School, FL Dalton Lantrip Ardmore High School, OK Dany Matar Thomas Jefferson High School Science & Tech, VA Jimi Savage Banquete High School, TX Camryn Taylor Scarborough Marshall High School, MO Emily Robinson John F. Kennedy High School, IA Daniela Saenz Conway High School, AR Jackson Garske Columbine High School, CO Ramiro Valenzuela Gonzalez Harlingen High School South, TX Maria Lloyd Kickapoo High School, MO Seth Ramm Whitmer High School, OH Bennett Klingman Chanhassen High School, MN

290 290 285 280 278 278 278 278 275 275 275 270 270 267 265 265 262 260 260 260 260 259 259 258 258 257 256 255

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Alexis Lara Rogers High School, TX Dru Ashley Norton Ardmore High School, OK Sheri Donaldson Buffalo High School, TX Shahad Mohieldin George Washington High School, CO Jacqueline Hatch Michael Krop High School, FL Leyton Ho Palo Alto High School, CA Maggie Oberlander Valley City High School, ND Lauren Wadsworth Widefield High School, CO Kailey S. Bechtold Harrisburg High School, SD Zoey Paulson Chanhassen High School, MN Niky Roblero Southeast High School, FL Dante R. Boggiano Banquete High School, TX Klaire Vandegrift Hoover High School, OH Christian Alberto Villarreal Harlingen High School South, TX David Mattson Big Sky High School, MT Chris Hauser John F. Kennedy High School, IA Kira Manuel John F. Kennedy High School, IA Pearlin Liu Notre Dame High School, CA Sara Ashun McKinney North High School, TX Nadia Garcia Buffalo High School, TX Mackenzie Pattridge John F. Kennedy High School, IA Madison Xiong Bartlett High School, AK Sapna Ramappa Notre Dame High School, CA Ayesha Sirimane Gabrielino High School, CA Lacey Holland Willard High School, MO Adina McCall Lebanon High School, MO Hashir Azam College Preparatory School Of America, IL Hope Ingram Rogers High School, TX Kyle Kishimoto Fairmont Preparatory Academy, CA Taylor Lack Buffalo High School, TX Christopher Ke’mond Scott J. Frank Dobie High School, TX Greg Stoner North Platte High School, NE Shiree Wilson Chaney High School, OH Emily Wang Palo Alto High School, CA Taylor Morgan Blake Willard High School, MO Jonah Hochstetler Bethany Christian High School, IN Chansey Rhoads Lebanon High School, MO Hannah Wang Pine View School, FL Bryce Arthur McDaniel Bixby High School, OK McKenzie Slack Belleville West High School, IL Jacob Brewer Maumee High School, OH Tana Cleveland Buffalo High School, TX Annika L. Paulsen Harrisburg High School, SD Paige Thorgerson Dickinson High School, ND Jasmarie Hernandez-Canuelas Sandra Day O’Connor High School, TX Jonah Johnson Garland High School, TX Hope Allison Victoria East High School, TX Samantha Copeland Mulvane High School, KS

255 255 254 254 253 251 251 251 250 250 250 249 248 248 247 245 245 243 242 241 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 235 235 235 235 235 235 234 233 233 232 232 230 230 229 228 228 228 227 226 225 225


Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Jared DeGarmo Carrollton High School, OH Joyline Goeb John F. Kennedy High School, IA Marcus Andrew Sampson Clear Falls High School, TX Tylor Whitcher Kickapoo High School, MO Cade Winfrey Lebanon High School, MO Makayla Woods Bixby High School, OK Sasha Alexander Yucaipa High School, CA Grant Burbach Harlingen High School, TX Nisha McNealis Palo Alto High School, CA Brodee Turnbaugh Willard High School, MO Alison Cohen Chandler Preparatory Academy, AZ Seth Graham Marshfield High School, MO Raelyn Schapeler Willard High School, MO Jacob Ball Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic High School, PA Matthew Esser Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic High School, PA Ethen Palumbo Willard High School, MO Cyan Graham Maumee High School, OH Lorna Peck Kickapoo High School, MO Caroline Adam Rogers High School, TX Adam Fisher North Platte High School, NE Grant Hermetz Bob Jones Academy, SC Cameron Hudspeth Noblesville High School, IN Tess Klygis Hinsdale Central High School, IL Miles Leonard Bixby High School, OK Madeline Li Palo Alto High School, CA Parker Rader Marshfield High School, MO Kacy Ryan Sac Bixby High School, OK Rachel Tripp Eden Prairie High School, MN Anna Lippert Eden Prairie High School, MN Tyler Simpson Willard High School, MO Fernanda Alarcon George Washington High School, CO Andrea Garcia Buffalo High School, TX Suchi Jain Unionville High School, PA Elizabeth Eby Bethany Christian High School, IN Joniya Flowers Conway High School, AR Ally Hasenauer North Platte High School, NE Serena Jones American Falls High School, ID Wolf Morgan-Steiner Woodrow Wilson High School, OR Kayleigh Rhodes Buffalo High School, TX Sydney Campbell West Allegheny High School, PA

225 225 225 225 225 225 224 224 224 224 223 223 223 222 222 222 221 221 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 219 219 218 218 216 215 215 215 215 215 215 214

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Kelby Drogemuller Lakeville South High School, MN Alexandra Patterson Grayson Larry A. Ryle High School, KY McKenna Shaw Pittsburg High School, KS Ali Ahmed Pine View School, FL Samanta Mendoza-Lagunas George Washington High School, CO Jada Bourne Keller High School, TX Celia Meek Carrollton High School, OH Jordan Reynolds Blackfoot High School, ID Mary Cox Marshall County High School, KY Elissa Jordan Maudlin Noblesville High School, IN Ash Burns McKinney North High School, TX Alexander H. Hankins Clear Falls High School, TX Arooj Khan Pine View School, FL Vikrant Ragula Skyline High School, UT Riley Albertson Ottumwa High School, IA Thomas Allen Pine View School, FL Ethan Frey Chesnutt Willard High School, MO Daniel Jin Lee Montville High School, NJ Abigail Nadejda Spencer Coronado High School, NV Megan McDonough Conroe High School, TX Anh-Minh Phuc Nguyen Alief Early College High School, TX Ella Jean Skaggs North Kansas City High School, MO Jane Ahn Matawan Regional High School, NJ Dean Jackman South Medford High School, OR Sean Lee McCarthy Bixby High School, OK Zachariah Wirtschafter Sippy Henry Clay High School, KY Alyssa Wedin Chanhassen High School, MN Adora Snead Willard High School, MO Safwan Chowdhury Garland High School, TX Katrin Hunter Savannah R3 High School, MO Katie Card Gresham-Barlow High School, OR Daenerys Pineda Notre Dame High School, CA Christopher Bianchi Notre Dame High School, PA Matt Davis Father Ryan High School, TN Emily Lei Du Interlake High School, WA Nolan Jobe Bixby High School, OK Jon Raderstorf Logansport High School, IN Josalyn Taylor Buffalo High School, TX Jack Weeks Wheaton Warrenville South High School, IL

214 213 213 212 212 211 211 211 210 210 209 209 208 208 207 207 207 207 207 206 206 206 205 205 205 205 205 204 203 203 202 202 200 200 200 200 200 200 200





The Academic All American award recognizes students who have earned the degree of Superior Distinction (750 points); completed at least 5 semesters of high school; demonstrated outstanding character and leadership; and earned a GPA of 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent). NOTE: If the GPA is between 3.5 and 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent), students also must have received an ACT score of 27 or higher, or a New SAT score of 1300 or higher.

ALABAMA Brooklin Ballard Rachel Ding Caitlyn Jones Sidhvi Reddy Jack Smitht E’shandae I. Thomas

Ramsay High School Vestavia Hills High School Ramsay High School Vestavia Hills High School Mountain Brook High School Ramsay High School

ARIZONA Sophia Casten Sophia Corridan Samantha Dady Bella De Roos Alain Alexandro Gamas Olivia Najafi Ben Steiner Reed Steiner Amy Zhou

Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School Salpointe Catholic High School Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School Scottsdale Preparatory Academy

ARKANSAS Sojas Wagle

Har-Ber High School

CALIFORNIA Anoop Balakrishnan Alexander Bonilla Ryan G. Booth Allie Cho Richelle Chow Jannelle Dang Sophia Danielpour Arnav Gupta Claudia Hester Saianurag Karavadi Emma Kwan Jonathan Liu Maya Mundada Joseph Naseib Katherine Neuner Kevin Seung Lee Park Irene Partsuf Joseph Picchi Daenerys Pineda Grace Quinn

Cupertino High School Jesuit High School Bentley School College Prep Gabrielino High School Gabrielino High School Marlborough School College Prep Bishop O’Dowd High School The Quarry Lane School Los Altos High School Polytechnic School College Prep Los Osos High School Bonita Vista High School Crescenta Valley High School Bentley School St. Joseph Notre Dame High School Notre Dame High School Delta Charter High School

(October 24, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

CALIFORNIA (continued) Sapna Ramappa Joshua Raymundo Julia Read Akshay Jakkidi Reddy Mia Speier Leon Tran Simon Vaillancourt Meng Vong Kevin Wang Theodora Worledge David Wornow Arin Zwonitzer

Notre Dame High School Gabrielino High School Carlsbad High School Granite Bay High School Immaculate Heart High School Gabrielino High School Bonita Vista High School Gabrielino High School Leland High School Leland High School College Prep Carlsbad High School

COLORADO Baden R. Dense Rachel Lynn Desmond Claudia DiMartini Colter Giem Alexander Jordan Joseph Jameson Lord Sawyer Smith Sierra Snyder

Chatfield Senior High School Longmont High School Holy Family High School Mountain Vista High School Resurrection Christian School Longmont High School Discovery Canyon Campus School Resurrection Christian School

FLORIDA Andrew Briceno Gabrielle Cabeza Giancarlo Cabeza Sara Caroline Casey Nicholas P. Cassese Julie M. Cesta Jenee Cidel Mary Ehlbeck Alexander Gordon Jacqueline Hatch Maya Hedrick Lance Kotler Tyler Kotler Maya Levkovitz Harris Bradley Lichtenstein Nicholas Mancini Nicole Marrero Brandon K. Schloss Jason Silveira Ethan Silvey Harriet Thompson Zachary Wurtenberger

Cypress Bay High School Western High School Western High School Wellington High School Boca Raton Community High School Wellington High School Cypress Bay High School Newsome High School Dreyfoos School Of The Arts Michael Krop High School Cypress Bay High School Cypress Bay High School Cypress Bay High School Dreyfoos School Of The Arts Pine View School North Broward Preparatory School Western High School Wellington High School McArthur High School Cypress Bay High School Southeast High School Cypress Bay High School

IDAHO Brian Del Toro Eva Gutierrez David Oleen Luke Ailie Maclean Rosie McKamey Kason Reddish

Borah High School Kimberly High School Mountain View High School Kimberly High School Madison High School Columbia High School




IDAHO (continued) Elbie Seibert Joseph De Oliveira Tyler Keegan Wolfe

Columbia High School Skyline High School Madison High School

ILLINOIS Jamiel Abed Alysa Aralis Isabelle Bavis Oliver Brady Emily Buchanan Amado Candelario Kelvin Castro Sofia Chaudruc Nathan Glancy Dylan Goldberg Nina Kaushikkar Katharine Kennedy Katie Kenner Harshitha Padiyar Nasim Salehitezangi Michael Scott Rida Sheikh Kelly Skoulikaris Elizabeth Sperti Jayasurya Sridharan Sarah Syed Lucia Torres Anthony Valiaveedu Genevieve Wade

College Preparatory School Of America Glenbrook South High School Evanston Twp High School Evanston Twp High School Glenwood High School Solorio Academy High School Solorio Academy High School Evanston Twp High School Niles West High School Glenbrook South High School Evanston Twp High School Waterloo High School Glenbrook South High School Maine East High School Niles West High School Glenbrook South High School Niles West High School Glenbrook South High School Evanston Twp High School Glenwood High School College Preparatory School Of America Solorio Academy High School Glenbrook South High School Evanston Twp High School

INDIANA Jason Collins Rishubh Jain Akshat Piprottar Anna Pohl

Canterbury High School Canterbury High School Canterbury High School Cathedral High School

IOWA Riley Albertson Mackenzie Pattridge Emily Robinson Olivia Shrum Shelby Tigges Brittany Todd

Ottumwa High School John F. Kennedy High School John F. Kennedy High School John F. Kennedy High School John F. Kennedy High School Sioux City East High School

KANSAS Hannah Budreau Claire Elizabeth Chaffin Maverick Edwards Sameena Hameed Rachel Holzer Sumaya Hussaini Danish Khan Stephen Lowe Ahmed Mahomed

Olathe Northwest High School Olathe Northwest High School Blue Valley Southwest High School Olathe East High School Blue Valley Southwest High School Blue Valley Southwest High School Blue Valley Southwest High School Blue Valley Southwest High School Wichita Collegiate Upper School


(October 24, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

KANSAS (continued) Max McCarty Sam Rinke Matthew Rosebrook Stephen Alexander Schuler Carson Smith Amanda Trout Jackson Welsh Corrine F. Workman Nick Wright

Blue Valley Southwest High School Olathe Northwest High School Abilene High School Olathe Northwest High School Wichita Collegiate Upper School Independence High School Abilene High School Parsons High School Abilene High School

KENTUCKY Parker Anderson Elena Cecil Mark Ge Zachary Martin Nate Risner Chapel Tinius Tommy Zhang

Larue County High School Larue County High School North Oldham High School Bowling Green High School Larue County High School Bowling Green High School North Oldham High School

LOUISIANA Victoria Andrus Brannigan Harman

Acadiana High School Cecilia High School

MAINE Caitlyn Bull

Falmouth High School

MARYLAND Claire Silberman

Atholton High School

MASSACHUSETTS John Delaney Jackson Segal Kieran Tuomey

Catholic Memorial School Needham High School Catholic Memorial School

MICHIGAN Derreck Zhen

Cranbrook Kingswood Upper School

MINNESOTA Mason Braasch Lauren Davis Thomas Gill Christina Kelly Zachary Peick Andrea Schiefelbein Noah Schraut Jason Senthil Jack Sewpersaud Tage Singh Tarra Snyder Samuel Sweere

Lakeville North High School Lakeville North High School The Blake School South St. Paul High School Lakeville North High School Lakeville North High School Stillwater Area High School Rosemount Sr. High School Rosemount Sr. High School Lakeville North High School Rosemount Sr. High School Lakeville North High School

MISSISSIPPI Nick Boone Abby Bustin

Petal High School Oak Grove High School

ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS MISSISSIPPI (continued) Alton Chambers Alexis Renee Cobbs Michael Joseph French Luke Kelly Peter Liang Maeve Carol Rigney Jessica Styres Gian-Luigi Zaninelli

Murrah High School Desoto Central High School Hattiesburg High School Oxford High School Oak Grove High School Madison Central High School Madison Central High School Oak Grove High School

MISSOURI Mallary Ackerman Tyler Durwood Brandon Rhay Ford Ethan Gambriel Alexander Gilbert Grace Hendrickson Ky’Lee Hoyt Allison Jones Makaylah L. Jones Pallavi Jonnalagadda Jane Markley Adina McCall Avery O’Bar Mila Schmidt Maxine Taylor Kristin Tingle Delanie Vinzant Cade Winfrey Katrina Zhao

Willard High School The Barstow School Lebanon High School Willard High School Willard High School Willard High School Lebanon High School The Pembroke Hill School Maryville R-II High School The Pembroke Hill School The Pembroke Hill School Lebanon High School The Pembroke Hill School North Kansas City High School Oakville Sr. High School The Barstow School Maryville R-II High School Lebanon High School The Pembroke Hill School

MONTANA Favour Bright Owen Burroughs Sierra Dilworth Katie Ellig Jared Gibbs Tanis Hadwin Dale Hansen Pushya Krishna Noah Love Wilson McMakin Reed Miller Garret Nielson Annabelle Pukas Sienna Riley Ava Snow Hanni Wiegand

Bozeman High School Bozeman High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Skyview High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Bozeman High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Flathead High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Bozeman High School

NEBRASKA Sara Avila Chloe Higgins Noah Keck Vaishnavi Menon Madelyn Moen

Pius X High School Nebraska City High School Crete High School Millard North High School Norfolk High School

(October 24, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

NEBRASKA (continued) Abby Nelson William Nervig Philip Turner George Varghese

Pius X High School Millard North High School Pius X High School Millard North High School

NEVADA Jenna Alhaery Esra Aydogdu Kobe Kitson Aksha Narasimhan Madeline Lee Reese Devin Wood Alexandro Zavala

Coral Academy Of Science Las Vegas Coral Academy Of Science Las Vegas Damonte Ranch High School Coral Academy Of Science Las Vegas McQueen High School Elko High School Coral Academy Of Science Las Vegas

NEW JERSEY Kathryn Altman Evan Tong

Randolph High School Livingston High School

NEW MEXICO Gina Sanchez NORTH CAROLINA Olivia Chilkoti Nathan Dalva-Baird Yaakov Huba Connor Jenkins Emily Kohn Charles Nenichka Thomas Owens Connor Ruff Davi Sapiro-Gheiler

East Mountain High School Durham Academy Durham Academy Durham Academy Pinecrest High School Durham Academy Charlotte Catholic High School Durham Academy Charlotte Catholic High School Durham Academy

NORTH DAKOTA Preeti Chemiti Nicole Niteka Esofi Nunyi Dhruvika Y. Patel Zaynab Said Nicholas David Totenhagen

West Fargo Sheyenne High School West Fargo Sheyenne High School West Fargo Sheyenne High School West Fargo Sheyenne High School West Fargo Sheyenne High School North Sargent Public School

OHIO Ethan Buehrer Nicholas Cosmo David Dotson Gina Egan Alexis Florence Evan Gardell Savannah Georgian John Gorman Kylie Nicole Gwynn Elizabeth LaPlante Jonathan Michel Audrey Milligan James Nielson Lexi Nolletti

Mount Vernon High School Wooster High School Vermilion High School Hathaway Brown School Wooster High School Jackson High School Kenston High School Wooster High School Vermilion High School Laurel School Wooster High School Copley High School Wooster High School Wooster High School




OHIO (continued) Erin O’Donnell Luke Qin Rahul Ramesh Rachel Rothschild John Schmidt Amelia Seger Tia Speece Morgan Spehar Conrad Stein Shawn Walls Brendan Wang Colton Wang Lark Yan Nina Zlataric

Wooster High School Solon High School Mason High School Solon High School Wooster High School Hathaway Brown School Kenston High School Kenston High School Mount Vernon High School Westlake High School Solon High School Solon High School Sylvania Southview High School Laurel School

OKLAHOMA Lauren Berry Natalie Berryman Jessica Cajina Halle Carr Andrew Gafford Eve Gerbrandt Alexa Glendinning Dalton Lantrip Jamie Marrara Savannah McCormick

Westmoore High School Okmulgee High School Ardmore High School Westmoore High School Norman North High School Union High School Edmond North High School Ardmore High School Oologah High School Okarche High School

OREGON Tessa Cannon Dean Jackman Anisha Javadekar Mallika Moghe Lucy Roberts Hope Smothers Alexander Vasquez

Lincoln High School South Medford High School Westview High School Westview High School Grants Pass High School McMinnville High School Grants Pass High School

PENNSYLVANIA Alexander M. Becker Andrew Binder Mason Blackburn Adelle Frances Fernando Joy Fu Elizabeth Guo Akshath Jain Ethan Knox Frank Li Siddarth Madala Amit Pampati James Qu Richard Shin Riley Smith Melissa P. Stough Shudipto Nafiz Wahed

Southern Lehigh High School Unionville High School North Allegheny Sr. High School North Allegheny Sr. High School North Allegheny Sr. High School North Allegheny Sr. High School North Allegheny Sr. High School William Tennent High School North Allegheny Sr. High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Unionville High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Unionville High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Southern Lehigh High School North Allegheny Sr. High School


(October 24, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

SOUTH DAKOTA Kailey S. Bechtold Maxwell J. Bultena Autumn Mortenson Elisabeth Ocegueda Annika L. Paulsen

Harrisburg High School Lennox High School Sioux Falls Christian High School Harrisburg High School Harrisburg High School

TENNESSEE Amanda Langford Jared Rick Schmidt

White House High School Summit High School

TEXAS Miriam Aguirre Evan Bewersdorf Sanika Bhave Jada Bourne Matthew Chen Elizabeth Chong Caroline Clemmons Audrey Correges Shreyoshi Das Drew DeHaven Ronak Desai Asher Fanous Colby Garcia Nadia Garcia Anisha N. Gowda Pierce Hollier Bruce Elion Jordan Rhys A. Kennedy Vanessa Kjeldsen Charles Li Peyton Maddison Linder Evan Margiotta Nicholas Martinez Mackenzie Matheson Nathan McCoslin Robert McWhorter Duncan Miertschin James Mills Kyle P. Montgomery Leonardo Moraveg Jayme Lynne Mowery Elizaveta Naydanova Andrew Nguyen Andrew Dat Nguyen Hannah Maree Nunley Blake Ochoa Claire Perkins Ankita Rao Alex Rea Madison Romo Anne Rubsamen Suket R. Shah Tiffany Sims

Del Valle High School Lindale High School Grapevine High School Keller High School Strake Jesuit College Preparatory Friendswood High School Lake Travis High School Mount Pleasant High School Flower Mound High School Grapevine High School Lindale High School All Saints Episcopal School Leon High School Buffalo High School Flower Mound High School Strake Jesuit College Preparatory Del Valle High School El Campo High School Chaparral Star Academy Strake Jesuit College Preparatory Clear Creek High School Lake Travis High School Lake Travis High School Lake Travis High School Leon High School Lindale High School Amarillo High School Friendswood High School Flower Mound High School Eastwood High School Blanco High School All Saints Episcopal School Strake Jesuit College Preparatory Hebron High School El Campo High School Lake Travis High School Byron Nelson High School Clear Lake High School McKinney North High School Duchesne Academy Of The Sacred Heart Saint Mary’s Hall High School Flower Mound High School Grapevine High School

ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS TEXAS (continued) Chris Smith Ryan Solis Alisha Sood Kaden Spellman Sarah Swackhamer Elizabeth Tagg Christopher W. Thomas Madison Thomas Daniel Wang Kyle C. Whipple Harris Wilson Laura Rhealyn Womack Anthony Wyatt

Harlingen High School South Eastwood High School Clear Creek High School Amarillo High School Duchesne Academy Of The Sacred Heart Lindale High School Flower Mound High School Chaparral Star Academy Strake Jesuit College Preparatory Flower Mound High School St. Mark’s School Of Texas Dimmitt High School Lindale High School

UTAH Andrew Austin John Blomquist Seth Christensen David Christensen Dalyn Dalton Lara Grow Mason Lindstrom Cassandra Lyon Logan Marshall Alex Nielson Mckenzie Stoker Meagan Welton

Stansbury High School Stansbury High School Salem Hills High School Grantsville High School Beaver High School Grantsville High School Salem Hills High School Sky View High School Beaver High School Layton High School Sky View High School Salem Hills High School

VIRGINIA Mithra Dhinakaran Minkyung Kwon

Thomas Jefferson HS Science & Tech The Potomac School

WASHINGTON Alex Finan Victor Gill Blaine Mitchell Ford Powers Taylor Unoki Skyler Yesiltepe Richard Zhang

The Bear Creek School The Bear Creek School The Bear Creek School Chiawana High School The Bear Creek School Thomas Jefferson High School The Bear Creek School

WEST VIRGINIA Brendin Bailey Flinn

Parkersburg South High School

WISCONSIN Melia Allan Tessa Doty Tiffany Rose Polzin Anurag Sandireddy

Madison West High School Madison West High School Denmark High School James Madison Memorial High School

WYOMING Sara Jones Stephanie Jones Austin Stephen

Greybull High School Greybull High School Cheyenne Central High School

(October 24, 2017 through March 5, 2018)

Does your student have what it takes? Coaches, visit our website to access the online nomination form!

Coaches and students, we want to hear from you. Help us improve our magazine!


Welcome New Schools (January 31, 2018 through March 5, 2018) Cripple Creek-Victor Jr.-Sr. High School Berwick Academy Bertha-Hewitt High School Classical Christian Academy White Sulphur Springs High School Sayville High School Crescent High School The Haverford School Talkington School For Young Women Leaders Union Hill High School St. Augustine Preparatory Academy



2018 COOLIDGE CUP The Coolidge Foundation is setting out to find the top debaters in America! The Coolidge Cup National Debate Tournament begins in the winter of 2018 with several qualifying competitions. Interested debaters can qualify through the Coolidge Foundation’s online tournament (see below link). Top placers earn a free trip to compete in the Coolidge Cup Championship Tournament taking place July 2-4, 2018 in historic Plymouth Notch, Vermont. More than $10,000 in scholarships and prizes will be awarded to the winners of the 2018 Coolidge Cup — including the $7,500 first place prize.


“I Knew I wanted to Study in Spain� Your wallet need not limit your academic potential Durwan Green, a WKU Forensics Scholarship student, is about to graduate with a major in International Business and a minor in Spanish. To better his command of the Spanish language he knew he wanted to study abroad, but would struggle to pay for it. Rather than give up, he searched the website, found a contact, and made an appointment with a Study Abroad advisor. She handed him a packet of national scholarship applications, and he applied for all of them. He won five (the Gilman International Scholarship and the WKU Diversity Abroad Grant in particular) and spent two months in Granada working on his Spanish.

Hilltoppers know that the view from the top is worth the climb

Hilltoppers know that the view from the top is worth the climb Newsstand Price: $9.99 per issue Member Subscription: $24.99 for 5 issues Non-Member Subscription: $34.99 for 5 issues


EF Hutton is a proud sponsor of the National Speech & Debate Association. Together with the NSDA, we promote communication arts and raise the skill level in the field of debate and speech.

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Profile for Speech & Debate

2018 April/May Rostrum  

Volume 92 Issue 4

2018 April/May Rostrum  

Volume 92 Issue 4

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