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VOLUME 92 ISSUE 2 N O V. / D E C . 2 0 1 7

Kyle ’08


Dani ’09

Cory ’10

Taylor ’11

Where Are They Now? Quinlan ’12

Walter ’14

Jarrius ’15

Marshall ’16

Our National Student of the Year Award Turns Ten!


Bobby ’13

Ricardo ’17

Making Connections & Staying Connected with Team Alumni



Junior Hilltopper 12.09.17

Hilltopper Classic Find us on Speechwire.com


Claire Champagne class of 2020

at the 2016 Hilltopper Classic

Auditions to JOIN THE WKU FORENSIC TEAM held Friday morning, 8 December. Auditions are also available year round. Contact Ganer Newman at ganer.newman@wku.edu for a reservation.

www.wkuforensics.com | Twitter: @wkuforensics | Phone: 270.745.6340

The University of Texas National Institute in Forensics is one of the largest and most successful summer speech and debate workshops in the country. For more than 20 years, UTNIF thought leaders have engaged students from across the nation to lead rather than follow argumentative and performative trends. Our participants enjoy tremendous competitive success, earning championships and final round appearances in nearly every event.

Join us for another summer of UTNIF excellence. www.utdebatecamp.com www.utspeech.net

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In this Issue : VOLUME 92 : ISSUE 2 : NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

From the Cover




From the Editor


2017-2018 Topics

Where Are They Now? The NSDA’s National Student of the Year Award Turns Ten!

Governance and Leadership 9

Board of Directors Fall Minutes


Election Year for Board of Directors

Community 18

Meet the Interns


Big Questions Update


Cultivating Community Connections through Communication by Ashley Murphy


In Focus: NDCA – Alumni Outreach by David Weston


Finding a Rewarding Career Path through Speech and Debate by Matthew Stefanko and Rachel Boroditsky


On the Air: The Connection Between Educational Broadcasting and the Debate World by Paul L. Gaba


Team USA Prepares for Another Season of World Schools Debate by Ella Michaels

Recognition 40

District Details: Knockout Nominations


Alumni Angles: Natalie Schira by Allie Kelly


Coach Profile: Crawford Leavoy by Emily Weaver


Team Profile: Washington High School by Andrew Hong


Student Service Citations


Academic All Americans


Welcome New Schools

Member Resources 20

Curriculum Corner


Resource Roundup


What We’re Reading

Like us on Facebook speechanddebate Share with us on Instagram speechanddebate Follow us on Twitter speechanddebate

OUR MISSION Rostrum shares best practices, resources, and opportunities that connect, support, and inspire a diverse community committed to empowering students through competitive speech and debate.


From the Editor

Board of Directors

When we speak to alumni, the things they remember most fondly about their time in speech and debate are the relationships with their coaches and teammates. As students graduate and move on to college or the workplace, they may lose touch with their high school program. Whether it’s a change in coaching or a shift in interest, disconnect is common in our activity. This month, we focus on staying connected and cover best practices for coaches to maintain these networks, how alumni can take their speech and debate skills with them to the workplace, and much more. Our cover story is not only a ten-year celebration of the National Student of the Year award, but a chance to catch up with past recipients and hear how their speech and debate experience continues to impact their lives. Unsurprisingly, these students are still doing incredible things! Read the feature on page 34, and learn more about how these students are selected on page 38. We think you’ll enjoy our feature on the Say it Like You Mean It Public Speaking Camp and how this program raised community awareness, transformed the team’s budget, and inspired students to see themselves as leaders in their community. Also in this issue, David Weston provides advice for coaches on how to engage alumni by tapping into existing resources or building your own. This is a great read for new or experienced coaches looking to connect with alumni. Our Coach Profile features Crawford Leavoy, who was introduced to speech and debate in eighth grade and never looked back. Don’t miss his story, written by one of our new student interns, about how he catches up with former students when the team travels! Be on the lookout for other intern bylines as you read the articles inside this issue. We’re thrilled to bring you their voices. As always, I hope you’ll find inspiration and helpful tips within these pages. It is a pleasure to connect with you in every issue!

ELECTED MEMBERS Don Crabtree, President Missouri Pam Cady Wycoff, Vice President Minnesota David Huston Texas Jennifer Jerome Nebraska Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr. California Pamela K. McComas Kansas James W. “Jay” Rye, III Alabama Timothy E. Sheaff Iowa



J. Scott Wunn Executive Director National Speech & Debate Association


Dr. Polly Reikowski, Admin Rep Minnesota


401 Railroad Place, West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730 | Phone (920) 748-6206 J. Scott Wunn, Editor and Publisher Steve Schappaugh, Managing Editor Vicki Pape, Assistant Editor Amy Seidelman, Content Editor Deano Pape, Copy Editor Emily Bratton, Graphic Design Assistant Emily Kriegel, Advertising Coordinator

Newsstand Price $9.99 per issue Member Subscription Price $24.99 for one year (5 issues) Non-Member Subscription Price $34.99 for one year (5 issues)

Rostrum (ISSN 1073-5526), Copyright © 2017 by the National Speech & Debate Association (NSDA), is published five times per year (Sept., Nov., Feb., Apr., and Aug.) by the NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730. Business and Editorial Offices: NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA, 50265-4730. Accounting and Circulation Offices: NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730. Call (920) 748-6206 to subscribe. Periodicals postage is paid at Des Moines, IA 50318, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to Rostrum, c/o NSDA, 401 Railroad Pl., West Des Moines, IA 50265-4730. Rostrum provides a forum for the speech and debate community. The opinions expressed by contributors are their own and not necessarily the opinions of the NSDA, its officers, or its members. The National Speech & Debate Association does not guarantee advertised products and services unless sold directly by the NSDA.



Thomas Rollins Virginia Robert Runcie Florida Monica Berkowitz Silverstein New York

To learn more about the Board and for contact information, please visit www.speechanddebate.org/ meet-the-team.



Current topics, voting links, and resources available at:

www.speechanddebate.org/topics Member students and one chapter advisor per school are eligible to vote!

Topic Release Information


Public Forum Topic Release Dates

Public Forum Debate

The PF Wording Committee chooses a number of debate topics at its summer meeting. These areas are then used throughout the school year. During the last week of the month (or seven days prior to the topic release date), chapter advisors and member students may vote for one resolution to be used as the next PF topic. If you would like to submit a PF topic area for consideration, please submit by June 1 for the following school year by visiting www.speechanddebate.org/topics.

Resolved: The United States should require universal background checks for all gun sales and transfers of ownership.

October 1 November 1 December 1 January 1 February 1 March 1 May 1 June 22 June 22 Aug. 1 - Aug. 7 August 8

November PF Topic December PF Topic January PF Topic February PF Topic March PF Topic April PF Topic National Tournament PF Topic List of Potential PF Topic Areas Announced for 2018-2019 2018 September/October PF Ballot Announced Voting for the 2018 September/October PF Topic Occurs 2018 September/October PF Topic Announced

Lincoln-Douglas Topic Release Dates From August 1 through September 11, chapter advisors and member students may vote online for a new slate of LD topics chosen by the LD Wording Committee at its summer meeting. The September/October LD topic (voted on the previous fall) is announced August 8. If you would like to submit an LD resolution for consideration, please submit by June 1 for the following school year by visiting www.speechanddebate.org/topics.

October 1 December 1 February 1 May 1 June 22 Aug. 1 - Sept. 11 August 8

November/December LD Topic January/February LD Topic March/April LD Topic National Tournament LD Topic List of Potential LD Topics Announced for 2018-2019 Voting for the 2018-2019 LD Topics Occurs 2018 September/October LD Topic Announced

2018–2019 Policy Debate Topic Voting The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) handles selection of the annual Policy Debate topic where each state organization, the National Speech & Debate Association, the National Catholic Forensic League, and the National Debate Coaches Association all have voting privileges.

• • • •

Topic synopsis printed in September/October Rostrum Preliminary voting occurs online in September-October Final voting occurs online in November-December Topic for 2018-2019 released by the NFHS in January 2018


Lincoln-Douglas Debate

Resolved: Wealthy nations have an obligation to provide development assistance to other nations. The NSDA also offers a “Civil Disobedience” resolution that may be used during the first two months of a novice season. Coaches are encouraged to check with tournament hosts in their area before exclusively prepping for one topic over another.


Policy Debate

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding and/or regulation of elementary and/or secondary education in the United States.


Big Questions Debate

Resolved: Humans are fundamentally different from other animals.


Dear Fellow Administrator, There is no question that we have very important roles in the education of today’s student. Though that role has evolved and continues to branch into new and exciting areas, I believe principals should always anchor their decisions to the overall support of students. Supporting the vast interests and needs of a school’s student body is a moving target, and principals need to strive to hear student voices when deciding what to offer students for their continued growth. It has been my experience that having a speech and debate program provides students with an opportunity to have a voice, and more importantly, to learn how to grow their voice. About five years ago, our very accomplished debate teacher, Mrs. Liz Wood Weas, approached me about the idea of beginning a middle school speech and debate program at Mountain Brook Junior High. Her hope was to begin the process of cultivating student voices among seventh and eighth graders in order to prepare them for a larger impact once they transitioned to high school. I really did not know the magnitude of saying “yes, let’s do it” in this moment, but instead simply thought I was staying grounded to my belief that schools always should offer programs if there is student interest. Within a year of our agreement to begin a program, Mountain Brook Junior High students were competing in national events and performing exceptionally well. A few years later, our speech and debate program in grades 7-12 is thriving and allowing our students to discover new possibilities each year. It is reaffirming to support students in such a way that allows them opportunities as vast as speech and debate. I hope you are able to either continue offering speech and debate or are considering adding it to your school. If the experience is anywhere near as rewarding as it is for Mountain Brook Junior High, I am positive speech and debate will provide your students with opportunities to impact others. Sincerely,

W. Donald Clayton, Jr. Principal, Mountain Brook Junior High, Alabama 2017 NSDA Middle School Principal of the Year

Find this and other letters of advocacy on our website:

www.speechanddebate.org/resources 6



WKU remains the only team in the history of collegiate forensics to win the AFA NIET team sweepstakes, the NFA IE team sweepstakes, and the NFA Debate team sweepstakes all in the same year, a feat which it has now accomplished nine times. Since 2012 the team has produced 232 national finalists. The team and graduates have also been recognized in prestigious scholarship competitions. Since 2012, WKU Forensics has produced 2 Critical Language Scholarships, 3 Gilman International Scholarships, 1 Boren Award for International Study, 1 Foundation for Global Scholars, 1 Lifetime Experience Grant, 2 Truman Scholarship Finalists, 3 Fulbright Scholars, and 2 Fellowships for Princeton in Asia. Forensics scholarships are competitively awarded.

WKU Forensics; Ganer Newman 1906 College Heights Blvd. #51084 Bowling Green, KY 42101-1084

phone: 270-745-6340 www.wkuforensics.com Follow us on Twitter: @wkuforensics

JOIN US Travel the country, learn from the nation’s most effective coaches, cultivate life-long friendships, and discover your greatest academic and competitive potential. We will help you create a life plan in your time at WKU, but we need you to take a leap of faith and try out for the team first. Email director Ganer Newman to schedule an audition. email: ganer.newman@wku.edu

The American Legion Oratorical Contest

LOOKING FOR COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIPS?  LOOK NO FURTHER. As part of the National Speech & Debate Association’s ongoing partnership with The American Legion, the top three finishers from the Legion’s National Oratorical Contest may earn the right to compete in Original Oratory or United States Extemp at the National Speech & Debate Tournament! The first-place finisher is awarded an $18,000 scholarship, second-place $16,000, and third-place $14,000. The scholarships may be used at any college or university in the United States.

Want to get involved? Follow these simple steps! • Visit www.legion.org/oratorical to learn more.

Andrew Steinberg of Massachusetts placed first at the 2017 Oratorical Contest.

• Click “Request Information” or contact your state’s American Legion Department to learn when the first contest will be. • Also click on “Assigned Topics” to learn the extemporaneous topic areas. • Prepare your original oration on some aspect of the Constitution with emphasis on the duties and obligations of a citizen to our government.

Watch examples of past winning orations online at www.legion.org/oratorical/videos.


Leadership Board of Directors Fall Minutes


he NSDA Board of Directors held its fall meeting Thursday, Sept. 28, through Sunday, Oct. 1, 2017, in West Des Moines, Iowa. Present were President Don Crabtree, Vice President Pam Cady Wycoff, Dave Huston, Jennifer Jerome, Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr., Pam McComas, Dr. Polly Reikowski, and Jay Rye. Tim Sheaff was present on Sunday. Newly appointed Board members Tom Rollins and Bob Runcie were also in attendance Thursday and Friday. (Appointed members are not required to attend portions of the meeting pertaining to competition and rules matters.) President Crabtree called the meeting to order at 9:00 a.m.

Budget Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Lindsey: “Approve the National Speech & Debate Association budget for 2017-2018.” Passed: 10-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye, Rollins, Runcie) Executive Director Scott Wunn and Director of Finance Shannon Duus presented a thorough assessment of the organization’s profit and loss statement for the previous year and projections for the 2017-2018 fiscal year. The Board reviewed the budget and asked questions regarding appropriations of funding. The budget passed with minor adjustments.

Board Best Practices Moved by McComas, seconded by Rollins: “Motion charging the Governance Committee to evaluate Board best practice recommendations from our consultant.” Passed: 10-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye, Rollins, Runcie)

Sept. 28 – Oct. 1, 2017 West Des Moines, Iowa

The Governance Committee will work with national office staff on the development and revision of internal guidelines that assist with the onboarding of newly appointed and elected Board members.

Board Committees The Board eliminated or merged several committees to streamline focus, productivity, and effectiveness. The current list includes four standing committees (Rules Revision and Evaluation, Governance, Development, and Finance); three ad hoc committees (Hall of Fame, Internet Usage, and Public Forum); and one working group (Curriculum). The objectives previously held by the Strategic Planning Committee and Inclusion Committee will be an ongoing focus of the Governance Committee and will utilize members of the previous Inclusion Committee and the work of the Coaches’ Caucuses held at the National Tournament.

Establish a Rules Revision and Evaluation Committee Moved by McComas, seconded by Huston: “The NSDA Board of Directors will establish a Rules Revision and Evaluation Committee.” Passed: 7-0 (Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye)

Establish an Ad Hoc Committee for Internet Usage in Debate Events Moved by Reikowski, seconded by McComas: “The NSDA Executive Director is charged with forming an ad hoc committee comprised of coaches familiar with the challenges of debate and extemp for the purposes of examining current policies about internet use and offer recommendations for that policy.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) The allowing of access to the internet during debate


Fall Minutes (continued) rounds is becoming more and more prevalent throughout the nation. The ad hoc committee will explore the current NSDA policies on internet access and provide recommendations moving forward. A panel discussion will be held at the 2018 NSDA National Conference to present and discuss the recommendations brought forth by the committee.

Establish an Ad Hoc Committee for Public Forum Debate Moved by Huston, seconded by Jerome: “The NSDA Executive Director is charged with forming an ad hoc committee comprised of coaches familiar with the challenges of Public Forum Debate and offering recommendations.” Passed: 7-0 (Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) Potential topics to be covered include but are not limited to topic length, use of the coin flip, and judge paradigms at Nationals. The group will examine how the event began, where it is now, and where it is going.

District Tournament Logistics Online Registration and Tabulation Moved by Huston, seconded by McComas: “Beginning with the 2017-2018 competition year, all NSDA districts will be required to use either The Joy of Tournaments or Tabroom.com system for the registration of their NSDA district tournament. Beginning with the 2018-2019 competition year, all NSDA districts will be required to use either Tabroom.com or The Joy of Tournaments for the registration and tabulation of their NSDA district tournament.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) There are still a few NSDA districts using manual operations (paper entry and card scheduling) as the primary means of running and reporting the results of the district tournament series. The use of online registration and computer tabulation substantially decreases both auditing time and inaccuracy. The Board of Directors has determined all NSDA districts should fully utilize computer-based registration and tabulation systems. This new policy will not prohibit districts from using manual methods to shadow the computer-based system, if desired.



Dropping the Seven-Day Rule Moved by Rye, seconded by Wycoff: “Eliminate the mandatory seven-day (168 hour) district tournament entry deadline to allow each District Committee to determine an appropriate district tournament entry deadline for each event in their competition series. Each registration deadline must be set to begin no earlier than 7 days (168 hours) prior and end no later than one day (24 hours) prior to on-site registration of the event. All NSDA districts may allow substitutions with eligible student competitors up to the conclusion of the on-site registration. Districts must establish their entry deadlines for all events in their district tournament series at least 60 days prior to the start of series.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) The registration process requires NSDA membership, and the current policy is unnecessary and burdensome on several levels. Often, districts need to add a student within 48 hours of the competition and cannot do so without violating the current rules. The new policy will allow district leadership to set entry deadlines from one to seven days that make the most sense for their coaches and still allow for late substitutions, if the District Committee desires. Local committees will retain the autonomy to set an entry deadline anywhere from seven days out to registration day, but will require that the deadline is communicated in writing prior to the event and subsequently maintained.

Judging Requirements Moved by Huston, seconded by Jerome: “Remove the college-age semester restrictions for judging at the district tournament and leave it up to the district to determine the appropriate length of time a judge is removed from high school to be eligible to judge in the district tournament series.” Passed: 4-2 Aye: Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Rye No: Wycoff, Sheaff As a reminder, current high school students may not judge any portion of the district tournament series. The college-age semester restrictions will remain in effect at the National Tournament: “College-age judges must have completed their second year (four semesters). College courses taken in high school for advanced credit do not count toward judge standing.”

Long Island District Proposal Moved by Wycoff, seconded by McComas: “Provisionally accept the proposal for creating the Long Island District, which will be examined at the conclusion of the 2017-2018 school year.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) Based on an expansion proposal by the New York and New York City Districts, the Board approved a provisional pilot expansion to a fourth district in the state of New York. This new district will be assessed for its vitality and growth at the end of the 2017-2018 school year.

National Tournament Logistics Hotel Block Incentives Moved by Reikowski, seconded by Crabtree: “Motion charging the Executive Director to recommend an incentive for participating teams to stay in the hotel block.” Passed: 10-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye, Rollins, Runcie) As the costs in hosting and executing the National Tournament continue to rise, it has become more and more important that all teams participating in the National Tournament stay within the established block of hotel rooms designated for the tournament. When negotiating contracts to ensure the best possible rates and benefits to the organization and participants, certain guarantees and room pick up history must be provided to each contracting hotel and the host city’s convention bureau. Staying in the National Tournament block assists in future rate negotiations and provides essential rebate revenue and complimentary room nights that prevent expenses from being passed off to the participating teams. In 2018, a new baseline registration fee will be established for events. The NSDA will provide discounts on entry fees to those schools that choose to stay within the block. Schools staying outside the block will experience increased entry fees to help recover the lost financial benefits that are essential to running the National Tournament. We anticipate the National Tournament hotel block to open on December 16, 2017, exactly six months before registration day of the 2018 National Tournament.

Protocol for States with Seven or More Districts Moved by Huston, seconded by Lindsey: “For the purposes of better facilitating pairing and judge

placement procedures at the National Tournament, any state that has seven (7) or more NSDA districts will be as evenly divided as possible into two separate groups. The districts will be divided by the national office based on geographic location and district size equalization.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) States with a large number of districts and, in turn, qualifiers, have made contestant sectioning and judge placement nearly impossible and extremely burdensome when protecting intrastate sectioning and/or judge conflicts. The Board has determined that any state with seven or more districts should be split for sectioning, and when necessary, judge placement. At the end of the 2018 National Tournament, this new policy will be assessed and revised as needed. Currently, two states (California and Texas) fall under this new provision. The Executive Director will work with district leadership in these two states to ensure the best possible pilot year of the new policy.

Coach Re-Registration for Supplemental and Consolation Events Moved by Huston, seconded by Lindsey: “Beginning with the 2018 National Tournament, reregistration for Supplemental and Consolation events will take place online. Coaches will verify that their students are eligible and will participate in the event. If a student chooses to not compete after re-registration has been confirmed, the school will be assessed a drop fee.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) Coaches will have the ability to re-register students online, remotely or in person. This will drastically cut down on the number of individuals in line for re-registration and decrease demands on the National Tournament for space. To preserve the integrity of round 1 pairings, room usage, and judge placement, coaches will have the affirmative duty to confirm that a student will participate once re-registered.

Formalization of Script and Speech Audit Process at Nationals Moved by Huston, seconded by McComas: “Beginning with the 2018 National Tournament, the script and speech audit process begun in 2017 to ensure rules adherence will be adopted moving forward for main speech events. The National Tournament Director will choose the team of auditors.”


Fall Minutes (continued) Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye)

will add one extra elimination round and allow all teams with a 4-2 record to advance.

A new system for evaluating speech performances in the semifinal rounds for rules adherence was piloted in 2017. This system will continue in 2018 with a team of auditors chosen by the National Tournament Director.

Piloting Middle School World Schools Debate

Tournament Reinstatement for Speech Events Moved by Huston, seconded by Rye: “Insert the following language on page 95 of the High School Unified Manual: Tabulation Errors: If a tabroom error in speech events at the National Tournament results in a contestant being incorrectly eliminated from the tournament, that contestant will be reinstated to the tournament at the earliest possible time once the error has been discovered. If the final round is completed, the contestant will be placed at a point one round beyond their elimination. Any awards that might have been earned at that point will be given. If a tabroom error prevents contestants from participating in the final round because of a tabroom error in the semifinal round, their final placement will be based on their accumulated ranks prior to the final round. If a tabroom error at the National Tournament results in an announcement at the awards assembly of an incorrect placement in an event, no contestant’s place will be lowered. Contestants whose ranks justify a higher position will be awarded the correct place and award. Ties may result.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) This codifies past protocols for reinstatement of contestants at various points of the tournament when those students are eliminated at the fault of the tournament.

World Schools Debate Triple Octafinals Moved by Huston, seconded by Rye: “Up to 64 teams with a record of 4-2 or better will be eligible to break to elimination rounds. In the case that fewer than 64 teams have 4 wins or more, a partial triple octafinals will be held with byes going to the highest seeds in ascending order. No teams with less than 4 wins in the preliminary rounds will be eligible for elimination rounds.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) The 2017 National Tournament featured 150 teams in World Schools Debate. Several 4-2 teams did not advance to the double octafinal round this past year. This change



Moved by Huston, seconded by Crabtree: “As a pilot for 2018, the NSDA will offer World Schools Debate as an event at the Middle School National Tournament. The team must be composed of students from within the same school.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) This pilot will provide additional opportunities for more students from more states to get involved in the activity and also promote the long-term viability of the event.

Competition and Rules Informative Speaking Table Moved by Wycoff, seconded by McComas: “Add to subpoint 4 under Informative Speaking on page 41 of the High School Unified Manual: In order to facilitate the video recording of the final round at the National Tournament, one table will be provided for use by the contestants. This provision is only for the final round.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye)

Distribution of Items in Informative Speaking Moved by Wycoff, seconded by McComas: “Under subpoint 4 of Informative Speaking (page 41 of the High School Unified Manual), add the following language indicated in bold: Visual aids may not violate policies as dictated by local and state law. Contestants may not distribute items to the judges or audience before, during, or after the round. This includes but is not limited to food, objects, handouts, flyers, and promotional merchandise. The host school is not responsible for providing any facilities, equipment,chairs, or easels, or assistance in a contestant’s use of visual aids.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) Given concerns for health (allergies), equity, and when speech times would start and end, this concern was brought to the bud room at Nationals and subsequent proposal brought forth to the Board for adoption at the district tournament series and the National Tournament.

Identifying Sources in Program Oral Interpretation (POI) Moved by Crabtree, seconded by Rye: “On page 42 of the High School Unified Manual, add a sentence (indicated in bold) that clarifies when selections must be verbally identified: 1. Purpose: POI is a program of oral interpretation of thematically-linked selections chosen from two or three genres: prose, poetry, drama (plays). At least two pieces of literature that represent at least two separate genres must be used. Unlike the other interpretation events, Program Oral Interpretation may use multiple sources for the program. The title and author of all selections must be verbally identified in either the introduction and/ or transitional phrases. Competitors are encouraged to devote approximately equal times to each of the genres used in the program. This distinction pertains to these two or three genres as a whole, not types of literature within a genre (such as fiction/nonfiction).” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye)

Manuscript Use in Prose and Poetry Moved by Reikowski, seconded by Rye: “Insert subpoint 6 on page 51 of the High School Unified Manual that has the same language as that included in POI: 6. The use of a manuscript during the performance is required. Common practices include the use of a binder or folder. Reading from a book or magazine is not permitted. The intact manuscript may be used by the contestant as a prop, so as it remains in the contestant’s control at all times. No costume or props other than the manuscript are permitted. The contestant must address the script; however, introduction and transitional material may be memorized.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) POI contestants are already required to use a manuscript. Adding this language to the Prose and Poetry rules brings the events into alignment.

Update Prose/Poetry Language to Define Anthology and Re-use of Material Moved by McComas, seconded by Wycoff: “Adopt new language for Prose and Poetry on page 50 of the High School Unified Manual:

Selections: Only published, printed works may be used, unless the works meet the Interpretation Rules (p. 17-18) for PDFs, e-books, and online material. No plays or other dramatic materials may be used. In Prose and Poetry, a student may not use the same selection they used in Duo, Dramatic, Humorous, or Program Oral Interpretation at any district or national Association tournament. If the source is an anthology (collection of short stories, plays, or novels), each selection of literature is independent and only one selection can be used, even if it is from the same author. Competitors may use the same anthology utilized in a previous selection, but may not use the same selection from that anthology.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) This update makes the language about anthologies clearer and more consistent with other existing language.

Evidence Rules in Congressional Debate Moved by Huston, seconded by Rye: “Officially adopt the 2016-2017 piloted evidence rules in Congressional Debate.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye)

Direct Questioning in Congressional Debate Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Rye: “Extend the pilot from 2016-2017 for direct questioning in Congress for continued evaluation. Districts may pilot direct questioning at their district tournaments. At the 2018 National Tournament, direct questioning will be piloted in the semifinal and final congressional sessions. The presiding officer will open the floor for questions following each speech. The presiding officer will recognize questioners for a cross-examination period of no more than 30 seconds. Questioners will be chosen according to a separate questioning recency.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye)

Plagiarizing Congressional Debate Legislation Moved by Huston, seconded by Reikowski: “On page 105 of the High School Unified Manual, add the following wording (indicated in bold) to the current language under subpoint A: A. Each district can submit one or two items of legislation, preferably one bill and one resolution.


Fall Minutes (continued) The district chair must verify that the submitted legislation is the original work of the student(s) in their district. Submitting legislation that is not the original work of those students will be considered a violation of the Code of Honor and will be subject to penalty which may include: removal of legislation from the national docket, loss of Honor Society membership, forfeiture of entry at the national tournament for the offending student, loss of entries to future district tournament for the offending school, and/or loss of future entry slots to the National Tournament for the district.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, McComas, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Lindsey, Rye) There have been recent instances of districts submitting legislation that came from other online sources. This is a proactive step to actively inform and inquire about legislation in order to prevent this from occurring and, if it does occur, to offer a means to address it.

Congressional Debate Tiebreaker Moved by Huston, seconded by Jerome: “Remove the #4 tiebreaker from the Congressional Debate tiebreaker procedures on p. 71 of the High School Unified Manual and renumber accordingly.”

Passed: 6-0 (Wycoff, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Rye, Sheaff) The #4 tiebreaker procedure (judges’ preference of adjusted cumulative rank total, or student’s preference for the student rank option) is no longer relevant. It is not used at the National Tournament, and this change brings the district tournament rules into alignment for tabulation purposes.

Coaching Points Moved by Huston, seconded by Jerome: “Coaching points for individuals who coach middle school and high school will be combined in the degree earning process.” Passed: 6-0 (Wycoff, Reikowski, Huston, Jerome, Rye, Sheaff) Coaches who earn points at multiple schools, regardless of level, will accrue a combined point total and receive a single track of degrees/diamonds (rather than earning separate coaching awards for middle school and high school). Changes are expected during the 2018-2019 school year. The meeting adjourned Sunday at 12:00 p.m.

What is YOUR team doing to celebrate? SAVE THE DATE

MARCH 2, 2018 LEARN MORE www.speechanddebate.org/nsde-day 14


JULY 28–31, 2018


NSDA NATIONAL CONFERENCE Radiant Voices: Empowerment through Speech and Debate

Join us in Phoenix, Arizona! The second annual NSDA National Conference will be held at the Pointe Hilton Tapatio Cliffs Resort.

Super Early Bird Discount $ 199 members Register at:

Rates expire December 22, 2017

| $ 299 non-members



Board of Directors 2018 Election Year

Responsibilities of the Board of Directors

You’ve probably heard the phrase “time, talent, and treasure” applied to service and stewardship. Here’s how the NSDA Board of Directors addresses each!

Framework | The Board of Directors establishes the framework for the NSDA.

Time »

• Determines how the NSDA’s performance will be measured.

Board members attend three regularly scheduled, in-person meetings. These meetings are scheduled by the Board and generally occur in early fall, late spring, and at the National Tournament. At the tournament, Board members are also asked to attend several public events and serve various volunteer roles during the competition hours. In addition, two online meetings are generally held in late fall and early spring. Beyond these meetings, Board members are asked to participate in committee work and to represent the NSDA at events of strategic interest.

Talent »

Any member coach with five years of NSDA coaching experience, any current or past district chair, or present Board members whose terms expire on July 31, 2018, may become a candidate for the national Board of Directors by so advising the Executive Director in writing before January 19, 2018, by certified mail.

Treasure »

No stipend or salary is given to a member of the Board of Directors. However, travel expenses (related to Board member responsibilities) are paid by the NSDA. Board members play an important role in stewarding and recognizing the organization’s sponsors and donors.

More on the Rules and Process • No person may be a candidate or serve as a member of the Board of Directors if they will reach 70 years of age before or during their term in office. • Not all seats are up for election. The seats of Board members Don Crabtree, David Huston, Pam McComas, and Jay Rye are up for election in 2018. • Each candidate shall be alloted one Rostrum column, unedited by the national office, to support their candidacy. Each candidate may include a photo to accompany the column. Candidacy statements of 400 words or less along with high-resolution photos should be emailed to director@speechanddebate.org by January 19, 2018. • Important Deadlines » Candidacy statements are due January 19, 2018. Ballots will be made available to schools in April 2018. Results will be announced in May 2018. Watch for more information on our website and in future coach newsletters.



• Creates and updates the mission and vision statements. • Defines what benefits (or end results) the NSDA is providing to whom and what it will cost to deliver them.

Direction | The Board of Directors sets the direction for the NSDA. • Sets goals and approves and monitors the strategic or business plan. • Develops organizational policies, including the policies that govern how the Board will operate.

Accountability | The Board of Directors sets the direction for the NSDA. • Establishes the code of ethics for the Board and Executive Director (ED), including policies related to private inurement and conflict of interest, and sets the tone for organizational behavior. • Selects and removes the Executive Director. • Establishes the end results the Executive Director is assigned to achieve and defines any limitations on the means the ED can use or any functions the ED must perform. • Monitors financial and operational performance. Evaluates the Executive Director based on achievement of the end results and compliance with predefined limitations or requirements. • Serves as the last court of appeal within the NSDA. • Selects an auditor based on recommendation of ED and Finance Committee and receives the audit report.

Goodwill and Support | The Board of Directors represents the NSDA to the outside world and provides support and counsel to the Executive Director. • Supports the NSDA by making personal donations, garnering resources and advisors and assisting with fundraising. • Serves as the NSDA’s ambassador to other agencies, funders and potential funders and the general community. • Communicates the value of the NSDA to prospective donors. • Attracts donors, supporters, favorable press, and new Board Members.

I will:

National Speech & Debate Association Board Member Commitment Form

• Regularly attend all Board meetings by electronic format or in person. Any exception to attendance at a virtual or in-person meeting MUST be approved by the President. • Review the agenda and supporting materials prior to Board and committee meetings. • Serve on committees and take on special assignments as needed. • Personally contribute to the NSDA. • Assist in raising funds, as agreed upon annually by the Board. • Remain informed about the NSDA mission and vision, services, and policies and promote the NSDA, as agreed annually by the Board. • Provide support and advice to the staff, but avoid interfering in management activities. • Suggest nominees and participate in Board recruitment.

I will act in concert with the following principles: • As a Board Member, I understand I have duties of care, loyalty, and obedience to the NSDA. • The duty of care is the duty to pay attention to the organization—to monitor its activities, see that its mission is being accomplished, and guard its financial resources. • The duty of loyalty is the duty to avoid conflicts of interest, and • The duty of obedience is to carry out the purposes of the organization and to comply with the law.

I commit that I will uphold these duties, and I shall do my utmost to ensure the NSDA performs its mission and vision to achieve its goals. As a Board Member, I agree to: • Act with honesty and integrity. • Support in a positive manner all actions taken by the Board of Directors even when I am in a minority position on such actions. I recognize that decisions of the Board can be made only by a majority vote at a Board meeting, and I will respect the majority decisions of the Board, while retaining the right to seek changes through ethical and constructive channels; • Participate in (1) the bi-annual strategic planning retreat, (2) Board self-evaluation, and (3) Board development workshops, seminars, and other educational events to enhance my skills as a Board member. • Keep confidential information confidential. • Exercise my authority as a Board member only when acting in a meeting with the full Board or as I am delegated by the Board. • Work with and respect the opinions of my peers who serve this Board, and leave my personal prejudices out of all Board discussions. • Always act for the good of the organization and represent the interests of all people served by the organization. • Represent the NSDA in a positive and supportive manner at all times. • Observe the parliamentary procedures and display courteous conduct in all Board and committee meetings. • Refrain from intruding on administrative issues that are the responsibility of management, except to monitor the results of the organization. • Accept my responsibility for providing oversight of the financial condition of the organization. • Avoid acting in a way that represents a conflict of interest between my position as a Board member and my personal or professional life, even if those actions appear to provide a benefit for the organization. This includes using my position for the advantage of my friends and business associates. If such a conflict does arise, I will declare that conflict before the Board and refrain from voting on matters in which I have conflict. • Abide by these Board operating procedures.



Meet the Interns Six students were selected to serve as publications interns for the 2017-2018 school year. In addition to attending monthly online meetings with NSDA staff, interns will write articles for Rostrum magazine and blog posts for the student Soapbox.

Andrew Hong Andrew Hong is a Lincoln-Douglas debater at Montville Township High School and served as the LD captain his junior year. He has qualified twice to compete at the NCFL Grand National Tournament and, as a member of Team New Jersey, took third at the NSDA National Tournament in World Schools Debate. His experiences with debate (which he plans on continuing on the college circuit) have fostered an interest in law, a field in which he aims to pursue a career. He has also served as the Focus Editor for his school newspaper since his sophomore year, making him very excited to be part of the Rostrum crew.

Allie Kelly


World Championship in Bali, Indonesia, where she was also among the top 15 speakers. In addition to being captain of her school’s debate team, she is an editor for the yearbook and for a student-run blog called Vector. She is excited to contribute to Rostrum!

Megan Munce Megan Munce is a senior at Presentation High School in San Jose, California. Over the past three years, Megan has competed in Informative Speaking, Public Forum Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Impromptu, and World Schools Debate. In addition to competing on her local circuit, Megan has competed in elimination rounds at tournaments across the nation and qualified to both the NSDA National Tournament and the Tournament of Champions her junior year. As an intern, she hopes to create more visibility in order to encourage women in debate to share their voices.

Erin Swope

Allie Kelly lives in Denver, Colorado, and is a current junior at Denver East High School. She is co-captain of her school’s speech program, competing in Dramatic Interpretation. As the Features Editor for the East High newspaper, Allie enjoys exploring the world of journalism, and sees her internship at Rostrum magazine as a wonderful way to grow her reporting skills while being engaged in the speech and debate community. Outside of school, Allie likes to ski, read, and travel.

Erin Swope is a senior at Milton High School in Wisconsin. She has participated in forensics since the seventh grade. In 2016, she competed in Informative Speaking at the National Speech & Debate Tournament in Salt Lake City, Utah. Erin also competes in Radio and Four Minute Speaking as well as Concours Oral, or French Forensics, in Poetry. Erin is the copy editor for her school newspaper, MHS Today, and an editor for her school yearbook, The Talon. When not writing or preparing for forensics, she enjoys reading and playing saxophone and cello.

Ella Michaels

Emily Weaver

Ella Michaels is a senior at North Hollywood High School in California and a member of the USA Debate Team. She competes in Congressional Debate where she is a California state champion, NSDA national finalist, and a two-time Tournament of Champions semifinalist. As a member of the U.S. National Team, she took second at Harvard and the Winter Holidays Open in Croatia, and most recently placed third at the

Emily Weaver lives in Austin, Texas, and is a senior at the nationally-ranked Ann Richards School, where she is Co-Editor-in-Chief of the newspaper and captain of the debate team. She has competed in Public Forum Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Congressional Debate, and Extemporaneous Speaking. In her free time, she works at a children’s museum part time, studies film, and catches up on current events.


A project by the Harvard Debate Council

theveritasdebatelibrary.com More than just a subscription based evidence service, The Veritas Debate Library is an online resource for all of your debate teaching needs. We offer quality evidence packets for PF, LD, and Policy, all produced and researched by the Harvard Debate coaching staff, as well as online lesson plans and “flipped classroom� resources specifically for debate. Harvard Debate Council is an officially recognized student-run organization of Harvard College. The Harvard College name and/or shield are trademarks of the President and Fellows of Harvard College and are used by permission of Harvard University.


Curriculum Corner Check out these practical ideas for speech and debate teachers to use in the classroom. Each activity is constructed to last one hour, but plans may be altered to work with your setting.

educators integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) history, people, and issues into their instructional programs. Included in this collection is an interview with Jamison Green who is an activist and writer who has worked on behalf of transgender men and women for more than 20 years. To supplement the interview are discussion questions, student handouts, and suggested activities and assignments for extended learning.

A Letter to My Teenage Self by Jey Ehrenhalt

Critical Classroom Converations Transgender Day of Remembrance (TDOR) is an annual observance on November 20 that honors the memory of those whose lives were lost in acts of antitransgender violence. This year’s TDOR falls on a school day and offers educators the opportunity to have a critical conversation with their students. The following resources can aid teachers in educating themselves as well as preparing to lead conversations so that they are productive, informed, and safe for all involved.

Transgender Awareness Week

https://www.glaad.org /transweek • Transgender Day of Remembrance is part of Transgender Awareness week that runs from November 14-20, 2017. GLAAD states on its website that Transgender Awareness week seeks “to help raise the visibility of transgender and gender nonconforming people, and address the issues the community faces.”

https://www.tolerance.org /magazine/ summer-2015/a-letter-to-my-teenage-self

• A project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Teaching Tolerance was founded in 1991 to prevent the growth of hate. Through a magazine publication and its website, Teaching Tolerance provides resources for teachers and schools. The Summer 2015 issue features a letter by Jey Ehrenhalt. In this letter, the author writes to their teenage self, using their personal experiences as a call for schools that are safe and supportive of transgender students. In addition to the letter, Teaching Tolerance also includes a Teacher Toolkit that guides teachers on how to use this letter in their classrooms.

Debate Corner This exercise is designed to help students gain a deeper understanding of the importance of evidence in a Congressional Debate speech through group discussion and collaborative research. Student Experience Level: Novice to Intermediate

Unheard Voices: Stories and Lessons for Grades 6-12

https://www.glsen.org /unheardvoices.html

• GLSEN, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) and StoryCorps have collaborated to create Unheard Voices, an oral history and curriculum project helping



Materials Needed: Two posters or large pieces of paper, markers, sample bills (can be from the NSDA monthly docket), and internet access for research Prior Knowledge Needed: Basic understanding of Congressional Debate, basic research skills

Background Vocabulary to Review Before Beginning: evidence, claim, warrant, impact • Bell Ringer Activity: On two large sheets of poster board in the front of the room, have students write one word that describes an effective speech and one word that describes an ineffective speech. Don’t give more context or direction. Once the students have finished contributing, divide the class in half and ask the students to sort the words into a list, noting which words were used most often. You should have two lists at the end—words that describe effective speeches and words that describe ineffective speeches. • Before Moving On: Assess what your students have written. Do they have a strong grasp of effective/ineffective speeches? Use this assessment to determine the speed at which you move forward. If all of the words are performance-related, ask students to come up and add additional words to describe what makes an effective speech (rather than what makes an effective speaker). Words to look for: organized, uses evidence, logical, and persuasive (ethos, pathos, logos). • Teacher Directed Discussion: Discuss the lists with the students. Ask for examples of effective and ineffective. Question why the students chose to write the words they wrote. Suggest any words you feel may have been missed. (Words to look for: organized, uses evidence, logical, and persuasive.) Review with them that effective speeches are structured, use evidence, and seek to persuade the judge. • Small Group Work: Divide students into groups of three or four. Provide students a piece of Congressional Debate legislation. Review the legislation with the students. Answer any clarifying questions about the substance of the bill. Give the students a set amount of time to research arguments both for and against the bill. Have each group list arguments they come across. • Small Group Discussion: Once the students have created their argument lists, remind them it is often wise to prep both sides of an argument in Congressional Debate so you can give speeches whenever needed. Ask the students to decide within their group the two strongest points on each side of their bill. Refer them back to the

poster of what makes an effective speech. • Teacher Directed Discussion: Ask each group to “share their process” with the larger group. Ask them to explain how they first decided which side was stronger, and then which two points they should focus upon. Rotate through all of the groups so the students can learn from others’ processes and hear more research-based arguments for different bills. Extension/Practice Options:

• Provide each group a template/outline for a Congressional Debate speech and have them plug in the evidence they found and write a draft of a speech to be given to their group and their opponent group. [Need a template? Visit CONNECT for the supplementary materials from National Champion Coach Brittany Stanchik’s (Desert Vista High School, AZ) webinar entitled “Surviving Without a Congress Coach.”] Challenge each group to specifically incorporate ethos, pathos, and logos into their group’s persuasive strategy when writing their speech. • Ask each group to answer their own evidence/ argument so they can understand and work on preempting arguments in the future. • Have groups swap bills and “answer each other” by finding evidence that refutes their opponents’ arguments/evidence. • Allow each student to independently select, research, and create arguments for a bill that has already been discussed by the class. •

Speech Corner

This exercise is designed to help students continue to develop their ability to write original introductions for Extemporaneous speeches. Student Experience Level: Novice to Intermediate Materials Needed: Simple Extemp-style questions, notecards, timers, videos of Extemp speech introductions Prior Knowledge Needed: Basic understanding of Extemporaneous Speaking, specifically introductions and attention getting devices Background Vocabulary to Review Before Beginning: attention getting device, thesis statement, statement of significance, preview statement


• Bell Ringer Activity: Select three or four recordings of Extemporaneous speakers beginning their speeches. As the students watch, ask them to “outline” the intro of the speech (everything up to the transition to the first point). Tell them it’s okay if they don’t know what to call something—their notes are for their own use and will be used to help the class discussion. Their notes could look something like: 1. Makes a joke about Venezuelan President 2. Gives background using evidence – article from Foreign Policy 3. “Putting thousands of Venezuelans without food security” – statement of significance 4. Question: What can be done to alleviate Venezuela’s economic crisis? 5. Answer: Gov. must take meaningful economic reforms into its hands 6. Points Preview: A. Embolden private corporations B. Pay back int’l creditors C. Subsidize agricultural products 7. Transition • Teacher Directed Discussion: After watching each of your selected recordings, discuss with your students what the intros had in common and what made them different. Ask if there is a style they found more “attention grabbing” or one they found less interesting. Discuss which intros were the clearest and provided the most straightforward preview of what’s to come. Work with your students to create an outline for what makes a successful Extemp intro based on what you’ve observed. • Independent Activity: Provide each student with a simple Extemp-like question and a notecard. (For example: “What is the biggest concern of today’s high school student?” or “What can students do to improve equality in their schools?” Craft questions that can be answered using critical thinking skills rather than having to research evidence.) Have the students use your class-created outline to begin writing the intro to a speech that answers the provided question on their notecard. Remind your students they are not writing the speech, just the intro! Tell them not to worry about evidence citation during this exercise. Monitor student work so they are not writing the intro word-for-word—encourage them to outline! Once the students have generally finished writing their outlines, get them up on their feet and ask them to



turn their outline into a speech. Ask the students to speak aloud while practicing. If everyone is whispering to themselves, they aren’t listening to each other! • Group Presentation and Discussion: Have students return to their desks and ask if any volunteers would like to present what they came up with during their practice time. Allow the students to use their notecard, if needed. While students are performing, ask the other students to “check off” the things their peer has done in their speech. Make it clear that you aren’t assessing the student’s memorization but rather their structure. Give feedback based upon having all the elements in the outline. Once you’ve given feedback about the student’s intro, ask the class for positive feedback about their classmate’s intro. Extension/Practice Options:

• Have students write their own questions (even silly ones will work), and give the students two minutes to prep an intro. Encourage the students to have some serious fun and seek to entertain their classmates while still including all of the required elements. • Give more advanced/experienced students a specific amount of time to prep their intro, then a specific time to “get it on its feet” before presenting—speed intro-ing! • Have students prep intros to several different speeches, then choose one to finish prepping and give. • Discuss the benefits of original attention getting devices (AGDs) instead of recycled or “canned” AGDs. • Discuss when and how to use partisan humor—is it ever okay to make a joke that disparages one party over the other? Why might this not be a good choice? When (if ever) is it okay? • Discuss tone and subject matter. Opening a speech about a genocide with a joke is likely not going to be received well. Discuss how to determine what is appropriate based upon your question and your answer.

Written by Lauren McCool, Education and Recognition Coordinator for the National Speech & Debate Association


Res 8urce Roundup WEBINARS with New Lesson Plans and Student Materials

What is a

FLIPPED CLASSROOM? A flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods so that the students’ first exposure to content is outside of the large group/direct instruction setting. Once students have been introduced to the material, the teacher then leads exercises, experiments, and other educational experiences that deepen the students knowledge through hands-on practice and exploration. For more information about flipping your classroom, visit our Flipped Classroom CONNECT collection. Resource Package members can also view Dr. Josh Anderson’s webinar entitled, “Flipping the Debate Classroom” on our Webinar Recordings PARTICIPATE LEARNING COMMUNITYpage.




The National Speech & Debate Association is proud to offer its members many different kinds of educational and curricular resources. For more than five years, the NSDA has hosted webinars that can be viewed live for all members, and via a web-hosted recording for Resource Package subscribers. Webinars are an excellent tool to use either in the classroom or in an after-school practice setting. In order to make our webinars even easier for educators to use, the NSDA Community Engagement team has begun developing classroom-ready materials to accompany each webinar, starting with the first set of webinars offered this fall (outlined below). These editable lesson plans and customizable student materials will use the webinars as the basis for note taking, discussions, and reflections. Teachers can choose to use them in a flipped-class setting, as substitute plans, or as part of direct in-class instruction. Webinars address different levels of student ability and cover many different subject areas. For example, during September and October, we offered a series of four webinars geared toward students and teams who don’t have event-specific coaches. This series featured notable and successful coaches—Bob Ickes, Director of Original Platform Events at Summit

Debate; Brittany Stanchik, Director of Debate at Desert Vista High School in Phoenix, Arizona; Nefertiti Dukes, African-American Literature teacher and Head Debate coach at Butler College Prep in Chicago; and Jamaque Newberry, Head Speech Coach at Nova University School in Fort Lauderdale, Florida—who each provided practical strategies and inspiration for students who are trying to figure it out on their own and for coaches who feel less-than-confident coaching these events. Other webinars planned include Extemp Drills and Skills with Extemp Genie’s Ethan Reeves, Selecting POI Literature with The Interp Store’s Greg Burns, and a webinar with the Institute of Speech and Debate’s Chase Williams about keeping up momentum as the second semester starts and the push toward districts, states, and nationals begins. The supplemental materials for these and other future webinars can be found on CONNECT, the NSDA’s new virtual professional development and collaboration platform. You can join CONNECT by visting www.NSDAConnect.org and clicking the red JOIN button. If there is a particular webinar you’d like us to offer—or if you (or someone you know) would like to lead a webinar—please email Steve Schappaugh at steve.schappaugh@ speechanddebate.org. We appreciate hearing from you!


LEARN MORE www.speechanddebate.org/webinars 24


TOP 10


National Pi Kappa Delta Program


Speech events

Transfer to our PKD chapter




Styles of debate

To learn more about speech and debate at Simpson, email spencer.waugh@simpson.edu.



What We're Reading by Amy Seidelman The Power of Moments: Why Certain Experiences Have Extraordinary Impact by Chip Heath and Dan Heath


his September, our staff and Board selected photos in preparation for the Fall Board meeting meant to encapsulate our “why” for being here at the National Speech & Debate Association—why we work here, why we serve here, why we stay here! Some included personal photos, some celebrated our impact on youth, and some shared how their particular role is fulfilling because of the way it lets them use their expertise to benefit others. A few of the images captured just a single moment in time.

That look of sheer exhilaration can be enough to keep people committed to their work, day in and day out—which wouldn’t surprise Chip and Dan Heath, authors of the recently released book The Power of Moments. As I read this book, I was constantly reminded why speech and debate is a powerful activity. I think you could write the entire



book using examples from the speech and debate world! I’m leaving out so many relevant lessons, which is why I suggest you pick up this book yourself. Until you do, here’s a synopsis. The Heath brothers support the concept of “thinking in moments” in order to “recognize where the prose of life needs punctuation.” They discuss four types of moments—elevation, pride, connection, and insight—then find ways to tie these types of moments back to personal, professional, and civic life. I’ll identify just a few ways they are created through speech and debate. Speech and debate is momentous by design. People dress up to participate. There is competition! The National Tournament, especially, is designed around a big stage and a chance to share your voice with thousands. It is educational—the constant provision of feedback, coaching, and connecting with your peers on topics of importance. Finally, as the Heath brothers explain, ages 15-30 are the most memorable time of an individual’s life, and for our students, speech and debate gets to be a part of that. Here are tips for designing powerful moments as a coach or teacher based on The Power of Moments.

To create moments of elevation, or experiences that “rise above the everyday”: • Consider that people remember the best or worst moment of an experience, plus the end. They tend to “neglect” the duration—another reason for giving special treatment

when planning for the end of the school year and for graduation. • Pay attention to and boost an event’s sensory appeal. This could apply to a tournament, a special practice, a parent event, or an Honor Society induction ceremony. Chip and Dan keep it simple: “It should look different.” Whether that’s the clothes, the scenery, or the materials, take care and get help with some of the “extras” if that’s not your strength. • When fundraising for your team, remember people give to people. Nicole Wanzer-Serrano, Director of Development for the NSDA, shared the following tip based on the Heath brothers’ advice: “When you fundraise, tell parents and potential fundraisers stories of alumni or current students for whom speech and debate has made a big difference. Whether it’s their impressive college scholarships or their new self-confidence, you can make these impressive outcomes go a bit further when fundraising by ‘breaking the script.’ When you start these stories, start by telling the potential funder something specific and interesting about the student. Does your state champion orator have a pair of lucky red socks they wear for every competition? Does your team captain wake up at 5:00 a.m. to practice their piece before school? Any detail that breaks the stereotype of a typical teenager will build interest, provide context to your work, and connect your potential funder to the students.”

as a staff at the national office a couple years ago, and it was a great team building activity!)

To create moments of insight, which “deliver realizations and transformations”:

To create moments of pride: • Lauren McCool, the NSDA’s Education and Recognition Coordinator, offers the following suggestion based on the book: “Break big goals down so that they are attainable. ‘Getting better’ at something takes lots of small steps, and there are lots of small victories along the way. Our ultimate ‘destination’ should not be a big generic goal, but it should be something intrinsically motivating and obtainable. Milestones also motivate us to keep going as we struggle and push to the finish line.”

“What milestones do is compel us to make that push, because (a) they’re within our grasp, and (b) we’ve chosen them precisely because they’re worth reaching for. Milestones define moments that are conquerable and worth conquering.” (page 175) • Add students to your NSDA roster! Honor Society membership is so

much more than being eligible to attend Districts and Nationals. The receipt of a certificate and seals commemorating continued participation provides exactly the type of milestone achievement the Heath brothers promote.

To create moments of connection: • Remember that purpose, which is shared, trumps passion, which is individualistic. Students are passionate about their events, but are more likely to bond if given a joint purpose as a team (e.g., a non-competitive goal, a volunteer activity, a group outing to teach middle schoolers, etc.). • Try out social psychology researcher Art Aron’s 36 Questions when trying to bring a group closer together—whether it’s your District Committee, your state board, or a new duo or debate partnership. You can use the 36 Questions app or search Google to find the list of questions and instructions. Proven to draw people closer, these questions can be used as a whole or picked selectively when working with youth. (As a side note, we did an abbreviated version of this

• Keep this two-part formula in mind when mentoring students: high standards + assurance. The authors describe a study in which 80% of junior high students who received feedback from a teacher on a paper were more likely to use it and revise their papers when the feedback was accompanied by a note referencing the teacher’s expectations for the student and confidence they could be reached. Only 40% of the group receiving a note that simply called out the feedback took the opportunity to revise. • Focus on the big picture end goal when planning your course or lesson. The Heaths share an anecdote from the Course Design Institute at the University of Virginia where professors were asked to consider what they wanted their students to still know or be able to do three to five years in the future. What they “dreamed” for their students rarely actually corresponded to their syllabi, resulting in many alterations after the Institute concluded. Any moment can be designed to capture one or more of these elements—and the more, the better! Thinking in moments can be a stretch for many, especially if you find yourself usually defaulting to the most practical or reasonable way to do something. I tend to do that, and this book was eye-opening for me in that regard. For more real world examples of each moment and evidence of their importance, check out The Power of Moments. Amy Seidelman is the Assistant Executive Director for the NSDA.



Riverside High School’s first BQ event was a big success. Here’s why you should host one, too! by Lauren Burdt Read on to learn how you can earn money for your team.


ith the speech and debate season underway, close to 500 schools have taken advantage of the Big Questions (BQ) fundraising opportunity for their classrooms and debate programs. Only 100 tournament spots eligible for funding remain, so be sure to apply soon! Add Big Questions as a division to your tournament, integrate BQ into your curriculum using our free lesson plans, or use the event as a way to prepare for the upcoming season among your own team. Riverside High School’s first event is a great example of using Big Questions as an internal, team-building activity.

Planning for an Intra-Squad Event Riverside High School in Greer, South Carolina, used Big Questions as a fundraiser to help cover tournament expenses. More than 65 students from Riverside competed in the after-school tournament and earned more than $1,700 for their program. Speech and debate students competed to support their team, while Riverside’s AP Biology teacher promoted the event in her classes and offered extra credit for students who demonstrated prepared participation. Many parents and students were happy to have a debate-focused

fundraiser. As Riverside coach McGregor Cook explained, “The debate team members looked forward to having an event that showcased their work to their fellow team members and parents, and speech students were excited to learn new skills and operate in a new environment.”

Topic Preparation Two weeks before the event, Cook led a workshop on the Big Questions format and resolution, training judges and students together. Veteran students helped the newer ones develop cases. Cook also recognized that many judges were biology professors, doctors, or scientists and recommended including them in your topic discussion. The topic analysis, lesson plans, evidence packet, and sample cases can also help facilitate preparation.

Refreshing Change Riverside’s competition held three preliminary rounds on a Friday after school, plus three elimination rounds that carried over to Saturday. The students enjoyed both the topic and the flexible style of being able to compete as individuals or with a partner. As Cook described, “Students enjoyed the nature of the resolution, appreciating that while it had political implications, it was not an overtly

political topic. That was a refreshing change from the majority of the issues they address in other debate formats.” One student said, “The philosophical aspect is a great one to add to debate, coupled with more science, anthropology, and biology rather than a policy or current events question.” Speech students also enjoyed the unique opportunity to experience and gain appreciation for the work their debate teammates do. According to Cook, “Big Questions was a very good community-building event for our large team.” Riverside High School students competed in their first Big Questions tournament this fall.

Get Involved! Interested in using Big Questions with your team, at your tournament, or in your classroom? The application process is easy! 1) Apply online to host your event. No worries if the details are tentative. Nearly 500 tournaments have already signed up, so apply as soon as possible! 2) Next, hold your event. We’ll even help you set up your tournament on Tabroom.com. 3) Have students and judges complete our brief online survey after the tournament and fill out our online reporting form. 4) Use the money you earn on supplies for your classroom, entry fees for tournaments, to supplement travel costs for your team, and more! To learn more about Big Questions, or to apply to host an event, please visit NSDADBigQuestions.org or contact Lauren Burdt, Manager of Big Questions.

2017-2018 Topic – Resolved: Humans are fundamentally different from other animals. 28


The Debate

Resolved: Humans are fundamentally different from other animals.

Topic Primer Our current resolution asks debaters to examine the differences between humans and animals, as well as the importance of those differences. The way debaters define and support terms will be the key argument of many rounds, such as the term “fundamentally” (and its application to “different”). Understanding the nuances between differences in degree and differences in kind is important. A difference in kind may be that humans have a spine and jellyfish do not. A difference in degree is that elephants have a longer gestational period than humans. The affirmative will likely argue about human spoken language, culture, and the effect our social environment has in shaping who we become through language. These positions will attempt to differentiate humans from other species through language abilities, social interaction, symbolic behavior, and cultural variation. A second common argument will be about morality. Affirmatives will argue that humans’ ability to appreciate fairness, justice, and rights is not only above and beyond anything else in the animal kingdom, but it is an essential part of what makes us human. A third common affirmative argument is about humanity’s capability for rationality and higher cognitive functions; the way we rationalize our actions and contemplate our choices is fundamentally different than the way other animals do. The negative will likely have a heavier focus on defining “fundamentally different.” A large part of the negative position is asserting that the differences between humans and other animals are not attributable to differences that are foundational. The negative will likely reference the importance of genetics in understanding the differences and similarities of species. They may point out we share almost all genetic material with other animals, including >99% with apes. They may argue that evolutionary biology is the basis for determining what is fundamental to a species. The negative may also make the argument that all living organisms function to survive in a competitive world, and that human characteristics, like all other animals, are just consequences of this fundamental process.

Each round features two to four students: one side representing the affirmative and one representing the negative. Each side gives four speeches, and there are two periods of questions. If students are competing in pairs, they will alternate speeches. Each student has three minutes of preparation time during the debate, to be used in increments of their choice. For example, a student may elect to prepare for one minute for their rebuttal speech, one minute for their consolidation speech, and one minute for their final speech. Students may also prepare “for free” during each other’s preparation time.

(Each debater gets 3 minutes of prep time to use at their discretion.)


EMAIL lauren.burdt@speechanddebate.org

This publication was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation. ROSTRUM | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 29



Community Connections through

Communication by Ashley Murphy


rocuring funding. Building community. Fostering leadership. No matter the size of the program, every speech and debate coach is faced with these tasks to some degree. As a new coach on a small but growing team, I had a vision of the atmosphere I wanted to create but was not clear on how to get there. In addition, as our team continued to expand, we faced the challenge of maintaining the funding needed to be successful while minimizing additional financial burdens for the students. Like many teams, we had explored a variety of fundraising opportunities. While some were fairly successful, each felt disconnected from the activity we were raising funds to support and, with an already busy competition season, it was difficult to maintain consistency with team participation. As I worked with a group of volunteers to organize the next batch of bake

sales, one parent approached me about trying to find a service-driven opportunity that utilized the skills our competitors had instead of one that was based on delivering a product. Five months later, Say It Like You Mean It Public Speaking Camp was born. The idea was simple: run a fourday public speaking workshop where members on the high school team would work with elementary and middle school students in the district on general public speaking skills. The resulting success was much larger than I could have anticipated. Not only did holding this event transform our team’s budget, it raised community awareness about speech and debate, forged stronger connections among teammates, and built confidence and leadership capacity within each of the high school students who participated. Though I don’t claim to know everything there is to know about running a camp, I do believe that one of the most valuable aspects of this community is the sharing of educational resources. There are many ways to organize a successful public speaking workshop, and I hope the lessons learned through my experience can be used by others who wish to implement similar programs.

Shaping Your Vision Though the camp was created as a fundraiser, education was at its heart. To this aim, we consciously chose to make the focus about public speaking as a whole, rather than



competition. The students attending ranged from incoming fourth graders through incoming ninth graders. While many would go on to compete for our team, my main objective was to give each student exposure to different types of public speaking and hands-on experience performing in front of small groups. This culminated with a student showcase at the end of the week, where each student would perform a piece in front of their parents. Each day of the camp reflected a different aspect of public speaking. Almost all students (campers and volunteers alike) had certain days that they gravitated toward and ones that pushed them out of their comfort zones. Though students often took the lead on the days that fit into where they had the most experience, it was important for them to approach each day with an open mind. The first day, dubbed Public Speaking 101, gave students an introduction to the basics of oration and the chance to practice speaking extemporaneously. The second day, Research and Argumentation, focused on debate-related skill sets. The third day, Acting and Interpretation, delved into more theatrical public speaking as well as character development and improv. On the final day, Polished Presenting, students examined the aspects of good delivery and had the opportunity to put these in action during their showcase piece. With a clear idea of the objectives for each day, our focus shifted to figuring out how to implement those goals.

“Though the camp was created as a fundraiser, education was at its heart.”

Surveying Your Resources In order to maximize the effectiveness of our fundraiser, it was necessary to keep overhead as low as possible. We were fortunate to be granted access to both our school library and the large group instruction classroom, and the majority of the camp took place between these two spaces. We invested in T-shirts and pencils with the camp logo, as well as printing and binding the course book; however, almost everything else needed for the camp was donated. We modeled our tuition for the camp based on what other sports camps were charging at the high school. Early Bird Registration was $125 for one session, or $200 for both sessions. We also offered a sibling discount ($25 off for each additional child if they registered together). The fee included their course book, a camp pencil, and

a T-shirt. The students staying for the full day also had the option to buy lunch for an additional $5 a day. The most important resource we had—and what would ultimately determine the success of the camp— was human capital. While I wrote most of the curriculum for the camp, there were a number of people who were instrumental in making it successful. My assistant coach contacted the PTO as well as several local businesses to spread the word about registration and get donations. We had about 20 students from the team volunteer to be “Peer Mentors” and, working in pairs, they were assigned to a group of four to six campers for the duration of camp. In addition, I chose several of our varsity members to help create special topic presentations. They chose topics that ranged from developing characters to identifying “fake news.” One of our alums even came back to give a presentation on using public speaking to pursue social justice. This really gave students the opportunity to showcase their areas of expertise.

Unexpected Consequences While I had high hopes for our first camp, the results surpassed

Peer Mentors engage younger students during the four-day public speaking camp.

my wildest expectations. First, as a fundraiser, the camp raised more than $8,000 for our team within the span of four days. This allowed our team to expand our travel budget and to gain access to myriad additional resources. Second, working as Peer Mentors encouraged an incredible amount of growth within my students. Though many of them had volunteered working with the middle school debate team from time to time, working with the age range that was present at camp required them to shift from the role of helpful student to that of a mentor. In addition, pairing the Peer Mentors gave them a chance to work with teammates who they did not typically talk to during the season. At the end of each day of camp, we held a “debriefing” session, where each of the Peer Mentors could share aspects of the day they found particularly challenging or rewarding. While my assistant coach and I were there to help facilitate these conversations and provide strategies, this also gave the opportunity for the team to collaborate and problem solve together. Over the last two years, the camp has expanded to include several one-day workshops that focus on specific skill sets. Each time we run an event, I am amazed both by the leadership of the high school students involved and the growth of the campers. The skills learned through speech and debate can help students achieve more both in the classroom and beyond. Hosting a camp helped to spread these skills to the next generation while connecting the team to their community.

Interested in starting your own camp fundraiser? Visit NSDAConnect.org to access sample curriculum! Ashley Murphy is an academic interventionist and the Director of Speech and Debate at Unionville High School in Pennsylvania.



Alumni Outreach IN FOCUS

by David Weston


ebate becomes a home for many high school students. That home is not determined by wins and losses, but rather by the community built over the course of time. Alumni are an important part of that community. It is important for current students to see that debate extends beyond the walls of the school. Even after students graduate, they continue to reflect on their debate experiences. Creating interactions with alumni lets our current students know they are becoming a part of something bigger. It also shows our alumni that we still value them. Social media is a fantastic tool for generating alumni interest. Facebook groups for alumni allow coaches to post updates about the team, pictures of students, and generate buzz for a program. Once a few people join, they can invite other alums they know and the word spreads. It also provides a platform to ask for alumni to return as judges. Since programs constantly need critics, reaching out to all of your alums at once can increase the chance for them to give back. Additionally, Twitter is an easy way to promote your program to alumni. Tweeting pictures, updates, and getting your school to repost them showcases the program to the community. With the current President creating a surge of interest in tweets, we might as well make use of this platform as a way to connect with former debaters. Nothing beats an in-person experience. My former debate coach, Father Raymond Hahn, gathered



alumni interest long before social media. He would host an annual alumni gathering during winter break where graduates young and old could get together in one place, enjoy some food, and share debate stories. Since former debaters came home to visit family or were on college break, a lot of alums were able to attend. Some university programs have done similar events over homecoming weekend.

“Creating interactions with alumni lets our current students know they are becoming a part of something bigger... This year, I asked my alums to send me a pennant of their university to show where debate has taken them.” Alums return to the university, meet the current debaters, check out new technology, and then head to the weekend’s football game together. I would imagine that this type of event could be adapted for high schools as well. Some schools maintain relations with alums, but don’t target your former debaters. Communications directors, outreach coordinators, or alumni relations personnel can

be valuable in assisting with any endeavor. Tapping into those resources can help build your alumni base. In some instances, schools maintain alumni magazines that are mailed out to former students. These communications administrators can include blurbs about the debate program, calls to reach out to exdebaters, or provide you with sections inviting alums to consider their debate experience. Do not hesitate to reach out to these individuals at your school! They are often ready, willing, and able to help you because it is in their interest as much as it is yours. Finally, for new coaches, it can be very difficult to break into the alumni ranks. You might not have contact information, preexisting relationships, or the time/energy to build an alumni base. It is never too late to start! I make a conscious effort to talk to my current students about what it means to be a part of the debate community. We talk about how our program needs them to give back, how they can influence the next class of debaters, and why younger students need to see them even after they’ve donned the cap and gown. Planting the seed with current students early builds a momentum that will eventually pay off. This year, I asked my alums to send me a pennant of their university to show where debate has taken them. Those pennants are going up on a wall in our classroom. While it is a simple gesture, it is a visible representation that brings a part of that alum back into our debate classroom. In a sense, it is bringing a part of them back home. David Weston is a co-head debate coach at New Trier Township High School in Winnetka, Illinois, where students participate in Congressional, Lincoln-Douglas, Policy, and Public Forum Debate. He teaches in the Media, Speech, and Theatre Department and serves as a freshman adviser. David is an executive board member of the National Debate Coaches Association (NDCA) and president of the Illinois Debate Coaches Association.


WHERE ARE THEY NOW? The NSDA’s National Student of the Year Award Turns Ten! by Annie Reisener


n 2008, the National Speech & Debate Association created an award to recognize one graduating senior out of more than 150,000 members who represented the best of our activity—a student with remarkable integrity and humility who valued academic achievement and service to the speech and debate community. In the decade since, we’ve had the honor of introducing you to ten incredible students from across the country who sought to use the skills they learned in speech and debate long after they left high school. They were chosen for their bright minds, their efforts to better their own teams and districts, their passion for speech and debate, and their big hearts. We caught up with the recipients of the William Woods Tate, Jr., National Student of the Year award to find out what they’re up to today and reflect on their time in speech and debate. While they’ve all taken different paths, they still share a common belief—this activity shaped their lives in meaningful and long lasting ways. We are proud to share their thoughts and to celebrate ten years of outstanding student achievement. Here’s to the next ten years!



can have. I credit this activity with teaching me to love and fight for my own rights and for the rights of any who need it. We are living in a turbulent time, and we need more people to stand up for hope, compassion, and defiance of oppression. Because of this activity I am not alone, and I am not afraid.”



Class of 2008

Class of 2009

Downers Grove South HS, IL

St. Mary’s HS, CO

Kyle graduated from the University of Texas - Austin in 2012 with a degree in Communication Studies and Women’s and Gender Studies. He received his Master’s Degree in Communication Studies from Texas State University in 2014. A former school vice principal, Kyle now works as a Solutions Engineer for Taskstream-Tk20, an educational technology company. “I never thought I was learning things during my time competing in speech and debate. Still, I was unassumingly accumulating a series of skills that would sculpt me into a person of whom I am immensely proud. Most simply, the skills to communicate comfortably with the world through written and spoken formats have made me feel marketable, helpful, and special. On a deeper level, however, speech and debate taught me to respect and engage advocacy. Though I had never thought of myself as political, I learned the colossal impact a single person

Dani attended the University of Richmond. She currently lives in Washington, D.C. where she works as a project manager for Capitol One.* “When my dad competed for the Saint Ignatius forensic team in high school, my grandfather seemed to have an odd way of celebrating his success. After my dad came home from a successful tournament with a trophy or award in hand, my grandfather would praise my father and then simply tell him to take out the trash. My grandfather’s lesson was simple; no matter what you achieve or what honor you receive, humility is an invaluable quality. You are never too good to take out the trash. This idea resonated with my dad and his siblings (who—in their own time—all took out the trash as a celebration for something), and became a celebration tradition that my parents passed on to me. Taking out the trash always served as two reminders in my career. It was an obvious reminder of humility in life, just as my grandfather intended, but

it always appeared as a parallel to my own high school forensic career. In order to accomplish something noteworthy I had to do the hard and (often) less-than-pleasant work. I couldn’t just skate by, but had to truly roll up my sleeves and work, even if it sometimes meant completing a task that I would rather not do. I learned that, not only will I never be too good for a job, but that the hard, less-thanpleasant work is often a necessity. Through that hard work, we gain the skills necessary to succeed.”

solidified the bonds between my teammates. Speech and debate became my family for four years in high school. We traveled together, ate together, cried together, and won together. I developed bonds with not only my teammates, but with competitors from across the country, that still hold strong today. I know that there is no challenge that I can’t overcome, no argument that I can’t win, and no presentation that I can’t destroy because I was given the tools to succeed in my time as a student.”



Class of 2010

Class of 2011

Hattiesburg HS, MS

Henry W. Grady HS, GA

Cory graduated from Vanderbilt University in 2015 with a degree in Health Care Public Policy. He currently works as a fundraising consultant for non-profit organizations, where he makes strategic development recommendations and helps them to build and grow their major gift and annual giving campaigns. Cory continues to work with students at his alma mater, Hattiesburg High School in Mississippi. “Speech and debate helped me become a confident and knowledgeable professional. My coach knew it was more important for me to be a great person than it was for me to be a great competitor. We were taught the important characteristics of honesty, integrity, and teamwork in the long practice sessions that

Taylor graduated from Boston University’s College of Communication in 2015 with a degree in journalism. She is currently a news producer at WMUR in Manchester, New Hampshire, where she uses her speech and debate skills every day. “It’s quite funny—while performing my interpretation of other people’s voices, I found my own. I expanded my view of the world through conversations with competitors and through travels with my team and formulated long-lasting friendships that didn’t end in high school. Speech and debate also helped me understand the power of being a voice for the voiceless. For ten minutes, you have the power to control the room. You have the power to be a voice for those in the

shadows. That’s a big responsibility. It’s key to think about why you’re willing to do this—what do you want the audience and judges to experience? Use that as a motivator and remember that it’s not always about getting to finals. Sometimes telling the story in a room full of people just one time is more than it has been shared before.”

QUINLAN CAO Class of 2012 East Mountain HS, NM Quinlan graduated from Ohio State University in 2016 with a degree in Finance and a minor in Aviation. He currently works at The Boeing Company in Seattle, Washington, in a leadership development rotation program. “Prior to speech and debate, I didn’t know what leadership really looked like—I thought it was the loudest person in the room, the person with the most impressive title, or the person with the most accolades. As I grew and matured in speech and debate, I took notice of all the coaches and students who were widely regarded as effective leaders and did my best to emulate their best qualities. These were people who were humble in victory and gracious in defeat, prioritized team success over individual accomplishments, and went out of their way to improve the speech and debate experience for others. Sometimes, when I run into a difficult situation, I think back to speech


and debate and ask myself what those people would do. Speech and debate instilled in me a desire to be authentic in my interactions with others, and while that’s not always easy in a competitive environment, it goes a long way toward fostering kindness and empathy. “Success in the business world often comes down to analyzing a lot of complex information, synthesizing the important details, and communicating a precise, and concise, message. Just in the first year of my career, some of the best moments happened because I had an audience and something to say. I remember one instance where an executive approached me after a presentation and asked if I was a high school debater. She said it’s easy to tell the difference between someone with a speech and debate background and someone without that experience. Her comment served as evidence of the exceedingly powerful and lasting impact speech and debate has on our lives.”

BOBBY SHAW Class of 2013 Glenbrook South HS, IL Bobby attended Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, while working in sales and marketing.* “What I have come to realize is that the noncompetitive benefits of debate have far exceeded the competitive ones. That’s what makes

this community so unique—the fact that the betterment of the community takes precedent over the betterment of the individual. As a direct result of my involvement, I have formed friendships that would not have been possible otherwise. The debate community has taught me to cherish each relationship and always strive to make new ones. Whichever forensic event you participate in, strive not only to win, but also to encourage others to pursue that with which you have fallen in love. Remember the people who made the activity a home for you. Try to do that for others younger than you so that when they begin to form their own paths in high school, they are inspired to give speech and debate a chance and continue to nurture this already flourishing community.”

WALTER PAUL Class of 2014 Creighton Preparatory, NE Walter is a senior at Carleton College, where he studies International Relations and Arabic and serves as the student-body president. He also created a non-profit organization called Engaging Voice, which establishes speech and debate programs at underresourced middle schools. “To me, speech and debate meant an opportunity to step out of my comfort zone of reclusion. I was, am, and always will be an introvert. Speech and debate

proved that public speaking was a skill compatible with my introversion. It’s not exclusive to extroverted people. Because of speech and debate, I understand and can communicate political, economic, and social issues with distinct depth and breadth—that is, in a more detailed, critical, and extensive manner. I would tell a ninth grader considering joining their speech and debate team that the ability to communicate one’s ideas is essential for success in whatever field you’re interested. It’s important that we not only do impactful things, but we must be able to effectively communicate that impact to get the opportunity to bring those ideas to fruition.”

JARRIUS ADAMS Class of 2015 Hattiesburg HS, MS Jarrius currently attends the University of Mississippi where he studies Public Policy and Political Science. He serves as the Campus Ambassador for Mississippi Votes, a nonprofit, nonpartisan grassroot organization working to strengthen communities through the ballot box. “I am a firm a believer that everything happens for reason. Every opportunity that I have received since my last performance at the 2015 National Tournament has been a result of my six-year speech and debate experience. Some say that speech and debate

* Indicates student could not be reached for further comment; quotation pulled from a prior edition of Rostrum magazine. 36


has changed their lives, but it’s still changing mine, day by day. I think about speech and debate every day. Coaching at my high school, judging at local tournaments, donating to the activity, and interning at the 2017 National Tournament have all played a part in helping me remain involved and engaged in the activity.”

MARSHALL WEBB Class of 2016 Saint Mary’s Hall HS, TX Marshall currently attends Georgetown University where he studies International Politics with a concentration in International Law, Institutions, and Ethics. Last summer, Marshall interned at the Refugee and Immigrant Center for Legal and Educational Services (RAICES). “Speech and debate was the core of my high school experience. I averaged 15 tournaments a year for four years, and I gave hundreds of speeches in that time. But more than being a massive time sink, forensics gave a real sense of focus and purpose to my time, from the classes I took to my extracurriculars. Speech and debate changed my life immensely. This activity is all about teaching young people that they have a voice, that their voice matters, and that they can use that voice to do great things. And that’s exactly the lesson I learned. I can’t tell you how valuable it’s been in my life to have

an activity teach me that I matter and what I have to say matters.”

RICARDO FLORES Class of 2017 Americas HS, TX Ricardo attends Georgetown University and plans to major in International Political Economy. This year, he will serve as the student face of the National Speech & Debate Association. “When I was younger, my mother used to tell me ‘Deja que tu voz ilumine.’ My family and I fled Mexico due to the cartel violence. At the age of six, I was more than a refugee in the United States; I was an outcast in a monolingual public school system. I vividly remember walking the colorfully checkered halls of the elementary school campus on my first day reciting in my head, ‘Hello, my name is Ricardo’ (the only phrase I could say in English besides ‘spider-man’). An attempt at saying anything else sounded like an abnormal composition of alien sounds. In my naïve mind, I thought that one phrase would be enough, that this one phrase would get me through. But when my teacher pushed me to speak beyond that and reveal my accent, the prejudice, laughter, and malevolent comments from the other students punctured me like razor-edged arrows. I decided to arm myself with more and joined Theatre in elementary school because I was eager to

be able to speak out for myself. Acting gave me a voice throughout elementary and middle school. However, speech and debate gave that voice a purpose. ‘Deja que tu voz ilumine’ translates to ‘Let your voice illuminate.’ As I stepped on that 2015 Nationals finals stage my sophomore year, I finally understood what she meant. Telling Cesar’s story (my character from my DI), with the nation watching, I understood that my monologue was bigger than the competition. My voice not only helped me overcome my adversities, but it helped illuminate the voiceless and the socially oppressed in our nation. Winning second place at Nationals was an achievement that embodied a satisfying closure to my early life’s struggles with speaking out.”

Do you know a student who belongs on this list in the future? Be sure to nominate them for your District Student of the Year award! Each year, six recipients of the district award are named as finalists for the William Woods Tate, Jr., National Student of the Year award. Learn more online at www.speechanddebate.org/

honor-society. You can also check out the article on page 40 for tips on writing a knockout nomination essay. Annie Reisener serves as Operations Specialist for the NSDA.


N O S A M F O E G E T R U O S T E C I G I T S S N N E I R O F july 8-21, 2018

july 21-24, 2018

dec 2-3, 2017

dec 1, 2017







W E ?





STUDENT OF THE YEAR: Knockout Nominations by Annie Reisener


or the past ten years, we have had the pleasure of introducing the speech and debate community to six incredible finalists for the National Student of the Year award in June, but first these students are brought to our attention by their districts. Each NSDA district can select a District Student of the Year, who is then entered into the running for the national award. The students are evaluated anonymously by a group of coaches, and a panel meets with the six finalists for the national award in person at the National Tournament. The winner is announced during the National Awards Assembly. This process allows us to meet remarkable students who are well spoken, friendly, and incredibly bright. But it is not those characteristics that led us to meeting them in person. The most crucial factor in selecting the finalists is the initial nomination letter written for the district award, the best of which focus not on awards and accolades, but on who the student is, what they bring to their team, and how their speech and debate experience is helping them make a difference. The district nomination form asks for each student’s GPA, merit points, and the three speech and debate achievements of which the student it the most proud. The form concludes with a short essay from the nominating coach that answers the prompt, “Describe the extent to which the student has influenced their team, school, district, and the activity as a whole through their integrity, character, and service. Imagine that this student, if selected, would be asked to serve as a spokesperson for speech and debate—not because of achievement, but because of their attitude toward speech and debate, and what this activity does for young people.”



How a coach answers this question is without a doubt the most important piece of the nomination. It’s important to remember when writing this nomination that it is not only reviewed by members of the district, but if a student is selected as the winner, it is used to determine whether they become a finalist for the national award. For that reason, context is incredibly important. While the initial reviewers of a nomination may know all the students personally, the national panel will not.

The most crucial factor in selecting National Student of the Year finalists is the initial nomination letter written for the district award. Many coaches choose to focus their essay on a student’s success in their event, but we’ve learned over the last ten years that the best nominations are those that skate over the student’s competitive records, remembering that those details have already been addressed by their merit points and the list of their top three achievements in the activity. Instead, the nominations of most of the finalists focus on personal anecdotes, are rich in detail, and give a clear picture of how the student personifies the NSDA Code of Honor.

Breaking It Down The 2017 National Student of the Year Panel was chaired by Dario Camara of Western High School in Florida. We asked Dario what made the finalists

stand out among dozens of students with perfect GPAs, state championships, and every award imaginable. One nomination letter remained clear in his mind, even months after reading it. “Derek Collins (Hattiesburg High School, MS) had a very detailed coach recommendation,” Dario remembers. “His coach was able to focus on the meaningful service projects Derek was involved in and related them to the mission of speech and debate. Derek was unique in that his application truly painted the picture of a great competitor tied to an accomplished leader. His coach also used language that had emotion and truly cemented Derek’s love for his projects—which made the application easy to read and relatable.” Derek’s nomination was written by Raphael Scott Waldrop, head coach at Hattiesburg High School. If you’re looking for a Student of the Year nomination essay expert, Scott Waldrop should be your go-to. Hattiesburg has produced two National Student of the Year award recipients in the ten years of the award’s history. Why? Scott is a great writer who coaches incredible kids. It’s clear in reading his nomination essay that he puts a great deal of thought and effort into his message about Derek. When you’re limited to 500 words, your language must be both concise and impactful. Scott has that formula down to a science. Despite Derek’s numerous accolades, Scott chose to focus on who Derek is as a person and what his speech and debate skills have allowed him to do in Hattiesburg. The letter begins: “Derek Collins will graduate as one of the most highly decorated students from Hattiesburg High School, but if you ask students from across the nation about him, few will mention his competition prowess. What is often mentioned in conversations are his mannerisms, demeanor, character, and, of course, his smile.” The reader immediately gets a sense of who Derek is, and as the essay goes on, we learn that Derek was inspired by personal conditions to create a health initiative for his school and his

community. He also served as the coordinator of a project with the Poverty and Race Research Action Council wherein he received a grant to lead tours of Hattiesburg’s Freedom Trail, a compilation of historic sites from the Civil Rights Movement and the Freedom Summer 1964—a remarkable achievement for a high school senior. The nomination closes: “Derek Collins understands that he owes his school, his community, and this activity for all that it has done and will do for him. He wants to be a speech and debate coach one day because he has seen firsthand how forensics can transform lives. He is already an ambassador for this activity. I believe his work has only just begun.” Scott’s writing is dynamic, and Derek jumps off the page. In 500 words, we’ve seen a clear picture of who Derek is and why he is deserving of the award. Dario remembers the letter as clear and focused, zeroing in on how Derek’s service reflects the mission of the NSDA. We’re not left wondering whether Derek could serve as an ambassador for speech and debate, but instead, knowing that he already is.

More Highlights from Past Nomination Essays Jordyn Zimmerman Mentor High School, OH “Jordyn Zimmerman is nonverbal. She struggles to verbalize her thoughts, feelings, questions, and answers. As an Informative Speaker, she was held to the same standards for eye contact and gestures as her neurotypical competitors. But those are, in fact, special challenges for students with autism. She has worked as hard as any student I have coached, and she has made great gains. When she practiced her speech this week without swaying, it felt like a major victory. I feel truly blessed to have worked with her because of the ways she has coached me.” — Nominated by Amy Roediger

What we love about this nomination: It’s personal, it’s inclusive, it provides great background on who Jordyn is, and it doesn’t focus on competitive success, but on growth due to speech and debate.

Marshall Webb St. Mary’s Hall High School, TX “As a young gay man and advocate, Marshall has struggled with how to communicate with his peers when they are dismissive, rude, or even downright bigoted with issues surrounding race, language, ethnicity, or sexuality. He determined that the issue stemmed from tolerance. The idea that our community puts up with those who are different, but doesn’t really accept difference has irked him for years. So he wrote about it and then he spoke about it. Since Marshall’s impassioned delivery of a timely message in front of our entire Upper School, a faculty committee was created with the mission of looking at issues of diversity and inclusion on campus. Our Head of School has brought Marshall’s recorded speech to the Board of Trustees, and they have begun to talk about what it might look like to change our century-old value of tolerance to something far more powerful, acceptance.” — Nominated by Colin Malinak and Joe Muller

What we love about this nomination: It’s powerfully written and provides a concise but clear snapshot of how Marshall is using his speech skills to create positive change in his school.

Olivia Shoemaker Lakeville North High School, MN “Beyond our program, Olivia has been instrumental to planning and facilitating opportunities for female extemporaneous speakers to come together and share the unique

challenges they face. As part of this ‘Women’s Extemp Forum,’ she has helped establish a community of speakers willing to support and encourage the success of competitors, regardless of which team they compete for. She leads best by example—by encouraging competitors who look nervous before a round and always being willing to introduce herself to someone new. Her commitment to foster a welcoming community for all speakers exemplifies her commitment to promoting respect and fostering diversity.” — Nominated by Yatesh Singh

What we love about this nomination: It demonstrates that Olivia is a leader and a mentor outside of the classroom, that she is an advocate, and begins to show us her character.

Resources and Takeaways What we’re looking for in a nomination: While the question may seem stock and file, there should be nothing cookie-cutter about the essay. We’re looking for inclusive nominations that create a compelling and clear picture of the student with plenty of background, examples, and ties to the Honor Code. The essay should provide unique information that isn’t addressed elsewhere on the nomination form.

Ready to write a nomination? Check out these helpful resources! from Prep Scholar: https://blog.prepscholar.com/writing-aletter-of-recommendation-how-to-forstudent from DeMontfort University, Leicester: http://www.dmu.ac.uk/dmu-staff/yourstaff-experience/staff-recognition/theoscar-awards/guidelines-and-tips-forwriting-quality-award-nominations.aspx from NASA People: https://nasapeople.nasa.gov/awards/ winning_nominations.htm

Annie Reisener serves as Operations Specialist for the NSDA.

Each district may select one graduating senior to be considered for the National Student of the Year award.

LEARN MORE | www.speechanddebate.org/honor-society ROSTRUM | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017 41

Speech & Debate Powered by Excellence since 1963

• 12-time Pi Kappa Delta National Sweepstakes Champions • 27-time Missouri Association of Forensics Activities Champions • A team-oriented tradition emphasizing the educational outcomes of speech and debate

Contact Dr. David Bailey, Director of Forensics, Southwest Baptist University, at dbailey@sbuniv.edu. Visit our website at https://www.sbuniv.edu/campus-life/student-activities/clubs-organizations/speaking-bearcats.php

Come discover your voice with us!

Help us find the next COACH OF THE YEAR & PRINCIPAL OF THE YEAR Each year, the National Speech & Debate Association recognizes one middle school coach and one high school coach who best reflect outstanding leadership and commitment to speech and debate activities.

We also honor one principal at both the middle and high school level who have provided high-quality opportunities for students in speech and debate programming as well as demonstrated exemplary contributions to the profession.

HOW DO I NOMINATE SOMEONE? LEARN MORE: www.speechanddebate.org/honor-society

Nominations must be received by APRIL 6, 2018, to be considered for the 2018 awards.


INSIGHT: Finding a Rewarding Career Path through Speech and Debate by Matthew Stefanko and Rachel Boroditsky Editor’s Note: Coaches, if your students are looking for exciting ways to utilize their speech and debate skills after graduation and beyond, please share these perspectives from our friends (and former debaters) at McKinsey & Company!


n June, we had the opportunity to speak to a number of the most talented students in the country at Nationals. It was an incredible experience to meet so many enthusiastic debaters, coaches, and parents. Many asked us what McKinsey & Company was doing at the tournament. As former debaters, we were excited to share how our careers in management consulting have allowed us to experience what we love most about debate on a daily basis—from researching new topics to thinking on our feet to being a part of a closeknit community. Whether you’ve had your first job or haven’t even thought about what you might want to pursue after college, we want to encourage you to think about how to make those connections between debate and your professional life. At this point, you may be wondering what management consultants do. Good news—we’re here to tell you! In the most general sense, consultants are in the business of providing advice. We offer support for organizations solving challenging or specialized problems by bringing needed expertise or utilizing an outside perspective. For instance, we might advise a business on what new products could expand its consumer base or support a government considering the impact of autonomous vehicles on transportation. We even help run our company-founded non-profit, Generation, as it looks to end youth unemployment both domestically and globally. By bringing prior experience and expertise to the organization, we work together to help others achieve their goals.



One of the most exciting parts of debate is having a platform and a voice with which to effect change. You address important issues about government and social policy, and you work to convince the judge of your position. While careers in government and law are a logical place to continue these discussions, a career in the business world also can serve that purpose—by helping inform decision-makers on how to create tangible impact across society. At McKinsey, you attend frequent meetings with influencers—executives, government officials, entrepreneurs— and speak up, ask questions, and collaborate to find a solution. You’ll often see change firsthand—anything from improvements at your client’s storefronts, advertisements about a new policy program, or friends coincidentally mentioning a news story about a change you’ve helped shape. For others, the most invigorating part of debate is learning about a new topic. Whether the topic changes every month or once a year, debaters quickly have to become experts on multiple sides of an issue. In consulting, our projects can last from one week to a few months, and we must learn quickly about a new industry, guided by colleagues and expert interviews. Similarly, consultants have a lot of variety in their projects—working on everything from education policy to retail pricing to social media marketing. A good consultant can see multiple sides of an issue and bring a diversity of experience to better understand the problem. In the process, we consider stakeholders’ views and exercise empathy. Switch-side debate has prepared us for

this work by broadening our perspectives and helping us appreciate nuances in differing opinions. For many debaters, the people you meet are the highlight of the experience. For example, we first met at debate camp in high school, long before we started working at McKinsey. Your teammates support you, push you to improve, and, above all, are your friends. In consulting, our work is similarly team-focused, and our dedication to mentorship means that colleagues who care deeply about your development will help you reach your potential. The time we spend together, working on challenging intellectual questions, forges tight bonds that last long after a project ends. Teammates support you in your personal and professional life and have your best interests at heart. Like your tight connection to the debate community— which will continue long after you graduate—the McKinsey community is one that will stay with us long after we leave its four walls. We hope you find our experience interesting and that it provides you something to think about as you begin to explore your career and goals: What do you enjoy doing? What would you like to accomplish? What matters to you in your personal and professional life? Consulting could be the bridge you walk across to continue pursuing your interests, aspirations, and values from your debate experience. We hope you will reach out to us or the many other former debaters at McKinsey if you would like to learn more! Be confident that debate equips you with many skills, and that by spending time in the community, you are well-positioned for future successes in the areas you care about. Matthew Stefanko debated for four years at Rosemount High School (MN), where he was a Policy Debate qualifier to the Tournament of Champions and the National Speech & Debate Tournament. Rachel Boroditsky debated for four years at Glenbrook North High School (IL), where she was a Policy Debate finalist at the Tournament of Champions and Illinois Debate State Tournament.

For more information, visit www.surveymonkey.com/r/debaters.


A GUIDE FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE DEBATERS Shawn F. Briscoe In Policy Debate: A Guide for High School and College Debaters, Shawn F. Briscoe introduces educators, coaches, and students at the high school and college levels to the concepts at the foundation of Policy Debate, also known as cross-examination debate, and uses conceptual analysis and real-world examples to help students engage in competitive debates and deploy winning strategies.



with essays by Minh Luong, Matt Stannard, Amy Cram Helwich, and 14 more! Healthy debate is integral to society. In Why Debate: Transformed by Academic Discourse, Shawn F. Briscoe and a diverse group of individuals introduce readers to academic, competitive debate in our secondary schools and institutions of higher learning. Over the course of twenty chapters, eighteen authors address the role of academic debate on educational development, interpersonal relationships, career and professional lives, and society.



Molly K. Beck, Shawn F. Briscoe, & Amy J. Johnson The Companion Guide for Speech & Debate Coaches is a supplement for new and experienced coaches. The tips, activities, handouts, samples, exercises, and graphics presented in its pages will prove to be a helpful addition to any coach’s existing resources. It begins with basic team management to include recruiting, planning, and tournaments. Then, it explores ways coaches can work with students competing in speech, interpretation of literature, and debate.

Great for coaches, parents, administrators, and graduates!

Available at any Bookseller or on Amazon.com!

Students, and even coaches, often must attend summer camps at great expense or spend years working concertedly to gather the — Derek Buescher, University of Puget Sound on Policy Debate: A Guide for High School and College Debaters information clearly conveyed here.



The Connection Between Educational Broadcasting and the Debate World by Paul L. Gaba (above) Pete Bowers, the author’s radio teacher and mentor at WBFH-FM in Michigan


UIZ TIME: Who among these is not like the others? Oprah Winfrey, Tom Brokaw, Jane Pauley, Paul L. Gaba. That last guy? That would be me. Yes, putting myself in the same sentence with three iconic broadcasters might seem narcissistic and vain. But I do have significant broadcasting training and experience. I’m just using that training differently—in a career called speech and debate. I’ve been coaching speech and debate in Florida since 2000, and in the past 17 years, hundreds of students have enrolled in my class. Many have inquired about my own debating experiences. Sadly, my high school offered no such program. However, “radio broadcasting” was an option, and I spent two-and-a-half years as a DJ and newscaster in Michigan at the Bloomfield Hills School District’s educational radio station, WBFH-FM. While “radio broadcasting” and “debate” might seem as alike as chalk and cheese, the skills I learned at “The Biff” prepared me for all of my professional experiences. Even though yearbook, newspaper, and marketing were available, I quickly caught the radio bug. It was exciting, a chance to do something beyond the

mundane required courses. It offered an opportunity to speak into a microphone and spin tunes—for a grade! And to wear cool shades and sign autographs—for groupies! And to emulate the cool cats on WKRP in Cincinnati (a staple of early 1980s air aces). Beyond these perks, radio taught numerous life skills, which are universally applicable to those taught in debate. Both activities hone critical thinking, researching, writing, and oral communication abilities. Both involve mentorship of students from an adult supervisor, and of newer students by program veterans. Both utilize real world knowledge. Both are comprised of close-knit groups of highly intelligent and motivated young adults, many of whom remain friends long after graduation. Both teach management, teamwork, confidence, and important “people skills.” And both give youth a purpose. At the time, I didn’t realize this; but one of the great things about education is its impact is measured futuristically. Looking back, I see the powerful foundation radio provided me scholastically and professionally. My radio teacher and mentor was Pete Bowers, who was the only general manager WBFH knew from its inception


in 1976 until his retirement in June 2017. I can say, unequivocally, the biggest positive influences in my life include Bowers, who helped guide me to a focus on broadcasting and journalism as an undergrad at Central Michigan University, and later into teaching. “Even though most of my students didn’t go into broadcasting, it’s still one of the best classes someone can take because of the life skills they learn,” Bowers says. “You keep hearing, ‘People need better communication skills.’ Well, I hope that’s what they learn here.” Great teachers like Pete Bowers make a difference. He cared, passionately, about the product being put on the air, and— more importantly—for the students under his guidance. Practical application of life skills is common to both debate and radio. “You can read a book on how to be an on-air personality 30 times, but you’ll never be good until you actually do it,” Bowers says. “And every time you do something, the better you will be. I had [the students] do show prep, so they knew what ‘hot topics’ were out there to talk about. I mean, for the school musical, you have three months to prepare for a few shows; in radio, you have three minutes to prepare for each performance.”

I brought my radio background into the debate classroom. I incorporate many of the lessons Pete Bowers provided over four decades as a model.” ­­— Paul L. Gaba 46


Frank Novak, WBFH alum and current Marketing Manager for the Detroit Lions, says, “The exercise of on-air prep, such as compiling news stories, sports scores, and writing on-air commercials, provided as much useful real-world experience as any college course would.” He continues, “The skills I learned played a huge role in not only building that first resume, but providing me with the background and experience I could take into the ‘real world.’” Along with “live” impromptu and extemp moments (quick, how does the DJ handle dead air when the song doesn’t play on cue?), radio and debate go handin-hand in myriad ways. Morning shows are full of humorous (and often team) interpretations as part of the schtick. Sportscasting requires “setting the scene” for listeners. Newscasting or hosting a talk show mandates being on top of current events, locally and globally, as well as solid oration and interviewing skills. And radio is, of course, “theatre of the mind,” with no costumes or props— just like many interpretation events. “In radio, you have to be compelling and interesting, because there’s nowhere to hide. It’s up to you to engage the audience, and I learned that in educational radio,” says another WBFH alum, Matt Friedman, founder of the Tanner Friedman Strategic Communications public relations firm in Detroit. “You are on the spot at some point, and you have to figure out a way to deliver.” There’s also management skills. “Regardless of what you may go into as a career, you will most likely have people working underneath you,” Bowers explains. “You have to handle those kinds of responsibilities at a high school radio station.” Radio students manage and work in various departments, such as news, sales, and promotions. Debate offers similar leadership as interp, congress, or debate events captains, among other options. And both programs usually have a student president to coordinate and lead by example. As with debate, high school radio veterans work with newer students to learn the ropes, whether in using

digital recording equipment, writing news copy, or airing phone calls live. Students also need to be able to conduct interviews, do sports broadcasts and remotes from news events, and handle other “professional” broadcast duties, in between studying for exams and doing homework for other classes. “It’s fun to see advanced students work with the newer staff to learn these things,” Bowers says. “I could go in there and do that, but it’s way better when one of your advanced students engineer shows and teaches them how to be an air personality—how to run the board,

“The crux is helping young adults learn how to harness their inner voice. In some cases, their voices were already there, but needed to be fine-tuned; in others, they didn’t even realize they had a voice.” find things they need to play, read the weather live. They learn what it’s like to be the teacher. “And as they progress as a student broadcaster, when I listen to them, I can tell if it’s an improvement, and make sure to mention it to them the next time I see them,” Bowers says. “I think that’s important for an educator, to provide that kind of feedback.” Both debate and radio provide confidence to young adults. “My high school radio teacher gave me the confidence and knowledge to make it happen,” says Cara Carriveau, afternoon drive host at WSHE in Chicago, who started at West Bloomfield High School’s WBLD in Michigan. “His belief in my abilities was so amazing, I can’t even imagine how my life would have turned out had I not taken that radio class. I certainly would have struggled in college, and in fact, may never have even figured

out my passion for a career in radio at all.” “High school radio made me a better conversationalist and made me well-read,” adds Christopher Grindrod, a WOVI alum from Michigan who spent several years in Bonaire (an island in the Leeward Antilles) with the international broadcast ministry Trans World Radio. Since 2003, WBFH has been recognized as the best high school radio station in the nation six times, and the top high school station in Michigan 11 times, with numerous students earning honors in various individual state and national broadcasting categories. Fourteen students have attended the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communication at Syracuse University—the top broadcast/journalism school in the nation. “It’s nice to be recognized, but we don’t do what we do to win state and national awards,” Bowers says. “However, it is a nice motivator for younger students.” Yet another parallel with debate. Looking back, some of the coolest things about being in high school radio were the variety of unique experiences it provided—like playing a charity basketball game against DJs from a professional Detroit-area rock and roll station, or the annual marathon to raise money for the March of Dimes, which involved seeking pledges for songs or goofy stunts. The irony is Bowers never planned to go into education. “When I was at Central Michigan University, I’d sit around the radio station with my broadcasting peers and we’d talk about, after we’ve been in the business for a long time, how nice it would be to buy our own radio stations, to program what we wanted, to hire who we wanted,” Bowers says. “Well, that happened to me at age 23. I remember the job posting said ‘radio station manager,’ and I said, ‘Sounds good to me!’ “Teaching wasn’t part of it. Then [the district] said, ‘By the way, at some point we’ll be offering classes,’” Bowers says. “I told them, ‘I don’t have a teaching certificate.’ So they worked to get me vocationally certified. I had never done any student teaching, or even taken an education course. And they said, ‘Well, it’s just like any other class, except you’re in the front.’”


In some ways, this parallels the world of high school debate coaches—the difference being, we become educators with the intent of teaching, and then administration swoops in and entices us into coaching. This usually happens when we are new to the profession, meaning we (a) have time and (b) need the financial stipend to (c) help pay those impending college loans. Trial by fire. Many debate coaches (and novices) have been there. Bowers literally built the station from scratch. There were no “Introduction to Radio” textbooks, so he used the Federal Communication Commission licensing guidelines as source material. He created 40 “minimum objectives” for students to achieve every semester, showing basic proficiency in a variety of areas such as recording promotions and writing news copy. He incorporated “old time radio” programs from the 1930s into teaching the history of radio broadcasting. Bowers may have started out focusing on management, but he’d turned 180 degrees by the time he retired. “I got to love teaching,” Bowers says. “It was like being a stand-up comic wanna-be. I had the microphone, with which I walked around the classroom. I used props. I had lots of stories [from my college radio career], and I always tried to relate them to the topics we talked about, to try and pass along my experiences to them.

Keeping the attention of teens for 90 minutes isn’t easy.” Looking back, I spent nearly 20 years in communications prior to becoming an educator. I took my experience at WBFH and scored a mid-week graveyard shift at the college FM station—a rarity for a freshman. While still in college, I landed employment at WWJ, Detroit’s all-news radio station. After graduation, I worked a variety of newspaper jobs across Michigan, covering everything from local high school sports to corruption in county government. And in the mid-1990s, while I was free-lancing for The Detroit News, Bowers offered me the WBFH assistant manager position, which led me back to college, a teaching degree, and a move to Florida in 1999. I’m not alone in following that kind of career path. “My experience at WSDP set the trajectory of my career at the age of 16,” says Central Michigan University associate broadcast professor Patty Williamson, an alum of the Plymouth station in Michigan. “I chose my college based on the strength of their broadcasting program, worked in commercial radio for a decade, and then decided to go back to school for advanced degrees in the same field. Now I teach young aspiring broadcasters and filmmakers. The experiences I had at my high school

station gave me the foundational skills I’ve built upon for the past 30 years.” So while Oprah, Tom, and Jane used their debate experiences to foster careers in broadcasting, I brought my radio background into the debate classroom. I incorporate many of the lessons Bowers provided over four decades as a model. The crux is helping young adults learn how to harness their inner voice and make it shine. In some cases, their voices were already there, but needed to be fine-tuned; in others, they didn’t even realize they had a voice. I can only hope to be as positive an influence for my students as Pete Bowers was for his. Take that, Oprah! You can watch Pete Bowers’ retirement ceremony video, where the author and other alumni paid tribute, at www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Xwf6O0maTx4.

Paul L. Gaba is a three-diamond coach at Wellington High School. Prior to coaching debate in Florida, he was the assistant manager of WBFH-FM from 1995-1999.

Advertise your speech and debate openings with us!

As a service to member schools, the National Speech & Debate Association offers complimentary employment listings on our website, www.speechanddebate.org/jobs. For $100, you may reserve a custom, third-page print ad in Rostrum magazine. We’ll even help you design your ad! Contact emily.kriegel@speechanddebate.org or call us at (920) 748-6206 to reserve your ad today. Our next issue will be published in mid-February!

LEARN MORE www.speechanddebate.org/jobs





s t o re . s p e e c h a n d d e b at e . o rg




NOMINATE AN OUTSTANDING COACH TO THE HALL OF FAME!  WHO IS ELIGIBLE? Individuals with at least 25 years of coach membership in the National Speech & Debate Association, or who are retired from coaching and teaching, are eligible for this prestigious award.

 HOW DO I NOMINATE SOMEONE? 2017 Hall of Fame Inductees

IT’S EASY! Member coaches can visit www.speechanddebate.org/hall-of-fame-nomination-form to submit a nomination form with coach bio. Keep in mind, your identity as nominator will remain confidential. Therefore, the biography (300 words or less) should be written in the third person and focus on the coaching history and qualifications of your candidate. Some topics to focus on could be awards, accolades, accomplishments, career highlights, character, and personal contributions.

Nominations must be received by FEBRUARY 2, 2018, to be considered for the 2018 ballot.


Team USA Prepares for Another Season of World Schools Debate by Ella Michaels


uring the four days that the newly minted USA Debate Team spent training and competing at the Greenhill School in Dallas, three things became clear: our fierce faces in photos need work, there is no such thing as saying “ostensibly” too many times in a speech, and if we value our dignity, we should never challenge another team to a bowling match. Ever. The new Team USA came together for the first time just over a month after last year’s team finished third at the 2017 World Championships in Bali, Indonesia. With the help of head coach Aaron Timmons, team manager and coach Cindi Timmons, and assistant coaches Shane Stafford and Sandy Berkowitz, our first debates in Dallas marked the beginning of our

road to the 2018 World Championships in Croatia and Slovenia, where the tournament celebrates its 30th anniversary. The last team member arrived in Dallas late Wednesday evening, and we rose early the next morning eager to start debating, but not before enjoying some chocolate muffins from the Greenhill Round Robin’s breakfast buffet. A delicious chocolate muffin may have been the highlight of an average morning, but this was no average morning: a bevy of USA Debate swag waited for us when we arrived upstairs, and beyond being fantastic, our new water bottles and athletic jackets will surely help us convince the world that debate is a sport. We spent the rest of the morning talking over what lay in

store for the rest of the year, and assistant coach Sandra Berkowitz led a fascinating discussion on considering international cultural dimensions when debating abroad. In the afternoon, we hit the bowling lanes for a little bonding time. What followed was a stunning display of what happens when you spend all of your time debating and no time developing your hand-eye coordination. If gutter balls counted for points, we also would be members of the USA Bowling Team! One of us, whom I will not name in order to protect their reputation, managed to score just eight points in five rounds. Fortunately, we found solace in a delicious team dinner at team member Shreya Agarwala’s house, featuring everything from samosa

Follow #USADebate on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter | speechanddebate 52


chaat to barbeque ribs to some truly mind-blowing guacamole. We returned to the hotel with full stomachs and another full day ahead of us before the tournament began on Saturday. We spent the morning of Day Two analyzing round videos from last year and discussing lessons learned, and finished out our working day by using one of Team USA’s favorite drills to practice points of information, a hallmark of the World Schools format. The trip’s biggest test of team cohesion actually came that afternoon. We took a break from training to stop a white-collar criminal from embezzling corporate funds—or, at least, that was the scenario designed for the escape room we visited. We may have failed (by 33 seconds!) to beat the room in under an hour, but we had an amazing time working together to solve what often felt like a real crime. Team member Piper Doyle remarked, “I don’t think any of the nine members stopped laughing the entire trip. I’m so excited for the season, and I can already tell that these people are going to become some of my best friends.” On Saturday, it was finally time for the tournament. Apparently, it was also time for half of the team to get sick. Two of Team USA’s three teams discovered the irony of arguing against single-payer healthcare while one of their teammates was so ill they had to sit out the round. Still, we recovered with some delicious Greek food, spent time with members of the USA Development Team, fawned over the baby peacocks that live on the Greenhill campus, and very much enjoyed our first tournament experience together.

Between rounds, Mrs. Timmons took our annual team pictures and patiently dealt with our vain attempts not to smile during the serious photos. After round-robin style preliminary rounds, Team USA Red (Emily Grantham, Ranen Miao, Ella Michaels) defeated Team USA Blue (Shreyoshi Das, Nikhil Ramaswamy, Brian Zhou) in the final round debating the motion, This house regrets the decline of the U.S. as a sole superpower. As the weekend came to a close, we shed our color-coordinated outfits for airplane attire and sat down to debrief. Coaches remarked that this was the first time everyone on the team had some background in the World Schools format, and it showed in our performance during the competition (even Mr. Timmons was happy). At one point during training, we analyzed round videos from this summer’s World Championships. Once I got over the painfully cringe-inducing experience that is watching yourself debate on film, I started to feel a little nostalgic. Watching the rounds felt like peering into both the past and the future; my new teammates and I sat piled on a couch at the very start of our year-long road to Worlds while we watched my old teammates at the very end of theirs, and saw some of the incredible engagement, discourse, and exploration that lay in store for us. Dallas pushed us immensely to grow as individual debaters and click as a team, and it was just the beginning.

MEET THE TEAM Shreya Agarwala Senior from Greenhill School in Texas

Shreyoshi Das Senior from Flower Mound High School in Texas

Piper Doyle Senior from Palisade High School in Colorado

Emily Grantham Junior from Kingwood High School in Texas

Ranen Miao Junior from Millburn High School in New Jersey

Ella Michaels Senior from North Hollywood High School in California

Nikhil Ramaswamy Senior from Plano West Senior High School in Texas

Leila Saklou Ella Michaels is a senior at North Hollywood High School in California. She also serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.

Learn more at www.speechanddebate.org/usa-debate.

Junior from Kingwood High School in Texas

Brian Zhou Junior from Greenhill School in Texas



YOU The Next


Shriyash Upadhyay 2017 Great Communicator National Runner Up

John Michael Magloire 2017 Great Communicator National Champion



• PERFECT FOR EXTEMP/POLICY/PF/LD For competition resources and to register your team, visit us at www.ReaganFoundation.org/ReaganDebates



Stepping Outside the Echo Chamber by Allie Kelly


atalie Schira craved the thrill of performing, and the smooth rhythm of her competitors speaking, one after another. She had her heart set on writing an Original Oratory. In Natalie’s freshman year at Dowling Catholic High School in Des Moines, Iowa, she initially struggled to organize a topic. Ultimately, she decided to speak on perception— an issue motivated, in part, by her own life experiences. Natalie lives legally blind as a symptom of Turner’s Syndromeinduced glaucoma. “There are a lot of adjectives out there that can describe me,” she says. “Complications from limited vision would go on my adjective list, but I am very fortunate that it is not the defining one. I simply live. I don’t necessarily separate [my visual impairment] from all of the other things in my life.” In the context of her speech and debate experience, Natalie embraces her differences. “We all have our vulnerabilities as competitors. It wasn’t ever a big deal that somebody was going to walk me from round to round, or read me the postings on the wall.” At the same time, she hopes that the speech and debate community can continue to be



inclusive and accommodating to performers like her. “The more that NSDA competitors can utilize their strength to support other competitors—something that we

I am fortunate that living with glaucoma does not define me. I simply live. — Natalie


pictured below with her English students at Wahlert Catholic High School in Dubuque, Iowa

all should be challenged to do—the better. It elevates the standards for everyone competing.” Natalie continues to appreciate the skills she learned during her time as an Original Oratory and Oral Interpretation performer. “It is a very human experience to be able to share something that means a lot to you with a room full of people,” she says. “It’s wonderful to live outside of an echo chamber. [Speech] sharpened my ability, not only to communicate on my own, but also to have respect for other perspectives around me.” Looking back on her speech and debate experience, Natalie recalls the supportive, team-based environment. “One of the best parts of speech and debate was being part of a team, and getting to celebrate when other people did well,” she says. “That, and eating french fries together at 10:30 p.m. after a tournament!” she adds. “The joke is that speech and debaters are the crazy kids— people who talk to walls,” Natalie laughs, “but that’s a wonderful gift. There is a level of fearlessness that come with that, which is to be relished.” She acknowledges the confidence and grit she developed in learning to speak to a group. “It’s always really special to be able to

share that little piece of yourself,” she says. “You get very comfortable in your own skin.” A natural communicator, Natalie has gone on to be a successful English teacher at Wahlert Catholic High School in Dubuque, Iowa. Jack Doyle, one of her former students, comments, “Ms. Schira holds us to a very high standard with our classwork, but allows us to have fun with her and be creative, sometimes goofy, in class.” He continues, “I think Ms. Schira makes the classroom one of the most productive settings I’ve been in as a student.” As with speech, Natalie relies on technology to work around her difference. “I love Apple products!” she exclaims. “There is a wonderful feature called ‘voiceover.’ I touch the screen, and it reads the text synthetically. If I am grading an essay, I can have it read by character, or word, or paragraph. The students submit their essays just like they would in any other class.” Her students enjoy both active discussion and creative projects in her classroom. “My favorite project was a creative script for a dinner party,” Jack recalls. “The members of the dinner party were characters from each of the books we read that year: Huckleberry Finn, Of Mice and Men, and The Crucible.” Another former student, Kaitlyn Rokusek, agrees. “Ms. Schira always gives the best revision ideas and is a great editor,” Kaitlyn says. “I still send her my essays this year to review and give me feedback. She reinforced in me that I always need to look for ways to improve.” All these years later, Natalie credits her speech coaches back at Dowling Catholic High School, Timothy Sheaff and Steve Schappaugh, for allowing

her the opportunity to challenge herself and find her voice, ultimately making her a better teacher. “My coach was very willing to work with me,” she explains.“By the time I left [high school], he couldn’t get me to be quiet.” She continues, “Mr. Sheaff was incredibly good at keeping me real, and keeping me humble. He treated me just like anybody else on the team.” Similarly, Natalie credits her mother for instilling in her values of independence. “My mom taught me to advocate for myself,” she says, smiling. “From her, I learned to be assertive, to be authentic, and I’m very grateful for that.” She claims that her mother “made tournaments happen” for her, chaperoning meets

and investing time and money that allowed her to travel with the team. “The first couple of rounds, there were learning curves,” Natalie admits, “but we worked through them together.” For her incredible accomplishments as a high school speech performer and teacher, Schira was recently recognized as a Distinguished Young Alumna at Dowling Catholic High. “I had the opportunity to come back and address the current student body,” she explains. “It was a very sweet moment.” Her recent award reminds her of the support she received during her time on the

Dowling Catholic speech team. “The goal now,” she says, “is to give that [support] back to my students, and forge something for them that is hopefully reminiscent of something I have received.” Natalie’s success is a celebration of diversity in the world of speech and debate. Because of the communication skills she learned on her high school speech team, she has grown into a beloved teacher and mentor to a younger generation of students. “I think many of us wouldn’t be capable of teaching a classroom full of high school kids being blind,” Jack says. “It takes an amazing amount of patience and dedication, and that’s something I can only hope to emulate of Ms. Schira. She takes each day with an enthusiasm and genuine joy for life that is contagious to those who encounter her.” Through the support of her coaches and her unwavering personal drive, Natalie has never allowed her obstacles to stand in the way of her goals, a lesson that she hopes to pass on to her current students, calling for an attitude of acceptance and compassion in her own community. “I’m incredibly grateful that an organization like the NSDA exists,” she concludes. “It is a stunning thing that we, as a society, would rather die than speak to people. I understand that apprehension, but I love that there is an active organization constantly building in students the confidence to communicate—we need that. So much of our dialogue today needs to step outside the echo chamber.”

Allie Kelly is a junior at Denver East High School in Colorado. She currently serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.



OVER AND OVER: How one coach keeps his community of debaters moving forward by Emily Weaver


Photos: Nicole Jenkins

hen Crawford Leavoy was in the eighth grade, he was first introduced to the world of speech and debate by a friend whose sister was the 1992 Lincoln-Douglas national champion. “I have no idea what that is,” he recalls responding, but went along anyway. “I wanted to belong, and I wanted a home. I wanted to fit in, so I just did it.” Almost two decades later, Crawford is still at it—now, with a resume filled with coaching jobs around the nation, an overflowing trophy case at his current school (with a second being constructed), and a coaching diamond award from the National Speech & Debate Association. He started his career as a way to give back in the city of



New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricane Katrina, and now works at Durham Academy, a school in North Carolina with one of the top speech and debate programs in the nation. “There’s a huge level of adaptation,” Crawford explains. “I’m a big believer in the fact that the world of speech and debate is expansive enough to serve a larger community. When I got to Durham Academy, it was a program that specifically focused on Public Forum, Extemporaneous Speaking, and Congressional Debate. In my time here, we’ve expanded that to doing almost every event, under the guise of we are a place where any student can come and participate. When you move from

Crawford Leavoy is a one-diamond coach from Durham Academy in North Carolina.

place to place, you learn that. You have students who are brilliant in their debate style, and then you always have those other students who you wish you could really reach out to. We’ve been able to serve both kinds of students through expanding our program here.” The program at Durham Academy starts the debate season with a strong recruitment initiative led by Crawford. “One of the first things we do is about three weeks before school, we email all the parents of our incoming freshman class,” he explains. “We do that because we want them to know it’s an opportunity. We want them to know our history, we want them to know what we feel like the activity does for young people, and we want to brag. . . I think every parent fears the transition between middle school and high school, and so, certainly, I want to get in touch with those parents, because they’re pushy. When we meet with those students, I start with, ‘Who here is here because your mom told

“Every time I watch a student achieve a goal, it’s not what I’ve done, but what — Crawford Leavoy they’ve done.”

you you should be?’ A lot of them are honest and raise their hand, and I’m like, ‘Great, me too.’ My mom told me I should do this 18 years ago, and I’m still here.” As a coach who spends so much time with his debaters, Crawford gets to watch his students grow up on the speech and debate team. “I jokingly say that I live with these people, because I travel at least half my weekends with them,” he laughs. “But at the same time, we become a family. I think that’s really important to watch and see. Every time I watch a student achieve a goal, it’s not what I’ve done, but what they’ve done. I’ve been lucky enough to be around this organization long enough because I’ve seen that turn around again.” After his years of coaching, Crawford says he is starting to truly see the influence speech and debate has on his students, both in and out of the classroom. “Students who come in and participate in speech and debate, in my opinion, become better writers, probably within a month,” he says. “They become better researchers after two topics. They become critical thinkers, they develop analysis, they develop an understanding of reasons why. They start to see adult skills that their classmates who don’t do the activity lag behind in. We find that our students tend to be more self-

sufficient when they get to college and are already more successful because they have tools. We give them community, we give them a sense of accomplishment, and what that does for a very pivotal point in someone’s life is very important.” One specific story from a current student stands out in particular to Crawford as representative of this trend of upward growth. “This young person said, ‘When I showed up to school, the entire first year of my high school career I was lost, and I couldn’t talk to people, and I couldn’t look them in the eye.’ And then he acknowledged that he joined speech and debate, and he still couldn’t talk to people, and he still couldn’t look them in the eye. But the coaching staff made him,” Crawford recalls. “Two days ago, I watched him sit down with ten novices to teach them the parts of argumentation. This was the kid who, three years ago, couldn’t talk in practice. That’s not the change of being a freshman to a senior—that’s directly what you learn in speech and debate.” Crawford works to keep his community of debaters tightly knit from freshman year through graduation and beyond. His debate program holds a tradition of taking alumni out to dinner when the team travels to cities where former students attend college.

“Coaching doesn’t stop when you graduate. Coaching is a constant thing we have to keep working on,” he says. As more and more students graduate, he also notes an increasing number of former students working to give back to the speech and debate community. “It’s this idea that if we can keep the community going, that they might not necessarily be coaching, but they’re still giving back in a way,” Crawford explains. “Speech and debate gives you a lot, but you truly don’t get anything back until you come back. It’s one of those things that you won’t know the impact it’s had on your life until you come work for it again. And if you can do that, you start to recognize what other people did for you.” Despite his school’s success, Crawford reflects that at this point in his career, he prioritizes progress above winning. “We’re not going to win every tournament, but can I start pushing to make sure we’re moving forward,” he says. “Our philosophy is that if they live through the day and if they want to do it again, then they’re successful. And we keep doing that, over and over.”

Emily Weaver is a senior at Ann Richards School in Texas. She currently serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.



WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL One coach’s perspective on 60 years of national qualifiers by Andrew Hong


n high school, Travis Dahle’s least favorite subject was English. Compelled by his literary aversion, Travis took speech classes as a substitution. Now, Travis serves as the speech and debate coach for Washington High School in South Dakota—not because of his distaste for English, but his genuine love for the activity. Since 1933, Washington High School has qualified many students to the National Speech & Debate Tournament, making its sixtieth appearance in 2017. The fourth coach in a decades-long line of succession, Travis is especially proud of this milestone and celebrates his team’s success and diversity. Growing up in rural South Dakota, Travis admits his state is largely associated with “Midwestern white guys.” Yet his team, where students of color comprise a remarkable 58% of the total competitors, are proud of their ethnic inclusivity. Travis states that this diversity provides



for a non-discriminate environment for its students, promoting values such as tolerance and respect. Such representation works to expose members to different perspectives and backgrounds—an aspect especially relevant to the debate community, where talk of increasing minority participation is heavily prevalent. In Washington High School, two of the Public Forum debaters are white, whereas the other seven identify as Mexican, African American, or Guatemalan. According to Travis, high school forensics offers a multicultural pre-college setting where students “see life outside of their circle.” He particularly stresses the uniqueness of the high school environment to his ultimate enjoyment of the activity. Although he taught debate on the college level, he found his experience coaching high school students to be far more enjoyable. While college students usually attend their institutions with a sense of identity

and strict preconceptions, high school students—especially freshmen—have more malleability with regard to their perspectives and demonstrate a more significant growth throughout their years of competition. Said growth benefits both parties, as Travis enjoys a reciprocity of his relationships with his students: while he provides them with coaching support and resources, they provide him with knowledge about their diverse backgrounds and perspectives.

THEN AND NOW (clockwise, from top) Washington High School traveled from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, to Boston, Massachusetts, and claimed the coveted sweepstakes trophy at the 1952 National Tournament. • In 2017, the squad qualified to Nationals for its sixtieth year. • Coach Mary Elizabeth Perkins led the 1935 championship team of Robert Shapiro and Carl Lundquist in Policy Debate.

Yet Travis’s team is not only inclusive in regards to its ethnicity. Travis comments that students are able to “find their voice and find their place. Debate’s a home for a lot of these kids, where they didn’t have a home before; really a place where they fit in.” A firm believer of forensics’ ability to create homes, Travis—a father of two daughters— affectionately refers to his students as his “secondary kids.” Regardless of graduated status, he keeps in touch with his alumni, catches up with them upon their return, and finds satisfaction watching them grow into “great people and close friends.” From a vast library of stories describing his interactions with

Additionally, Travis suggests the competitive nature of debate is another essential ingredient in his recipe for success. With a tight rivalry with other South Dakota teams, such as Lincoln High School, Travis states that “competing against such good squads over the years really helps. Having to be good all year has forced us to be good enough to qualify.” The results of his team’s year-long discipline are undeniable. In 2012, Katlyn Powers and Jordan Simundson of the Washington Policy team received fourth place at Nationals— their only two losses being to the first and second place teams—and in the following year, Katlyn Powers and Jony Ross received ninth.

Dakota and other states hold annual speech conventions, where coaches give presentations and suggestions about issues relevant to the forensic community. On top of that, he stresses the importance of communicating with other teams and coaches. “Don’t overwhelm yourself. Ask questions. If you have concerns, then the best resources are other coaches. I’ve been coaching for 20 years, but I still want to ask other coaches.” He applauds the efforts of coaches such as Tony Martinet, who travel to other cities— often requiring hours of travel on their part—to work with teams and assist new, relatively inexperienced coaches. “We want others to do well.”

“Debate’s a home for a lot of these kids, where they didn’t have a home before.” — Travis Dahle previous students, Travis recounts how Jesse Goodwin—“the most rationally economic person I’ve ever met”—had the habit of eating simply whatever gave him the best value, regardless of quality. After calculating the menu deals, Jesse ordered three sets of both curly fries and mozzarella sticks, refusing to drink anything despite Travis’s parental warnings. Although Jesse later became sick, he used the event as an Extemporaneous Speaking introduction during the tournament—a tale Travis cannot recount without chuckling.

RECIPE FOR SUCCESS One room. Four coaches. Forty years of experience. Travis largely attributes the success of his team to coaching stability. Last year during the congressional qualifying tournament, Travis facilitated the competition alongside Washington High School’s three previous coaches. Since the early 1970s, the team has had four head coaches, with smooth transitions ensuring the team’s momentum is maintained.

THE FUTURE OF DEBATE While Washington High School’s administration recognizes the value of debate with regard to its critical thinking and leadership opportunities, Travis worries other schools with a lack of administrative support and sufficient resources will struggle to provide the best for their students. Especially in rural states where school staff are generally not “searching high and low [for forensics coaches] like they would for football and basketball,” the situation is dire. In order to counteract the steadilydropping participation rates—a problem Travis has noticed in South Dakota—he urges coaches to expand their teaching influences into small town areas. Sympathetic with the plight of under-resourced schools, Travis recommends that emerging schools and new coaches consult the NSDA’s website, where a vast array of introductory content—ranging from lesson plans, videos, and webinars— can be found. Additionally, South

Additionally, Travis criticizes the prevailing mindset of putting debate “on the back burner” in favor of common core and content standards, arguing that every single skill required for standardized tests, especially with regard to critical thinking and analysis, can be found in debate. Travis advises, “If you want to see scores go up—on standardized tests, PSAT, anything— debate will get those kids there 100%.” As a final piece of advice for emerging schools, Travis urges students to not be disappointed by failure, but to learn as much as possible. When going up against a team with a longestablished national presence, paying attention and taking notes on what is and isn’t working is critical. After all, schools like Washington High School, with its 60-year legacy of national qualifiers, are there for a reason.

Andrew Hong is a senior at Montville Township High School in New Jersey. He currently serves as a publications intern for the NSDA.


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Student Service Citations The following students have received Student Service Citations from the National Speech & Debate Association in recognition of outstanding service to speech and debate education. Students receive a citation for every 100 service points earned through activities such as community speaking or outreach. A single act of service usually garners between two and five service points. These citations were earned between August 1, 2017 and October 1, 2017.


Student Service Citation, 5th Degree (500+ points) ILEAD North Hollywood Olivia Dutcher



Student Service Citation, 4th Degree (400+ points) Chaminade High School Aidan Fitzgerald



Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Chaminade High School Edward Doran Thomas Flatley Chaminade High School Oliver Hancock Madison High School Benjamin Elliott Noblesville High School Michela Short Victoria East High School Greg Bianchi Notre Dame High School Elleora Svoboda La Reina High School


325 325 325 310 308 304 301

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Corvallis High School Colton Mason Keegan Wolfe Madison High School Samantha Hamilton St. Agnes Academy Matthew Aaron Jordan Bentonville High School Christopher Devlin Chaminade High School Carlie Hartle Sioux Falls Lincoln High School Jack Harvey Chaminade High School Muhammad Hassan Saleemi College Preparatory School Of America Gage Michael Gramlick Sioux Falls Lincoln High School Jamiel Abed College Preparatory School Of America Saurim Khan College Preparatory School Of America Amber Jellison Harris Pratt High School Sarah Syed College Preparatory School Of America Madeline Shelton Noblesville High School Moriah Wood Hoover High School Daniel Timor ILEAD North Hollywood Zoe Brouwer Corvallis High School Brian Patton Chaminade High School Niklas Risano Palo Alto High School


280 265 260 243 240 239 225 225 222 218 216 212 211 210 205 202 200 200 200


ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS The Academic All American award recognizes students who have earned the degree of Superior Distinction (750 points); completed at least 5 semesters of high school; demonstrated outstanding character and leadership; and earned a GPA of 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent). NOTE: If the GPA is between 3.5 and 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent), students also must have received an ACT score of 27 or higher, or a New SAT score of 1300 or higher. ALABAMA Wes Donhauser Trent Kannegieter Delanya Storey Russell Weas

Prattville High School Bayside Academy Jefferson County IB School Mountain Brook High School

ARKANSAS Zane Ashcraft Kyler Buckner Ben Cameron McKenzie Cummings Greer King Britney McGloflin David Nichols Lexi Robertson Collin Smith

Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School Cabot High School

ARIZONA Brittany Franke Bryson Jones Kyle Kline Meghan Muldoon

Paradise Valley High School Mesquite High School Paradise Valley High School Salpointe Catholic High School

CALIFORNIA Allen Abbott Nick Adair Emily Aguilar Caroline Allen Calena Ang Griffin Ansel Mikaela Appleby Zahabiya Campwala Justine Chau Aditi Chitre Isabel Cholbi Jackson Deconcini Christian Glass Tanner Hamilton Jun Hee Han Yousuf Hashmi Aaron Ing Sarah John Edward Jung Asim Khan Daniel Kim Tanay Krishna Stephanie Lee Eve Levenson

The Quarry Lane School James Enochs High School La Reina High School Carlsbad High School Cajon High School Miramonte High School Notre Dame High School Los Osos High School Cajon High School Claremont High School Cajon High School Brentwood School Delta Charter High School Bonita Vista High School Leland High School Carlsbad High School Los Osos High School Los Osos High School Oxford Academy Miramonte High School Oxford Academy Palo Alto High School Palo Alto High School Brentwood School

(March 1, 2017 through October 23, 2017)

CALIFORNIA (continued) Anthony Li Nicholas Moore Anna Murphy Ryan E. Nam Devin Thomas Anantha Pracar Meesha Reiisieh Niklas Risano Alexandra Rivasplata Gilbert Rosal Jax Rounds Michael S. Rubsamen Jaiveer Sandhu Torin Siegel Kathleen Stamm-Kirk Elleora Svoboda Eric Tang Daniel Turner Tara Yazdan Panah Derek Zhang Kelly Zheng Frances Zhuang

Carlsbad High School James Enochs High School James Enochs High School Los Osos High School Bentley School Cupertino High School Palo Alto High School Claremont High School Bonita Vista High School Notre Dame High School Bentley School Palo Alto High School Servite High School Bentley School La Reina High School Claremont High School Carlsbad High School Carlsbad High School Mountain View High School Miramonte High School Palo Alto High School

COLORADO Thomas E. Anderson Calisse R. Burand Payton Case Isaac M. Clemons Marilyn S. Collins Claire Davidson Jordan Gage Mia L. Gilbertson Sirisha Gudavalli Christina Haile Leah Hickert Emily Mae Jimenez Amanda Li Andrea Lin Lilly E. Plotkin Stephania Pumphrey Jenny Rose Freia A. Siegel Anna Sniezek Anna Wahl

Chatfield Senior High School Centennial High School Valor Christian High School Golden High School Golden High School Summit High School Northridge High School Centennial High School Fairview High School St. Mary’s High School St. Mary’s High School Golden High School Fairview High School Fairview High School Golden High School Northridge High School Air Academy High School Centennial High School St. Mary’s High School St. Mary’s High School

FLORIDA Jack Fitzgerald Nicolas Pedro Fonseca Michael Groves Dylan Hopen Joshua R. Jones Akum Kang Christopher Matei Haleigh McGirt David Min Sana Rahman Xavier Strong Cristina Timotei Hannah Wang

Pine View School American Heritage School - Plantation Suncoast Comm High School Michael Krop High School Boca Raton Community High School King High School American Heritage School - Plantation Jupiter High School American Heritage School - Plantation Pine View School Miramar High School Boca Raton Community High School Pine View School




FLORIDA (continued) William Wang

Pine View School

GEORGIA Chaney Era Caroline Bearden Pilar Corso Zoe Elledge Lauryn Grace Falkenstein Christina Nguyen Paul Plaia Drew Sherman Rebecca Kathryn Walde Andrew Zach

Calhoun High School R. W. Johnson High School Marist School Calhoun High School Alpharetta High School Marist School Marist School Warner Robins High School Marist School

IOWA Hazel Ambort Lilli Ambort Joaquin Chavez Andrew Del Vecchio Ellie Konfrst Austin Wang Elise Williams

Bettendorf High School Bettendorf High School East High School Bettendorf High School Des Moines Roosevelt High School Bettendorf High School John F. Kennedy High School

IDAHO Kacen Cook Sam Nate Emily Oliphant Kennalee Orme Jackson Stokes Natalie Willoughby Paige Wooten

Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Borah High School Borah High School

ILLINOIS Josh Baime Beatrice Beirne Vanessa Copeland Athina Darrus Nina Fridman Luana Gnatenco Rhegan Graham Colin Hardman Josh Hernandez Max Krueger Jack Kussman Justin Maaks Benjamin Marshall Benjamin Paynic Alex Plumadore Muhammad Hassan Saleemi Jonah Schloss Brendan Schuler Vishal Sorakayala Austin Spaulding Grace Ulch Lydia Walsh-Rock Timothy Werner

Glenbrook South High School Downers Grove South High School Downers Grove South High School Downers Grove South High School Glenbrook North High School Downers Grove South High School Prospect High School University High School Downers Grove South High School Glenbrook South High School Glenbrook North High School University High School Prospect High School Downers Grove South High School University High School College Preparatory School Of America Glenbrook South High School Glenbrook South High School Downers Grove South High School University High School Downers Grove South High School Downers Grove South High School Downers Grove South High School

INDIANA Elizabeth Bogle

Bishop Dwenger High School


(March 1, 2017 through October 23, 2017)

INDIANA (continued) Richard Bowman Zev Burton Collin Cahill Katherine Eleanor Chandler Carson Conley Priscilla Espiritu Emma Finerfrock Lorie Flanagan Ruby Flores Alexis Gonzalez Alex Hahn Jake Hoover Sydney Kay Hutchinson Michaela Ivory Inaara Ladha Mattias Memering Arjun Ramani Abhi Saravanan Jenny Shao Thomas A. Smith Spencer Wells Hannah M. N. Yeakey Joel Yoder

Ben Davis High School Brebeuf Jesuit Preparatory School Bishop Dwenger High School Cathedral High School Floyd Central High School New Castle High School Columbus East High School Logansport High School Ben Davis High School Valparaiso High School Columbus East High School Logansport High School Cathedral High School Cathedral High School Floyd Central High School Columbus East High School West Lafayette High School West Lafayette High School West Lafayette High School West Lafayette High School Brebeuf Jesuit Preparatory School Bethany Christian High School Bethany Christian High School

KANSAS Joseph Adams Daniel Louis Birzer Brian Lane Burns Natalie Cotè Grant Daily Sandy Dao Emily Doffing Bryce Dunn Ben Engle Quentin L. Farris Alexander Gorman Jackson Hoffmann Sungho Hwang Sara Ann Kilpatrick Chisato Kimura Callie Lemon Dominik Lett Jazmyne A. McNair Chally R. Miller Apramay Mishra Kimiya Monfared Srivats Siva Narayanan Mackenzie Taylor O’Donnell Vanessa Obi Jordan Ojile Hailey D. Robertson Francisco Salgado Paukhansuan Sonna Darby Toth Abigail K. Treff Nancy Vargas Emily E. Walthall Claire Walther

Fort Scott High School Blue Valley West High School Lansing Sr. High School Lawrence High School Andover Central High School Salina High Central Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Lawrence High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Lawrence High School Fort Scott High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Lawrence High School Buhler High School Lawrence High School McPherson High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Lawrence High School Salina High Central Lawrence High School Maize South High School Blue Valley West High School Lansing Sr. High School Sumner Academy Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Washburn Rural High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Sumner Academy Fort Scott High School Lawrence High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Lawrence High School Lawrence High School

ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS KANSAS (continued) Angelo Wong Elaine Luyi Wong Jerry Zhen Yi Wong Haden Yoon

Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Lansing Sr. High School Lansing Sr. High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School

KENTUCKY Abigail Anderson Brendon Bultman Kailyn Ann Deitz Charley Diemer Erin Donelson Irish Marie Jenkins Allison Danielle Laslie McCallum Morley Spencer Schumacher Greg Schwartz Grace Sheene Correna Alexis Tate Jack White Taylor Jean Williams Cooper Winrich

Danville High School DuPont Manual High School Assumption High School North Oldham High School North Oldham High School Henry Clay High School Assumption High School Danville High School North Oldham High School DuPont Manual High School Danville High School Assumption High School North Oldham High School Hazard High School Trinity High School

LOUISIANA Ashlyn Jones

Comeaux High School

MASSACHUSETTS Gaurav Asthana Anirban Chakraborty Johnny Esposito Ben Harris Anshul Joshi Ryan J. Julian Sam Lincoln Chelsea Sheldon Luke Vrotsos

Acton-Boxborough Regional HS Acton-Boxborough Regional HS Catholic Memorial School Shrewsbury High School Acton-Boxborough Regional HS Catholic Memorial School Waring School Bancroft School Natick High School

MARYLAND Noah Mattapallil

Walter Johnson High School

MAINE Benjamin Moshe Eneman Nathaniel Jordan Sydney V. McDonald Jessica Walker

York High School Cape Elizabeth High School Bangor High School Orono High School

MICHIGAN Sebastien Butler

Dexter High School

MINNESOTA Anish Aggarwal Adnan Askari Nicolas Barra Raajii Choroke Daniel David Dobkin Netra Duggirala Ellie Grossman Eleanor Hansen Joel Jude

The Blake School St. Paul Academy & Summit School The Blake School Champlin Park High School Eastview High School Eastview High School The Blake School Walker High School The Blake School

(March 1, 2017 through October 23, 2017)

MINNESOTA (continued) Numi Katz Benjamin Konstan Christina Laridaen Osman Mansur Sean Mather Joseph Matijasevich Anika Mirza Eva Motolinia David Peter Necas Queen Nwaudo Alexa Oswald Helen Radovic Kathryn Schmechel Aditya Shekhar Molly Tengwall Jacqueline Tomas Connor Yu Henry Ziemer

St. Paul Academy & Summit School St. Paul Academy & Summit School Prior Lake High School Eastview High School Eastview High School Eastview High School The Blake School The Blake School Robbinsdale Cooper High School Eastview High School Dilworth Glyndon Felton High School Robbinsdale Armstrong High School St. Paul Academy & Summit School The Blake School Belgrade-Brooten-Elrosa High School Centennial High School The Blake School St. Paul Academy & Summit School

MISSOURI Nishant Agarwal Sumaiya Alam Sohrab Azad Emily Beahm Mathias Carder Roman Cole Nathan Davis Maddox Dockins Levi Dyson Tanya Esmiel Zach Flanders Bryce Fletcher Camron Wolfgang Haas Elijah Hart Renee Hill Allisen Hunter Katrin Hunter Brayden King Karly Diana Kinsey Haran Kumar Shaun Lamar Albert Liu Garrett Lukenbill Cheryl Ma Alex Millard Aaron Mohabbat Ryan Patrick O’Connor Brooke Ransom Olivia Rauls Aramis Rickey Adam Ryan Panth Shah Mohammad Shah Devon Shewell Natalie Smith Liza Tarakanova Ryan Westwood Jaggard Williams

Parkway West High School Staley High School Oakville Sr. High School Staley High School Harrisonville High School Marshfield High School Savannah R3 High School Independence Truman High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Parkway West High School Greenwood Laboratory School Francis Howell North High School Blue Springs South High School Harrisonville High School KC Oak Park High School Savannah R3 High School Savannah R3 High School Lee’s Summit High School Independence Truman High School Parkway West High School Oakville Sr. High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Harrisonville High School Parkway West High School Independence Truman High School Oakville Sr. High School Parkway West High School Mexico High School Oakville Sr. High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Blue Springs South High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Staley High School Central High School Savannah R3 High School Parkway West High School Oakville Sr. High School Independence Truman High School


ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS MISSOURI (continued) William August Wood Edward Wu

Blue Springs South High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School

MISSISSIPPI Derek Collins Mallory Nicholson Ben Parker Sharee Thomas Chrystal Wilson

Hattiesburg High School Petal High School Hattiesburg High School Hattiesburg High School Hattiesburg High School

MONTANA Brock Adkins Zoe Brouwer Sarah Cerdena Alec Donald Katie Hooton Maggie Kerr Jacob Linfesty Nathan Lorenc Alex Moore Kristen Saturday Trey Shields Carolina Sierra Rebecca Vance Alec Willis

Glacier High School Corvallis High School Corvallis High School Skyview High School Skyview High School Helena High School Billings West High School Glacier High School Skyview High School Corvallis High School Glacier High School Flathead High School Flathead High School Glacier High School

NORTH CAROLINA Uwa Akhere Jake Sheridan Michael Taffe

Charlotte Catholic High School Charlotte Catholic High School Cardinal Gibbons High School

NORTH DAKOTA Crystal Deng Sofia Flores Zach Howatt Brittney Muske Reid Nelson Raeef Rahman Laurel Schley Isaac Spanjer Angeline Utomo Grace Ward Austin Weigel

West Fargo Sheyenne High School Fargo North High School Northern Cass High School LaMoure High School Fargo Shanley High School West Fargo High School Shiloh Christian School Fargo North High School West Fargo Sheyenne High School Fargo Shanley High School Fargo Shanley High School

NEBRASKA Chase Cate Danny Clanton Aden Davis Amanda Katherine Dickerson Elizabeth Gao Ryleigh Gebers Elliot Hill Brittany Leschinsky Zach Madsen Veronica Miller Jenna Y. Mu Emily O’Gara Kyle Otto


Fremont High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Millard West High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Crete High School Omaha Brownell Talbot College Prep Pius X High School Lincoln Southwest High School


(March 1, 2017 through October 23, 2017)

NEBRASKA (continued) Cayden Christopher Jake Owens Elizabeth Park Lee Paulson Adrian Pilkington Olivia Pletcher Cordelia Ring Tanvi Santhosh Josh Seamans Matthew Semin Logan Jule Simpson Joelle Tangen Abram Turner

Burwell Jr.-Sr. High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Pius X High School Crete High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Burwell Jr.-Sr. High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southeast High School

NEW JERSEY Jai Bansal James Ray Chen Ila Kaul Anna Landre Kimberly Lee Carrie Mason Jack Schroeder David Yaffe

Millburn High School Millburn High School Millburn High School Freehold Township High School Summit High School Millburn High School Delbarton School Millburn High School

NEW MEXICO Annika Nicole Davenport Timothy Mondloch

Jemez Mountain Home School Del Norte High School

NEVADA Morgan Aikele Sawyer Barnett Clara Bates Kenneth Brown Brookelynn Kay Carlson Gavin Garcia Lea Gifford Abdus Najmi Corie Nalder Breanna Ross-Dee Shaylin Segura Sedona Thomas Kendra Wharton

Moapa Valley High School Carson High School The Meadows School Douglas High School Spring Creek High School Canyon Springs High School Douglas High School The Meadows School Douglas High School Douglas High School Carson High School Moapa Valley High School Canyon Springs High School

NEW YORK Anshul Barnwal Edward Doran Aidan Fitzgerald Thomas Flatley Elizabeth Foster Daniel Hepworth Massimo Indolini Patrick Johnson John Michael Magloire Jack Valentino

Edgemont High School Chaminade High School Chaminade High School Chaminade High School Mount Markham Sr. High School Chaminade High School Chaminade High School Chaminade High School Chaminade High School Chaminade High School

OHIO Eli Abboud Zade Akras Faheem Ali

Jackson High School Hawken School Jackson High School

ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS OHIO (continued) Ahmad Amireh Matthew Cope Jack Cross Kareem Danan Dhweeja Dasarathy Gavin Davis Grace E. DiGiulio Marisa Dinko Ozan Ergungor Leah Espinal Michael Factor Abigail Henry Sarah Hopkins Josef Horwath Amy Iverson Sauren Khosla Michael Kuhns John Li Matthew Lorentz Carson Markley Jaren McKinnie Paige Nichole Moden Vikash Modi Clay M. Owens Stefanie Pousoulides Eric Rachita Rushil Raghavan Seth Ramm Nayan Rao Taryn Rothbauer Sophia Sokoloski Brian Sun Maguire Tausch Ishani Tripathy Frank Zhu

Liberty High School Jackson High School Canfield High School Hawken School Hawken School Copley High School Perry High School Jackson High School Hawken School Revere High School Canfield High School Jackson High School Wooster High School Hawken School Stow-Munroe Falls High School Hawken School South Range High School Wooster High School Wooster High School Canfield High School Copley High School Wauseon High School Hawken School Perry High School Jackson High School Jackson High School Brecksville Broadview Hts High School Whitmer High School Hawken School Canfield High School Maumee High School Hawken School Perry High School Jackson High School Brecksville Broadview Hts High School

OKLAHOMA Annemarie Cuccia Devavrat Dave Georgia Dunham Robert Gibson Kaitlyn Hurst Dylan Kemp Abbie Lowder Ellen Melton Madison Molitor James Morley Garret Rask Chloe Shames Mia Shumway Vyas Venkataraman Joseph Wagner

Norman High School Heritage Hall School Norman High School Norman High School Norman High School Guymon High School Classen SAS Norman High School Southmoore High School Riverfield Country Day School Mannford High School Norman High School Norman High School Heritage Hall School Cherokee High School

OREGON Kunal Bhattacharjee Deven Bishnu Yichen (Wendy) Fan Susie Garcia

Westview High School Westview High School Westview High School Bend Sr. High School

(March 1, 2017 through October 23, 2017)

OREGON (continued) Ifrah Javed Aakash Kurse Bryan Lee Soren Little Nikhil Mishra Priyansh Sharma

Westview High School Westview High School Westview High School Oregon Episcopal School Westview High School Westview High School

PENNSYLVANIA Reetwan Bandyopadhyay Kolten Hilterman Ezoza Ismailova Patrick Kelly Rushmin Khazanchi Julia Rose Kreutzer Tyler Kusma Jacob Love Sarah M. Mackin Aria Mason Noah Musto Sahil Patel Jordyn Russell-Mills Talia N. Trackim Nick Ulven

Moon Area High School Knoch Senior High School Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School La Salle College High School Moon Area High School Gwynedd Mercy Academy Abington Heights High School Knoch Senior High School Southern Lehigh High School State College High School Abington Heights High School Danville Area High School Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School Southern Lehigh High School Moon Area High School


Greenville Tech Charter High School

SOUTH DAKOTA Jacksyn Bakeberg Gretchen Blain Hannah Neumiller Keri Pappas Tessa Sleep Griffin Smith Logan Smith

Spearfish High School Spearfish High School Spearfish High School Groton High School Spearfish High School Spearfish High School Spearfish High School

TENNESSEE Andrew Brown Chandler Jernigan Shreyas Kumar Ashley McIntosh Tomas Starr Musa Subramaniam Harry Westbrook

Brentwood High School Seymour High School Brentwood High School Portland High School Brentwood High School Franklin High School Brentwood High School

TEXAS Hunter Adams Martha Aguirre-Rubio Rem Aitbouchireb Lameece Al-Akash Usman Alam Anish Antony Kathleen Arbogast Hudson Auerbach Adrian Berumen Sam Bonham Drew Buslow Emily Carpenter

Richard King High School Westbury Senior High School Kerr High School Richard King High School Carroll High School Clear Brook High School Concordia High School Gregory Portland High School Douglas MacArthur High School Carroll High School Byron Nelson High School W. B. Ray High School


ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS TEXAS (continued) Sophia Carranco Carlos Carroll Jonathan Chiang Elizabeth Contreras Lesly Jocely Covarrubias Benjamin Cupo Sunny Daggubati Anevay Davila Andrew Degges Elizabeth Grace Dickens Michelle J. Fang Alex Federick Saul Flores Monica Garay Malanie Gardea Maham Gardezi Alan George Brett Glasscock Ethan Goode Elizabeth Hager Michael Heinz Mercedes Inez Holmes Brenden J. Hoover William Hutchinson Anusha Amyn Jiwani Pamela Nicole Johnson Joshua Jones Timothy Keyser Jun-Yong Kim Noah Kopesky Reagan Larimer Flavia Lima Emma Lin Scott Thomas Lindberg Emma Lopez Angela Lytle Rachel Maciariello Rowan MacLeod Asha Mani Austin Meek Calder Meis Alanna Miller Ian Miller Anuj Mocherla Lilah Molina Shanrick Mullings Jennifer Nguyen Miranda Nutt Nelson Okunlola Clay Thomas Parker Aman Patel Dru Patel Whitley Perryman Jacey Pridgen Jackie Prokopeas Zach Qureshi Keion Rasti


Tom C. Clark High School W. B. Ray High School Carroll High School San Marcos High School Ball High School Victoria East High School Carroll High School Ysleta High School Concordia Lutheran High School Mabank High School Flower Mound High School Carroll High School Kerr High School Westbury Senior High School Ysleta High School L.V. Hightower High School Klein Oak High School Douglas MacArthur High School Barbers Hill High School Lovejoy High School St. Thomas High School Clear Creek High School W. B. Ray High School San Marcos High School Clear Creek High School Barbers Hill High School THEO Christian Douglas MacArthur High School Seven Lakes High School Jersey Village High School Carroll High School Trinity Valley School Carroll High School Clear Creek High School James Bowie High School Cinco Ranch High School Montgomery High School Mildred High School Ann Richards School Carroll High School Victoria East High School Carroll High School Grapevine High School Robert E. Lee High School Buffalo High School Kerr High School Oak Ridge High School Colleyville Heritage High School Earl Warren High School Lovejoy High School Carroll High School Carroll High School Montgomery High School Mabank High School Carroll High School Carroll High School Clear Brook High School


(March 1, 2017 through October 23, 2017)

TEXAS (continued) Anya Reddy Priyanka Reddy Sara Reddy James Renfroe Gabe Rivera Jeremy Sanders Nathon Segovia Jae-Kyung Sim Sahaj Singh Jake Ian Snyder Anna Olivia Speed Srivats Srinivasan Christopher Daniel Stearns John Henry Stearns Adhi Subramanian Amber Thompson Andrew Tien Vu Dhiren Wijesinghe Ryan Williams Lauren Willingham

Carroll High School Carroll High School Carroll High School Midlothian High School Clear Brook High School Westbury Senior High School Mount Pleasant High School Seven Lakes High School Carroll High School Mabank High School W. B. Ray High School L.V. Hightower High School W. B. Ray High School W. B. Ray High School Carroll High School Douglas MacArthur High School W. B. Ray High School Clear Brook High School Clear Brook High School Barbers Hill High School

UTAH Alora Easton Quaid Green David Griffiths Zo Kronberg Connor Madden Zachary McGarry Sydney Photiadis Emi Radetich Kanishka Ragula Vikrant Ragula Kendra Richards Nadia Rosales Orion Sheen Bryan Williams Taryn Wolfe

Cyprus High School Herriman High School Northridge High School Skyline High School Summit Academy High School Northridge High School Viewmont High School Skyline High School Skyline High School Skyline High School Stansbury High School Cyprus High School Cyprus High School Summit Academy High School Stansbury High School

VIRGINIA Javaria Abbasi Sachin Jain Vivek Rao Rahul Soni Niharika Vattikonda

Broad Run High School Thomas Jefferson HS Science & Tech Dominion High School Broad Run High School Thomas Jefferson HS Science & Tech

WASHINGTON Jennifer Giolitti Newport High School Madison Annemarie Martin Puyallup High School Christopher James Robinson Puyallup High School WISCONSIN Tamika Wiesner

West Bend West High School

WYOMING Kathleen Copeland Rison Lain Micah Miller

Cheyenne Central High School Cheyenne Central High School Natrona County High School

Welcome New Schools (August 1, 2017 through October 1, 2017) Pike Road Historic School Newport High School Parkview Magnet High School Brenkwitz High School Chowchilla High Ocean View Christian Academy San Luis Obispo Classical Academy DSST: Conservatory Green High School Pagosa Springs High School Windermere High School Allatoona High School Cass High School Midtown International School Tucker High School Clear Creek Amana High School Urbana High School Herron High School Highlands Latin School Bonner Springs High School David Thibodaux STEM Magnet Academy Southside High School


London Academy Casablanca Stone Ridge School Of The Sacred Heart Maplewood-Richmond Heights High School Arlee High School Jesse C. Carson High School Falls City High School Hamilton West Watson High School Cottonwood Classical Prep BASIS Independent Brooklyn T-Squared Honors Academy Pequea Valley High School York Catholic High School New Technology High School - 30 Pleasant View School Amon Carter-Riverside High School Rouse High School Tom Glenn High School American Preparatory Academy Green Canyon High School The Covenant School Eastside Preparatory School




1925 SOCIET Y The National Speech & Debate Association is grateful to acknowledge the following 1925 Society members for pledging a generous planned gift contribution. Anonymous

Lanny and B. J. Naegelin

Phyllis Flory Barton

Albert Odom, Jr.

James Copeland

Dr. Polly and Bruce Reikowski

Don and Ann Crabtree Dr. Mike Edmonds A. C. Eley Vickie and Joe Fellers David and Judy Huston Jennifer Jerome Harold Keller Kandi King

Donus and Lovila Roberts James Rye, III Steve and Anna Schappaugh David Seikel Sandra Silvers Richard Sodikow William Woods Tate, Jr.

Cherian and Betsy Koshy

Nicole and Darrel Wanzer-Serrano

Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr.

Cheryl Watkins

Pam and Ray McComas

J. Scott and Megan Wunn

H. B. Mitchell

Joe and Pam Wycoff

To join the 1925 Society, or to learn more about making a planned gift to the National Speech & Debate Association, please contact Nicole Wanzer-Serrano at nicole@speechanddebate.org.

You’re Invited! PLEASE CONSIDER THE NSDA’S WILLIAM WOODS TATE, JR., FUND IN YOUR YEAR-END GIVING PLANS. 100% of donations to the Tate Fund will be used to support under-resourced schools attending the National Tournament. To make your tax deductible gift, please visit:

First Time Coach Reception XX Sponsored by the generous contributions of the NSDA staff, their friends, and their families

SUNDAY, JUNE 17 | 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA If you are a new(er) coach attending the National Tournament for the first time, we hope you’ll join us! Don’t miss one-on-one facetime with the organization’s Board of Directors and senior staff, including Executive Director J. Scott Wunn. You will have an opportunity to ask questions, become oriented to the tournament in a more personal manner, and enjoy the company of other new coaches.


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Profile for Speech & Debate

2017 November/December Rostrum  

Volume 92 Issue 2

2017 November/December Rostrum  

Volume 92 Issue 2