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VOLUME 91 ISSUE 2 FA L L 2 0 1 6

Jellybean Festival Celebrating differences through a life-changing speech event!

Save the Date!


National Speech and Debate Education Day

Accessibility in Speech & Debate

How do we make the activity even more inclusive?

The University of Texas National Institute in Forensics is one of the largest and most successful summer speech and debate workshops in the country. UTNIF has a reputation for engaging students from across the nation in the kind of training that leads rather than follows performative and argumentative trends. UTNIF students have won championships and final rounds at the National Speech & Debate Association National Tournament in Extemp, Humorous Interp, Dramatic Interp, Poetry, the House, the Senate, Policy Debate, Public Forum, and more. Our students consistently excel at the TOC and NIETOC. Join us this summer and see for yourself why UTNIF has made such an impact on speech and debate education for over 20 years.

2017 UTNIF Program Dates Individual Events main session

June 29 – July 13

Individual Events with extension

June 29 – July 17

CX 6 Week Summer Survivors

June 22 – August 4

CX Session 1 (Skills Intensive, Topic Intensive, Sophomore Select) CX Session 2 (Skills Intensive, Topic Intensive)

June 22 – July 12 July 15 – August 4

CX Novice

July 18 – July 26

Public Forum (all skill levels accommodated)

June 29 – July 11

Lincoln-Douglas (all skill levels accommodated)

July 17 – August 1

Lincoln-Douglas with extension

July 18 – August 4 UTNIF Individual Events www.utspeech.net UTNIF debate camp www.utdebatecamp.com UTNIF Contact katerichey@utexas.edu

The American Legion Oratorical Contest

LOOKING FOR COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIPS?  LOOK NO FURTHER. As part of the National Speech & Debate Association’s ongoing partnership with The American Legion, the top three finishers from the Legion’s National Oratorical Contest may earn the right to compete in Original Oratory or United States Extemporaneous Speaking at the National Speech & Debate Tournament! The firstplace finisher is awarded an $18,000 scholarship, second-place $16,000, and third-place $14,000. The scholarships may be used at any college or university in the United States.

Want to get involved? Follow these simple steps!

• Visit www.legion.org/oratorical to learn more. • Click “Request Information” or contact your state’s American Legion Department to learn when the first contest will be. • Also click on “Assigned Topics” to learn the extemporaneous topic areas. • Prepare your original oration on some aspect of the Constitution with emphasis on the duties and obligations of a citizen to our government.

Washington student Benjamin Crosby placed first at the 2016 Oratorical Contest.

Watch examples of past winning orations online at www.legion.org/oratorical/videos.

In this Issue : V o l u m e 9 1 : I s s u e 2 : F A LL 2 0 1 6

From the Cover



Jellybean Festival: Celebrating Differences through a Life-Changing Speech Event!


From the Editor


Tips for Making Your Next Tournament More Inclusive


2016-2017 Topics

Governance and Leadership 9

Board of Directors Fall Minutes


A Storied Organization Prepares for Its Next Great Chapter


Recognition 56

Coach Profile: Sal Tinajero


Alumni Angles: Tara Tedrow


District in Detail: New Mexico


Student of the Year Spotlight: Marshall Webb


Team USA: Training for the International Debate Stage


SAVE THE DATE: March 3, 2017, is National Speech and Debate Education Day!


Ideas for Hosting Big Questions Debates


Podius Debates Foster Civic Discourse


Are YOU the Next Great Communicator? by Rebekah Harding


Improving Access for Women in the Debate Classroom by Cindi Timmons


Team Profile: Valdosta High School, GA


Why Are Our Best Advocates Not Fully Advocating For Us? by J. Scott Baker


Diamond Coach Recognition


Donus D. Roberts Quad Ruby Coach Recognition


Triple Ruby Coach Recognition


Student Service Citations


Academic All Americans


All American Awards


All State Awards

Member Resources 38

Curriculum Corner


Get With the Program


What We’re Reading

OUR MISSION Rostrum shares best practices, resources, and opportunities that connect, support, and inspire a diverse community of speech and debate educators committed to giving youth a voice.

by Liz Yount

102 Welcome New Schools

Rostrum | FALL 2016 3

From the Editor

Board of Directors

As a member of our community, I know that you have witnessed the life-changing benefits of speech and debate. In this issue, we highlight members across the country who are expanding access to the activity by breaking down barriers to participation and bringing new voices into the fold. Through their stories, we will explore ways to expand awareness and access to speech and debate. This issue of Rostrum brings us the opportunity to be inspired by the Jellybean Festival in Missouri, an incredible way for special needs students to participate in speech activities and gain new confidence. By partnering each special needs student, a jellybean, with a peer coach, the festival teaches new understanding and respect to participants. We sit down with NSDA coach Sara Given as she shares the story of how the festival began and what it means to students. It’s a story you don’t want to miss.

Pam Cady Wycoff, Vice President Apple Valley High School 14450 Hayes Road Apple Valley, MN 55124-6796 (952) 431-8200 Pam.Wycoff@district196.org

In addition to Sara’s story, we offer many examples of the power of an individual to change lives. You can read about a local coach and community leader in California who is making a difference in the lives of Latino students. You’ll discover how our National Student of the Year used his voice to advocate for acceptance in his school and made an impact on his community. On page 32, you can examine the stories of women in debate and consider the author’s suggestions for improving their experiences. You’ll read about the way one alumna brought speech and debate to public schools in her county and supported public speaking programs in a correctional facility. We share her story and the powerful ripple effect of her efforts on page 60.

David Huston Colleyville Heritage High School 5401 Heritage Avenue Colleyville, TX 76034 (817) 305-4700, Ext. 214 david.huston@gcisd.net

This issue also highlights how the largely rural New Mexico District is working to expand access to speech and debate for schools in their area. With mentorship, advocacy to administrators, and a focus on starting small, this district is spreading awareness across the state. In our team profile, you can read how a program in Georgia has grown despite the nearest team being 45 minutes away. Imagine boarding the tournament bus at 3:00 a.m. and you’ll truly appreciate the value of a local circuit. I am inspired by the stories in this issue of Rostrum and by all of you and your tireless advocacy on behalf of this activity! Sincerely,

J. Scott Wunn Executive Director National Speech & Debate Association

A PUBLICATION OF THE NATIONAL SPEECH & DEBATE ASSOCIATION 125 Watson Street, PO Box 38, Ripon, WI 54971-0038 | Phone (920) 748-6206 | Fax (920) 748-9478

J. Scott Wunn, Editor and Publisher Steve Schappaugh, Managing Editor Vicki Pape, Assistant Editor Amy Seidelman, Copy Editor Deano Pape, Copy Editor Emily Bratton, Graphic Design Assistant Emily Kriegel, Advertising Coordinator

SUBSCRIPTION PRICES Individuals: $15 for one year | $25 for two years Member Schools: $15 for each additional subscription

(USPS 471-180) (ISSN 1073-5526) Rostrum is published quarterly (Summer, Fall, Winter, and Spring) by the National Speech & Debate Association, 125 Watson Street, PO Box 38, Ripon, WI 54971. Periodical postage paid at Ripon, WI 54971. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to National Speech & Debate Association, 125 Watson Street, PO Box 38, Ripon, WI 54971. Rostrum provides a forum for the speech and debate community. The opinions expressed by contributors are their own and not necessarily the opinions of the Association, its officers, or its members. The National Speech & Debate Association does not guarantee advertised products and services unless sold directly by the Association.

Rostrum | FALL 2016

Jennifer Jerome Millard West High School 5710 S. 176th Avenue Omaha, NE 68135 (402) 715-6000 (school office) (402) 715-6092 (classroom) jjerome1984@gmail.com Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr. James Logan High School 1800 H Street Union City, CA 94587 (510) 471-2520, Ext. 4408 Tommie_Lindsey@nhusd.k12.ca.us Pamela K. McComas PO Box 5078 Topeka, KS 66605 (785) 231-7414 pmccomas1434@gmail.com



Don Crabtree, President Park Hill High School 1909 6th Avenue St. Joseph, MO 64505 (816) 261-2661 crabnfl@gmail.com

James W. “Jay” Rye, III The Montgomery Academy 3240 Vaughn Road Montgomery, AL 36106 (334) 272-8210 jay_rye@montgomeryacademy.org Dr. Polly Reikowski, Admin Rep Eagan High School 4185 Braddock Trail Eagan, MN 55123 (651) 683-6902 polly.reikowski@district196.org Timothy E. Sheaff Dowling Catholic High School 1400 Buffalo Road West Des Moines, IA 50265 (515) 222-1035 tsheaff@dowlingcatholic.org



Current topics, voting links, and resources available at:

www.speechanddebate.org/topics Member students and one chapter advisor per school are eligible to vote!

Topic Release Information


Public Forum Topic Release Dates

Public Forum Debate

The PF Wording Committee chooses a number of debate topics at its summer meeting. These areas are then used throughout the school year. During the last week of the month (or seven days prior to the topic release date), chapter advisors and member students may vote for one resolution to be used as the next PF topic. If you would like to submit a PF topic area for consideration, please submit by June 1 for the following school year by visiting www.speechanddebate.org/topics.

Resolved: The United States should end Plan Colombia.

October 1 November 1 December 1 January 1 February 1 March 1 May 1 June 23 June 23 Aug 1 - Aug 7 August 8

November PF Topic December PF Topic January PF Topic February PF Topic March PF Topic April PF Topic National Tournament PF Topic List of Potential PF Topic Areas Announced for 2017-2018 2017 September/October PF Ballot Announced Voting for the 2017 September/October PF Topic Occurs 2017 September/October PF Topic Announced

Lincoln-Douglas Topic Release Dates From August 1 through September 11, chapter advisors and member students may vote online for a new slate of LD topics chosen by the LD Wording Committee at its summer meeting. The September/October LD topic (voted on the previous fall) is announced August 8. If you would like to submit an LD resolution for consideration, please submit by June 1 for the following school year by visiting www.speechanddebate.org/topics.

October 1 December 1 February 1 May 1 June 23 Aug 1 - Sept 11 August 8

November/December LD Topic January/February LD Topic March/April LD Topic National Tournament LD Topic List of Potential LD Topics Announced for 2017-2018 Voting for the 2017-2018 LD Topics Occurs 2017 September/October LD Topic Announced


Lincoln-Douglas Debate

Resolved: The United States ought to limit qualified immunity for police officers.

The NSDA also suggests a separate LD resolution that may be used during the first two months of a novice season. Coaches are encouraged to check with tournament hosts in their area before exclusively prepping for one topic over another.


Policy Debate

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its economic and/or diplomatic engagement with the People’s Republic of China.

2017–2018 Policy Debate Topic Voting The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) handles selection of the annual Policy Debate topic where each state organization, the National Speech & Debate Association, the National Catholic Forensic League, and the National Debate Coaches Association all have voting privileges.

• • • •

Topic synopsis printed in Summer issue of Rostrum Preliminary voting occurs online in September-October Final voting occurs online in November-December Topic for 2017-2018 released by the NFHS in January 2017


Big Questions Debates

Resolved: Science leaves no room for free will.

Rostrum | FALL 2016 5

To Whom It May Concern, The purpose of this letter is to state my overwhelming support for implementing speech and debate programs nationwide. As an educator and now administrator, I feel that speech and debate is an important component of a child’s educational experience. The skills taught in speech and debate positively impact academic achievement as well as help with a student’s social emotional well-being. Speech and debate is important for many reasons. Most importantly, it helps students come to terms with their identity and teaches empathy. At an age when bullying is so common, speech and debate celebrates kids who often fall through the cracks in more traditional settings. Specifically, girls are encouraged to be smart and argumentative as much as boys, in whom strong emotional awareness and expressiveness are celebrated. As society shifts to redefining traditional gender roles, kids who grew up in forensics are way ahead of the curve because they realize that being an individual is “cool” and that not fitting a mold is a good thing. Additionally, middle school speech and debate is a constructive way to hone the age appropriate questioning of preteens and teens. Rather than telling students to be quiet and absorb information, forensics encourages them to question and ask why something is true (scientific method), to research the context of an issue (history), to consider statistical data (math), and to formulate articulate arguments with a clear thesis (English). Forensics lets students determine their interests and how they choose to learn about a specific topic. Some students prefer an emotional understanding through interpretation, while others prefer the role of advocate through oration. Still others love the interaction of a debate round. Whatever they choose, forensics encourages students to learn to listen to their peers. These lessons plant the seeds of empathy that create a sense of family at a vulnerable time for middle schoolers and encourages them to find their voice and share it with the world. In sum, I just want to reiterate my utmost support for the speech and debate program at our school. There is nothing to lose and much to gain by implementing such a program! * I could not have written this excerpt in support of our speech and debate program without the insight and support provided by our speech and debate coach, Mr. Bill Thompson.

Robyn Kaiyal Robyn Kaiyal, Ph.D. Middle School Director NSU University School 3375 SW 75th Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 kaiyal@nova.edu

Bill M. Thompson Speech and Debate Coach NSU University School 3375 SW 75th Avenue Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 wthomps1@nova.edu

Find this and other letters of advocacy on our website:

www.speechanddebate.org 6

Rostrum | FALL 2016

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Head coach at Salina High School Central and founder of Extemp Relief



Leadership Board of Directors Fall Minutes


September 22-25, 2016 West Des Moines, Iowa

he National Speech & Debate Association Board of Directors held its fall meeting September 22-25, 2016, in West Des Moines, Iowa. Present were President Don Crabtree, Vice President Pam Cady Wycoff, Dave Huston, Jennifer Jerome, Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr., Pam McComas, Dr. Polly Reikowski, Jay Rye, and Tim Sheaff.

Board Committees

President Crabtree called the meeting to order Thursday morning at 9:00 a.m.

The Administrator’s Advisory Committee may be comprised of several past recipients of the NSDA’s Principal of the Year award as well as other leaders in the field. It will focus on advocacy avenues for promoting speech and debate as well as other needs deemed appropriate. Dr. Reikowski has agreed to chair the committee.

Election of Officers Moved by McComas, seconded by Rye: “Ratify Don Crabtree as president and Pam Cady Wycoff as vice president.” Passed: 9-0 The group unanimously elected Don Crabtree for a two-year term as president and Pam Cady Wycoff for a two-year term as vice president.

Budget Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Huston: “Approve the National Speech & Debate Association budget for 2016-2017.” Passed: 9-0 Executive Director Wunn presented a thorough assessment of the organization’s profit and loss statement for the previous year and projections for the 2016-2017 fiscal year. The Board reviewed the budget and asked questions regarding appropriations of funding. The budget passed with minor adjustments.

Strategic Planning Session Led by the Strategic Planning Committee, the Board and key staff participated in a day of strategic planning to assess short- and long-term goals to further the mission and vision of the NSDA.

Moved by Wycoff, seconded by McComas: “Establish an Ad Hoc Administrator’s Advisory Committee to serve as a key resource for speech and debate advocacy.” Passed: 9-0

Moved by Wycoff, seconded by McComas: “Establish an Ad Hoc Hall of Fame Committee dedicated to fostering engagement within this community of leaders in speech and debate.” Passed: 9-0 Committee membership will be comprised of current Hall of Fame members. Goals for the committee may include but are not limited to inviting other Hall of Fame members to serve as final round judges at the National Tournament; documenting their storied history through video interviews; and assisting with donor stewardship. Moved by McComas, seconded by Jerome: “Make the Curriculum Committee a working committee instead of an ad hoc committee.” Passed: 9-0 Moved by Lindsey, seconded by Rye: “Make the Inclusion Committee a standing committee instead of an ad hoc committee.” Passed: 9-0 Standing committees are permanent and integral to the organization; they are chaired by members of the Board. Each standing committee consists of at least three Board members and a staff liaison. Additional members are selected at the will of the Board president.

Rostrum | FALL 2016 9

Fall Minutes (continued) The Board president and vice president serve as ex-officio members of each standing committee. Ad hoc committees may be formed and disbanded at the will of the group and may consist of Board and non-Board members. Working committees (such as topic selection and curriculum) are devoted to particular projects, may be staff-led, and do not require Board approval.

Board Expansion and Onboarding Moved by Huston, seconded by Rye: “Adopt the Board of Directors Best Practices document with minor edits as suggested.” Passed: 9-0 The Board of Directors has initiated board expansion efforts, including evaluating capable experts who can provide a service to the speech and debate community. The Board reaffirmed priorities and key attributes sought in candidates and established a timeline for making the initial asks. The Board’s intent is to maintain a majority of elected leaders on the board while seeking up to five new experts to join them in serving the NSDA. In conjunction with this process, the Board reviewed and accepted an updated Best Practices document for recruiting and onboarding new Board members as well as guiding existing Board members.

2017 National Tournament Update Host Jay Rye and Executive Director Wunn provided an overview of the Birmingham site plan, including schools and registration/ final round venues. A new local sponsor and additional dining options in downtown Birmingham promise to make the student posting party and competition week even more enjoyable. More information will be made available in the Winter 2017 Rostrum and at www.speechanddebate.org/nationals as details are finalized. National office staff and Board members also reviewed feedback from the Dallas and Salt Lake City Nationals to assess what improvements can be made to tournament logistics and hospitality moving forward.

Competition and Rules Program Oral Interpretation and Informative Speaking Moved by Huston, seconded Rye: “Amend the rules for Program Oral Interpretation rules as presented.” Passed: 9-0 The adjusted rules clarify that the use of a manuscript during the performance is required. Common practices include the use of a binder or folder. Reading from a book or magazine is not permitted. The Board affirmed that song lyrics are permitted, but must meet the same burden as all other Interpretation material: published in print or meet the requirements for electronic or approved websites. See the High School Unified


Rostrum | FALL 2016

Manual for more details on the publication rules of the Association. Moved by Reikowski, seconded by Huston: “Amend the rules for Informative Speaking as presented.” Passed: 7-0-1 Aye: Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Reikowski, Rye Abstain: Sheaff The adjusted rules clarify the use of audio/visual aids in Informative Speaking. See the High School Unified Manual for more details. Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Crabtree: “Adopt Informative Speaking and Program Oral Interpretation as main events for the District and National Tournaments.” Passed: 5-4 Aye: Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, Reikowski No: Lindsey, McComas, Rye, Sheaff This change will be in effect for the 2017 National Tournament. Moved by Huston, seconded by Jerome: “Award auto-qualification to any eligible top 14 winners in Informative Speaking and Program Oral Interpretation from the 2016 National Tournament to the 2017 National Tournament.” Passed: 9-0 Moved by Huston, seconded by Jerome: “Amend the District Entry quota formula to accommodate the addition of speech entries in Program Oral Interpretation and Informative Speaking.” Passed: 9-0 The new entry limits raise the overall cap to 44. See the revised chart in the High School Unified Manual. Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Rye: “Amend the School of Excellence and district sweepstakes awards to include Informative Speaking and Program Oral Interpretation in the calculation for the winners of those awards.” Passed: 9-0 Executive Director Wunn will work with key staff to present a proposal for the Board’s consideration at the December meeting.

Updated Interpretation Rules Moved by Huston, seconded by Wycoff: “Adopt the updated Interpretation Rules as discussed.” Passed: 9-0 The Board adopted updated language that clarifies rules previously passed at the Spring 2016 meeting. The amended Interpretation Rules also incorporate POI now that it is a new main event at Districts and Nationals. See the High School Unified Manual for complete information.

Website Approval Submission Process Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Rye: “Add updated language about the website approval submission process to be included in the manual and added to the website: ‘Literature source submissions for the approved website list will be accepted year-round for review. If the source meets the stated criteria, it will be posted on the approved website list four times a year. Submissions received by the 15th of each designated month will be reviewed and posted by the 1st of the next month. The months for submissions are August, November, February, and April. Once a site is approved (e.g., The New York Times), all articles posted by that source would be approved for use.’” Passed: 9-0

National Tournament Audit Procedures Moved by Huston, seconded McComas: “Adopt the National Tournament Audit Procedures as presented.” Passed: 9-0 Beginning with the 2016 National Tournament, the national office will perform an audit of all final round speech performances after the conclusion of the tournament to confirm that no egregious violations of the rules has occurred. Once the audit is complete, all decisions will be final. At the National Tournament, the original source must to be turned in to tournament officials by quarterfinals. It is due by noon on the third day of competition. If an electronic device is necessary to read the document and cannot be accessed by tournament officials, it must be provided by the student. The source and equipment will be returned after the completion of the audit. For semifinalist and finalists, this may require keeping the device for one month and returning it by mail.

Script Verification Form Moved by Wycoff, seconded by Sheaff: “Implement the Script Verification Form requirements for District and National Tournaments.” Passed: 9-0 The NSDA provided checklist must be completed by the coach attesting that the oral interpretation typed manuscript and the pages submitted from the original script accurately reflect the performance. See sample checklist below: I certify that we, the coach(es), student(s), and administrator(s) directly affiliated with our NSDA chapter, have complied with the following requirements. ___ I have included a word-processed manuscript of the cutting. ___ I have included a highlighted copy of the original script. The pages are in the order of the cutting. If lines from one page were used more than once within the cutting, the original page was re-copied, highlighted, and inserted to show the order of the line(s) used.

___ I have clearly indicated in ink any words added or changed as permitted in the rules. ___ I am aware of the Transition Rule: “Failure to clearly indicate the addition of words will be subject to disqualification. Changes to the script may only be used for the purpose of transition or to eliminate profane language. Transitions may be used to clarify the logical sequence of ideas. They are not to be used for the purpose of embellishing the humorous or dramatic effect of the literature.” ___ The pages submitted from the original script accurately reflect the performance.

Original Oratory Rules Moved by Huston, seconded by Wycoff: “Amend the rules for Original Oratory as follows: ‘Purpose: The general purpose of the speech is to persuade. Any other purpose such as to inform or entertain shall be secondary.’” Passed: 9-0 The Oratory adjustment is consistent and parallel with the new wording of the Informative Speaking rules.

Prose/Poetry Rules Moved by Huston, seconded by McComas: “Amend the rules of Prose/Poetry as proposed.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Reikowski, Rye, Sheaff) The adjusted rules reflect the use of PDFs, e-books, and online material in Prose/Poetry.

Expository Rules Moved by McComas, seconded by Sheaff: “Amend the rules of Expository as proposed.” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Reikowski, Rye, Sheaff) A student may not use any portion of their original oration or informative speech entered at any district or national Association tournament.

World Schools Debate Invitational Moved by Huston, seconded by Crabtree: “Adopt World Schools Debate as an official event at the National Tournament.” Passed: 7-1 Aye: Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Reikowski, Rye No: Sheaff Moved by Huston, seconded by Reikowski: “Districts wishing to enter a second team at the World Schools Invitational will be allowed to do so. They will need to offer a second judge to cover the commitment

Rostrum | FALL 2016 11

Fall Minutes (continued) for that team as a condition of getting a second team.” Passed: 5-2-1 Aye: Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Reikowski, Rye No: McComas, Sheaff Abstain: Jerome Ongoing feedback about this event has been very positive. Participation in WSD gives more students an opportunity to be exposed to the format and to the USA Debate team/coaches. WSD is now a college event, so scholarship opportunities are opening up, as well. Districts maintain autonomy in how World Schools Debate qualifiers are selected. See the High School Unified Manual for details.

Congressional Debate Rules Moved by Huston, seconded by McComas: “Amend the Congress rule about direct questioning as stated: ‘Districts may pilot direct questioning at their district tournaments. At the 2017 National Tournament, direct questioning will be piloted in the semifinal and final congressional sessions. The presiding officer will open the floor for questions following each speech. The presiding officer will recognize questioners for a cross-examination period of no more than 30 seconds. Questioners will be chosen according to a separate questioning recency.’” Passed: 7-0-1 Aye: Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Rye, Sheaff Abstain: Reikowski The Board passed this clarification to the earlier proposal adopted at the Spring 2016 meeting. It is understood among Congress circles that when direct questioning is used, instead of the speaker calling directly on the questioner, the presiding officer does this using a separate questioning recency.

Piloted Congressional Debate Evidence Rules Moved by Huston, seconded by Rye: “Amend section 7.5. Penalties for Evidence Violations in Congressional Debate as presented: ‘A. If the parliamentarian determines that an entry has violated one of the rules listed in 7.1(A-D, F-H) (oral citation, written citation, indication of parts of card read or not read, use of private communication), the parliamentarian must notify the judge(s) of the violation. The judge(s) and parliamentarian may at their discretion disregard the evidence, diminish the credibility given to the evidence, take the violation into account (solely or partially) in the ranking of chamber participants or take no action. These offenses are considered minor and a parliamentarian sanction is the only prescribed penalty.’” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Reikowski, Rye, Sheaff) Based on feedback received over the summer and during the Summer Leadership Conference, this adjustment removes the penalty of an in-chamber apology for a Congress evidence violation. For additional rules and sanctions, please consult the High School Unified Manual.


Rostrum | FALL 2016

District and National Elections Moved by Reikowski, seconded by McComas: “Reconsider the motion as amended to remove the word ‘staggered.’” Passed: 8-0 (Crabtree, Wycoff, Huston, Jerome, McComas, Reikowski, Rye, Sheaff) At the Winter 2015 Meeting, the Board originally discussed staggering the District Committee elections (with half of the district leaders elected in year one, and half of the districts elected in year two) in order to divide up the onboarding process. However, as staff worked through the logistics of this plan, it was decided that it makes more sense to hold the District Committee elections in years opposite of the National Board election. Beginning in Spring 2017, upon election, District Committee members will serve a two-year term. Subsequently, committee members will be elected in odd numbered years. This will better facilitate the onboarding process for district leaders and ensure continuity of leadership when the National Board Election occurs in even numbered years.

Community Standards Prior to registering online for any district or national Association tournament, all coaches are required to confirm the following statement: “I certify that we, the coach(es), student(s), administrator(s) directly affiliated with our NSDA chapter, have agreed that the student performance(s) reflect(s) our school standards in terms of subject matter, language, and use of gesture.” This statement will be added to online and paper registration systems for high school and middle school advisors to affirm priory to entry.

Important Notice: 2016 Nationals Update Code H293 was disqualified after the 2017 Humorous Interpretation final round due to violations of the rule on adaptations. The final round results appeared in the Summer 2016 Rostrum. As a result of the disqualification, the Board of Directors issued the following additional penalties to the sponsoring school chapter and coaches of Code H293: A. All Bruno E. Jacob award points associated with Code H293 were revoked. B. All NSDA points earned by the coaches of the sponsoring chapter at the 2016 National Tournament were revoked. C. All School of Excellence award points associated with Code H293 and any resulting team honors were revoked and proper awards reissued. D. The sponsoring school chapter is penalized four speech event entry slots at the 2017 NSDA District Speech Tournament. The school is also not eligible for bonus entries. All members are reminded to follow all rules found in the High School Unified Manual. The meeting adjourned Sunday afternoon at 12:20 p.m.

13th Annual


JULY 9, 2017 - JULY 25, 2017

Patriot Games will include the newly confirmed NSDA main stage events: Program Oral Interpretation and Informative Speaking

GMU is proud to host over 110 schools from 32 states at the 13th annual Patriot Games Classic!

Join us for the

13th Annual

Patriot Games Classic

DECEMBER 2, 2016 - DECEMBER 4, 2016 gmif.gmuforensics.org * ppober@gmu.edu * team.gmuforensics.org


Save The Date! August 24–27, 2017 Join the National Speech & Debate Association for the inaugural national education conference for speech and debate in Denver, Colorado with our gracious hosts Cherry Creek High School and the Colorado High School Activities Association (CHSAA). Attendees can earn up to 20 hours of professional development as well as possible graduate credit hours!

For information about hotels, schedule, and more, please visit

www.speechanddebate.org/conference. take advantage of our early bird discount! Register by March 3, 2017

Members — $199 | Non-Members — $299


A Storied Organization Prepares for Its Next Great Chapter

For the past 92 years, the national office has called Ripon, Wisconsin, home. Below is the iconic building currently located at 125 Watson Street. Over the course of this school year, the NSDA will transition all operations to West Des Moines, Iowa.

by Amy Seidelman


he National Speech & Debate Association, the nation’s most celebrated speech and debate honor society, is preparing to relocate its national headquarters to West Des Moines, Iowa, in 2017. As we prepare for this historic milestone, something must be stated. Thank you, Ripon!


Home for 92 Years

Our organization was founded in 1925 at Ripon College in Ripon, Wisconsin, by then Pi Kappa Delta Secretary Bruno E. Jacob. After graduating, Jacob taught at the college and ran the National Forensic League from a campus office in East Hall. Over time, the organization outgrew its small office space and eventually settled at its current building located at 125 Watson Street. For thousands of coaches and leaders over the past several decades, this address, and this town, are ingrained in our minds as the home of secondary speech and debate activities. The decorated halls of the national office speak of the long history and commitment of those who built a legacy of leadership training that goes unrivaled. If the walls of the building and the streets of the town could talk, they would speak of the greats of the organization who have visited and worked tirelessly over the years. We would hear of the efforts of devoted staff members and Hall of Famers

like Albert Odom, Marilyn Hageman, and Carol Zanto. Stories would pour from the foundation about Bruno’s commitment to excellence and Jim Copeland’s vision of an organization that fostered community support to build its future. “We developed a great relationship with the city of Ripon,” said NSDA Board President Don Crabtree. “Over the years, we grew from a tiny honor society to a full-service membership organization. Along the way, we introduced members from all over the country to Ripon, and likewise introduced its residents, some of whom became our staff, to speech and debate. We were fortunate to find employees there who were willing to grow and change with the organization, and who served it well for so long.” The great work done in Ripon has transformed the organization, making it ready to expand. During its time in Ripon, the National Speech & Debate Association has grown to a membership of more than 4,000 active middle and high schools and nearly 150,000 active students. To date, more than 1.5 million people can call themselves lifetime members of our organization. “The city of Ripon, with its modest population of 7,800 people, has afforded the NSDA a means to build itself into an organization that not only impacts students through honors and events, but has a direct

impact on the future of the activity and its place within our educational system,” said Executive Director Scott Wunn.


A Place to Grow

In the Spring of 2011, the NSDA Board of Directors determined that the organization’s growth necessitated a more centralized and metropolitan location for the national headquarters, one that would provide easy access to transportation, opportunities to attract a large pool of professional staff, and easier access for our members. When a non-profit organization moves, costs are top of mind. Centrally located, midsized cities can offer the best balance between access and cost efficiency. “After vetting potential cities, it became clear that Des Moines, Iowa’s capital city, offered many benefits to the organization,” said Crabtree. West Des Moines, a western suburb of Des Moines situated at the crossroads of Interstates 35 and 80, is within driving distance of 40 NSDA districts, and is served by an international airport that helps our staff get to state and district events to work with leaders, volunteers, and coaches across the country. The Des Moines metro is becoming nationally known as an affordable and quality place to live and work. Des Moines’ ability to attract and retain young

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professionals is key for any organization looking to develop and maintain a strong, professional staff. We believe that our people are the foundation of our ability to serve our members, as well as create and build more attention for the activity of speech and debate. “Our goal is to create the same kind of energy and momentum for our work in Des Moines that we have had during the previous 90 years in Ripon,” said Crabtree. “The staff we’ve hired there over the last three years of transition have already made great contributions to the organization.” The new headquarters has a training room perfect for hosting the Board of Directors and other events, which is a logistical and financial boon for the organization. The Board meets in an official voting capacity four times a year, twice virtually and twice in person. “We’ve grown exponentially since the organization first began more than 90 years ago,” said Wunn. “Our Des

Moines-based headquarters gives us the space and access we need to honor our history while positioning us to serve our members, and advocate for speech and debate, in the best possible way.”

WHAT’S NEXT? In early 2017, all chapter advisors and school bookkeepers on file will receive notification from the national headquarters of an official address change to our new location at 401 Railroad Place, West Des Moines, IA, 50265. The organization will continue some operations from Ripon throughout the 2016-2017 school year, but will begin working with schools to use the new address for primary operations. The office location and operations will be fully transitioned by July 31, 2017.

Amy Seidelman is the Director of Operations for the NSDA.


Sampling of Recognition Received in 2015-2016:

• #2 Best Affordable Place to Live in the U.S. — U.S. News & World Report, 2016 • #1 Best City for the Middle Class — Business Insider, 2016 • #11 Best Place to Live in the U.S. — U.S. News & World Report, 2016 • Top 10 Best City to Live and Work — Robert Half’s Career City Index, 2016 • #2 “Top 10 U.S. Cities to Land Work” — NBC News, 2015 • #6 “Midsize Metro where College Grads Move for Jobs” — AIER, 2015 • #1 Metro with the Most Community Pride — Gallup, 2015 • #3 Top City for New College Grads — SmartAsset, 2015 • #2 Best City for Jobs in 2015 — Forbes, 2015 Source: https://www.desmoinesmetro.com/en/ dsm_metro_info/rankings

NSDA staff and Board members gathered in front of the West Des Moines headquarters in September.


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2016 Hall of Fame Inductees

Nominate an Outstanding Coach to the Hall of Fame!  Who is eligible? Coaches with 25 years of membership in the National Speech & Debate Association, or who are retired from coaching and teaching, are eligible for this prestigious award.

 How do I nominate someone? It’s easy! Member coaches can visit www.speechanddebate.org/hall-of-fame-nomination-form to submit a nomination form and a bio. Keep in mind, your identity as nominator will remain confidential. Therefore, your coach biography (300 words or less) should be written in the third person and focus on the coaching history and qualifications of your candidate. Some topics to focus on could be awards, accolades, accomplishments, career highlights, character, and personal contributions. Please see the sample below for ideas. Nominations must be received by February 2, 2017, to be considered for the 2017 ballot.

SAMPLE BIOGRAPHY Jane Smith has been a dedicated coach of speech and debate for the past 30 years. A five-diamond coach from Blank High School, Jane is the epitome of integrity and dedication to the National Speech & Debate Association. Competitively, Jane has qualified 11 students to the National Tournament. Her team has sent five students to the final rounds and has captured three national championships. During Jane’s coaching career, Blank High School has won the Largest Chapter Award and the District Sweepstakes Award several times. Jane has had an outstanding career at the state level as well, directing her team to eight High School League State Championships in speech competition. In 2005, she won the Outstanding Speech, Debate, and Theater Award from ABCDE. In 2007, XYZ awarded her the Outstanding Individual in Speech and Theater. In 2009, the State High School League inducted Jane into their Hall of Fame.

Jane is generous with her time, evidenced by her extensive service to the Association and her state. For eight years, she has served as district chair. She is co-founder and co-director of her state’s debate camp. Jane has also hosted an invitational tournament for the past 10 years. Her teams’ awards and achievements are only a snapshot of the important role that Jane plays in the lives of her students. Jane spends tireless hours not only to improve her students’ forensic skills, but also to be a mentor and role model teaching her students to be responsible citizens as well as worthy competitors. Jane exemplifies the true spirit of the Association’s mission to bring lifetime skills of language and communication to the youth of our country. With three decades of exemplary coaching, teaching, and service to her students and colleagues, Jane Smith richly deserves induction in the National Speech & Debate Association Hall of Fame.

2016 NFHS Rostrum Ad_Rostrum Ad 06.qxd 2/11/2016 9:00 AM Page 1

National Federation of State High School Associations

NFHS Speech, Debate and Theatre Association Member Benefits:

• Insurance coverage, including excess general liability, up to $1 million • Subscription to High School Today, a monthly NFHS publication • Training Materials and Resources • Access to Online Publications • Professional Development • Network of Communication All of these benefits and more for a $20 annual membership fee! To join, go to www.nfhs.org and click on “NFHS for You”

Join Today NFHS


NFHS Publications Available for Purchase Forensic Quarterly

The Forensic Quarterly (FQ) has remained one of the most credible and valuable resources for policy debaters and coaches across the country. Four issues are published each year: FQ1, an overview of the current policy debate topic area; FQ2, a bibliography of available research materials; FQ3, potential affirmative cases; and FQ4, possible negative cases.

NFHS Coach’s Manual for Speech and Debate

The NFHS Coach’s Manual for Speech and Debate is designed specifically for novice coaches. The manual contains information on a number of elements of coaching, including contest descriptions, finances, travel, judging, attending tournaments, and building and developing a team. The loose-leaf notebook format makes it easy to add information specific to your state.

Training DVDs

Videos are available on a variety of topics including Public Forum Debate, Lincoln Douglas Debate and Original Oration.

To order any of these materials, call NFHS customer service toll free at 1-800-776-3462 or order online at www.nfhs.com.


Announcing the Inaugural Educator of the Year Award


DATE National Speech and Debate Education Day

by Steve Schappaugh



March 3, 2017 he National Speech & Debate

of recommendation from individuals

Association will recognize

familiar with the candidate’s impact

an inaugural Educator of the

on speech and debate education.

Year award recipient on March 3, 2017,

You can access the official

which is National Speech and Debate

consideration form and learn more at

Education Day. This award exists to


honor an outstanding individual who


has enhanced the quality of education in the field of speech and debate. This award is distinct from our Coach of the Year award as it is focused on the impact that is created in classrooms. Nominations will be accepted from a fellow educator, administrator, school board member, or parent until January 31, 2017. The winner will be asked to represent the organization for one calendar year at special events, including but not limited to offering a keynote address at the organization’s inaugural Education Conference August 24-27 in Denver, Colorado. Nominations must include

Criteria that will be considered: • Membership in the National Speech & Debate Association • Be an active teacher in the field of speech and debate • Have a minimum of five years classroom experience • Clearly demonstrate impact on the field of speech and debate education beyond the classroom • Provide significant and ongoing support to others in the field of speech and debate education • Model the Association’s Code of Honor

the official consideration form, a recommendation letter from the submitter, and two additional letters

Steve Schappaugh is the Director of Community Engagement for the NSDA



We encourage all teachers, students, and schools to schedule a classroom or schoolwide event on March 3, 2017, in recognition of this special day! Below are some ideas to get started. Celebrate Expression Assembly — An assembly where students are afforded an opportunity to express themselves through spoken word poetry, an oration, an extemp speech, or a debate. After each performance, audience members could be given the opportunity to ask questions about the message—why they framed their opinions the way they did; how they chose what to perform; what motivated them to speak. Guest Speaker Assembly – The school arranges for a guest speaker to come in and talk about an issue of significance to the student body. That speaker could be anyone. In fact, if the speaker isn’t already a renowned speaker, they embody the theme of “unexpected voices.” At some point, the speech or speaker should touch on how students can use their voice to affect change. Town Hall Meeting – Using the town hall concept, students have the opportunity to ask administrators their perspectives on issues important to them. Possible topics could include the impact of early release for professional development on single family homes or working class families; grading policies; bullying; amount of homework; AP classes; or diversity at the school. The principal can lead the Town Hall and have their leadership team on stage with them. Watch for future updates in our newsletters, on our website, and in the Winter Rostrum. Rostrum | FALL 2016 21


Ideas for Hosting Big Questions Debates Earn up to $1,700 per event! by Lauren Burdt


ith the speech and debate season underway, schools have been taking advantage of Big Questions as a fundraising event for their classrooms and debate programs. The accessible format and flexibility in how you choose to hold your event makes it easy to earn up to $1,700 for your school! These debates can be held as a classroom event, tournament event, stand-alone event, intra-school scrimmage, or supplemental event. Interested in holding your own Big Questions Debates? Here are a few ideas!

This is the second in a series of articles on the Big Questions funding opportunity. The next will appear in the Winter 2017 Rostrum.

and believe that this debate will help generate interest for this interdisciplinary science and theology elective,” Serge explained. “We are using the money to allow students to attend a Speech and Debate Summer Leadership Institute.” Pennsylvania coach Mary Ann Berty is doing Big Questions Debates as a way to feature Trinity High School’s

Debaters from Madison High School in Rexburg, Idaho

Classroom event Any teacher is eligible to receive grant funding for their classroom. Big Questions rounds can be held during a block class period or over several days. Many teachers have used this event as an interdisciplinary learning opportunity for students by collaborating with IB programs, science clubs, and religion classes. In Dearborn, Michigan, for example, librarian Serge DanielsonFrancois recruited students from Divine Child High School’s AP Research and Seminar classes to compete and then invited teachers, administrators, and experienced debate team members to judge the rounds. “We are planning on teaching an elective on Science and Religion starting in the summer of 2017

STEAM program. “These debates are not only showcasing the ‘A’ for the Art of Communication in our STEAM program; I believe this topic will generate a unique discussion among students and adults alike,” Mary Ann said. “Our judges are a cross-section of our community, and their connection with the students and this topic will create a 21st century educational experience for all.” Introducing students to debate in a classroom setting allows them to explore their interest in argumentation and can spark an interest in competing on the team.

What are the minimum requirements? • three rounds • 15 students • one judge per round • follow NEW event format

2016-2017 Topic

Check out our resources!

Resolved: Science leaves no room for free will.

• monthly topic analyses • sample aff/neg cases • demo video • student manual • judge training video • classroom lesson plans www.speechanddebate.org/ big-questions

Visit our site for a novice topic analysis by Amit Kukreja and an intermediate topic analysis by Carlos Taylor! 22

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(left) Big Questions participants from Divine Child High School in Dearborn, Michigan (below) Chasitie Thompson from Vallivue High School in Caldwell, Idaho

“I really enjoyed debating this topic! I learned a lot and it opened my eyes to the possibilities of other perspectives.” — Julia Pyle, Sophomore

Stand-alone event Stand-alone events provide schools the opportunity to collaborate with other schools in their surrounding area as a way to support growing or new speech and debate programs. The Maine Forensics Association (MFA) is using Big Questions to provide access to schools that cannot afford to attend tournaments out of state. MFA President Matt Leland is promoting Big Questions as a fundraiser for all participating schools. “Every school that brings five students or more will split the money from the tournament. We plan to do a North and South tournament to make travel easier. 80% of the money will be split between schools, and 20% will go into a fund to assist new programs in their first two years of competition.” Stand-alone events are a great way to involve students who would like to try a new event without sacrificing their spots at a regular season tournament.

District event The Yellow Rose District in Texas is hosting Big Questions as a tournament event at invitationals in their district throughout the season. They will use the fundraising money to offset the cost of their district tournament. Big Questions is being held as a novice division at these tournaments to provide younger

students with an opportunity to debate in an accessible format. Big Questions can also be held as an additional event at the district tournament. Although there is no qualifying tournament for Nationals at the district level, districts are welcome to host Big Questions for students who may not be eligible to attend due to entry limits.

at a Saturday scrimmage in Nampa, Idaho. “What intrigued me about Big Questions is that it is really a hybrid of several debate formats, which helped me introduce debate, in general, to our students. I am excited to offer this again to my students as a way to introduce debate, and debate theory, in my classroom.”

School scrimmage event

How to apply

School scrimmage events can be held between junior varsity and varsity debate teams, speech and debate teams, or among team members. Big Questions can be used to prepare debaters for the upcoming season or attract non-members to interact with the debate team. Millard North High School in Omaha, Nebraska, is giving extra credit to debate class students who come in on a Saturday morning to participate in the event with the team’s novice and JV debaters. Varsity debaters and parent volunteers will judge and give constructive feedback. Jeffrey Stoppenhagen held varsity and novice divisions of Big Questions

To receive funding to host Big Questions Debates, review the event details and fill out an application on the NSDA website. There is a limited amount of money to be awarded, so please apply early to increase the chances of being accepted, regardless of the date of your event! After Big Questions Debates are held, there is a brief survey for judges and students to complete and a reporting form to be returned to the Association. To learn more about Big Questions and to apply to host an event, please visit our website or contact Lauren Burdt, Project Manager of Big Questions Debates.

GET STARTED! VISIT www.speechanddebate.org/big-questions

EMAIL lauren.burdt@speechanddebate.org Turn the page to learn more about our NEW event format!

This publication was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation. Rostrum | FALL 2016 23


You Asked; We Listened! Big Questions Format Update Big Questions Debates In the new event format, students can choose whether to compete as an individual or with a partner. Each round lasts about 45 minutes.


ased on your feedback, the National Speech & Debate Association has made two changes to the Big Questions format. First, rounds have been shortened to about 45 minutes. Second, students may compete in Big Questions as an individual or with a partner. Our hope is that these changes will make Big Questions more accessible for coaches and students!

Shortened Speech Times Speech times have been shortened, and the third question segment has been removed. This brings each round to about 45 minutes. We hope the new speech times will help tournament hosts doubleflight rounds, allow teachers to use Big Questions in their classrooms, and reduce the preparation burden on students. Please review the Big Questions Format Manual at www.speechanddebate.org for more details.

Partners Students can choose whether to compete as an individual or with a partner. Students who compete with a partner will alternate speeches and share their prep time, much like Public Forum or Policy. This allows for the possibility of one-on-one, two-on-two, or even

two-on-one rounds. This flexibility is unique to Big Questions Debates, and it can be a great way to introduce new debaters to elements of each debate event. Tournament hosts can choose to limit their event to one entry type at their discretion. One partnership will count as two students under the grant requirements. Our hope is that this alteration will help schools recruit new students who wish to experiment with aspects of other debate events. This Big Questions format makes it easy for students who are new to debate to get an introduction to a year-long topic, debating for community judges, and working with a partner if they choose.

Capstone Event The Big Questions Capstone Event at Nationals will feature only one-on-one rounds. Students interested in competing in Big Questions at Nationals are encouraged to compete as an individual throughout the season, but individuals from a partnership may still be invited. Resources online have been updated to accommodate for the new speech times and the possibility of partnerships. Thank you for your feedback and cooperation as we work to improve Big Questions! If you have any questions about the new format, please contact Lauren Burdt.

Order/Time Limits of Speeches Affirmative Constructive............5 min Negative Constructive................5 min Question Segment........................3 min Affirmative Rebuttal.....................4 min Negative Rebuttal.........................4 min Question Segment........................3 min Affirmative Consolidation..........3 min Negative Consolidation..............3 min Affirmative Rationale...................2 min Negative Rationale........................2 min (Each debater gets 5 minutes of prep time to use at their discretion.)

“This event is highly valuable for high school students and others involved in the process. We’re growing future leaders who can think critically and speak with purpose and justification.” — Laura Abbott, Judge from Vallivue High School, Idaho

LEARN MORE! Email lauren.burdt@speechanddebate.org or visit www.speechanddebate.org/big-questions. 24

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Interpretation, Original Oratory, Extemp, Public Forum, Lincoln-Douglas, and Congressional Debate



Podius Debates Foster Civic Discourse by Sarah Mannheimer


ebate is central to the American experience. It enlivens and preserves our institutions by giving every voice an equal say, with each perspective tested against another. Public debate helps to foster an informed and engaged citizenry, the cornerstone of a free society. Podius Debates take the form of two opposing viewpoints brought together in a public arena, with the intention of informing an audience on a topic of general interest. Podius exists to raise the level of civic discourse in America— for that to occur, both sides must be clearly and equally represented in the debate. Podius will not feature lectures or panel discussions between experts already in basic agreement with one another, or any other event that gives preference to one side of the discussion. The Podius Debates series kicked off the 2016-2017 academic year at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, on September 29, 2016. Moderator Tara

Tedrow (attorney and former nationally ranked debater) and former debate champs David Coale and Lyn Robbins squared off to answer the question: Do affirmative action policies harm those they intend to help? After a lively debate, the moderator turned it over to the audience who continued to press both debaters for information and clarification on their respective arguments. Following the SMU debate, the University of Kentucky hosted the second debate in the series in Lexington, Kentucky. Tara Tedrow again played the role of moderator, this time joined by debate scholars and esteemed professors Thomas Hollihan (University of Southern California) and Robert Rowland (Kansas University). The UK debate was led by the topic: The media is to blame for largescale voter ignorance. In the days and weeks leading up to the 2016 election, this topic proved to be very timely indeed. The debate prompted a lively discussion from engaged audience members, who presented the debaters with difficult questions via text and in person. The third Podius installment was held in the historic Dodd Auditorium at the University of Mary Washington in Virginia. This time, Podius tapped well-known journalist and former senior correspondent for PBS NewsHour Ray Suarez to moderate. The topic, Media bias is a threat to democracy, was

discussed and debated by political media experts Dr. Stephen Farnsworth (author of The Global President) and Dr. Craig Smith (Professor Emeritus at CSU Long Beach). Live audience polling, texted questions, and a Q&A panel discussion rounded out the UMW debate. The fourth and final Podius debate of the fall will take place November 16 at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Ray Suarez will again join Podius to moderate. The topic at Emory is: The 2016 election cycle has had a detrimental effect on American democracy. Podius is fortunate to be joined by two CNN analysts for the Emory debate. Former nationally ranked debater and radio personality Andy Dean will debate former South Carolina State Senator Bakari Sellers. Once again, audience members will be encouraged to participate via text as Andy and Bakari square off just days after the 2016 presidential election. The art of persuasion and the interchange of conflicting ideas are fundamental to the American form of deliberative democracy. It is impossible to have a healthy society that arrives at good political and philosophical conclusions through discussion without

Ray Suarez (above) University of Kentucky students observe the second installment of the Podius Debates series. 26

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Andy Dean

Bakari Sellers

Learn more about the Podius Debates series at www.podius.com.

citizens who are engaged with and thinking critically about the various issues relevant to their communities. Podius supports both competitive and public debate, believing that the education of the civic body is best achieved by teaching students to thoughtfully consider and defend both sides of a proposition, and by educating and informing the civic audience about the policies they will vote on and the issues that will affect their lives. Our goal is to get people thinking carefully, listening to

each other, and testing out their ideas through reasoned discourse. Podius exists to help Americans preserve and strengthen their democratic institutions by championing intelligent and thoughtful civic discourse. All Podius Debates are free and open to the public. The entire Podius Debates series can be viewed online at www.podius.com. Sarah Mannheimer is the Manager of Podius Debates for the NSDA.

ABOVE (LEFT TO RIGHT) Moderator Tara Tedrow looks on as

Robert Rowland (opposite page) addresses the crowd at the University of Kentucky. • Audience members are invited to engage in lively discussions on each topic. • Thomas Hollihan (middle) defends his position during the UK debate, with Tedrow and Rowland. BELOW (CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT) Dr. Anand Rao (middle) introduces Dr. Stephen Farnsworth (left) and Dr. Craig Smith (right) at the University of Mary Washington in Virginia. • David Coale and Lyn Robbins grapple with the topic of affirmative action at Southern Methodist University. • SMU students line up to ask questions of Coale and Robbins following their debate. • Ray Suarez moderates the UMW debate exploring media bias.

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“We produce more than 2,400 awards for the National Tournament alone. Imagine what we can do for your school or tournament!” — Chad Wagner, Trophy Shop Manager for the NSDA


TROPHY SHOP Order tournament trophies, school awards, plaques, medals, and more from the National Speech & Debate Association’s Trophy Shop!

We have thousands to choose from, or you can create customized awards for your event! As a member, you have access to wholesale prices and early invoicing. Learn more at www.speechanddebate.org/trophyshop


Are YOU the Next Great Communicator?


by Rebekah Harding

I won a nickname, ‘The Great Communicator.’ But I never thought it was

my style or the words I used that made a difference: It was the content. I wasn’t a great communicator, but I communicated great things, and they didn’t spring full bloom from my brow, they came from the heart of a great nation—from our experience, our wisdom, and our belief in principles that have guided us for two centuries.” — Ronald Reagan


n July 21, 2016, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Institute welcomed 16 of the nation’s top debaters to compete for scholarship awards totaling $40,000 in the Great Communicator Debate Series National Championship. The top two competitors from each regional competition, as well as the top two qualifying debaters from the National Association for Urban Debate Leagues and the top two U.S. Extemporaneous speakers from the National Speech & Debate Association, earned an all-expenses paid trip to Simi Valley,


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California, to compete at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Students, coaches, and parents enjoyed tours of the museum, a sunset dinner on the terrace, and an opportunity to board Air Force One. The national competition took place on Saturday, July 22, as debaters explored whether “the benefits of the two party system outweigh the harms to the American public.” After preliminaries, quarterfinals, and semifinals, two debaters rose to the top. Katie Kleinle from Ridge High School in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, and Alex Zhao from La Cañada High School in La Cañada, California, emerged on top and would advance to compete under the wings of Air Force One for the title of the next Great Communicator and the top $10,000 scholarship award. The final judge panel included Lou Cannon, journalist and biographer; Joanne Drake, Chief Administrative Officer at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and former Chief-of-Staff to

President Reagan; Aaron Meyer, Senior at Eureka College; Deborah Salgado, Director of Secondary Education for Simi Valley Unified School District; and new to this year’s competition, the audience vote. With elegant charm, wellconstructed arguments, and dynamic content, Katie Kleinle was named the 2016 Great Communicator National Champion. Since its inception, the Reagan Library has served as a venue for civic and political leaders to express national and world issues. The Great Communicator Debate Series promotes civic engagement, highlights the legacy of President Reagan as “The Great Communicator” and a legendary presidential debater, and spotlights the nation’s most promising high school communicators. The 2017 regional competition dates and locations are now posted (see sidebar). Are YOU the next Great Communicator?

OPPOSITE PAGE Near left: Judges and finalists Aaron Meyer, Joanne Drake, Alex Zhao, Katie Kleinle, Lou Cannon, and Deborah Salgado • Speaking at podium: Gage Cohen THIS PAGE Clockwise from top: Alex Millard, Aaron Meyer (judge), Katie Kleinle, Anthony Pennay (Chief Learning Officer at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Institute), and Marshall Webb • Peter Charalambous and Lou Cannon, author and final round judge • Final round debaters Alex Zhao and Katie Kleinle • Top 16 finalists Ronald Thompson, Gage Cohen, Alex Millard, Leonard Brahin, Marshall Webb, Katie Kleinle, Peter Charalambous, Alex Zhao, Ben Rankin, Cara Day, Justin Kang, Austin Janik, Vincent Li, Carlos Gregory, Micah Cash, and Gabriel Jankovsky

Great Communicator Debate Series 2016 National Championship Results:


$10,000 scholarship and title of 2016 Great Communicator • Katie Kleinle, Ridge High School, Basking Ridge, NJ, Class of 2016

$7,000 scholarship • Alex Zhao, La Cañada High School, La Cañada, CA, Class of 2017

$3,500 scholarships

2017 REGIONAL COMPETITIONS Greater Texas Regional • Feb. 4, 2017 Hendrickson High School, TX Western Regional • Mar. 18, 2017 Notre Dame High School, CA

• Peter Charalambous, Chaminade High School, Mineola, NY, Class of 2016 • Justin Kang, Syosset High School, Syosset, NY, Class of 2016

Mid-West Regional • Apr. 7-8, 2017

$2,000 scholarships

Truman High School, MO

• Marshall Webb, St. Mary’s Hall High School, San Antonio, TX, Class of 2016 • Micah Cash, Booker T. Washington High School, Tulsa, OK, Class of 2016 • Ben Rankin, Central High School, Springfield, MO, Class of 2016 • Ronald Thompson, Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, Washington, D.C., Class of 2016

Mid-Atlantic Regional • May 5-6, 2017

$1,000 scholarships • Alex Millard, Truman High School, Independence, MO, Class of 2016 • Gage Cohen, Lighthouse Christian Academy, Bloomington, IN, Class of 2016 • Cara Day, St. Agnes Academy, Houston, TX, Class of 2017 • Carlos Gregory, Hendrickson High School, Pflugerville, TX, Class of 2017 • Vincent Li, Poolesville High School East, Poolesville, MD, Class of 2017 • Gabriel Jankovsky, Woodrow Wilson High School, Dallas, TX, Class of 2016 • Leonard Brahin, Walter Payton College Prep, Chicago, IL, Class of 2016 • Austin Janik, The Grace Academy, Simi Valley, CA, Class of 2016

D.C. Urban Debate League, D.C.

Northeast Regional • May 13, 2017 Chaminade High School, NY Online Regional • May 2017 Details to be announced

Rebekah Harding serves as Education Outreach Manager for the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Institute.

http://gcdebates.reaganfoundation.org Rostrum | FALL 2016 31

All students benefit from debate instruction. Recognizing the unique needs of different student populations can help those students maximize their experience in the debate classroom.


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Improving Access for Women in the Debate Classroom by Cindi Timmons


dvocating for girls’ education has been a major agenda item for Mrs. Obama during her time in the White House. She has traveled across the country and around the world encouraging the development of educational opportunities for girls. She has challenged girls to take advantage of these opportunities to be their best— and when speaking to a group of girls in Harlem in October 2015, she declared, “Compete with the boys. Beat the boys.” While the National Speech & Debate Association appropriately wants to empower all of our country’s youth, the diverse communities we embrace mean that we need to also consider the varied needs of students. Young women, while a vital part of our forensic community, do not always have their needs met in the debate community. This series of articles seeks to address those needs. Before we can talk about the experiences women face in competition, in camp settings, as coaches, or even as women prepare to leave high school and participate in college forensics, we have to first consider the experiences women have in the debate classroom, often their first experience with debate. Women come to debate for a variety of reasons—perhaps a parent or older sibling debated; perhaps they were told they were clearly smart and vocal and they should try debate. Liz Yount, a senior from HarvardWestlake in California, says that she “first


I’ve had to learn that my voice has value. And if I don’t use it, what’s the point of being in the room?”

began debate in middle school because I was a young girl with a lot to say and no clear place to say it. I immediately fell in love with the five minutes of nearly uninterrupted speaking time that came along with the Middle School Public Debate Program (MSPDP) format taught to middle schoolers. I finally had a designated time where people would actually listen to me, and better yet, there was even someone writing down what I was saying. Needless to say, I was very excited by this new thing called debate.” Ellie Grossman, a senior from The Blake School in Minnesota, notes, “I first heard of Blake’s debate team because my stepsister was on it. I went to the information night because of that and was quickly drawn in by how fun it seemed. Soon enough, my team became like family, so I stayed.” Colette Faulkner, a senior from Kingwood High School in Texas, states, “The first reason I signed up for debate was because I needed a speech credit. Plus, it didn’t hurt that most would agree that participation in speech and debate is a great resume booster. It was not until sophomore year, when I actually started competing, that I became immersed in debate. I think what really drew me in was not just the rush of adrenaline you feel after winning, but finding that the ability to string words into thoughts that move people is truly an art.” Nika Gottlieb, a junior from The Madeira School in Virginia, reports, “I was

— Michelle Obama, First Lady of the United States, tweeting on #DayoftheGirl, October 11, 2016

drawn into debate initially by the older students at my school. They encouraged me to come to meetings where I fell in love with debate.” Perhaps girls in your school heard that debate involved talking about current events, or that it was preparation for future career choices. Or perhaps they like the idea of academic competition. In any case, young women appear on your debate rolls or show up at your debate club or to your extracurricular practice and the questions begin.

What Tradeoffs Do Women Face When They Participate in Debate? Lauren Lamar, a young woman from Texas, observes: “To many, there’s a stigma that goes along with being a member of the speech and debate team. You’re automatically seen as nerdy... and this could not be more true. In fact, I often spend my free time reading news articles or browsing scholarly journals to familiarize myself with specific topic areas, such as the Syrian refugee crisis or climate change.” But Lauren goes on to report that the tradeoff is worth it. “As a member of Generation Z, I feel compelled to educate myself in as many areas as possible, with the purpose of filling our future to the rim with knowledge­—and debate is the best way to do it! At first, these topics seem dull, but after doing an immense amount of research, I typically become emotionally invested in each issue and passionate about the impacts of each argument. For

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instance, my friends and I have started promoting the green movement on our school grounds, inspired by a debate topic dealing with the effects of a carbon tax in the U.S. Although a green initiative at one school seems miniscule, it has the ability to influence others to promote a greener earth. Therefore, I believe that debate is a catalyst for real change to take place.” Many educators believe that women face unique social tradeoffs when they participate in debate. Highly verbal women who are leaders in other activities may find themselves overly stressed by trying to juggle their various commitments. Others may find that the social activities they are trading off with to spend time in debate hurts peer relationships outside of debate. Women who are still trying to find their voice in debate may be hurt by some of the competitive fallout if it’s left unchecked. All students face tradeoffs when they prioritize activities; it is important to determine what those tradeoffs are in order to better support the students.

What Experiences Do Women Face in the Debate Classroom? The issues women face in the debate classroom were somewhat on display during the past year in the presidential campaign cycle. The 2016 presidential election was unique in a number of ways, but certainly one of the most important was the presence of the first woman to be nominated by a major party while another woman was a contender during the primaries. The discussion surrounding Hillary Clinton’s candidacy (and to a lesser degree, Carly Fiorina’s) frequently focused on the role gender and gender communication plays in our society. Female forensic competitors and coaches saw some of the things they face daily played out on a national stage.


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Gender Dynamics A report on gender differences in the classroom created by Columbia University notes that gender dynamics are definitely a factor: Our classrooms contain certain hidden biases. We want students who actively participate in discussion. We tend to value a verbal style that is confident, assertive, and forceful. We regard a class as especially successful if students engage in debate and verbal sparring. These biases make some students, disproportionately female, feel inadequate. They come to doubt their own abilities and skills. Meanwhile, classroom dynamics vary markedly depending on the instructor’s sex, the class’ sex ratio, class size, and the gender relevance of the course. Male and female students tend to have different speaking styles in the classroom. Male students tend to speak in order to establish status and hierarchy, and their style tends to be more argumentative. Many female students feel uncomfortable having their ideas evaluated publicly. Many prefer to work with others to solve problems. In addition, male and female students tend to have different attitudes toward their own abilities and different ways of dealing with failure (“Gender Issues”).

Linguistic Styles Additionally, there may be differences in linguistic styles. Both the University of Virginia and Columbia University summarized studies reporting the existence of these differences: Girls may communicate shorter or more tentative points, qualify their ideas with disclaimers, preface their questions with tags, either ask

questions or use tone shifts to turn statements into questions, or even apologize for what points they are making. There is some speculation in the academic community that these different linguistic styles may account for males achieving greater recognition in the classroom (“Gender Issues” and “Teaching a Diverse Student Body”). These mannerisms may stem from a preference for collaborative discussion, since most stress the individual nature of the speaker’s opinion, thus leaving room for other opinions and ideas. Such styles may also be more than individual, since they tend to be exhibited more frequently by members of underrepresented groups. Factors of race, class, culture, and personality are equally important ‘in determining who gets to speak and for how long and whose voice is taken seriously’ (Brookfield 158) in the classroom and in our culture at large. Recognizing the benefits of such a collaborative speaking style may contradict our assumptions about effective or authoritative speech and may even force us to examine our own, often unacknowledged, gender stereotypes. Though frequently perceived as hesitant or insecure, these speech characteristics are not negative ones—they are simply different from the standard style validated in most classrooms. Ideally, if a statement is intelligent and interesting, its quality should not be affected by how aggressively it is stated or whether it is phrased as a statement or a question; louder statements are not intrinsically better than quieter ones and longer statements are not necessarily more useful than condensed ones. Indeed, collaborative styles can have an important positive effect on social and academic conversation. Asking tag questions or using questions instead of statements can improve discussion by more readily inviting responses from other students. Such manners of speaking can also help prolong discussion; nodding, clarifying, listening, etc., are all behaviors that encourage others to speak and participate (“Teaching a Diverse Student Body”).

Student Experiences Having supportive coaches and peers is key to improving the debate classroom for all students, but particularly young women. Liz: “Being a female in debate yields amazing experiences and friends, but it also comes with its fair share of struggles. Most of the time, I feel empowered by talking about women’s issues and supporting other girls in debate, but there are also times when I get extremely frustrated by sexist feedback and treatment, both in and out of rounds. Regardless, my experience as a woman in the debate classroom has been one of the most rewarding experiences of my life. Through debate, I have met some of the most powerful women around and have made deeply authentic connections with other female debaters I hope to carry through the rest of my life.” Ellie: “Within my team, my experience has been wonderful. I’ve had the joy of having a coaching staff that promotes inclusivity and diversity at every level, from each individual in our team to the judging panel at our tournament. It was easy for me to find a home at Blake debate. I wish every young person had a welcoming team setting like I do. It could do the activity a lot of good.” Colette: “My experience in the debate classroom has been one that has been filled with laughter and tears. I think everyone can agree that high school is a strange and confusing time where you are just trying to figure out who you are. Debate allowed me to try on many faces and discover what suited me and what didn’t. I’ve met and made friends with people who have challenged my beliefs and made me better. Through debate, I’ve found more than friends, but a family, as well.” Nika: “I learned most of what I know about debate from the older girls in my club. Coaches are invaluable resources, but peers are uniquely able to influence each other and help each other grow.” Courtney Nunley, coach at Northland Christian School in Texas, notes, “Our female-dominated team is quite the anomaly on the debate circuit (some coaches even confuse us to be an all-girls school); over my four years coaching, I

have found that having older girls on my team encourages younger girls to pursue the activity. They don’t have to sugar coat their experiences, but having that person to share stories with and give advice to is key. Additionally, I find it necessary to make sure that we have female assistant coaches who can relate to any experiences females uniquely experience on the circuit. We also surround ourselves with friends and judges who are supportive of women in debate so we have an extensive support group at tournaments we attend.”

What Steps Can Be Taken to Improve the Experiences of Women in Debate Classrooms? Liz: “The debate classroom could become more accommodating for more young women by simply including more topics that encompass women’s issues. For me, when I receive a motion that pertains to women’s issues, I view it as a rare opportunity to discuss topics more directly relevant to my life, since the overwhelming majority of topics cater to literally anything other than feminism. (It’s extremely odd if you think about it, since basically half of the world’s population is affected by matters of wage inequality, abuse, reproductive rights, etc., but a feminism motion seems to only appear once in a blue moon.) By normalizing topics surrounding women as not simply a token motion thrown into a tournament to appeal to the ‘female body’ in attendance, I think we not only give young women a unique voice in the debate space, but we also tell men and all others that feminist concerns are relevant and require universal support.” Ellie: “I think debate could treat young women better on two levels: the proactive and the reactive. Proactively, coaches and senior team members need to go out of their way to recruit women and other marginalized individuals. Talk to them. Invite them to practice. Encourage them. Make them feel welcome. Hold inclusivity seminars in your classrooms and at camps. Reactively, adults need to be less talk and more action. I’ve known countless coaches who talk about sexism but never challenge the misogyny of their colleagues. When girls see sexist

behavior—especially from authority figures like coaches we have no right to challenge—go completely uncriticized, it’s painful and discouraging and scary. It makes girls feel their voices don’t matter, like they don’t have advocates. But when coaches DO stand up, it makes a difference. When those boys decided to argue that debate was sexist against men, a coach in the back of the room immediately stopped what he was doing to look at them and challenge that opinion. I was more grateful for his simple act of being an ally than he knew. But that example is small. Authority figures need to step in and fight sexism from kids and other coaches at every single level. That’s what it will take to make debate a safer place for women.” Chase Williams, coach at Hawken School in Ohio, concurs: “There is nothing better than having a diverse set of voices in a speech and debate classroom. Sometimes, that requires us as educators to encourage specific students to speak up. I’ve found that it often takes a few weeks before my female public speaking students are willing to challenge the comments or ideas shared by their male counterparts, but once they do, it is clear to me that everyone in the class benefits from their unique insights and perspectives—and the students see that, too. Each year, I strive to make the classroom environment more inviting and supportive to ensure that all students are confident enough to share their voice.”

The Importance of Providing Debate Opportunities for Young Women Research summarized in a report from Columbia University describes the differences in self-image and selfpresentation that gender issues can create. Female students:

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• Are more likely than men to attribute success to hard work or luck rather than skill. • Require higher grades to persist in a field than men do. • Are more likely to blame themselves for a lack of success than are male students. • Are more likely to refer to personal experiences in class. • Tend to feel less comfortable in public debate. • Are more likely to be interrupted when they speak. • Are more likely to make one-time contributions and not speak again. • Are more likely to phrase their comments in a hesitant manner. • Are less likely than male students to shape the agenda of the discussion (“Gender Issues”). These behaviors, left unchallenged, can dramatically impact the opportunities women may enjoy. As educators, we have a responsibility to address and attempt to change those behaviors. Numerous studies have indicated the existence of teacher gender bias, behavior ranging from calling more on male students to offering males more higher-order thinking questions or challenges. This bias may extend to encouraging more independent male problem-solving and offering more specific feedback to guide males to improving the quality of their ideas. “These patterns remain remarkably consistent despite the grade level of the course, the subject matter taught, the ethnicity of the teacher or students, the geographical location of the school, and the teacher’s gender” (“Teaching a Diverse Student Body”). In terms of respecting different linguistic styles, teachers need to be aware that “[d]eeply embedded gender


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stereotypes can also cause faculty to respond differently to male and female students exhibiting the same linguistic styles. For example, women who ask extensive questions are often seen as troublemakers, while men who do so may be considered bright or interested. Or women speaking in an assertive, confident manner, using clear and definitive speech may be labeled ‘rude,’ ‘abrasive,’ or worse by faculty or other students. Becoming more aware of our own stereotypes about gender and how they influence our perceptions and reactions to individual students can help address these problems as we begin to shift our concern with the form or tone of a question to a concern with the content of student remarks” (“Teaching a Diverse Student Body”).

The Importance of Starting Early Sherri Bublitz, coach at Los Alamos Middle School in New Mexico, shared how catching girls early (in middle school) can prevent some of the challenges older girls face in debate. She observed that, at the middle school level: • Girls are more likely to see boys as their peers. • Girls are not as intimidated by the boys. • Girls are much more focused when working on debate cases. Sherri teaches a class of 21 with eight girls, “yet the girls are the ones who are leading the class in helping keep order, in keeping their groups (Policy, LincolnDouglas, Public Forum) on task and on target, and in setting the pace in the classroom. This group of boys is great, but they can have much more difficulty staying on task than the girls (lots of ‘the evidence says...squirrel!’ with this group of boys).” She goes on to add, “The girls who begin debate in middle school do very well. They continue to the high school team where they become stellar leaders and wellrespected members of the team. The parents of girls consistently comment on how they see that speech and debate has given their

girls tools to not only communicate but to do so with confidence.” Sherri describes how transformative debate can be: “One parent told me that her daughter had always struggled with feeling like the odd person out until she joined speech and debate; the daughter felt as if she’d finally ‘come home,’ and the mom reported that she felt like she’d finally found a group of students who ‘got’ her and who enjoyed ‘all the geeky things she did.’ I was surprised that, as a student in the gifted program, she had not found peers with commonalities before speech and debate, but her mom said the team was the first place she really felt comfortable. She was one of my best LD-ers while in middle school, and she continued with speech and debate in high school. She has since gone on to study abroad for her senior year of high school this year—something her mom says likely would not have happened without the influence of speech and debate. It gave her the confidence to move beyond her comfort zone into a new world.” Five years ago at Greenhill School in Texas, we began teaching debate to third and fourth graders after school. The first two years saw more boys enrolled in the club. However, by year three, girls moved into the majority, and now girls continue to maintain a healthy majority in the club in grades 3-8. These early experiences have translated to more confidence and more developed delivery skills in the girls and more respect offered by the boys as they work alongside these strong female voices.

Practical Classroom Strategies The Southern Poverty Law Center, in its article “Critical Practices for Anti-Bias Education: Classroom Culture” on its Teaching Tolerance website, suggests a few practical strategies for all classrooms. These strategies also meet the needs of girls in the debate classroom:

• Naming Shared Inquiry as a Goal Because many students experience classrooms that do not value shared inquiry and dialogue, it is important for teachers to create a safe environment before asking students to engage in this work. Safety can be established by discussing principles of engagement, demonstrating the teacher’s commitment to collective learning or creating a set of discussion agreements. • Teaching Active Listening Skills Active listening is a way of hearing and responding to another person that requires the listener to stop thinking about their own ideas and focus on the speaker. Active listening behavior includes asking good questions, listening without judgment, and paraphrasing. These behaviors can be modeled through the use of talking circles or ordered sharing. Short practice activities can also strengthen active listening skills. • “Zero Indifference” But Not Zero Tolerance Although zero-tolerance policies are popular, mounting evidence suggests that this approach does not make schools safer. An alternative (recommended by the American Civil Liberties Union; the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network; the Anti-Defamation League; the Respect for All Project; and Teaching Tolerance) is taking a “zeroindifference” approach to bullying, harassment, and other disciplinary issues. Zero indifference means never letting disrespectful conduct go unaddressed; school staff always name and respond to behaviors, but they do not implement automatic suspension, expulsion, or other punishments (“Critical Practices”).

Creating an Inclusive Environment The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Columbia offers guidelines in order to make your classroom more inclusive. In summary, they include the following: 1. Be aware of gender dynamics in your classroom. Don’t allow interruptions and make sure both women and men are called on equally. Watch out for those who monopolize conversations. 2. Encourage all students to speak, even those who seem shy. A quiet student





may be withdrawn because of classroom dynamics; shifting those encourages them to speak. Provide all students with a lot of feedback and encouragement by using student names and matching vocal tone to all students. Providing specific and positive feedback shows that their opinions matter. Be attentive to differences in communication styles and look for students who may want to answer a question but are reluctant at first. Bring critical reflection to assignments and assessments. Build the reflection piece into your daily activities. Vary activities in your classroom to include collaborative and competitive opportunities. Rotate leaders and allow every student to become an expert on some content in the classroom. (“Gender Issues”)

All students benefit from debate instruction. Recognizing the unique

needs of different student populations can help those students maximize their experience in the debate classroom, which translates into utilizing those important skills in both the competition space and in the real world. Colette offers this closing thought: “It can feel discouraging sometimes to be the only girl in a round or in a room, but at the same time it is empowering. I have found encouragement from the strong women I have met through the debate community. These women have shown how to have grace and power in a sport that often puts us down. I think more needs to be done across the debate community to show just how important it is to have women in debate.”

Cindi Timmons has been involved in debate for more than 40 years. She is a three-diamond coach from Greenhill School in Dallas, Texas.

References Bublitz, Sherri. “Re: Women in the classroom.” Received by the author, October 10, 2016. Coffman, Courtney. “Re: Women in the classroom.” Received by the author, October 10, 2016. “Critical practices for anti-bias education: Classroom culture.” (n.d.). Teaching Tolerance, Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from http://www.tolerance. org/publication/classroom-culture. Faulkner, Colette. “Re: Women in the debate classroom.” Received by the author, October 8, 2016. “Gender issues in the college classroom.” (n.d.). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences: Columbia University. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from http://gsas.columbia.edu/ content/handouts. Gottlieb, Nika. “Re: Women in the debate classroom.” Received by the author, October 8, 2016. Grossman, Ellie. “Re: Women in the debate classroom.” Received by the author, October 7, 2016. Lamar, Lauren. (2016, August 23). “Smart girls spark an interest in speech and debate.” Amy Poehler’s Smart Girls, edited by Meredith Walker. Retrieved October 7, 2016, from https://amysmartgirls.com/smart-girls-spark-an-interest-in-speech-and-debate. “Teaching a diverse student body: Gender dynamics in the classroom.” Center for Teaching Excellence, University of Virginia. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from http://cte.virginia.edu/resources/teaching-a-diverse-student-body-practicalstrategies-for-enhancing-our-students-learning/gender-dynamics-in-the-classroom/ classroom-dynamics. Williams, Chase. “Re: Women in the classroom.” Received by the author, October 10, 2016. Yount, Liz. “Re: Women in the debate classroom.” Received by the author, October 8, 2016.

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Curriculum Corner Check out these practical ideas for speech and debate teachers to use in the classroom. Each activity is constructed to last one hour, but plans may be altered to work with your setting.

Cross-Curricular Corner In this lesson, students will explore issues of accessibility in our society through research and discussion. The class will evaluate the pros and cons of relevant laws/regulations and support their claims using clear reasoning. Prerequisite Knowledge Required: None Common Core Standard Addressed: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. • Bell Ringer Activity: In preparing students to engage in the activity of learning about the Americans with Disabilities Act, Rehabilitation Act of 1973, etc., ask them to think about accommodations in their life. Have students brainstorm a list of accommodations they experience in everyday life that make access more possible. Have students think beyond the school 38

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setting (malls, grocery stores, theaters, etc). (5 minutes) • Class Discussion: What are the examples you thought of? What are some things you are surprised you didn’t list? Why? (10 minutes) • Research: Break students into groups of three to five students. Provide them with overviews of the ADA, Rehabilitation Act of 1973, IDEA, and/or any other laws/regulations that address accessibility issues. Have students review the basic requirements and examples they can think of during the discussion. (20 minutes) • Group Presentations: Have each group provide an overview to the class on the law/regulation they researched. Have them offer an argument for or against the law using clear reasoning to back up their claim. (20 minutes) • Closing: Ask students to research potential gaps in laws that should be addressed to increase accessibility/access for individuals in society. Have them come prepared to the next class to discuss. (5 minutes)

Debate Corner This lesson introduces students to the Big Questions Debates format through in-class reflection and discussion. Prerequisite Knowledge Required: None Common Core Standard Addressed: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and

teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. • Bell Ringer Activity: Have students make a T-chart (Aff/Neg) on a sheet of paper and write out all of the reasons they can think of for and against the prompt, Resolved: Science leaves no room for free will. (5 minutes) • Divide the room into four corners representing Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, or Strongly Disagree. • Part 1: Have students go to the corner of the room that represents their feeling on the prompt, Resolved: Science leaves no room for free will. Give students time to talk about why they feel that way among their groups. (5 minutes) • Part 2: Allow each group to summarize why they went to the corner they did. Allow other groups to ask questions of the group. Rotate through all four groups. (30 minutes) • Part 3: Ask students to consider everything that was shared and position themselves in the corner that best represents how they feel after considering all of the points discussed. (5 minutes) • Part 4: Ask the students who changed corners to raise their hands. Ask a few students to share why they changed their mind. (10 minutes) • Closing: Introduce students to Big Questions Debates (supporting materials can be found at www.speechanddebate.org/big-questions). Provide them with an overview of the format, point out where topic analyses can be found, and go over any opportunities they may have to debate that format at tournaments in your area. (5 minutes)

Interp Corner As district competition gets underway, it’s important for teams to be aware of any new rules pertaining to their events. This lesson focuses on

the NSDA’s new Interpretation rules and allows students to understand what constitutes a legal piece while they begin cutting their own. Prerequisite Knowledge Required: Prior to this lesson, students will need to have either read the Interpretation rules by the NSDA or been given a lesson that covers them. Common Core Standard Addressed: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.A Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. • Bell Ringer Activity: Provide students with a copy of the NSDA rules on Interpretation. Have students write down the NSDA rules they feel are most likely to be violated and why. (3 minutes) • Script Review: Provide students past cuttings with original sources. (Note: original source material that is short is best for this activity.) Ask the students to review the cutting and determine if it’s in compliance with the updated Interpretation rules of the NSDA. (40 minutes) • Discussion: Ask students if they reviewed any pieces that were completely legal. Ask students if they reviewed any pieces that were illegal. Discuss why they feel the scripts were illegal and how they would fix them. (15 minutes) • Closing: Ask students to come to class with a list of possible scripts they would want to consider for cutting. (2 minutes)

Public Speaking Corner This lesson is designed to encourage public speaking students to give feedback to their peers on written Rostrum | FALL 2016 39

speeches (specifically Informative Speaking and Original Oratory) and then incorporate that feedback as they improve their own speeches. Prerequisite Knowledge Required: Students will need a previously written Informative or Oratory speech for the class. Common Core Standard Addressed: CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.3


Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

Teacher in a Box: Public Forum Debate

• Bell Ringer Activity: Put students into pairs, pairing students who both do the same competitive events. (Informative Speaking or Original Oratory would lend themselves to this activity best.) Have them exchange their written speeches. (3 minutes) • Distribute Oratory/Informative speeches to students. Have students read them. (15 minutes) • After the speeches have been read, ask them to identify what they feel the main takeaway is from the speech. Have them write out why they feel that’s the main takeaway. (5 minutes) • Ask the students to write out examples they feel could be considered by the author to strengthen their speech. (5 minutes) • Ask students to identify an area of the speech that they feel is lacking substance and explain what it’s missing. (5 minutes) • Ask students to identify an area of the speech that could be more economical in the words used to make the point and explain why. (5 minutes) • Ask students to conference with one another about their observations and suggestions. (15 minutes) • Closing: Assign students to make three revisions to their speech based upon feedback. Tell students to explain at least one revision that was suggested that they didn’t make and why. (2 minutes)

In our last issue, we introduced this set of Public Forum Debate lessons designed for the novice coach and students. The Teacher in a Box lessons are sequential and should be presented in this order. Each PF lesson begins with an essential question and a set of objectives. The lessons connect existing material, as well as introduce new material for Public Forum Debate. There are links to webinars, handouts, and extended materials. Lesson 1 What is Debate? Lesson 2 What is Public Forum Debate? Lesson 3 Resolution Analysis Lesson 4 Research Lesson 5 Evidence and Tagging Lesson 6 What is an Argument? Lesson 7 Writing the PF Case Lesson 8 Flowing Lesson 9 Crossfire Questioning Lesson 10 Debate Demo Lesson 11 Delivery Lesson 12 Refutation Lesson 13 Practice Debates Lesson 14 Tournament Etiquette

Find these and other materials under the Resources menu! Written by Steve Schappaugh, Director of Community Engagement for the National Speech & Debate Association


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Get With the Program Visit www.speechanddebate.org/resources Throughout the year, we enlist talented coaches and alumni to produce insightful topic analyses, research guides, Extemp practice questions, and more, just for you—our members. Below is a sampling of the many resource offerings you can find online!


• Public Forum topic analyses • Congressional Debate dockets with 10 pieces of legislation • Extemp practice questions • World Schools Debate motions • Big Questions Debates topic analyses + PLUS • Policy Debate starter files • Bi-monthly LD topic analyses


• • • •

Public Forum evidence updates World Schools motion guides Advanced Extemp questions Current events webinar for Congress and Extemp + PLUS • LD mid-topic updates and evidence guides



Duo Interpretation – Developing a Rapport with Your Partner In addition to our monthly resources, you can find other event-specific materials on our website, including this new guide for enhancing your Duo performance, written by Harrison Postler. See excerpt below.

This guide offers tips for building a strong and organic relationship with your partner in Duo Interpretation—ranging from advice on what to do outside of your performance, the impact a strong relationship can have on your Duo, and tangible ways to strengthen your performance. Duo is a unique event precisely because it relies upon the relationship between two individuals, enabling you to speak with greater depth about the ways in which people connect, communicate, and experience life together. By focusing on the relationship Duo partners have outside of the performance, experienced speakers will be able to translate these strengths into a memorable and insightful performance! Resource Package subscribers can find our complete guide to Duo Interpretation – Developing a Rapport with Your Partner online at www.speechanddebate.org/resources.


Harrison Postler serves as Resource Coordinator for the NSDA.

Are you interested in leading webinars or providing other resources for our community? Email our Resource Coordinator, Harrison Postler, at harrison.postler@speechanddebate.org. 42

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What We're Reading by Amy Seidelman OUR KIDS: THE AMERICAN DREAM IN CRISIS by Robert D. Putnam


fter hearing Robert Putnam address rural educators from around the country during a keynote address at the National Rural Education Forum in October, I was intrigued to pick up his newest book, Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis. Having read Bowling Alone more than a decade ago and never forgetting his data-backed message about the threat decreasing social capital poses to democracy and society, I found the theme of this book strikingly reminiscent of Bowling Alone. As Putnam stated during his keynote, today’s kids “are increasingly alone.” As a parent, I’ve read a lot about the opposite problem in today’s culture—those who never leave kids alone. Advice in that particular realm of “parenting self-help” is abundant. Avoid helicopter parenting. Don’t be afraid to let children outside by themselves. Don’t rush to a child’s aid or to solve their problems. Don’t make life one big convenient party for them. I try and heed the advice of much of this literature, because I’d like to cultivate independence and critical thinking in my own children. So while I take the warning messages regarding over-reliance seriously, I can’t help but feel jarred by the collision between the ‘problem’ of over-parenting and the


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question Our Kids addresses—what about those kids who can’t rely on anybody? It’s a topic that doesn’t get nearly as much play. Putnam uses a mix of storytelling and evidence to paint readers a picture of the communities his team has analyzed and gotten to know fairly intimately. Together, the case studies and data demonstrate larger trends that expose how class separation in families, schools, and communities challenges the upward mobility, anyone-can-be-anything ethic of America. Putnam draws his personal interest in the issue from his hometown of Port Clinton, Ohio. He asserts that many American communities, like Port Clinton, have lost the sense of shared investment in everyone’s kids that was apparent during his own childhood. In his view, this investment is key to

America’s growth and fairness and, when absent, costs us dearly. Based on interviews with and studies of children and parents from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds, Putnam finds that in lower-class families, children have fewer trustworthy adults to turn to and learn from—not because credible role models don’t exist, but because children are increasingly more isolated from and have less access to parents, neighbors, schools, coaches, conductors, or clergy. Although youth from the upper-middle-class are not immune to the negative consequences of this breakdown in community, Putnam argues that they are more likely to be able to supplement the need by paying for services or access—to extracurricular activities, counselors, mentors or trainers, and more—that make up for the absence of adult support in the community. Whether you relate to or question the idea that socioeconomic classes don’t interact as much as they used to, largely by living and schooling separately, the exploration of participation in extracurricular activities in this book is worth understanding, especially from the perspective of the largely beyond-school world of speech and debate. Access

to these activities represents a large part of the problem, and the solution, in Putnam’s work. He cites the ways in which activities lead to well-rounded experience in young people, shaping aspects of their character, their ability to communicate and work as part of a team, self-confidence and self-respect, and overall success in life. As our own testimonials from speech and debate students show, students reap both career skills and life benefits from our activity. The experience of being on a team, having access to an adult you can trust and who is willing to spend time on your development, and getting better at something, is invaluable.

To learn more about the research behind Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis, including the actual impact of family income on participation in extracurriculars and completing college, visit

www.theopportunitygap.com to download the Working Group Report. It contains recommendations from the Closing the Opportunity Gap initiative, which “convened five working groups of roughly a dozen of the country’s leading experts in each of five areas: family and parenting, early childhood, K-12 education, community institutions, and ‘on-ramps,’ like community college or apprenticeships. These non-partisan white papers distill the best evidence-based ideas for narrowing the opportunity gap.”

District Debate Champs Of Port Clinton High To Enter In National Forensic Tourney PORT CLINTON–Members of Port Clinton High school’s National Forensic League district champion debate squad will leave this week-end for Sioux Falls, S.D., where they will take part in the NFL national tournament which opens Tuesday, June 24. They will compete with 85 district and state teams from all over the United States for the naAbout the Author, an NSDA Alum! tional High school debate championship. Dale Williams and Robert Putnam will represent Port Robert D. Putnam is the Peter and Isabel Malkin Clinton with Roger Snider and Professor of Public Policy at Harvard University. Geoffrey Thompson as alternates. In addition to teaching, he is a member of the Question for debate is: “ReNational Academy of Sciences and the British solved—That the United States Should Increase Its Foreign Aid Academy and is a past president of the American Program.” According to tournaPolitical Science Association. He has received ment rules, they will debate the numerous scholarly honors, including the Skytte affirmative and negative side of Prize, the most prestigious global award in political the question alternately. science, and the National Humanities Medal, the “Sudden Death” On the first day of the tournanation’s highest honor for contributions to the ment, any team may lose one humanities. He has written 14 books, translated into match without being disqualified, more than 20 languages, including Bowling Alone but after the first day the conand Making Democracy Work, both among the test is conducted on the “sudden death” plan. most cited publications in the social sciences in the Williams and Thompson will last half century. leave Port Clinton Saturday, June 21, in a car furnished by Gordon Putnam is also an alum of the National Speech & Cooper and driven by PrincipalDebate Association, earning points at Port Clinton elect Boyd Martin. Putnam and Snider, who are delegates to BuckHigh School in Ohio from 1956-1959. Below is a eye Boys’ State, will fly from Tophoto of his history card from the national office ledo Monday morning, June 23, archives. At left is a newspaper clipping from the arriving in Sioux Falls in time Sandusky Register dated June 19, 1958. for the banquet at which Senator Karl Mundt of South Dakota, president of the NFL, will speak. Debate Coach Robert Smith will come to Sioux Falls from Iowa State University where he is attending summer school. In last year’s touranment, Port Clinton ranked 22nd in the nation.

Director of Operations Amy Seidelman had the opportunity to meet Putnam after his remarks at the National Rural Education Forum in October.

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Public Debate Program – Class, Competition, and Community Programs

The Youth, Middle School, and High School Public Debate Programs (YPDP, MSPDP and HSPDP) offer integrated class/critical thinking instruction and debate competition for late primary and secondary schools. Major educational, civil rights, and community service non-profit organizations in the US and abroad use PDP materials and programming for critical thinking, professional communication, language development, and girls’ and women’s empowerment instruction. The PDP proprietary competitive debate formats are developed and evaluated to maximize student educational outcomes and accelerate standards-based learning and promote sophisticated public speaking, critical thinking, research, argumentation, and refutation skills. Teachers integrate core Public Debate Program public speaking, argumentation, note taking, and other skills across the curriculum. The PDP model is easily adapted for community debating – PDP events are held throughout the world to discuss and debate national and international controversies. US high school students are eligible to apply to participate in the International Public Debate Program (IPDP). The IPDP is currently organizing for events in Croatia, Argentina, China, Mexico, Czech Republic, and Thailand. IPDP students have been extraordinarily successful, winning top team and individual honors at the Pan American, Heart of Europe, Eurasian, and China National championships. IPDP members are able to participate in select conference and professional communication programs otherwise only available to college students. In addition to tournament competition, students lead workshop sessions, participate in demonstration and public debates, and promote public speaking and argumentation instruction in the classroom. For example, IPDP debaters have served as debate workshop staff and participated in roundtable discussion and public debate events in Qatar, United Kingdom, Korea, China, and New Zealand.

Leadership Communication Programs

The Claremont Colleges Debate Union sponsors an annual academic conference with a division for high school students. The 2017 conference will focus on US Electoral Reform. Students may submit competitive papers, engage in panel discussions, participate in town hall meetings, and make multimedia presentations. High school students are eligible to participate in Claremont’s Civics in Action program, a social and political advocacy group promoting innovative ideas and workable, sustainable educational and community projects. The program includes individual and group presentation training and exercises developed for businesses, non-profit organizations, and higher education.

For more information, please visit highschooldebate.org.

The Leadership Communication Program is one of 6 summer debate and professional communication sessions held at Claremont McKenna College. The residential/commuter sessions are available for middle and high school students each summer. Application and comprehensive Information is available at claremontsummer.org. The summer high school leadership program is scheduled for July 8-17. The program includes participation in community/school project development and a series of presentations at a summer academic conference. LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION PROGRAMMING Claremont’s Civics in Action program features opportunities to learn management communication skills and participate in national and international leadership projects and conferences. Annual programming begins in November and continues throughout the academic year.

PROGRAM DIRECTOR John Meany Director of Forensics Claremont McKenna College Claremont Colleges Debate Union john.meany@cmc.edu


About the Public Debate Program

The Public Debate Program offers integrated class/critical thinking instruction and debate competition for secondary schools. Major educational and civil rights non-profit organizations in the US and abroad use PDP materials and programming for critical thinking, professional communication, language development, and girls’ and women’s empowerment instruction. The PDP proprietary competitive debate formats were designed by graduate education school faculty, secondary school administrators and teachers, and education and debate professionals. They were developed to maximize student educational outcomes and accelerate standards-based learning, as well as professional communication practice. The PDP promotes sophisticated public speaking, critical thinking, note taking, research, argumentation, and refutation skills. In 2016-17, the Public Debate Program will serve more than 800,000 teachers and students in 28 countries.

National Middle School/High School Debate Summer Sessions

Middle school and high school students may participate in MSPDP and HSPDP/CHSSA parliamentary debate programs. The summer residential/commuter debate sessions feature an innovative curriculum, extraordinarily low 4-1 student-faculty ratio, small group instruction, certified staff and judges for program instruction, and student-directed elective and open forum sessions. The summer program integrates student assessment portfolios for individual feedback and best practices updates during the following year. Students may attend one or more than one session – all sessions are appropriate for new and advanced debaters.

International High School Debate Summer Session/Audition

The program is open to US and international high school students. Debaters from China, Japan, Germany, Canada, Singapore, Indonesia, Kuwait, UAE, India, Mexico, Jordan, and other countries have previously attended. Instruction includes preparation for international debating in 2 international debate formats – the World Schools Debating Championship (WSDC) and World Parliamentary Debate (WPD) formats. In addition to the advantages of Claremont Summer programming (innovative curriculum, 4-1 student-faculty ratio, staff with years of international debate experience, studentdirected elective and open forum sessions), the program includes an integrated audition for Claremont’s International Public Debate Program (IPDP). The IPDP is an extraordinarily large, active, and successful program; its award-winning debaters have participated in tournaments and international exchanges in more than 20 countries. IPDP instruction and international competition assists students to succeed in WSDC competition. About half of the members of the NSDA’s WSDC debating squad previously participated in IPDP or other PDP debating.

Visit claremontsummer.org for information and applications


CLAREMONT SUMMER Residential/commuter sessions for 500 debate and leadership communication students. For comprehensive Information and applications, visit claremontsummer.org. MIDDLE SCHOOL DEBATE Three sessions, with training in the Middle School Public Debate Program (MSPDP) format. Comprehensive instruction in advanced public speaking and argumentation – appropriate for MSPDP and other debate formats. The third session includes a summer tournament. Session 1 – June 25-30 Session 2 – July 6-11 Session 3 – July 26-August 2 HIGH SCHOOL DEBATE Two sessions, one with training in the High School Public Debate Program (HSPDP) and California High School Speech Association (CHSSA) parliamentary debate formats and another session featuring international debate instruction in the World Schools Debating Championship (WSDC) and World Parliamentary Debate (WPD) formats. National (HSPDP/CHSSA) – July 18-25 International (WSDC/WPD) – June 17-24

PROGRAM DIRECTOR John Meany Director of Forensics Claremont McKenna College Claremont Colleges Debate Union john.meany@cmc.edu


Why Are Our Best Advocates Not Fully Advocating For Us? by J. Scott Baker, Ph.D.


s a former coach, I am aware of the skills, life lessons, and concepts taught in speech and debate, which provide a framework for my students to be successful

in life post-high school. Furthermore, I knew those same skills were essential for student success while still in high school, too. As educators, we know it when we see it: a new argument about a current event, an understanding of a theory, or an appreciation of character development in literature—the moment a student transfers knowledge into action. We can almost tangibly see learning occurring within our students. We nod our heads and feel good about what we have accomplished. We know our students are going to take what they have learned and apply it to their other high school classes and beyond. But, are students aware of this learning process?

Last fall, 782 alumni from 41 states gave us insights into speech and debate’s impact on their academics. This article analyzes their responses and offers some suggestions for catalyzing this key group of stakeholders in our activity.

“A way to focus my academics” In the fall of 2015, alumni representing 41 states completed an

As one participant explains, “many of the skills gained in

online survey regarding experiences in speech and debate as

debate are applicable to the classroom, and I found a significant

well as perceived influence participation in forensic activities

amount of overlap between the types of skills I gained through

had on their lives. As part of the survey, respondents were asked

debate and the types of skills I needed to be successful in

to provide a narrative response “about how your experiences

school. This made school easier and more enjoyable overall.”

in speech and debate activities impacted your academics,

Another participant offers:

attendance, and behavior in high school.” This article addresses

Debate absolutely made me a better learner. I don’t know

the 782 alumni who responded to the question regarding speech

if I’d say it made me a better student. Debate sharpened

and debate’s impact on their academics.

my already pretty stellar writing skills, research abilities, and critical thinking; I was able to absorb information much more


“I had an advantage”

quickly, synthesize new ideas, reach conclusions, and come up

Throughout narrative responses to the above question, alumni

with arguments much more quickly, precisely, and articulately

discussed a variety of skills attained through their speech

than ever before. Often, I was already familiar with subject

and debate experience, including: “communicate a message

matter before we got to it in class, because I’d researched it

effectively,” “taking notes and writing papers,” “analytical

for debate. History, economics, English, statistics, even some

abilities,” “research capacity,” “argue cogently and persuasively,”

science classes were a breeze, because I’d already learned

as well as “sharpened my thinking,” “taught me to research,

them in bits and pieces for the sake of a case. Nothing made

write, and think,” “good study habits,” “juggle my schedule and

me really learn and absorb information like a time crunch and

prioritize a task list,” and “logic and reasoning skills.”


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Supporting this response, a former competitor furthers the

Furthering this perception, one participant explains, “my


coach had strict rules that involved almost constant

Debate taught me about so many different topics that I was

attendance, and she was monitoring our grades and scores

able to excel in a lot of classes. Whether it was talking about

on a weekly basis. If we had bad grades, we didn’t go to a

different branches of philosophy in every AP English essay I

tournament—regardless or how it impacted our ability to get

wrote or knowing more about different events for my U.S.

a team trophy.”

history class, debate’s content helped my academics greatly.

Clearly, alumni articulate attitude of the coach and

Yet, the skills debate taught me also helped my academics—

focus of the team provides a space for academic influence:

being able to read faster, comprehend information quicker,

“education was always pressed during practice; we all excelled

feel comfortable giving speeches, and much more helped

in school world [academics] because of this.” This focus

me even more than debate’s content did.

allows students to be academically successful in their other classes. One participant offers:

“Speech and debate changed my outlook on life”

My speech and debate career restored my sense of

In addition to the academic skills learned, strengthened, and

direction. I feel that high school speech instilled in me

reinforced in speech and debate, another concept developed

an ambition that I had previously lacked, an ambition

by analysis of alumni narratives is attitude. Alumni used a

that drove me to prioritize my grades after allowing

variety of terms to discuss how speech and debate influenced

them to slip prior to starting high school. Perhaps

their attitudes toward academics: “try harder and cared more,”

more importantly, I feel that the activity developed my

“brought me out of my shell,” “helped fill that boredom,”

understanding of right and wrong, informing my decisions

“the bar was raised,” “it was certainly my motivation,” as well

for the years I spent in school and lending me the

as “made me more productive,” “more engaged,” “made me

respectfulness and the social skills that might otherwise

want to attend school more,” and “showed me how to live an

never have developed.

educated life.” Alumni offer statements, including: “people expect more

Other alumni discussed how participation in speech and

from you in high school when you are in speech,” “speech

debate turned them around academically and emotionally

allowed me to bypass my apathy and channel my intelligence in

while in high school. For example:

a creative and enriching way,” and “although it seems counter-

I was on the path to a different high school experience

intuitive that being busy would make you a better student, it

in freshmen year, going into the speech and debate team

definitely did.”

my sophomore year… I met older kids who questioned my

While many students discuss the concept of being “eligible

focus on school versus hanging out, which really changed

to compete,” and “no pass, no play” as “a reason to pass,”

my perspective. Up until that time, I had not considered

alumni agree “being a part of a team pushed me.” In fact, former

that bad friends could result in bad influences and bad

students discuss the importance of the team and/or a coach

grades because I had always worked hard. Looking back


as an essential factor to being more academically focused.

now, I realize that if those older teammates had not asked

Many alumni explain academic success was a major focus on

me that or pointed it out to me, my path in high school

the team, for “there was an unspoken responsibility for all team

may have been a lot less focused on academics and extra-

members to conduct themselves with academic dedication,

curriculars and more on doing things high school kids

behavioral aptitude, and to overall be a role model in school.”

shouldn’t be doing.

How do coaches engage current students so that when they graduate, they have a better understanding of how speech and debate positively impacts academics?”

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“Meh” While a large portion of alumni assert, “debate was the

engaged in school. I’d say overall it was a wash.” Therefore, as coaches, we must ask ourselves: do

reason that I came to school every day,” others did not

alumni perceive their own elevated standards and/or high

express a correlation between their experiences in speech

expectations from others negatively when discussing their

and debate and academics while in high school. There was a

academic achievement, even though, by all accounts, they

portion of respondents who argued, “I was a high achieving

are still being successful in school?

student before, during, and after forensics;” therefore,

For certain alumni, the correlation was more difficult

“I would say it wasn’t super impactful on me.” Others

to determine: “I could consider the association quite a

articulated this in simple terms: “not much impact,” “not

roller coaster. Sometimes my studies in speech and debate

a ton,” “eh… not so much,” and “it really didn’t do much.”

correlated with what I was studying in school—allowing

While this ambivalence was not a major theme within the

for better grades and increased interest—when they didn’t

narratives, it is important to note in relation to alumni

mesh, though, speech and debate always came first for me.

correlation of forensic participation and other academic

I will admit sometimes my grades suffered for speech and



Moreover, other alumni discussed a negative correlation

Hence, are alumni truly missing work, falling behind, and/

between academics and competition, a sense of “youthful

or not able to catch up due to time in forensic activities, or

arrogance” where forensics “probably hurt my grades.”

does the competitive nature of speech and debate instill

Alumni argue, “I also became very arrogant because I was

a sense of urgency to be perfect in their academic studies,

more educated on many issues than my peers and even

too? These contradicting statements might explain why

most teachers,” “speech and debate actually made those

150 of the 782 alumni rated a weak correlation between

classes more boring,” and “honestly, I used my time for

participation and academic influence.

debate at the expense of my schoolwork.”

“Think at a deeper level”

“Speech always came first for me”

Overall, alumni undoubtedly articulated skills developed in

Interestingly, as some former competitors argue there

speech and debate participation; skills learned in forensics

was little correlation between speech and debate and

help students succeed in a variety of other courses while

academics, the same respondents provided data arguing

in high school. In addition to the skills taught in speech

the opposite perspective. In regard to correlation, alumni

and debate, the influence of peers and coaches provided

in their narratives gave mixed messages. For example,

opportunities for academic growth students may not have

one former competitor offers, “I often compromised

had otherwise. However, as one participant explains:

schoolwork for debate, simply because it was so much

Speech and debate was a double-edged sword. On

more enjoyable. My grades were fine, and if anything, I

one hand, writing cases and practicing speeches

became a better student because of debate.” Another

significantly reduced the amount of time I spent on

seemingly refutes their testimony, too, stating, “I was

regular classwork. However, I think I spent less time on

always a pretty good student; debate may have been

homework because speech and debate greatly improved

partially a distraction that negatively affected my

my work ethic. There was little time for procrastination

academics, but I think it also allowed me to explore new

because the success of the team was contingent on

spaces, releasing boredom, and refreshing my interest in

getting things done. At various points during the school

other academics.”

year, I felt like I was attending school specifically for

Another participant asserts, “To be frank, I would have been an excellent student with or without speech and

speech and debate. Everything else was background noise.

debate. However, I think the academic work I was able to


produce was at a much higher level than it could have been

Therefore, if alumni of speech and debate programs are

without my debate experience.” As one offers, “I probably

aware of the positive as well as negative correlations the

got worse grades due to my time spent prepping, but

activity has on other academics, what do educators need

having a club that interested me definitely kept me more

to do to make improvements within the speech and debate

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community? What best practices can educators implement in their own classrooms? I am acutely aware of the listening, speaking, writing, and reading skills that transcend the speech and debate room. I know educational benefits of argumentation, public speaking, and oral interpretation, and I advocated for my program with my administration, with district personnel,

As coach educators, what can we do to help cultivate stronger speech and debate advocates? The following suggestions were curated based on alumni responses.

to guess most coaches know how to “sell” their program to

Student learning objectives. Discuss as a team

those on the outside. Then, why aren’t our alumni?

specific skills you are teaching as you engage in

with parents/guardians, and with the community. I am willing

Alumni are quick to point out they clearly relished their

practice. Do not assume students make connections to

time in the activity, but how do coaches engage current

other classes; ensure they know as you go. Alumni will

students so that when they graduate, they have a better

advocate for the team if we scaffold that for them.

understanding of how speech and debate positively impacts academics? As coaches, are we focused on competition and not education? Do we assume our students see correlations of time spent in the debate room to success in other classes around the school building? Are we helping them see those connections? What suggestions do alumni offer in narrative responses to assist in clarifying this correlation? (see sidebar) Alumni have spoken. Overwhelmingly, they see a strong

Check for understanding. Have team discussions about skills they employ and discuss how those skills can be used in other classes. Alumni listened to their peers, and they learned from talking to each other, especially since younger competitors listen attentively to older teammates.

Grade checks. We all do this for eligibility, but it

positive correlation between involvement in speech and

can be a crucial time to see where students fare in

debate and other academic success while in high school.

their classes, stresses they face, and frustrations they

Over and over, alumni express gratitude for time spent

encounter. It’s important to talk grades with excelling

in participation, peers they were surrounded by, and

students, not just ones in danger of losing eligibility.

coaches who instilled academic discipline into them. Still,

Alumni appreciated coaches who stayed on them, no

other respondents, who acknowledge skills developed by

matter their grades.

participation, were discouraged by time forensics took from their studies. Alumni are unmistakable in their affection for the activity: “without it I feel like I would’ve been lost,” “speech gave me a place to vent my frustrations, to get help, to

Open dialogue. Do you engage with your faculty? It is important to reach out and discuss concerns with other teachers in order to help your students. Alumni admit they are not always easy to teach.

push myself when I felt like giving up or quitting,” and “it

Time management. Alumni expressed concerns

was my pride and joy and gave me the encouragement and

regarding missing class due to competition and making

confidence to succeed in other areas of school.” However,

up work. Do you allow them a day off from practice to

when we, as coaches, don’t ensure academic focus of our

catch up on schoolwork? If you don’t force them to go

students, then we put yet another stressor, self-regulation,

home, they will likely stay in the team room. They love

on our students.

it there; you love them being there. Help them manage academic obligations and make sure they spend time studying, either with peers or on their own.

J. Scott Baker, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational Studies at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. Prior to his work at UWL, Baker was a high school speech, debate, and English teacher outside of Houston, TX while working on his Ph.D. in Curriculum & Instruction from Texas A&M University. Baker is a three-diamond coach with the NSDA.

Time off. Do you encourage competitors to take a break occasionally? While contrary to the competitive nature of forensics, do you expect your students to have a life “outside” of speech and debate? Alumni were often overscheduled and worn out.

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Jellybean Festival Celebrating differences through a life-changing speech event! by Shelby Young


n Mexico, Missouri, everyone has the opportunity to participate in speech. Everyone. NSDA coach Sara Given has made it her mission to make speech accessible to all. “Everyone needs an avenue to express themselves, and everyone is capable of that,” Sara says. “Theatre provides so many opportunities for all of us.”

It all started four years ago with what some may consider a “risky” move to run an act of The Jellybean Conspiracy in Readers Theatre for district competition. The play is performed by a cast of actors with and without disabilities. It’s an anthology of short dramatic pieces offering thoughtful perspectives on the lives of people with disabilities. Nine members of the Mexico High School speech team


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performed the piece with seven students with special needs. While some feared they wouldn’t be as competitive as years past, the team never doubted their selection. They were determined and took on the challenge with excitement. They knew and frequently discussed how “it’s not about winning a competition; it’s about winning as people.” After months of practice and preparation, a nervous team showed up to district competition to find the hallways lined with support. More than 100 students and teachers arrived wearing the Readers Theatre shirts, cheering on the students before their first performance. Sara remembers, “One of my students with special needs asked, ‘Is this for me?’ I said, ‘Yes, this is all for you.’ There was that moment of awe. It still makes me teary eyed.”

A total of 150 students, coaches, teachers, and parents watched the Readers Theatre team perform flawlessly. They won third place at districts, narrowly missing a trip to state. They knew they accomplished so much more. They created an atmosphere of kindness at Mexico High School where together, they celebrate their differences and learn how to work together. “There is something really great that you can learn from students with special needs,” Sara explains. “It starts with a change in perspective, a different way to view the world. It leads into an incredible happiness that comes from the fearless, unfiltered energy and their simplistic approach to the things we tend to complicate.” Almost as soon as the 2013 speech season ended, her students started asking Sara if they could perform The Jellybean Conspiracy

again the next year. Since rules prevent a team from performing the same selection twice, they began brainstorming what they could do that would have the same success. Very quickly, an innovative idea was born.

The next year, Sara began working with The Jellybean Conspiracy, a non-profit by the same name that sponsors theatre shows for students with and without disabilities. She learned there were no opportunities for students with special needs to compete or even participate in traditional speech activities. With the help of supportive colleagues and her speech team, they began planning the first speech festival for disabled students at Mexico High School, something that had never been done before in their community, state, or across the country. Inspired by their Readers Theatre piece, they called it the Jellybean Festival. The concept for the festival is simple: every student with special needs, a jellybean, is partnered with a peer coach. The jellybean and the peer coach work together throughout the year to select and practice a theatre piece that best suits the jellybean. Regardless of the special needs a jellybean might have, all talents are accepted and celebrated at the Jellybean Festival. The selection simply must teach tolerance, acceptance, or diversity. For example, a jellybean might read a story while their peer coach acts it out, or vice versa. If singing is a

talent, then the jellybean and peer coach might create a duet with singing. Senior James Meek has been a jellybean performer since the first Jellybean Festival in 2014. He was one of just 11 performers at the first festival. James specializes in pantomime. Last year, James and his peer coach came up with a pantomime about a sleeping bear. His partner was a park ranger who poked the sleeping bear three times until he woke up and chased him across the stage. “Everyone laughed,” says James. “It makes me feel happy. Makes me

“I learned how much I could do,” he says. Last year was Luis’ first year as a jellybean performer, and he can’t wait to participate again this year. “I worked really hard, had a good scene, people were clapping. I was absolutely doing everything I was supposed to be doing, got the gold medal, and liked the teamwork.” Luis performed pantomime with his peer coach Cameron Evans last year. While he doesn’t know exactly what he is going to perform this year, “maybe something with rap or dance,” he

“In our school, ‘jellybean’ is a state of being. We are all jellybeans in a clear glass jar. We are all different shapes, sizes, and colors, but we are all the same on the inside.” — Sara Given sociable with people. Makes me have friends.” From James’ first performance to three years later, his personality has blossomed. You frequently can find James in the hallway at school fistbumping senior friends, something he says he would never have done before becoming a jellybean. “I’ve learned to talk to other people,” he explains. “I was a little shy before, but now I can talk to people.” Luis Prater, who is also a 12th grade jellybean, feels the same way.

says, he’s sure he will participate in the Jellybean Festival again. The confidence the Jellybean Festival is building in students is life-changing. Stories of their success from this program are endless. “One first-time jellybean student didn’t talk or look at anyone the first year. She elected to do a pantomime with her peer coach,” Sara recalls. “The second year, she confidently said her name in front of the audience and performed a

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Core Elements of the Jellybean Festival: • ‘Jellybean’ students and peer coaches must work together • Must put together an original theatre performance • Materials must teach tolerance, acceptance, and diversity • Event must create a culture of kindness


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short story. The third year, she did a longer storytelling piece and loves performing in front of the classroom regularly.” The impact of the Jellybean Festival is not limited to just the jellybeans. The peer coaches are getting just as much, if not more, out of this experience. Students volunteer to work with jellybeans during their homeroom period. They look at the experience as an opportunity to share something they love with a new friend. “I have kids coming out of the woodwork to help with jellybeans,” Sara explains. “This is what we are trying to teach. This culture of kindness in high school is what we want to spread.” Alie Finch has been a peer coach for three years. She spends homeroom period working with her jellybean, getting to know them, and perfecting their piece. “It’s a great way to get involved and have fun together,” Alie says. “It shows that everyone is the same and nobody is different.” “Once we establish that connection between the peer coach and the jellybean, they soar,” says Sara. “They work so well together, and they become friends through high school and beyond.” Peer coach Cameron Evans has become good friends with his jellybean, and all the jellybeans at Mexico High School and surrounding towns who participate in the festival. He was partnered with a first-year jellybean with no theatre experience. They spend homeroom together, trying to

figure out how to put their big ideas into motion. “He has all the good ideas; I just help him put it together,” Cameron explains. “I realize how good this program is at giving these kids a platform to do something they like to do.” Even though Morgan Rowe has only been a peer coach for a year, the culture of kindness being built as Mexico High School has had an impact on her life, as well. “You learn that even though we’re all different on the outside, we’re all the same on the inside,” Morgan says.

The Jellybean Festival continues to grow at Mexico High School and beyond. Sara has turned the festival into a full day of activities celebrating differences and the ability for jellybeans to do what everyone else can. Jellybean Luis Prater concurs: “We show we can do better things.” Sara and her team cater a free meal for all the jellybeans and their peer coaches. Jellybeans are encouraged to sit with students from other schools, which provides a unique opportunity for jellybeans to socialize with others outside of their circle. Local photographers also set up photo booths for the students to take free pictures and play games. Audience members— normally hundreds of students, coaches, teammates, and parents throughout the state—are asked to donate to the Jellybean Festival instead of paying admission. What started in 2013 with 11 performers from two school districts has grown to include 53 performers from seven schools in

Tips for Making Your Next Tournament More Inclusive Interested in starting the Jellybean Festival at your school? Contact Sara Given | sgiven@mexico.k12.mo.us

just three years. Sara hopes other schools will emulate this successful program and make speech accessible to all students. “My goal is that Mexico High School will be the model for others,” she says. “I’m putting together tips and information to make it easier for other schools to do what we are doing.” What Mexico High School is doing is changing lives. Peer coaches walk away from this experience with a new understanding and respect for fellow students, and jellybeans gain confidence, performance skills, friends, and acceptance. “It really brings the whole school together to all have a good time and show how we care about everybody else,” peer coach Morgan Rowe says. “We want to show that everyone is equal,” Alie Finch agrees. Just like the glass jar of jellybeans, everyone comes in different shapes and sizes, but we are all important and have something unique to share. “It doesn’t matter what’s on the outside, it’s what’s on the inside,” senior jellybean James Meek concludes. “Everyone has a special gift inside.” Shelby Young serves as Communication Specialist for the NSDA.

• Consider “tournament swaps” – schools agree to host essentially free tournaments for one another (cheap food, volunteer judges, no trophies). Competitors benefit from working with different judges and students as the schools rotate throughout the season. • Offer lodging/hospitality so visiting students can stay with members of local teams instead of in hotels. • Provide meals as part of registration fees since not all students can easily afford meals. • Consider offering free water bottles for students in attendance. • Adjust tournament start times to assist schools that have long distances to travel due to lack of local competition opportunities. • Consider judge quotas for teams traveling longer distances to attend and making a higher obligation for local teams. • Invite coaches who don’t get around as much into the tab room; get them involved with tabbing and learning how to run tournaments! • Consider altering what Public Forum topic is used at your tournament (e.g., use a topic one week earlier or extend a topic one week longer) so teams that don’t get to attend very often have less of a burden to prepare new cases for only a single tournament. • Offer case limits in Policy Debate – great for novice and middle school students! • Utilize the novice topic for Lincoln-Douglas Debate during the first two months of your debate season. • Host a fundraiser (e.g., Big Questions Debates) to raise money for your district to provide transportation support or entry fee waivers to assist teams with getting to tournaments. • Offer judge training prior to the first round for teams that may not have the means to do so (hint: you can use the NSDA resources available on our website!).

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Breaking the Cycle: Hanging Onto Your Roots

Sal Tinajero is the 2016 recipient of the Harold Keller Public Service Leadership Award. He is a two-diamond coach and serves on the city council in Santa Ana, California.

by Russ Godek


anguage. Language connects everyone. Despite differences in spoken language, no matter your background, language binds us all through context, emotion, and nonverbal communication. For Latinos, the utmost importance is placed upon holding onto their language. The Pew Research Center indicates that 95% of Latinos say it is important for future generations of U.S. Hispanics to speak Spanish. At the same time, nearly six out of ten U.S. Hispanics are millennials or younger, making them the youngest major racial or ethnic group in the United States, with the median age of Hispanics being just 28 years. So how do young Latinos strike the difficult balance of holding onto their language while at the same time learning English and excelling in their educational endeavors? Enter Santa Ana, California, home to the Santa Ana Unified School District—

Fullerton Joint Union High School (pictured at right) belongs to the Santa Ana Unified School District in California—the seventh largest school district in the state. The district is 91% Latino and classified as a Title I District, meaning more than 80% of the students live at the poverty line. Yet the majority of Santa Ana Unified’s students go on to attend four-year universities, with about 30% of graduates going on to attend community college. College has become part of their culture now. Students don’t hope to go to college anymore, they just go.


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the seventh largest school district in the state. The district is 91% Latino and classified as a Title I District, meaning more than 80% of the students live at the poverty line. Many of Santa Ana Unified’s students come from immigrant parents, having grown up speaking Spanish and still speak Spanish in the home today. This presents a difficult challenge for their educational development—beginning by learning English, and building upon that to learn social sciences, research skills, math, and science, just to name a few. Sal Tinajero, member of the Santa Ana city council and former speech and debate coach at Fullerton Joint Union High School in Fullerton, California, believes speech and debate is critical to that development process. “We’ve found that students who enter into speech and debate increase their test scores significantly,” Sal says. “We have

about 1,800 students [in Santa Ana Unified], with close to 10% on speech and debate teams. In five years, our students went from testing at the 300 level to the 800 level, meaning proficiency.”

Taking the Next Step Speech and debate provides a seamless transition for students throughout their formative years beginning in middle school and culminating with the college experience. To this day, college is not guaranteed for anyone. For students with an impoverished background, the opportunity is rarely afforded. For those students, scholarships provide a beacon of hope toward a bright future. Thankfully, speech and debate activities provide countless scholarship opportunities for students from every background.

Helping the process along is the idea of competition. The activity itself pits students against one another in a competitive and positive environment. Not too long ago in the Latino culture, college remained just a dream for many—not the case in Santa Ana, however. The majority of Santa Ana Unified’s students go on to attend four-year universities, with about 30% of graduates going on to attend community college. College has become part of their culture now. Students don’t hope to go to college anymore, they just go. All they have to decide is which college to attend.

Ivy League or Bust One need not take Sal at his word, instead looking to one of his most successful students, Fernando Rojas. Last February, Fernando was accepted into all eight Ivy League universities— eventually choosing to attend Yale University. Fernando’s parents are both immigrants with little educational background; his mother dropped out in sixth grade and his father later did the same in eighth grade. Dropping out of school to take on a job to support the family was a commonality seen in that generation of U.S. Hispanics. His parents were determined that their four children would have a better life; they succeeded. Each of Fernando’s three older siblings went on to attend college, as well. Fernando’s journey to Yale began at Fullerton Joint Union High School as a shy and timid teenager. During second semester of his freshman year, at the behest of his friend, he was introduced to Sal, or “T” as he’s affectionately called by his students. This would be a defining moment in Fernando’s life. “I was shocked, yet relieved, to see someone who was Mexican in a position to help me learn,” Fernando says. “T began talking to me in Spanish, and it reminded me of home, a place where I could just be myself.” In Sal, Fernando found a mentor from a similar background whom he could not

only relate to, but also look up to and respect. In Fernando, Sal saw something special and worked relentlessly to develop his skills and teach him about life in the process. “Being an honor student can be stressful and frustrating at times,” Fernando says. To this day, Fernando remains grateful to Sal for keeping him grounded. “T was always there to remind me that, although I may not see immediate payoffs to the work I was putting in, they would come in time.” Sal would be proven right in Fernando’s senior year. In June of 2014, Fernando found himself standing outside the Overland Park Convention Center having just taken first place in Poetry at the National Speech & Debate Tournament. Fernando pulled his cell phone out his suit pocket, once steampressed to perfection, now sweat-filled and wrinkled after seven days of wear. He called his mother to break the news, but she was already crying upon picking up the phone. She had watched not only his final round performance but also the awards ceremony via the NSDA’s online livestream of the event. Fernando was confused by her tears and the repeated “thank yous” being shouted. “I didn’t realize until later, after rewatching my performance, that my entire poem was about her.” Fernando recalls. Looking back, his performance was a tribute to both of his parents, but specifically his mother, for everything she had done for him.

A Personal Quest Sal was born and raised in Santa Ana, California, to Spanish-speaking parents. On his first day of Kindergarten, he knew only two English words: “yes” and “tomato”—he thought it meant “tomorrow.” Sal felt that he was always a step behind his American Englishspeaking classmates, and it wasn’t until he joined the speech team that he flourished. “Listening to speeches, sentence structures, learning about different subject matters, poets, performers,” Sal explains, “was like being

grabbed by the legs and dunked into a barrel of words.” Sal uses his story of perseverance to inspire his students, believing that if they see someone who is a product of their environment succeed, they start to believe, too. That belief in turn becomes contagious. Sal’s mission is to break the cycle of poverty that is so prevalent in Latino families. The concept behind the cycle is that poverty begets poverty, leading to each generation passing it down to the next due to disadvantaged situations. Sal believes speech and debate is key to breaking that cycle. Sal started the Fullerton speech and debate team in 2001, which has grown from an original team of 10 students to more than 120 students today. The program has produced two NSDA national champions, including Fernando Rojas and Vanessa Garcia (pictured below), and has seen many students go on to lead successful careers and lives. The program started an awe-inspiring trend of students successfully breaking the cycle of poverty. Throughout all the success, Sal remains focused on his mission. Teaching at the poorest school in the county will have that effect on you. Overcrowded schools in Orange county were not uncommon at that time, but Fullerton was facing particular hardship by being poor and overcrowded. In a situation more reminiscent of a popular sporting event, long lines would form in the halls between classes. “There were only two bathrooms for the entire school to share,” Sal laments. “I felt it was an incredible injustice.”

Vanessa Garcia 2009 Prose Champion

Fernando Rojas 2014 Poetry Champion

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“There is no other organization that has as many students compete in this activity at once,” Sal says. “The NSDA provides a high level of prestige and a source of pride for communities like ours.”

In hopes to produce real change, Sal ran for a position on the school board and was elected to the city council in 2006. It wouldn’t take long for Sal to make good on his promise. Throughout his career, Sal put service to others at the forefront of everything he did. In May 2008, Sal received the Fullerton Home Town Hero Award awarded by the Fullerton city council for inspiring youth and helping students achieve their college education. He is one of the few teachers to receive two Golden Bell Awards by the California School Board Association. In 2009, he was awarded the Golden Bell Award for his work in teaching English to ELD students, and in 2015, he was presented with a second Golden Bell Award for closing the achievement gap among Latino students through his speech and debate program. Perhaps his greatest service has been to his family. His son Salvador grew up a very shy, introverted young man. Salvador joined the speech team in sixth grade and, little by little with the help of his dad, morphed into a confident and articulate senior. When Salvador was in eighth grade, he told his father that he was gay. Sal, who had always had an idea that his son was gay, was happy for his son. “He is a student who doesn’t like to break the rules. For him, following the rules was being straight,” Sal says. “When he finally came out, it was like this weight had been lifted from him.” Salvador and his father were now presented with a difficult decision to make—make it public or hide it. Salvador, who was on the gay/straight alliance at school, realized that for Latino boys especially, being gay was an incredible burden for many students. The Latino culture tends to be very macho and because of this, gay Latino


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students rarely come out for fear of being chastised. Salvador was determined to change the status quo, to eliminate the stigma and help other students like him. Together, they leveraged Sal’s position on city council to fly the rainbow flag in front of Santa Ana’s City Hall for six months.“Salvador gets all the credit for that,” Sal says. “It was his way of promoting that you can be gay and still be accepted; it really promoted a culture of inclusion across the city.” The message resonated as intended, especially when you consider Sal’s background. Having been an exfootball player and boxer, Sal was the personification of that macho culture. He was now a community leader who was accepting of his son. “He was exercising his voice,” Sal says. “That’s something he got from speech and debate.”

I Left My Heart in Santa Ana Having nurtured the program at Fullerton Joint Union High School from the ground up, Sal felt it crucial to ensure the program was in good hands for the future. After a lengthy search for a new coach, he selected a former standout student, Pricilla Merritt. Pricilla came from a single-parent household, having been raised by her Latina mother. She excelled in school and was a two-time NSDA semifinalist, eventually landing a scholarship to Bradley University. Today, Pricilla is a tenured teacher at Fullerton and has taken the reins of the Fullerton speech and debate team. She has broken the cycle of poverty. Though Sal invested much into Fullerton, his heart will always be in Santa Ana. Once word got out that he was no longer coaching at Fullerton,

many schools approached Sal to start their own program. He declined for a multitude of reasons, but one offer in particular caught his attention. Santa Ana Unified had hopes of starting a high school speech and debate program. Sal was on board, with one condition: they start with a middle school program instead. Sal believed that in order to better sustain the growth of the community and educational development of its students, starting in sixth grade was the best course of action. “I also warned the superintendent that in a district our size, the programs will grow exponentially,” Sal explains. “He wasn’t deterred; he was ready to do it.” Sal accepted the district’s challenge of starting 10 speech and debate programs in the first year. The district saw 200 students competing in 2015. The first year of the program culminated in Santa Ana hosting its first ever middle school speech and debate tournament this past March. More than 100 students competed at the tournament which captivated the entire city. Marquees across the city caught the eyes of many, including elected officials and community leaders who volunteered their time to judge the final rounds of the tournament. “The city has embraced the activity,” Sal says. “The superintendent and city manager are motivated to make speech and debate an integral part of the fabric of our educational system moving forward.” The city’s motivations will have to keep up with Sal’s ambitious vision. Sal plans to increase to four middle school tournaments next year. In two years’ time, Sal sees middle school programs averaging 60 students each and figures to have at least 100 freshman students looking for a program at the high school

level. It’s then that Sal plans to start launching high school programs. Helping this exponential growth is the availability of LCAP funding—the byproduct of a 2013 governor-signed bill that calls for school districts to set both district-wide and schoolwide goals and spells out the specific action steps needed to achieve those goals for all students but especially for English learners, foster youth, and lowincome students. These newly available resources will help sustain the growth of programming in Santa Ana while affording students the opportunity to compete nationally in tournaments like Harvard and the Glenbrooks.

Investing In Your City Santa Ana is somewhat of an anomaly. In 2011, Forbes ranked it the fourth-safest city of more than 250,000 residents in the United States. At the same time, Santa Ana is one of the most densely populated cities in California. It’s uncommon to see such a densely populated and impoverished city be a hallmark of safety. Proposition 47, a bill signed in California in 2014 that has released prisoners and reduced sentences of others due to prison overcrowding, threatens to challenge that designation. While the city has seen a spike in crime following the bill’s passage, one group in particular has not been impacted as harshly as you’d expect—the youth. If you ask Sal, the reason for that is simple. “School in Santa Ana doesn’t stop at 3:00 p.m.,” Sal said. “Classes are technically over, yes, but there’s a plethora of after school programs for not just students, but adults, as well.” One of those after school programs? You guessed it— speech and debate. In addition to developing skills in the classroom, speech and debate opens students’ interest to current events. Seeing a teenager on a computer in 2016 is not strange; seeing a teenager scouring news sites, reading scholarly articles, or educational journals is. Whether they’re researching for a speech or gathering

vital information to strategically debate their opponent, students are no longer using computers for entertainment. Take the 2016 election cycle for instance. The election cycle to this point has been odd, to say the least—it may even be fair to call it entertainment at this point. Sal believes this has only helped the younger generation to become more engaged. “It opens up a whole new door into civic understanding and responsibility,” he says. “Students are now asking questions about the process, they’re thinking about how government functions, and putting care into world issues long before they cover those in high school courses.” Combine increased awareness of civic duty with a community like speech and debate built around giving back, and you start to see the potential for future leaders. “There’s an eagerness in Santa Ana because people see the results,” Sal notes. “Once students graduate and settle into their profession, they immediately look for ways to give back to the community.” In 2017, Sal will see two of his graduated students on school board ballots. One is running for a community college district board of trustees and the other for the Fullerton Elementary School District board of trustees. The kicker? Both are Latina students who have graduated from college and are actively working as educators in the area. They, too, have broken the cycle of poverty. They want others to do so, as well.

Where You Come From Remember how just about every Latino indicated that it is important for future generations of Hispanics to hang on to their Spanish-speaking roots? If the blossoming of speech and debate in Santa Ana is any indication, the future is in safe hands. The city is helping English-language learners (ELLs) excel in the educational system while maintaining their bilingual abilities through spot-on programming,

including the birth of speech and debate teams across the district. Santa Ana’s results have been so impressive that surrounding cities are taking action. Anaheim and Garden Grove have begun talks of starting speech and debate programs in their school systems. Sal credits not just Santa Ana’s success, but the impact of speech and debate on common core curriculum. “Many districts across the country began focusing solely on the writing aspect,” he says. “They forgot about the importance of public speaking.” Southern California is quickly becoming a hotbed for speech and debate, and the rest of the country should take notice. “This is why the NSDA is so crucial,” Sal says. “It provides students a national outlet to exercise their skills.” The NSDA provides speech and debate competition at the highest level and allows communities like Santa Ana to test their mettle against the best and brightest across the nation. “There is no other organization that has as many students compete in this activity at once,” Sal says. “It provides a high level of prestige and a source of pride for communities like ours.” When students from Santa Ana come back home after having competed, and succeeded, against top teams from around the country, the bond grows. The bond between the student and the activity; between student and coach; between student and the community; between student and their language. If the proof is in the pudding, Santa Ana is giving Snack Packs a run for its money. Garden Grove and Anaheim are hoping to follow suit. They say imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, right?

Russ Godek is a freelance writer from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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A Vision for Central Florida:


One Alum’s Quest to Expand Speech and Debate by Steve Schappaugh

Debate changed my life, and I knew it was the key to a meaningful education.”


ational champion. Presidential Scholarship recipient. Law school commencement speaker. Published in the Orlando Sentinel, Human Events, and collegiate textbooks. This is not a list of accomplishments of a group of alumni. This represents part of the resume of a single alumna. While any of the items in this list would make an individual worthy of being recognized as a distinguished alum in our magazine, we selected Tara Tedrow for a different reason. Tara Tedrow has worked to make speech and debate accessible to students since she graduated high school. As a college student, she worked with students in the WinstonSalem public schools to teach speaking and debating. The lack of meaningful programs hit too close to home for Tara. When she returned to Orlando, she realized that “a lot of schools I used to compete against, and even the school I won multiple national championships for, had lost their programs entirely or were barely competing.” “Debate changed my life, and I knew it was the key to a meaningful


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— Tara Tedrow, 2005 alumna education,” Tara notes. She wants that opportunity for all kids, of all backgrounds. “Three and a half years ago, Tara answered a challenge from our district Superintendent asking community members to help our public schools,” says Beth Eskin of Timber Creek High School. “Tara’s vision was to bring speech and debate competition opportunities to our public schools. As a former competitor, Tara knew the disparities in financial support for forensics that existed between private and public schools, and Tara wanted to close that gap.” As part of following the call to action by the Superintendent, Tara reached out to Beth and started the Central Florida Debate Initiative (CFDI). This non-profit organization works to create extra and co-curricular opportunities for speech and debate programs in Orange and Osceola counties in Florida. The CFDI was designed to foster and develop critical thinking and communication skills to support college and career readiness. Tara notes, “The benefits of debate are remarkable: a number of peer-reviewed

journals have established that speech and debate students are more likely to graduate, meet ACT college-readiness benchmarks, have greater critical thinking and communication skills and show greater gains in cumulative GPAs.” To make the benefits possible, the CFDI provides funding, mentorship, and curriculum support as part of a framework to create sustainable speech and debate programs. At its core, Tara explains that “the CFDI provides opportunities to level the educational playing field and bridge the achievement gaps for students of all backgrounds.” The program last year served hundreds of students through after-school tournaments and free trainings throughout the season. In fact, Beth points out that in Orange County, there are 18 of 19 potential schools that are offering speech and debate as an opportunity in and outside of the classroom. “In addition, Osceola County Public Schools now also support speech and debate programs in their high schools, and even schools from farther surrounding counties have competed with us and/or asked us to come to their schools to conduct workshops,” Beth notes. “The growth

of programs in our area has rippled out significantly, and Tara has made speech and debate accessible to thousands of students who did not have that chance prior to the CFDI.” The schools appreciate the help and support to tear down barriers to access. “My school [Apopka Sr. High School] is not in a wealthy area, for the most part,” explains coach Cathy Brown. “Tara’s initiative gave us the opportunity and mentoring needed to become involved. Her support is unwavering, and she has rejoiced with individual students as they have realized their full potential in speech and debate. She made us feel like we fit in, and she worked to ensure that money was not a barrier to debate. The CFDI even helped us get to Nationals last year!” School board members are also taking note of the positive impact that Tara has made in their districts. “Tara, while being a full-time attorney for Lowndes, Drosdick, Doster, Kantor & Reed, P.A., has also led the effort to revive speech and debate teams in high schools in Osceola County,” recalls Osceola County School Board Member Jay Wheeler. “Students are electrified about speech and debate thanks to the vision, talent, and enthusiasm of Tara Tedrow.” Students who have competed through the CFDI experience have also gone on to compete in college. Joshua Brown graduated from Apopka Sr. High School in 2014 and now competes for Rollins College in Parliamentary

Debate. “[Tara’s] hands-on approach and willingness to do whatever it takes for students is something we need more of from top leaders in education,” he says. Jonathan Cox, another Apopka graduate from 2016, agrees about Tara’s impact. “No matter how badly I did [at a competition], she always found a way to make me grow from it,” he says. Tara’s work for the benefit of young students in Central Florida expanded beyond our community’s traditional notion of speech and debate education. In 2014, she was approached to provide support for a new teacher in the Orange County Correctional Facilities Youthful Offenders Program (YOP). “I volunteered to help teach the male students in the YOP advocacy and communication skills necessary for employment, peaceful conflict resolution, and personal success,” Tara explains. As is common with Tara, that initial support expanded into a bigger vision. In late 2014 and early 2015, the Orange County Correctional Facilities hosted debate competitions. Students debated whether felons ought to have the right to vote, and this was an extension of her work to teach them how to engage in civic discourse. “Seeing the incredible critical thinking and advocacy skills that the students had, and were never

given the opportunity to utilize, was inspiring,” Tara recalls. The most rewarding aspect of this program for her was learning that a student waited to have bail posted until after he was done participating in the debate competition. Running programs that teach speech and debate to populations with underserved needs is a constant for Tara. “It has been incredibly rewarding and reaffirms how valuable debate is for students. There is no meaningful education without critical thinking. I cannot imagine a better way to have a positive lifelong impact on our students and to empower them to succeed,” she says. Tara’s favorite memory of her debate career was the final round at Nationals in 2005. She debated in front of thousands of students, parents, educators, and community members. When she was on that stage, she could not have imagined the impact speech and debate had on her at the time. But now, she gets it, and is working to pay it forward. “Tara has not even scratched the surface of her considerable talents yet,” Jay Wheeler says. Thankfully, wherever her talents take her and however her resume expands, we know that Tara Tedrow is a faithful alum who will continue to foster speech and debate. Steve Schappaugh is the Director of Community Engagement for the NSDA.

(above) Students attend a recent after-school competition sponsored by the Central Florida Debate Initiative.

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New Mexico:

Meet the District Committee

Growing Speech and Debate through Mentorship, Advocacy, and Transparency

Trey Smith, Chair East Mountain High School – Sandia Park, NM

Margo Batha Los Alamos High School – Los Alamos, NM

Melissa O. Brown Farmington High School – Farmington, NM

Hannah Flake

by Sarah Brazier

East Mountain High School – Sandia Park, NM

Susan Ontiveros Albuquerque Academy – Albuqerque, NM

New Mexico is the fifth largest state in the country, boasting 121,607 square miles of rugged mountains and endless prairie. The state’s borders stretch east of Texas to Arizona, reaching up to touch Utah, Colorado, Oklahoma, and with its southernmost parts bordering Mexico.

In short, it’s huge. Yet, despite its geographical size, the state’s population is fairly small, ranking 36th in the latest U.S. census. Within the boundaries of this massive mountain state are 25 speech teams fighting fiercely to keep speech and debate alive and kicking.

Unlike some geographically smaller states that contain numerous districts, New Mexico has only one. Its territory spans that of the state. A good portion of the schools are concentrated around Albuquerque, New Mexico’s largest city. However, other schools are spread out across the entire state. “The New Mexico District is highly rural,” explains district chair Trey Smith. “Our Farmington team must drive seven hours to compete at a tournament in Las Cruces.” “Los Alamos, of which I’m a coach, is in the northern part of the state. So, we’re an hour and 45 minutes from Albuquerque. Whenever we go to a tournament, it’s an overnight trip,” explains coach and District Committee member Margo Batha. “The kids are out of school all day on Friday and all day Saturday.” The breadth of the New Mexico District poses obvious practical challenges for the speech and debate teams in the state, but they also face other hurdles. Many schools in New Mexico are strapped for funding, making extra-curricular activities like speech and debate an

indulgence. Farmington coach and District Committee member Melissa Brown elaborates: “Most schools sense an overall lack of support for academic programs. Speech and debate kids are often discriminated against in communities in favor of sports kids.” In order to keep the activity accessible for current members and pull in new participants, the New Mexico District Committee members have had to get creative. “We’re nothing if not ingenious in this state,” quips Batha as she reflects on New Mexico’s ability to maintain, and even grow, a small but thriving speech and debate circuit. A central focus of the District Committee is to provide mentorship and advocacy for its members. Batha believes that mentors give coaches the encouragement they need to keep going and stay invested. She recalls her own indoctrination into the activity after her son joined his high school’s team. “My first year of teaching English at Los Alamos High School, Noel Trujillo was the coach of the [speech and debate] team. Noel

New Mexico’s Leaders » Trey


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was my teaching mentor, and then he got me hooked on speech and debate. Noel was an outstanding role model as a coach and an educator. He really taught me the value of speech and debate.” By modeling the kind of mentorship Trujillo offered, the District Committee ensures the “boots on the ground” are given the support they need to keep speech and debate in schools. The committee also emphasizes the importance of starting small. In the beginning phases of a team, many coaches fall victim to taking on too many students, or attempting to pack as many tournaments into their season as possible. Smith explains how building up a team is a gradual process. “We encourage new teams to start small. We advise new coaches to just attend a couple tournaments per semester in the beginning. Build your program and prove your worth to your school. Hopefully, you can build support and secure more resources as you continue to build.” In addition to fostering strong coaching mentorship and offering solid guidance, they work to provide extra back up for teachers in need. Smith recalls an incident where a school decided to cut funding for their speech and debate program. A returning coach in the district was told that all club stipends were being eliminated, but athletic coach stipends would remain. When Smith heard this, he sent a letter to the school principal as the district chair. “In my letter, I outlined all the responsibilities of a speech and debate coach and the sacrifices that are made to coach a team. A week later, the coach’s stipend was restored. Utilizing the district chair and the National Speech & Debate Association can be crucial to new and fledgling programs. Direct appeals and mentoring to new schools is important.” One of the longest standing traditions in New Mexico is how it uses its District Tournament to make speech and debate more accessible for students. The entrance fees students pay to compete in the tournament are used to support national qualifiers.

“We spend as little as possible on the tournament. We don’t pay judges. We rely completely on community members and volunteers,” explains Batha. Any money left at the end of the District Tournament is then divided back up among the students who qualified. The small stipend helps to defray their costs to the National Tournament. Hannah Flake, who coaches with Smith at East Mountain High School and also serves on the District Committee, adds that it’s not just students who are welcomed with open arms. “We try to involve all coaches in playing a role in running the district tournament; we host workshops to help coaches start coaching. When we make decisions about the district tournament or other issues, we try to be absolutely transparent and provide the coaches all of the information about the decision.” Fellow committee member and coach from Albuquerque Academy Susan Ontiveros concurs. “It can be challenging making sure there are enough opportunities for students to compete. As with most organizations, there is not always a consensus when decisions are being made. I believe that all of the members of the committee have the best interest of the students and the state at heart. With that in place, there is always a way to work toward a compromise that benefits everyone.” The efforts of the New Mexico District Committee are proving effective. As awareness of the activity spreads, more kids are interested in getting involved in speech and debate. Some students have reached out to the District Committee, helping spark new teams and grow the district as a whole. Student by student, coach by coach, school by school, the New Mexico District Committee is working to make speech and debate more accessible. However, the road toward accessibility in speech and debate is as long and rugged as the mountains coursing through New Mexico. Batha believes many of the elements that make speech and debate inaccessible to students are symptoms of larger

problems: economic and educational inequality. By focusing on the kids she knows she can reach, she hopes to help raise the next generation of sensitive citizens, equipped with the skills to combat the larger problems plaguing the United States. Perhaps the most illustrative example of this optimism is the Congressional Debate Smith helps coordinate with the New Mexico State Legislature in the State Capitol building. Once a year, the leaders of tomorrow compete in the same chairs from which state laws are made. The benefits of speech and debate are endless, on both an individual and community level. Smith reflects, “I owe every personal and professional success to this activity. I have worked with state legislators, collaborated with business leaders, and made presentations to colleagues around the country. Speech and debate gave me the confidence to seek out new opportunities.” He explains how the activity completely transformed his school: “Prior to speech and debate, our small campus of 360 students was primarily known as a quirky charter school for mountain kids, if it was even known at all. Now, our school is discussed on a national stage. Almost 40% of the school does speech and debate, and it has risen the level of academics and achievement on our campus.” While the hours of a coach are long, the hours of a district chair are even longer. But Smith and his colleagues believe in the power of speech and debate. “I will not be satisfied until every high school in our district is offering a speech and debate program,” says Smith. “My main motivation for serving as chair is to be a constant advocate for our activity.”

Sarah Brazier is a freelance writer and actor currently living in the Bay Area of California. She formerly coached at Saint Mary’s Hall. An NSDA alum from Wadsworth High School in Ohio, she placed second in Dramatic Interp at the 2010 Kansas City Nationals.

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Understanding the World, One Speech at a Time


Marshall Webb is the 2016 William Woods Tate, Jr., National Student of the Year. He also placed second in United States Extemporaneous Speaking at the National Speech & Debate Tournament this past June.

by Sarah Brazier


Marshall Webb is the kind of human who, regardless of how long your conversation lasts, makes you feel special, appreciated, and, just better after it ends.”

first met Marshall Webb in the summer of 2014. He didn’t go to a big name school; there were no titles associated with his name. There was no reason for me to know much about him. He was, like most students attending Nationals, just another eager qualifier hoping to make it to the next break in United States Extemporaneous Speaking. Little did I know, just two years later, Marshall would be sporting victories like the 2016 Texas Individual Sweepstakes Champion, National Runner-up in United States Extemp, and National Speech & Debate Association Student of the Year. Marshall Webb is a cherub-faced, enthusiastic kid. He’s a brainiac who will never, no matter how hard you press him in an interview, admit to deserving any of the pile of awards and accolades he’s accumulated over his time in speech and debate. As a native Texan, Marshall is the consummate gentleman. He’s articulate, thoughtful, hardworking as all get out, and above all, humble. He’s the kind of human who, regardless of how long your conversation lasts, makes you feel special, appreciated, and, just better after it ends. Saint Mary’s Hall is a relatively small, K-12 independent school in San Antonio, Texas. Despite capping at 1,000 students, it boasts one of the mightiest up-and-


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coming teams on the national circuit. The high school speech and debate team consists of about 80 students coached by Colin Malinak and Joe Muller. Despite only being in their twenties, with fulltime coaching experience of less than 10 years combined, these two singlehandedly transformed the Saint Mary’s Hall speech and debate team into one of the most successful in Texas with a growing national reputation. While the trophies they bring home each weekend are plentiful, winning is not the focus of the Saint Mary’s team. As Joe explains, “We talk about success as a team. It’s not about the ‘metal’ that you bring home after a tournament. It’s about the preparation you took beforehand. It’s about whether or not you put in the appropriate amount of work that gives you the opportunity to place.” This mentality of nothing is a given—everything is earned—made a solid impression on Marshall’s personal approach to speech. “I devoted a lot of time and mental energy to speech. It’s something I really threw myself into,” Marshall says. For me, his dedication was apparent. My first day on campus, I walked into Joe’s office to find Marshall composing a timeline on the whiteboard of his goals

and the steps he needed to take in order to achieve them. But it wasn’t his desire to be named state champion and repeat national finalist that impressed me; instead, it was his dedication to determining how to get there. As the season unfolded, I watched Marshall execute his plan with a maturity and dedication beyond his years. However, the confident senior seemingly capable of anything whom I came to know over the course of the school year was a very different person in 2013. Joe recalls the first year he worked with Marshall. “When I first started teaching him his sophomore year, Marshall had very, very low self-confidence. He questioned his worth not only as a speaker, but at times, even as a person. Speech and debate truly gave him the confidence he needed to not only feel like he belonged in the activity, but belonged in the world.” Joe’s classroom gave Marshall a place where that self-doubt began to melt away. As Marshall explains, “Speech gave me a community where everybody is weird, everybody is different, and that’s okay. That’s something we celebrate on a daily basis.” Like most kids starting off their speech and debate careers, Marshall entered the activity with very different reasons for

staying. “I first joined the speech team because my older brother did debate, and I wanted to be better at him in something.” His freshman year, Marshall dabbled in interpretation events. He then went on to star in his high school’s musicals and compete in Congressional Debate and Original Oratory, before finally landing himself in Extemp, his favorite event. “It’s a lot harder to get bored when you’re talking about something new every time,” Marshall laughs. “More than that, it’s the most directly applicable to real life. You have a conversation about things that matter, and you don’t get a long time to prepare for them.” Despite his enthusiasm for the event, Marshall’s success took time. He recalls working on a speech in the middle of the cafeteria at a tournament with Colin. “The speech was just bad. It was truly one of the most embarrassing experiences of my life. But that’s how you get better as a speaker. You’ve got to get out the bad stuff before you can start working toward something that’s really good. I don’t think you can always learn a lot from really good speeches. But you do learn a lot from really bad speeches.” And Marshall did learn. By the end of his sophomore year, he’d made it to quarterfinals in the Extemp Tournament of Champions, placed in the Texas Forensic Association final of Congressional Debate (House), and finished in the Top 30 at the National Speech & Debate Tournament. Unfortunately, like many, success changed Marshall. “It’s really easy to get caught up in the competition aspect, and at times, Marshall did,” Joe laments. In the spring of 2015, sitting outside the classroom with his coach, Marshall expressed that his heart had fallen out of the activity, and he didn’t know why. Through teary eyes, he struggled to understand why he couldn’t bring himself to care about the activity that had been such a big part of his life. “From that conversation, he started to realize he was getting caught up in the competition,” Joe says. “That’s when he made the decision that the reason Extemp was fun, and what made him love it so much, was because he had

an opportunity to make a difference in somebody’s life. From then on, every speech was given with the intent of helping somebody understand the world.” That year, Marshall won the Texas Forensic Association Domestic Extemp final, advanced to semifinals in the Extemp TOC, and placed sixth at Nationals in United States Extemp. The realization that “when we speak publically, we speak for others” transformed Marshall not only as a speaker, but as a person. “I think Marshall realized how far he came because of the confidence he gained through speech and debate, and the power that it has,” Joe says. “He took it upon himself to instill that confidence in younger students.” These qualities Marshall developed through speech—agency, sensitivity, the ability to listen to and empower others, and a desire to serve those around him—made him not only a leader on the speech team, but also at Saint Mary’s Hall. His enthusiasm to inform the public, to look at issues on a deeper level, and to engage his peers in real world discussion with real world application made him very involved in the Young Liberals Club at his school. Marshall organized lunchtime debates between the Young Liberals and Young Republicans, which grew from a quarter of the high school population skipping lunch to watch, to the entire high school assembling for an organized debate between the two groups. Through his actions, Marshall made speech and debate accessible to all students. However, Marhall’s biggest impact on the school may be his senior year Oratory. “His speech was revolutionary in our community from the moment the idea sparked in him,” Colin explains. Essentially, Marshall argued that we should move beyond tolerance and seek acceptance. The topic was controversial at Saint Mary’s Hall, Colin says, because the school is governed by a set of core values that “steered our community for more than 100 years, and one of those values is ‘tolerance.’ It was Marshall’s belief that tolerance no longer

represented our community’s truth or what we should be striving toward.” Marshall says that this moment, above any award or accolade or audience resounding with applause, is the one of which he is most proud. He hopes the speech worked as an agent of change and made Saint Mary’s Hall a better place. “I am happy to say that our administration embraced his message and carried his challenge forward into discussions at the administrative level,” Colin says. Marshall understands that his opportunities for success are not universal, but he hopes that by giving speeches like his Oratory, he can help make the activity accessible to more people. “When we have a community that starts to embrace telling our stories, and telling them in a way that matters and makes a difference, that kind of personal aspect really embraces all people. That’s how we can start going to a better place,” Marshall argues. “Right now, as a community, we are essentially saying that to be the best Extemper in the country, you must be male. I don’t know the last time a woman was the national champion in Extemporaneous Speaking. I think when we start embracing a style of speaking that is more about making a difference and advocacy and sharing our stories—when we start to value all of those stories a little bit more—it will start to eat away at a lot of those petty distinctions that make this activity inaccessible to people for a lot of different reasons.” Marshall’s passion for learning and making a difference has extended beyond the high school realm. His love of politics and public service propelled him to pursue a degree at Georgetown, where he is currently in the school of Foreign Service. As a freshman, he has already joined the Model U.N. and Mock Trial teams. No doubt he will continue his efforts of helping people understand the world—one speech, one conversation, one action at a time.

Sarah Brazier is a freelance writer and actor currently living in the Bay Area of California. She formerly coached at Saint Mary’s Hall. An NSDA alum from Wadsworth High School in Ohio, she placed second in Dramatic Interp at the 2010 Kansas City Nationals.

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Team USA: Training for the International Debate Stage by Liz Yount


hange can often be difficult, but when that change involves meeting six new teammates, all with a common goal of success, that change is also welcome. As a new generation of USA Debate assumes the role of the national team, I am reminded again of how truly lucky I am to represent our country while doing the activity I love most. I am humbled by my experiences participating in the World Schools Debating Championship in Germany this past summer and am ready to embrace this season with renewed enthusiasm, leadership, and a fresh appreciation of the format. For the first USA Debate training event of the season, nine debaters (including three returning members) and four coaches traveled to Holy Cross School in New Orleans, Louisiana, from September 28 to October 2. Returning to the warm and hospitable city of New Orleans was made even better by our welcoming hosts from Holy Cross School. It was an honor to

MEET THE TEAM (left to right) Members of the 2016-2017 USA Debate Team include Ella Michaels, Nikhil Ramaswamy, Liz Yount, Ellie Grossman, Colette Faulkner, Nika Gottlieb, Aditya Dhar, Sarah Lanier, and Joshua May. Not pictured is Gaurav Gawankar. For complete profiles, visit www.speechanddebate.org /usa-debate.


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New this year, nine underclassmen have been selected to represent the USA Debate Development Team. This group of students will train and practice with USA Debate coaches and alumni to learn more about World Schools Debate.

Shreya Agarwala Junior

Shreyoshi Das Junior

Piper Doyle Junior

Emily Grantham Sophomore

Jordan Hershman Freshman

Matthew May Junior

Leila Saklou Sophomore

Nicholas Wuthrich Junior

Connor Yu Junior

train in the Headmaster’s Boardroom and to ultimately compete in the tournament. Upon arrival, the nine of us went from strangers to teammates instantly, not hesitating to begin case writing and discuss strategy the first night. Team manager and coach Cindi Timmons also believes that the growth of World Schools in the United States allows for students to have more exposure to the format prior to applying for the team. As we continue to excel at prepared motions, Timmons says that USA Debate will focus primarily on impromptu motion preparation this year. She said broader goals for the year include growing the development team, integrating new coaching staff into the program, and continuing to expand the format in the United States. “Each group has its own personality and dynamic,” Timmons explained. “This year, with six strong women on the team, will likely be very different from last year’s group dominated by young men. I am simultaneously missing last year’s graduates but am excited about working with the new team members.” New member Sarah Lanier, a senior at Northland Christian School in Houston, Texas, and an International Extemporaneous speaker, is eager to begin working with her teammates. She said her experience with Extemp helped her adjust to the 60-minute impromptu preparation sessions in World Schools Debate, although she initially struggled with writing cases as a team. “Going into training, I was expecting to learn as much as I possibly could,” Lanier notes. “I really wanted to learn not only about the

structure and format, but also how to cohesively work with a group I’ve never worked with before. “ Lanier says she most looks forward to learning about new cultures across the globe while working with a team in a competitive environment. New team member and senior Aditya Dhar from Harker School in San Jose, CA also looks forward to competing with debaters from diverse technical backgrounds and styles. He believes his experience with Congressional Debate and Public Forum, while substantially different from World Schools, will help him immensely with argumentation. “The evidentiary standards are very different because World Schools focuses a lot on logical arguments first,” Dhar explains. “I think it’s a really interesting way to do debate. I think the impromptu motions are probably my favorite part because it’s prepping a topic in an hour without any outside sources and with a great group of people.” Like Lanier, he looks forward to new international experiences and competition. “One of the things that attracted me to Team USA in the first place was the knowledge that the people I would be competing with were just phenomenal debaters and people,” Dhar says. “Everyone on the team is absolutely brilliant with super unique styles and ideas, and it’s simply an honor to represent the United States on the international stage.”

Follow the team on social media and at www.speechanddebate.org/usa-debate. 68

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Valdosta High School Redefines Success “We work to prevent costs so that opportunities are accessible.” — Pamela Childress, coach by Steve Schappaugh


n the 1980s, Pamela Childress did Lincoln-Douglas (LD) Debate as a high school student in New Mexico. She attempted acting events but, despite her desire to be a star, realized debate was where she would find the most success. The experience has stayed with her since then. After graduating college, she taught in a collegiate environment before teaching high school for 15 years. Four years ago, she found herself leading a unit on LD as a way of teaching persuasive writing in her English class. And that’s the beginning of the Valdosta High School Speech and Debate Team in Georgia. Students who were impacted by the LD unit and enjoyed the concept went to the school’s new principal. Childress was called in for a meeting, and the principal informed her she was the new advisor of the speech and debate team at Valdosta—thus ending a 15-year lapse in speech and debate programming at the school. Childress relays that she felt a combination of excitement and fear upon hearing the news. “As thrilled

as I was, I had not been giving up Fridays and Saturdays since my debating days,” she says. Preparing for those Fridays and Saturdays took even more of her previous free time. “We practice every day after school for two or two and a half hours,” she says. About 25 percent of the team turns out at practice, even on a Friday. The schedule is designed to provide flexibility for students to

participate in other opportunities at the school while maintaining their debate obligations. Valdosta attends 10 regular season tournaments and three post-season tournaments during the year. For some programs, that may seem average, but attending a tournament is much easier for many schools than it is for the students at Valdosta. “There are no tournaments close

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to our school. The nearest team is 45 minutes away and the average tournament is four hours away,” explains Childress. Going to a tournament four hours away requires students to meet at the school parking lot at 3:00 or 4:00 a.m. with an estimated return time of midnight. The first two hours on the bus are considered “sacred time” where kids cannot talk so that they can get in a little more sleep—pillows and blankets are a must during travel. The team works to make the rest of the bus ride as enjoyable as possible. Music, snacks, team captain singalongs, and stops by a large stockade cow sculpture on the way to Atlanta are some of the hallmarks of bus rides. The team is especially appreciative of their awesome bus driver who supports students by cheering for them and helping them create as comfortable an environment as possible on the bus. Valdosta alum Raja Prem Sadarangani has fond memories of those rides. “The times we spent together traveling to and from tournaments has to be a high point,” he says, “just because that’s when you feel like it’s a family that you can fit in with. That’s what speech and debate always was to me.” When talking about how much of a commitment eight hours of bus riding a day creates for a student, Childress quickly points out that parents and


It’s a family that you can fit in with. That’s what speech and debate always was to me.” — Raja Prem Sadarangani, 2016 alumnus, Valdosta High School

grandparents who judge also deal with that obstacle. This can be a taxing commitment for everyone involved with the team, but it does not stop them from competing. “The level of commitment it takes to get through a tournament drives us to practice harder so we make the most of the time,” she says. While there are currently few teams close to Valdosta, the debate team is working to change that. This year, they hosted a boot camp and invited all neighboring schools to attend. “Given some of the struggles we face, it’s important for us to band together and share resources to grow the activity,” Childress explains. “My hope is that

we will develop a local circuit so that we can make speech and debate as accessible in this area as possible. If there are more teams, we can host local tournaments without the costs associated with going to Atlanta so frequently.” The students notice Childress’ efforts to grow the activity of speech and debate. Sadarangani recalls all of the ways she assisted students on her team, but also notes that Childress makes the activity accessible “to every single possible person she could, even working with other schools to get them to have a team.” Childress is working to do this while still operating a team with no formal budget. “Students pay some fees to be able to compete,” Childress says, “but we fundraise for students who are not able to afford the opportunity. We work to prevent costs so that opportunities are accessible.” The biggest fundraiser for the team is hosting their own speech and debate invitational. They are able to raise funds through entry fees and generous sponsorships. For this year’s tournament, they already have three event sponsorships lined up. Sponsorships are an added bonus for tournament revenue. The biggest way to generate funds is by increasing the pool of students in attendance. “We are very excited that we have Carrollton and Grady coming to our tournament this year,” Childress says. “Our numbers will be up, which means

The Valdosta team started with five students. Four years later, there are 86 members! 70

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with essays by Minh Luong, Matt Stannard, Amy Cram Helwich, and 14 more! Over the course of 20 chapters, the authors explore the positive impacts debate has on personal growth, academic development, career preparedness, and society. Here is a sampling of our authors’ experience: Air Force Officer & Pilot, Attorney-at-Law, Corporate Leadership, Elementary School Teacher, Nonprofit Leadership, Pediatrician, and Software Programmer.

Great for coaches, parents, administrators, and graduates!

Available on Amazon Paperback $11.95; Kindle $7.99 These essays draw on the personal to make the larger point that debate can change the relationship of a student to subject, people, and the world in a way that deepens and enriches.

the tournament will be a greater success.” The fundraising becomes more important as the team continues to grow. The team started with five students. Four years later, there are 86 members! With half the team comprised of freshmen, it is likely the trend of significant growth will continue. Last year, the team grew because Childress took students to every feeder middle school and did demonstrations in 8th grade English classes. The positive vibes rippled through the community, and even the private K-8 school proactively reached out to Childress to ask for a day of demonstrations like those she designed for the public schools. Success is also having a positive impact on the team. Childress recalls the moment when she felt her team

had arrived: “We were at the novice state championship, and we won the LD title and a Prose/Poetry title.” She further explains, “The LD victory was especially rewarding since a young woman was told she was ‘too aggressive’ as a girl and got a loss in the first round.” That was the young lady’s only loss of the tournament, and Childress felt it was bigger than the team. “I felt it was a win for female debaters, not just Valdosta,” she explains. Last year, Valdosta qualified seven students to the National Speech & Debate Tournament. While none of the students broke, the experience was completely worth all of the practice time, travel time, and obstacles the team faces throughout the year. “Each kid had an amazing time. It has motivated them for their future,” Childress explains.

— Paul Ongtooguk, M.Ed., Term Assistant Prof., College of Education, University of Alaska

Winning is not what motivates Childress or the team. “I like winning, sure,” Childress says, “but the best success is the stories I hear from students who have gone beyond our team and applied what they learned to college or life in general.” She recalls, for example, a recent graduate who won no awards in high school but was asked by his college professor to demonstrate speeches for the class because of his advanced speaking skills. There is no way to know what the future holds for Valdosta. However, it likely will include more students, more bus rides, and a long-standing connection to 1980s style LincolnDouglas Debate.

Steve Schauppaugh is the Director of Community Engagement for the NSDA.

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Diamond Coach Recognition Diamond awards reflect excellence and longevity in coaching speech and debate activities. Coaches receive one point for every ten merit points earned by their students. Five years must pass between each new diamond award, and a certain number of points must be earned during each interval.

Seventh Diamond u Seventh DIAMOND u Mark Harris Raytown HS, MO March 5, 2016 • 24,342 Points Thirty-five years means thousands of students who have been in the classroom and traveling to tournaments. Those are the people who had to have faith and believe in what was being taught in order for them to be successful while in school. Mark Harris would not be recognized for his seventh diamond without those connections. Mark started as an assistant coach in Rogers, Arkansas, in 1981. The next year he moved on to become the head coach in Carthage, Missouri, taking over for his cooperating teacher, Ruth-Ann Lawrence East. After two years there, he took a year off before he found his way to Parsons, Kansas, where he coached for 13 years. In 1997, he started at his current school, Raytown High School, Missouri. During his 35 years, he has coached 110 students to 34 National Tournaments. He has qualified students in every NSDA event and many of those students have achieved high honors. Those include semifinalists in International Extemporaneous Speaking, speaking awards in Policy Debate, multiple finalists in Student Congress/Congressional Debate, and the National Champion in the House of Representatives in 2002. In 2002, those students also earned a School of Excellence Award as well as the Karl E. Mundt Trophy. Since the inception of the NSDA All American Award in 1987, Mark’s students have earned that recognition 11 times, including two of the top four in 1990 and three of the top


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ten in 2002. He has also coached 18 Academic All Americans since that award began. Mark has coached in three states and has had state champions in each. Those students have brought home the gold in multiple debate, speech, and interpretative events. Understanding the importance of leadership within the activity, Mark has served in the national tab room, as a district chair, and as a district committee member. He has also served as president of the Kansas City Suburban Conference, which is made of some of the most competitive schools in the nation. Mark has a great deal of pride in his students. His graduates have continued to excel after leaving high school. Some have gone into the political arena, some are practicing law or medicine, some are college deans and professors, some are engineers and architects, some are business leaders and owners, some are professional athletes, and some are in education. He presently teaches with a number of his graduates and coaches against some of his former students. Thirty-five years is a long time in the classroom. That is evident in that Mark is now teaching children whose parents went through his program years before. Those students are now taking the trips and putting in the work to excel, just as their folks did. Mark’s seven diamonds are a testament to his dedication and service to the activity.

Fifth Diamonds

u Fifth DIAMOND u Suzanne E. Theisen Stow-Munroe Falls HS, OH March 11, 2016 • 13,554 Points

Having been greatly AFFECTED by the competitive spirit of speech and debate when she competed in Humorous Interp at Woodrow Wilson High School in Youngstown, Ohio, Suzanne decided to major in English, Speech, and Theater in hopes of becoming a teacher and start her own forensic team to help young people experience how important and inspirational speech and debate would be in their lives. The first team she started was at St. Joseph High School in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1973-1974. After a leave of absence, she returned to teaching in 1991 and revived the speech and debate program at StowMunroe Falls High School in Stow, Ohio. Stow has grown as a team, winning the state title in four-person Policy Debate in 1994 and 1998, the Lincoln-Douglas title in 2001, and the Public Forum Debate title in 2009. There also have been state finalists in

Duo, Drama, Humor, International Extemp, and Expository Speaking, and won the top performance school award in 2016. There have been several students who have qualified to the National Speech & Debate Tournament with the best results being 3rd place in Public Forum Debate and 14th in Dramatic Interpretation. Stow has also received debate distinction awards at Nationals twice. Suzanne was elected to the Ohio High School Speech League Hall of Fame in 2011 and was National Board Certified in English Language Arts 2002 to 2012. She is also published in Why Workshop? (Stenhouse Publishing, NY, 1998). For her, speech and debate is the number one skill and experience every person needs to be truly successful in the real world. It trains a person to organize, think critically, achieve confidence and make meaningful decisions.

u Fifth DIAMOND u Joni Anker Eagan HS, MN March 27, 2016 • 15,008 Points Joni Anker has been a high school speech teacher and coach in District 196 in Minnesota since 1977. She began her teaching career at Valley Middle School in Apple Valley before moving to Apple Valley High School for ten years and eventually to Eagan High School where she has served as the Head Speech Coach since the school opened in 1989. Eagan High School has earned 306 Minnesota State High School League speech medals and 64 state championships. She served as President of the Communications Theater Association of Minnesota from 19982000. She has presented numerous workshops at CTAM sharing her coaching knowledge. In 2000 she won the Outstanding Speech, Debate and Theater Regional Awards from NFISDA. In 2001 CTAM awarded her the Outstanding Individual in Speech

and Theater. In 2006 the Minnesota State High School League inducted her into the MSHSL Hall of Fame. In 1989 she founded the Eagan High School NSDA chapter and she served as the Eagan Chapter advisor and as a committee member for several years. In the past 26 years, Eagan High School has won the largest chapter award and the district sweepstakes award numerous times. Eagan High School has advanced over 30 students to the final rounds at the National Tournament and has captured 13 national championships. In 2005 Eagan High School earned the prestigious Bruno E. Jacob Award. Her team has won the NSDA school of excellence award at nationals every year from 1999-2015. In 2011 she was inducted into the NSDA Hall of Fame.

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u Third DIAMOND u Chris Coovert Gig Harbor HS, WA February 9, 2016 • 6,001 Points

u Third DIAMOND u Kip B. McKee Harrisburg HS, SD February 13, 2016 • 6,001 Points

u Third DIAMOND u Jason Mitchell Mulvane HS, KS May 11, 2016 • 6,871 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Victoria Beard Spring Woods HS, TX October 20, 2015 • 7,126 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Mary A Krauland Shady Side Academy, PA February 3, 2016 • 3,060 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Maggie Hunter South Side HS, IN March 8, 2016 • 3,133 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Ross Eichele Eagan HS, MN March 17, 2016 • 5,089 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Phyllis Kadrmas Devils Lake HS, ND March 26, 2016 • 3,279 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Jonathan Hines College Prep, CA March 30, 2016 • 3,015 Points

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u Second DIAMOND u Julie Underwood Kimberly HS, ID April 8, 2016 • 3,969 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Carla Marie Reisman Byron Nelson HS, TX May 9, 2016 • 3,000 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Wendy Kuper Rawlins HS, WY May 13, 2016 • 3,000 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Jennie Savage Palo Alto HS, CA June 21, 2016 • 5,132 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Sheryl Gusman Dominion HS, VA July 8, 2016 • 3,153 Points

u Second DIAMOND u Jeffrey Miller Marist School, GA September 10, 2016 • 5,737 Points

u First DIAMOND u Barbara Lowe Oxford HS, MS November 16, 2015 • 1,501 Points

u First DIAMOND u Donna Szumila Home Educator’s Outsourcing Sol’ns, TX January 11, 2016 • 2,598 Points

u First DIAMOND u Phyllis T Pacilli Boca Raton Community HS, FL January 25, 2016 • 5,054 Points

Rostrum | FALL 2016 75



u First DIAMOND u Kelsey Johnson West Fargo Sheyenne HS, ND February 29, 2016 • 1,500 Points

u First DIAMOND u Ryan Roseen Eastview HS, MN March 12, 2016 • 1,502 Points

u First DIAMOND u Michael S. Overing Loyola HS, CA March 14, 2016 • 3,387 Points

u First DIAMOND u Mariah L. Ervin New London HS, WI March 19, 2016 • 1,500 Points

u First DIAMOND u Randall Brinker Moapa Valley HS, NV March 20, 2016 • 1,675 Points

u First DIAMOND u Charles Cook Riverside HS, SC March 25, 2016 • 1,509 Points

u First DIAMOND u Michael Lau Kahuku High & Intermediate School, HI April 13, 2016 • 1,500 Points

u First DIAMOND u Katrina Snell Champlin Park HS, MN April 22, 2016 • 1,500 Points

u First DIAMOND u Micah Everson Murrah HS, MS May 9, 2016 • 1,875 Points

Rostrum | FALL 2016



Prep for the upcoming speech and debate season with supplies from the NEW Speech & Debate Store! u First DIAMOND u Vicky Hyde Chiawana HS , WA May 16, 2016 • 1,500 Points

u First DIAMOND u Nick Klemp Phoenix Country Day School, AZ July 7, 2016 • 1,504 Points


Prep for the upcoming speech and debate season with supplies from the NEW Speech & Debate Store!


SHOP NOW: store.speechanddebate.org store.speechanddebate.org Rostrum | FALL 2016 77


———-National Debate——-—

Institute High School Debate Camp


June 4-10 New! Fundamentals of Debate June 4-24 3-Week Policy Advanced June 7-17 Public Forum June 11-24 2-Week Policy Debate - our most popular camp

Program features include: ⏺ Experienced, trained teaching staff ⏺ Beginner, intermediate, and advanced training ⏺ Prepare for the next topic before school starts ⏺ Unique social justice component with a field trip to the National Center for Civil and Human Rights For application and more information, please visit: emory.edu/bf/institutes

Barkley Forum for Debate, Deliberation, and Dialogue | Emory University | 404-727-6189

Donus D. Roberts Quad Ruby Coach Recognition

(March 15, 2016 through October 15, 2016)

The Association is proud to honor coaches who have earned their first 1,000 points.

Jesse Garrett Colin Malinak Larissa Carter Vernon Brock Cathy D’Entremont Eli Woody Brian Karsten Brian Bloss Sean Hanlin Pamela Childress Randall Baldwin Deserea Niemann Nick Herink Talana D. Hinson Rachel Clapper Brian Kaufman Jayson Anderson Jeffrey D. Robbins Julie Love Alyssa Fiebrantz Peter A. Crevoiserat Michelle A. Taylor William Lapham Adesuwa Omoruyi Victor Trussell Beth Steinleitner Walter Cotter John Kerezy Susan Schripsema Christopher Harris Laura Coker-Dearth Robin Setzer Elizabeth Werness

Summit Prep High School, CA Saint Mary’s Hall High School, TX Buhler High School, KS Northwood High School, CA The Village School, TX Lakewood High School, CO Grand Rapids Christian High School, MI Coppell High School, TX Cumberland Polytechnic High School, NC Valdosta High School, GA Highland Park High School, KS Lakeville North High School, MN Lincoln East High School, NE Cassville High School, MO Madison Central High School, MS Ravenwood High School, TN Lubbock High School, TX Collierville High School, TN Paul J. Hagerty High School, FL Cypress Bay High School, FL Wichita Northwest High School, KS Silver Lake High School, KS Battle Creek Central High School, MI Alief Taylor High School, TX Rufus King High School, WI Dassel Cokato High School, MN Lassiter High School, GA Revere High School, OH La Cueva High School, NM Saratoga High School, CA Richardson High School, TX Calvary Day School, NC Edina High School, MN

1,392 1,320 1,317 1,316 1,282 1,250 1,244 1,222 1,215 1,201 1,189 1,175 1,174 1,153 1,139 1,109 1,109 1,101 1,096 1,094 1,091 1,091 1,091 1,090 1,087 1,081 1,081 1,079 1,074 1,074 1,073 1,071 1,069

Jeannene Abney Monica Salda Scott Pettit Thomas Beck Wesley Cornett Frank Canzoneri Travis Clement Lee Lusk Michael Murray Brittanie McNeil Sarah Kieffner LeAnne Schmidt Cody Goodchild Carl Stafford John Holen Michael Shelton Jenny Pippin Andrew George Barrett Julie McMerty Steven Goetsch Theresa Mills Jeannette Shields Marcia Long Julie Rice Katie Carlson Brandon Sanchez Jedidiah Carosaari Luke Calhoun Molly Schleicher Jared White David Mendoza Roxanne Pignanelli

Ryan High School, TX Sacred Heart Catholic School, MS Summit Academy High School, UT Pelham Memorial High School, NY Trinity Academy, KS Archbishop Shaw High School, LA Scottsdale Preparatory Academy, AZ Flagstaff High School, AZ Oxford Academy, CA Massey Hill Classical High School, NC Father Ryan High School, TN Notre Dame Preparatory, MI Maple Grove Senior High School, MN Van Horn High School, MO Lincoln East High School, NE Lawrence Free State High School, KS Midland Christian School, TX J. Frank Dobie High School, TX Orono High School, MN Waukesha South High School, WI Portage Central High School, MI Cherryvale Middle High School, KS SandHoke Early College, NC Seventy First High School, NC East Ridge High School, MN Gabrielino High School, CA Casablanca American School, MC BASIS Flagstaff High School, AZ St. Michael Albertville High School, MN IH Kempner High School, TX Riverside STEM Academy, CA Pueblo County High School, CO

1,065 1,063 1,063 1,062 1,060 1,057 1,053 1,053 1,052 1,048 1,045 1,045 1,043 1,038 1,036 1,035 1,031 1,030 1,026 1,026 1,025 1,024 1,015 1,014 1,014 1,011 1,007 1,005 1,005 1,003 1,002 1,001

Advertise your speech and debate openings with us!

As a service to member schools, the National Speech & Debate Association offers complimentary employment listings on our website, www.speechanddebate.org/jobs. For $100, you may reserve a custom, third-page print ad in Rostrum magazine. We’ll even help you design your ad! Contact emily.kriegel@speechanddebate.org or call us at (920) 748-6206 to reserve your ad today. Our next issue will be published in mid-February!

LEARN MORE www.speechanddebate.org/jobs

Rostrum | FALL 2016 79

Triple Ruby Coach Recognition

(March 15, 2016 through October 15, 2016)

Celebrating speech and debate coaches who have earned their first 750 points.

Kevin Steinberg Chris Smith John Yelenic Sarah Cleveland Camila Vasquez Devon Reese Brittany Stanchik Jake Swede Harry Yu Tucker B. Bates Taylor Johnson Karen Franke Marissa Behan Matt Parris Kyra Mauney Kari Shelkey John Herron Tyler Dalton Pipkin James Payne Nicholas Ernst Christina Shin Tracy Hancey Larry Bailey Michelle McIntyre Maria D. Tol Mary Kay Waterman Kerri Simons Lori D. Zyla Jeffrey Valdivieso

John Paul II High School, TX 984 Northwest Career And Technical Academy, NV 976 Cardinal Gibbons High School, NC 961 Dulles High School, TX 951 Palo Alto High School, CA 946 McQueen High School, NV 917 Desert Vista High School, AZ 914 Central High School - St. Paul, MN 907 Spring Woods High School, TX 906 Columbia High School, ID 902 Catalina Foothills High School, AZ 898 Cathedral Catholic High School, CA 889 Sioux City East High School, IA 882 Antelope High School, CA 877 Renaissance Magnet High School, ID 875 Hellgate High School, MT 853 Fontbonne Hall Academy, NY 847 Choctaw Sr. High School, OK 844 Miramar High School, FL 838 Kamehameha Schools, HI 837 McLean High School, VA 834 Layton High School, UT 832 Judson High School, TX 830 Washington High School, SD 826 Cottage Grove Park High School, MN 825 The Lovett School, GA 821 New Trier Township High School, IL 820 Parkersburg High School, WV 816 San Marino High School, CA 810

Jordan Fetter Ben Sigrist Sarah Sherwood Victoria Engledow Mary Beth Logas Aimee Sann Kelly A. Cimino Terrence Jozwick Nate Conoly Donna Love Caroline Campbell Joseph Fellers Matt Nagel Rick Cahail Brundage Jennifer Kaye Tudor Bradley Harris Miranda Lloyd Jerrad Willis Edgar Jackson Marie Wetzel Tracey Spinelli Londa Madron John Bumm Barbara M. Clougherty Susan Jones Walker Perkins Angie Klein Ian Gunn Frances Wong

Grand Prairie Fine Arts Academy, TX Bellarmine College Prep, CA Servite High School, CA Owasso High School, OK Fenwick High School, IL Notre Dame Prep School, MD Decatur Heritage Christian, AL Glenbrook South High School, IL Vestavia Hills High School, AL Louisa County High School, VA South Medford High School, OR Wichita East High School, KS Park City High School, UT Apple Valley High School, MN Irmo High School, SC Lawrence Free State High School, KS Davis High School, UT Sacred Heart Jr./Sr. High School, KS Aubrey High School, TX Whitmer High School, OH Moon Area High School, PA Classen SAS, OK Remington High School, KS Chantilly High School, VA Midway High School, TX W. B. Ray High School, TX Pequot Lakes High School, MN Jesuit New Orleans High School, LA Maryknoll High School, HI



The National Speech & Debate Association believes communication skills are essential for empowering youth to become engaged citizens, skilled professionals, and honorable leaders in our global society. We connect, support, and inspire a diverse community of honor society members committed to fostering excellence in young people through competitive speech and debate activities.

We envision a world in which every student has access to competitive speech and debate activities. We are the leading voice in the development of resources, competitive and ethical standards, curricular and co-curricular opportunities, and recognition systems for our vast network of student, coach, and alumni members.

To learn more, visit www.speechanddebate.org. Questions? Email info@speechanddebate.org or call (920) 748-6206. 80

Rostrum | FALL 2016

810 806 804 802 801 801 795 791 791 790 789 783 782 781 779 775 775 774 773 768 767 764 762 760 758 757 753 752 752


1925 Society The National Speech & Debate Society is grateful to acknowledge the following 1925 Society members. Phyllis Flory Barton

Lanny and B. J. Naegelin

James Copeland

Dr. Polly and Bruce Reikowski

Don and Ann Crabtree A. C. Eley Vickie and Joe Fellers David and Judy Huston Jennifer Jerome Harold Keller Kandi King Cherian and Betsy Koshy

Donus and Lovila Roberts James Rye, III Steve and Anna Schappaugh David Seikel Sandra Silvers Richard Sodikow William Woods Tate, Jr.

Dr. Tommie Lindsey, Jr.

Nicole and Darrel Wanzer-Serrano

Pam and Ray McComas

J. Scott and Megan Wunn

H. B. Mitchell

Joe and Pam Wycoff

To join the 1925 Society, or to learn more about making a planned gift to the National Speech & Debate Association, please contact Nicole Wanzer-Serrano at nicole.wanzer-serrano@speechanddebate.org.

Student Service Citations The following students have received Student Service Citations from the National Speech & Debate Association in recognition of outstanding service to speech and debate education. Students receive a citation for every 100 service points earned through activities such as community speaking or outreach. A single act of service usually garners between two and five service points. These citations were earned between March 15, 2016 and October 15, 2016.


Student Service Citation, 6th Degree (600+ points) Kory Turner Sacred Heart High School



Student Service Citation, 5th Degree (500+ points) Gift Riley-Norman ILEAD North Hollywood Erick Beltran Rio Grande High School Kate Farwell ILEAD North Hollywood Davis Simpson Bixby High School Sean Rogers ILEAD North Hollywood


580 562 547 541 524

Student Service Citation, 4th Degree (400+ points) Olivia Dutcher ILEAD North Hollywood Bailee B. Harper Denmark High School Guillermo Rascon Rio Grande High School Hayley Fatzinger Hoover High School Maxwell McGuirt ILEAD North Hollywood Casey O’Reilly Chaminade High School Nathan Ferrell Norman High School Massimo Indolini Chaminade High School


459 452 439 421 421 415 405 400

Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Ryann Ersoff ILEAD North Hollywood John Scavo Servite High School Caleb DeWitt North Kansas City High School Ryan Smith Chaminade High School Thomas Brautigam Elk Grove High School Torin Siegel Servite High School Ruthie Satchell Jefferson High School Ethan Bryant Lynk East Carteret High School Andrew Ying Cherry Creek High School Mia L. Gilbertson Centennial High School Philip Dunne Chaminade High School Jack Valentino Chaminade High School Seth Latiolais Cecilia High School William Lloyd Egan Enderlin High School Chloe Pearson Yucaipa High School Tony Beyer Blanchet Catholic School Hannah Bryant Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solutions Kambrie Smith Palisade High School Samuel Hancock Madison High School Kiersten Lange North Platte High School Aaron Miller Great Bend High School


380 380 375 370 360 354 350 345 344 341 340 335 335 334 325 325 323 320 318 318 315

Rostrum | FALL 2016

Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Patrick Johnson Chaminade High School Mitchell High School Raina Grimsley Cole Vaughan Bowling Green High School Mulvane High School Desmond Williamson Quinn A. Stewart Scarborough High School Michael Thomas Booton Jemez Mountain Home School Palisade High School Anna Blackford


310 309 307 305 300 300 300

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Yucaipa High School Ashley Pearson Grace Holtzclaw ILEAD North Hollywood Clear Falls High School Ryan Paredes Brett W. Hund Centennial High School Servite High School Nicholas Passantino Noelle Trahan Bixby High School Hallie Malsbury North Platte High School Palo Alto High School Ethan Teo Britonya Fleming Rio Grande High School Ethan Bollinger Palisade High School Annika Nicole Davenport Jemez Mountain Home School Kelaney Stalker North Platte High School Amrita Krishnakumar Acton-Boxborough Regional High School Edward McDonnell Chaminade High School Aidan Fitzgerald Chaminade High School Palisade High School Kaleb Hawkins Dorea Lauer New London High School Autumn Andrews Bixby High School Harrison Farnam Bixby High School Amelia Zerbe Hoover High School Kadie Thomas Kickapoo High School Emily Turkel North Hollywood High School Stephanie Lee Palo Alto High School Sawyer Barnett Carson High School Morgan Akers Cabot High School Christian Delgado Rio Grande High School Sarah Slanaker ILEAD North Hollywood Edward Doran Chaminade High School Terra Wells Bixby High School Rahul Ramesh Cherry Creek High School Ari J. Moore ILEAD North Hollywood Jessica Lois Michalski Burwell Jr-Sr High School Destiny Council Hereford High School Kaylee Meador Rising Star High School Dennis Valent Chaminade High School Eamonn McNicholas Chaminade High School Tyler Roberts Jefferson High School Kalee DuBois La Junta High School Brandon Arenson ILEAD North Hollywood Kayla F. Smith Collierville High School Miller Johnson Trinity Presbyterian School Conor Lynch Chaminade High School Natalie Shoch Shikellamy High School Janae Robinson Belleville West High School Mandi Hatch North Platte High School Thomas Flatley Chaminade High School Ashley Gillespie Bob Jones Academy Samantha Haines Truman High School Twyla Luella Gross Enderlin High School Elizabeth Carrier Penn High School Reanna Saldivar Yucaipa High School


295 295 292 290 288 286 283 281 280 280 277 276 276 270 270 270 270 270 265 265 262 260 259 255 253 253 251 250 250 250 249 249 248 247 245 245 245 245 243 243 242 240 240 240 238 235 235 235 231 230 230

Rostrum | FALL 2016 83

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Ava Ewald Chanhassen High School Montville High School Sean Taltavall McKadee Eyre Beaver High School Apple Valley High School Lauren Bernard Kaitlyn Saresky Truman High School Brent Hausmann Norfolk High School Los Gatos High School Sawye Raygani Anjali Shah Montville High School North Platte High School Michael Curtis North Platte High School Emily Dennary Korissa Runyan North Platte High School Palisade High School Piper Doyle Arushi Gupta Montville High School Mounds High School Marissa Fulbright Sawyer Hemstreet Blanchet Catholic School Tomas Korn Michael Krop High School Yucaipa High School Victoria Rice Shelby Jacobson Chanhassen High School Julio Murillo American Falls High School Riley A. Rundell Salina High Central Isaac Castaneda Columbia High School Greg Bianchi Notre Dame High School Tyler Kendrick Princeton High School Kendyl Kowalski Morristown West High School Chaminade High School Kenneth Bradley Molly Olivia Simpson Rowan County Sr. High School Ian McDougall Norman North High School Brianna Gamble Jefferson High School Clayton LeCain-Guffey Jefferson High School Alyssa DeJoan Munster High School William Frederick Herbst Cherry Creek High School James Byron Smith Clear Falls High School Megan Garcia Princeton High School James Garvin Chaminade High School Ben Schall North Hollywood High School Cassidy A. Rabchenuk Mountain Home High School Danielle Bloom Bonita Vista High School Morgan Breedlove Norman High School Elysia Adi Gabrielino High School Michela Short Victoria East High School Isani Singh Cherry Creek High School Josline Garcia North Platte High School Alex Cooper Hereford High School Adam Wilson Whitmer High School Savannah Orton Yucaipa High School Savannah Butak Yucaipa High School Sidny Grow New Castle High School Savannah Horton Yucaipa High School Cameron Baughman Norton High School Meghan Nichole Jones Palisade High School Frankie Madison Spiller Palisade High School Bella Lowrance Henry County High School Joshua Jones Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solutions Ethan Bond Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solutions Abigail Madrid Yucaipa High School Caylen Haalboom Yucaipa High School Elizabeth Charlton Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solutions Abram Quiroz Arroyo High School Amaranta Mondragon Arroyo High School


Rostrum | FALL 2016


230 227 225 225 224 224 224 220 220 220 220 220 220 219 218 218 215 215 215 215 214 214 212 211 210 210 210 210 210 208 208 206 206 205 205 203 202 202 201 201 201 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200


The Academic All American award recognizes students who have earned the degree of Superior Distinction (750 points); completed at least 5 semesters of high school; demonstrated outstanding character and leadership; and earned a GPA of 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent). NOTE: If the GPA is between 3.5 and 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent), students also must have received an ACT score of 27 or higher, or a New SAT score of 1300 or higher.

ALABAMA Hannah Edwards Jake Hemmings Sydney Snowden

Prattville High School Trinity Presbyterian School Trinity Presbyterian School

ALASKA Krista Stapleford

South Anchorage High School

ARIZONA Jake Dean Jillian Gilburne Jason Greenfield Jaywon Kim William Porter Parker Whitfill

Sunnyslope High School Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School Scottsdale Preparatory Academy Phoenix Country Day School Phoenix Country Day School

ARKANSAS Zachary Chilton Currie Gillian Sarah Wall

Bentonville High School Bentonville High School

CALIFORNIA Samira Abed Will Alexander Sorjo Banerjee Cheyenne Bearfoot Kiowa Bearfoot Clayton Becker Nikhil Bopardikar Alexander Steven Casendino Diana Chao Tiffany Chen Tiffany Chiang Yong Choe Eesha Chona Tim Chung Spencer Dembner Aditya Dhar Deandra Du Cameron Ervin Miguel Fiandeiro Emily Fu Sophia Helland Joyce Z. Huang Suraj Jagadeesh Hee Won Jung

Edison Computech High School Los Altos High School The Harker School Delta Charter High School Delta Charter High School Claremont High School The Harker School Miramonte High School Claremont High School Alhambra High School Alhambra High School Notre Dame High School - Sherman Oaks The Harker School Gabrielino High School Los Altos High School The Harker School Gabrielino High School Bullard High School Bellarmine College Prep Citrus Valley High School Claremont High School The Harker School The Harker School Oxford Academy

(March 15, 2016 through October 15, 2016)

CALIFORNIA (continued) Nancy Jung Abhinav Ketineni Maya Kusunoki-Martin Alexander Lam Alan Lee Jasmine Liu Karyna Luong Christopher Morillo Sanjaye Narayan Anirudh Prabhu Emaad Raghib Pedro Ribeiro Ben Schwartz Brandon Solano Tyler Tate Ethan Teo Johnson Thai Taylor Thomas Perry Trinh Misha Tseitlin Alex Zhao

Claremont High School The Harker School Gabrielino High School The Harker School Gabrielino High School The Harker School Gabrielino High School La Canada High School Gabrielino High School Bellarmine College Prep The Harker School Delta Charter High School Gabrielino High School Woodcreek High School Woodcreek High School Palo Alto High School Gabrielino High School Alhambra High School Gabrielino High School The Harker School La Canada High School

COLORADO Avery Anderson Emma Braun Orisa Z. Coombs Alissa Ehlers Ben Gurka Wyatt Hurt Dylan Powers Tara Srinivas Elias S.W. VanLoo Cailyn Wolberg

Fairview High School Regis Jesuit High School Smoky Hill High School Central Of Grand Junction High School Central Of Grand Junction High School Central Of Grand Junction High School Smoky Hill High School Fairview High School Greeley Central High School Mullen High School

FLORIDA Riley J. Freese Caleb Meredith Michael Wang Grace Wickerson Jack Yan

Dreyfoos School Of The Arts Boca Raton Community High School Dreyfoos School Of The Arts Pine View School Dreyfoos School Of The Arts

GEORGIA Ali Abdullah Jubin Thomas

Woodward Academy Fayette County High School

IDAHO Benjamin Black Kendall Black Stephen Casper Tyler Christenson Blake Cowman Holden D’Evegnee Joseph Dummar Zoe Esplin Camille Garner Samuel Hancock Ryan Kinville

Madison High School Skyline High School Skyline High School Madison High School Skyview High School Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School

Rostrum | FALL 2016 85



IDAHO (continued) Isiac Orr Jonathan Pulsipher Isaac Richards Nathan Stouffer Andrew Willis Lillian Worst

Madison High School Madison High School Madison High School Wood River High School Madison High School Wood River High School

ILLINOIS Neha Basti Daniel Ben-Isvy Allen Carter Carolyn Chun Jeremy Doman Jonah Jacobs Shaan Keswani Saima Khimani Alana Levin Jason Levin Jimmy McDermott Ben Mnushkin Kevin Mommsen Emily Silber Hunter Staszak Caity Tirakian Mitch Wisniewski

Hinsdale Central High School Glenbrook North High School Glenwood High School Hinsdale Central High School Glenbrook North High School Glenbrook North High School Hinsdale Central High School Downers Grove South High School Glenbrook North High School Glenbrook North High School Prospect High School Glenbrook North High School Downers Grove South High School Niles West High School Downers Grove South High School Hinsdale Central High School Downers Grove South High School

INDIANA Rebecca Alifimoff Hannah Babcock Maggie Bielski Grace Dean Francie Fink Ezequiel Gonzalez Ellie Johnson Sarah Kawamleh Austin Lewis Corwin Marcum Megan Miller Kevin O’Sullivan Aashka Piprottar Christian Sayers Caroline Tsai Jane Tullis

Canterbury High School Canterbury High School Cathedral High School Noblesville High School Valparaiso High School Ben Davis High School Ben Davis High School Valparaiso High School Columbus East High School New Castle High School Columbus East High School Brebeuf Jesuit Preparatory School Canterbury High School Valparaiso High School Canterbury High School Valparaiso High School

IOWA Daniel Drane Claire Wallace

Des Moines Roosevelt High School Des Moines Roosevelt High School

KANSAS Bradi Allen Zachary Ryan Atkins Bliss Baird Shayla Bellamy Darian Nicole Bequette Patrick Michael Bircher Annie Blake

Mulvane High School Lansing Sr. High School Trinity Academy Hutchinson High School Lansing Sr. High School Lansing Sr. High School Hutchinson High School

Rostrum | FALL 2016

(March 15, 2016 through October 15, 2016)

KANSAS (continued) Katie Buhler Tehreem Chaudhry Emily Collier Ashley DeBauge Colin Lloyd Dike Emily Fan Kara Samantha Fort Michael Franklin Chelsea Herrarte Connor Innes Allison Danielle Jasso Daley Wolfgang Frey Kiester Matthew Madden Nate Edward Martin Laura Miller Amalia Murguia Ryan Nelson Jordan Ojile Tommy Phan Breanna Prater Caylie J. Ratzlaff Dane Rigby Rebecca Swartz Allison Dessie Wagner Anthony Wingfield Angelo Wong Haden Yoon

Pratt High School Lawrence High School Caney Valley High School Emporia High School Lansing Sr. High School Hutchinson High School Lansing Sr. High School Sumner Academy Emporia High School Mulvane High School Moundridge High School Emporia High School Andover High School Lansing Sr. High School Hutchinson High School Sumner Academy Caney Valley High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Emporia High School Abilene High School Emporia High School Caney Valley High School Abilene High School Lansing Sr. High School Wichita Heights High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School

KENTUCKY Casey Bouley Anna Cate Brown William Critchfield Lydia Graham Caitlin Haskett Brynn Jones Tesla Like David Lu Trent Lyons Kelli MacLauchlin Grace Sheene Jacob Thomas Zoie Webb Symone Whalin

Murray High School Murray High School Danville High School Danville High School Danville High School Murray High School Murray High School Murray High School Murray High School Danville High School Danville High School Larue County High School Larue County High School Larue County High School

LOUISIANA Kevin Fitzmorris Christy Mo David Ramachandran Shuzheng Zheng

Isidore Newman School Isidore Newman School Ruston High School Isidore Newman School

MASSACHUSETTS Charlotte Bichet Samuel D.V. Fishman Jack Kelly Veronica Podolny James D. Rao

Waring School Newton South High School Waring School Newton South High School Newton South High School

Spark Leaders MASSACHUSETTS (continued) Rebecca Shaar Benjamin E. Silvian

Newton South High School Newton South High School

MINNESOTA Kevin Bi Shefali Bijwadia Kush Brahmbhatt Sam Buisman Hannah Davis Michael Gutman Olivia Shoemaker Raffi Toghramadjian Michael D. White Bethany Zeug Alicia Zhang

East Ridge High School St. Paul Academy & Summit School Chanhassen High School Chanhassen High School Chanhassen High School Marshall High School Lakeville North High School St. Paul Academy & Summit School Robbinsdale Cooper High School Marshall High School East Ridge High School

MISSISSIPPI Anna Alexander Lauren M. Allen Sara Comino Neha Dhaliwal Bailey McHale Molly Nguyen Laura Gillian Raley Sam Sumrall

Laurel Christian School Murrah High School Sacred Heart Catholic School St. Andrew’s Episcopal School St. Andrew’s Episcopal School St. Andrew’s Episcopal School St. Andrew’s Episcopal School Laurel Christian School

MISSOURI Romeo Bagunu Hunter Blachford Chloe Boone Louis Neal Brown Aditya Buddi Gabbie Burton Madison Buzzard Jacob Casey Cormac Chester Renee Colby Jacob Collins Maxwell Cook Caleb Daniels Aaron Darrah Danie De La Chica Noah DiAntonio Joshua Dollar Huayu Gao Jacob Granick Grant Austin Harris Hanlu Jin Inkoo Kang Cameron Leonard Olivia Lesley Aaron Mansdoerfer Joshua Metje Alexander Mitchell Kieran Mulligan Maya Mutic

Raytown High School Blue Springs South High School Glendale High School Glendale High School Parkway West High School Metro Academic & Classical High School Webb City High School Raytown South High School The Pembroke Hill School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Lebanon High School Harrisonville High School Raymore-Peculiar High School Blue Springs High School Blue Springs South High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Blue Springs High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Glendale High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School The Pembroke Hill School Raymore-Peculiar High School The Pembroke Hill School Pattonville High School Blue Springs High School The Pembroke Hill School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School

MISSOURI (continued) Patrick Naughton Peter Petev Mitchell Pickard Kent Robinson Samuel Bennett Roseman Annie Roustio Graham Richard Sherard Cara Sibert Brandon Steele Jacob Summers Emma Breann Yannizzi Bryan Zhang Constanza Castro Zuniga Trujillo Cody True

Ladue Horton Watkins High School Parkway West High School The Barstow School Parkway West High School Glendale High School Blue Springs High School Glendale High School Raymore-Peculiar High School Blue Springs High School Raytown South High School Glendale High School Parkway West High School Raytown South High School Raytown South High School

MONTANA Kerinleigh Abbott Annabelle Conger Justice Geddes Parker Kouns Colin Norick Sophia Skwarchuk Emma Sundeen Sean Swinford Cameron Tate

Bozeman High School Columbia Falls High School Bozeman High School Flathead High School Columbia Falls High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Bozeman High School Bozeman High School

NEBRASKA Maddy Brown Frannie Folsom Chase William Hoffschneider Connor Jolley Priya Kukreja Tony Le Sheng-Jie Lim McKenzie Merritt Troy Nguyen Samantha Payant Quinn Reimer Tressa Katherine Reiner Renee Wehrle

Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Burwell Jr.-Sr. High School Millard North High School Millard North High School Lincoln Southwest High School Millard North High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln Southwest High School Millard North High School Burwell Jr.-Sr. High School Millard North High School

NEVADA Karla Burcham Ariyani Challapalli Heather Foster Athena Patchin Carla Ramazan Louis Shulman Ember Smith

Reno High School Reno High School Reno High School Spring Valley High School Sage Ridge School Coronado High School Green Valley High School

NEW JERSEY John Beute Ethan Czerniecki Zachary Feldman Arushi Gupta Ryan Hosler

Delbarton School Delbarton School Montville High School Montville High School Delbarton School

Rostrum | FALL 2016 87



NEW JERSEY (continued) Harry Kern Vinayak Kumar Sage O’Toole Nithya Reddy Anjali Shah Sean Taltavall

Randolph High School Delbarton School Freehold Township High School Montville High School Montville High School Montville High School

NEW MEXICO Benjamin Lopez

East Mountain High School

NEW YORK Esther Reyes

Achievement First Brooklyn High School

NORTH CAROLINA Madison Boswell Benjamin Clay Cooper Samantha DaCruz

Cumberland Polytechnic High School Pinecrest High School Cumberland Polytechnic High School


Fargo North High School

OHIO Eli Abboud Autumn Beamer Jared Casserly Samantha Fritz Alexis Hendershot Shannon Howley Isaac Jacobson Kaitlyn M.Krepp Hannah Laubach Max Lee Ammar Lone Robert Long Edith Lui Ryan MacPherson Matt McCombs Devesh Modi Francis Mok Jesse Nodo Hannah Petitti Priyanka Podugu Stefanie Pousoulides Grace Protasiewicz James Swingos Maddy Urig Talia Walters Sam Wilcox Kevin Yu Jake Zartman Matthew Zhu

Jackson High School Carrollton High School Wooster High School Canfield High School Perry High School Perry High School Hawken School Perry High School Stow-Munroe Falls High School Canfield High School Hawken School Canfield High School Sylvania Southview High School Stow-Munroe Falls High School Stow-Munroe Falls High School Hawken School Sylvania Southview High School Perry High School Perry High School Jackson High School Jackson High School Hathaway Brown School Hawken School Canfield High School Beavercreek High School Stow-Munroe Falls High School Hawken School Perry High School Hawken School

OKLAHOMA Katherine Boone Madison Hart Michael Heron Lynette Long

Norman North High School Bishop McGuinness High School Bethany High School Norman North High School

Rostrum | FALL 2016

(March 15, 2016 through October 15, 2016)

OKLAHOMA (continued) Cheyenne Rose Martin Veena Muraleetharan Jordan Noonan Joshua Robbins Eva Sparks Riley Stewart John Wirth

Bishop McGuinness High School Norman North High School Norman North High School Norman North High School Norman North High School Norman North High School Norman North High School

OREGON Daniel Cohen Laurel McGrane Bianca Pak Sheila Panyam Brad Subramaniam Beau Taylor-Ladd

Lincoln High School Lincoln High School Sunset High School Lincoln High School Lincoln High School Oak Hill School

PENNSYLVANIA Benjamin M. Becker Fiona C. Bultonsheen Julie Chen David DeMarco Yara El-Khatib Jared Levinson Ohanna Mohammad Gabe Ren Anna Sugrue Nila Suresh Victoria Warner

Southern Lehigh High School Southern Lehigh High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Unionville High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Abington Heights High School Dallastown Area High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Science Leadership Academy North Allegheny Sr. High School Delone Catholic High School

SOUTH CAROLINA Unshu Biyani Andrew P. Clater Sarai Dai Emma Pait Daniel Quigley Ceylin Ucok

Riverside High School Bob Jones Academy Riverside High School Bob Jones Academy Bob Jones Academy Riverside High School

SOUTH DAKOTA Lucas C. Davis Brady S. Jandl August W. Meyer Marisa Morris Brendan Wilson

Harrisburg High School Lennox High School Lennox High School Harrisburg High School Washington High School

TENNESSEE John Atticus Cooper Eliot Forster-Benson Madeline Jarrard Andrew Harris Kaplan Craig Martin Margaret Overton Michael Rankin Drew Taylor Jeffrey Williams Kayla Williamson Savannah Wills

Montgomery Bell Academy Ravenwood High School Brentwood Academy Montgomery Bell Academy Brentwood High School Brentwood High School Brentwood Academy Ravenwood High School Brentwood Academy Brentwood Academy Ravenwood High School

Spark Leaders TEXAS Joojin Abaoag Elyssa Albaugh Mackenzie Beckmon Mehlam Bhuriwala Catherine Cheng Zayne Clayton Alexandra Dunford Sariah Fischer Murtaza Hakimi Danielle Hallissey Jenna Han Emily Hua Peter Huang Elizabeth Isabell Seema Iyengar Julia Jones Katy Kaiser Prachi Khanna Jillian Lauver Natalie Lauver Hae Seong Lee Brian Liao Michelle Lin John Thornton Lindsey Thomas Mosmeyer Santosh Murugan Maanasa Nathan Jennifer Neely Brooklyne Oliveira Diana Paulsen Carmen Perez Jacob Redmon Michael J. Roets, Jr.

Randall High School Princeton High School North Lamar High School Montgomery High School Westwood High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Centennial High School Friendswood High School Westwood High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Westwood High School Plano West Sr. High School Plano West Sr. High School Clear Brook High School Westwood High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Elkins High School Centennial High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Trinity Valley School Trinity Valley School Westwood High School Montgomery High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Trinity Valley School Westwood High School Van High School Godley High School Duchesne Academy Of The Sacred Heart Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solutions Richardson High School Princeton High School

TEXAS (continued) Jeffrey Rosinbaum Namita Saraf Kalista Schauer Brianna Sitton Suketh Subramanya Lara Turan Paloma Villarreal Ellen Wang Emma Warnecke Dhiren Wijesinghe Umamah Zaki

Geneva School Of Boerne Grapevine High School Richard King High School Leon High School Clear Brook High School Trinity Valley School Richard King High School Plano West Sr. High School Saint Mary’s Hall High School Clear Brook High School Byron Nelson High School

UTAH David Bernstein Will Matheson Jaedri Wood

Rowland Hall-St. Mark Rowland Hall-St. Mark Stansbury High School

VIRGINIA Victoria Bevard

Thomas Jefferson High School Science & Tech

WASHINGTON Carter Gale Ruary Thompson

Kingston High School Mount Si High School

WYOMING James Fantin Kaylee Hardesty Katarina Huss Tony Lew Alexandra Mulhall Collin Zoeller

Rock Springs High School Rock Springs High School Natrona County High School Rock Springs High School Worland High School Natrona County High School


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2015-16 ALL AMERICANS Standards for determining the Top 25 All Americans are based on a combination of competitive points and service points, of which no more than 25% of the point total can include service. In order to qualify, a student must have competed once at Nationals.



State Points

Ethan Morelion Ian Hennington Matthew Cannon Max Cline Austin Jang Thomas Mosmeyer Alexander Gasman Brett Ries Christine Vo Megan Kline Jacob Thompson Justin David Graham Bennett R. Eckert William Turk Craig Heyne Carol Lee Alexander L. Trobough Shawn Haq Rannyn River Stephens Daniel Drane Faizaan Sadruddin Nathan McClendon James Anthony Mullen Jacob Wallack Amanda B. Morrison

Big Spring High School Madison Central High School Harlingen High School South Skyline High School Union High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School ILEAD North Hollywood Watertown High School Spring Woods High School El Dorado High School Des Moines Roosevelt High School Trinity Preparatory School Greenhill School Oxbridge Academy Of The Palm Beaches Nova High School Riverside High School Sumner Academy El Camino Real Charter High School Rock Springs High School Des Moines Roosevelt High School NSU University School Manhattan High School Highland High School NSU University School Central High School - Springfield

TX 4,464 MS 4,000 TX 3,852 UT 3,850 WA 3,767 TX 3,753 CA 3,463 SD 3,447 TX 3,426 KS 3,403 IA 3,390 FL 3,383 TX 3,378 FL 3,360 FL 3,343 SC 3,317 KS 3,280 CA 3,230 WY 3,222 IA 3,212 FL 3,185 KS 3,179 ID 3,168 FL 3,165 MO 3,161





State Points

Connor Rothschild Jorge Rojas-Ortega Stephen Durosaiye Kaitlyn Allen-O’Gara Timothy Shertzer Jacob Anderson-Kester Jackson D. Taylor Sydney Terry Joshua Merritt Michael Hunschofsky Stephanie Kahle Segan Rae Helle Anubhav Garg Daniel Lehmann

Kickapoo High School Trinity High School Democracy Prep Bronx Preparatory Charter School Oxford Academy Louisiana School For Math Science & The Arts Ridgefield High School Ridgefield High School Morristown West High School La Vernia High School American Heritage School - Plantation Apple Valley High School Bonita Vista High School Central High School - Springfield Cypress Creek High School

MO 3,142 KY 3,087 NY 3,077 CA 3,064 LA 3,062 WA 3,052 WA 3,042 TN 3,004 TX 3,001 FL 2,996 MN 2,946 CA 2,923 MO 2,900 TX 2,899

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2015-16 ALL AMERICANS Vance J. Kelley Danielle Hallissey Casey Orvedal Katy Dorrell Shelby Kluver Kory Turner Anthony Wingfield Layla Hooshmand Pranav Kumar Sebastian Ix Alekh Kale Raina Grimsley Shreetika Singh Will Bartkowski Michael J. Roets, Jr. Kate Farwell Bailee B. Harper Loften Deprez Varad Agarwala Caleb Christiansen Usmaan Hasan Justin Cooper Emily Raney Alexander Stewart Mary Angela Ricotta Jonas Thrasher-Evers Angel Ramirez Nathan Sudenga April Taylor Kathryn Kenny Stefan S. Petrovic Julia Henry Jacob Redmon Matthew Mellies Srividya Dasaraju Sullivan Sweet Christina Gayton Gage Koistinen Charlotte Hutchison Sawyer Warrenburg Brandon Roth Michael Rankin Hollis Rammer Cassandra Edlund Nico Williams Eilene Yang Garrett Tatro James Burnett Nicholas Palmer Andrew Wildman

Lee’s Summit North High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School Fargo Davies High School Olathe South High School Watertown High School Sacred Heart High School Wichita Heights High School James E. Taylor High School Montville High School Pinecrest High School James Madison Memorial High School Mitchell High School Seven Lakes High School Brookfield East High School Princeton High School ILEAD North Hollywood Denmark High School Durham Academy Greenhill School Beaver High School Plano West Sr. High School Scarsdale High School Willard High School Republic High School St. Agnes Academy Lindale High School Spring Woods High School Boone County High School Maize South High School Harrison High School Lawrence High School Hutchinson High School Richardson High School Western High School Washburn Rural High School James Madison Memorial High School Ronald Reagan High School Watertown High School Fort Scott High School Harlingen High School South Sprague High School Brentwood Academy Sheboygan South High School Apple Valley High School Hendrickson High School Durham Academy Fort Scott High School Montville High School Fairmont Preparatory Academy Laurel Christian School


2,898 2,896 2,859 2,843 2,821 2,819 2,817 2,812 2,811 2,809 2,804 2,800 2,795 2,787 2,787 2,779 2,768 2,768 2,760 2,740 2,738 2,724 2,710 2,703 2,687 2,674 2,648 2,647 2,637 2,631 2,629 2,613 2,589 2,587 2,583 2,576 2,571 2,564 2,564 2,558 2,551 2,549 2,526 2,525 2,522 2,521 2,519 2,508 2,504 2,504

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Lily Nellans Christian Kimbell Allison McKibban Brian Anderson Robert K. Tissot Gregory Ross Ethan Morelion Sebastian Startz Carunya Achar Thomas Startz Nathan Leys Alex Sapadin Emma Ruffin McIntyre Branden Lindsay Sara Morgan Ian Hennington Danny DeBois Teagan Alexander Lende Austin Craft Lyubov Kapko Kyle Hendrix Matthew Cannon Max Cline Joseph Vincent Kalka Tyler J. Bieber Austin Jang Jami Tanner Carver Hodgkiss Thomas Mosmeyer Linda Pei Stephanie Hong Keegan Tucker Henry Walter Telyse S. Masaoay Tyler Blake Ryan Smith Jamis Barcott Chris Rice Jacob T. Savage Tushar Madan Michaila K. Nate Erik Bakke Cody Goodchild Alexander Gasman Brett Ries Christine Vo Megan Kline Zachary Perry Jacob Thompson Stewart Pence


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State Points


6,108 5,083 4,938 4,623 4,512 4,498 4,464 4,374 4,283 4,243 4,240 4,217 4,125 4,071 4,013 4,000 3,984 3,971 3,940 3,903 3,875 3,852 3,850 3,793 3,783 3,767 3,765 3,756 3,753 3,750 3,732 3,718 3,692 3,679 3,644 3,622 3,579 3,568 3,552 3,540 3,514 3,497 3,465 3,463 3,447 3,426 3,403 3,401 3,390 3,389


Justin David Graham Bennett R. Eckert Aleksander Eskilson Jedadiah Rothstein Blake J. Bergeron Drayton Willey Shania Hunt William Turk Craig Heyne Tristan C. Chasing-Hawk Carol Lee Josh Roberts Richard Diurba Adam Kinkley Cyrus Ghaznavi Drew Heugel Jordan Rojas Emily K. Martin Alexander L. Trobough Adam Tomasi Liam Feroli LaTara Demery Shawn Haq Josette C. Bisbee Seis Steves Rannyn River Stephens Daniel Drane Brian Anderson William Wildman Ali Dastjerdi Joe Russell Faizaan Sadruddin Nathan McClendon Fred Whitman Jordan Thomas Mecom Brett Johnson Thomas Lloyd Anna Lee Hawkins Lisa Zhu James Anthony Mullen Jacob Wallack Amanda B. Morrison Jamie L. Welch Dylan Slinger Kanan Boor Connor Rothschild Eric Trey Mueller Matthew Meyer Bushra Rahman Peter Choi

State Points


3,383 3,378 3,372 3,371 3,369 3,366 3,364 3,360 3,343 3,334 3,317 3,314 3,313 3,295 3,291 3,291 3,289 3,286 3,280 3,257 3,239 3,239 3,230 3,224 3,222 3,222 3,212 3,198 3,196 3,193 3,185 3,185 3,179 3,175 3,174 3,172 3,172 3,172 3,168 3,168 3,165 3,161 3,158 3,156 3,156 3,142 3,125 3,123 3,117 3,114

2015-16 ALL STATE AWARDS The National Speech & Debate Association’s All State Awards recognize the top 1% of point earners in each state. Standards are based on a combination of competitive points and service points, of which no more than 25% of the point total can include service.


ALABAMA Madison Hall Bradley Wascher William Moore Henry Hamlett Cassidy Duncan Erica Aho Aaron Fox Will Haynes

The Montgomery Academy Saint James School The Montgomery Academy The Montgomery Academy Saint James School Saint James School Lamp High School Spain Park High School

2,210 1,983 1,608 1,460 1,284 1,166 1,077 1,024

ALASKA Garrett Barron Rutherford Krista Stapleford

South Anchorage High School South Anchorage High School

1,736 1,397

ARIZONA Shaloni Pinto Jillian Gilburne Erin Guiney Tristan Brown Enrique Favaro Rachel Neglia Jake Dean Maanik Chotalla Jason Greenfield Mackenzie Saunders Ryley Goulet Camryn Page-Bottorff

Brophy College Prep Phoenix Country Day School Tempe Preparatory Academy Brophy College Prep Tempe Preparatory Academy Tempe Preparatory Academy Sunnyslope High School Brophy College Prep Phoenix Country Day School Desert Vista High School Mesquite High School Desert Ridge High School

2,276 2,092 2,084 2,013 1,978 1,857 1,845 1,784 1,680 1,668 1,630 1,576

ARKANSAS Jacob Holland Darren J. Williams Peyton Woods Julia Gardner Rachel Sara Mauchline Morgan Akers Zachary Chilton Currie

Cabot High School Little Rock Central High School Little Rock Central High School Cabot High School Bentonville High School Cabot High School Bentonville High School

2,391 2,151 1,535 1,397 1,286 1,181 1,114

CALIFORNIA Alexander Gasman Shawn Haq Kaitlyn Allen-O’Gara Segan Rae Helle Kate Farwell Nicholas Palmer Nathan Lam Jonas Le Barillec Garrett Broberg Kaylin Portillo-Chavez Tyra Johnson Hilda R. Velasquez-Galvez Trevor Swafford Samiksha Ramesh Adam Martin Liam Frolund Jared Stone Alex DeTaboada Ryan Powell Elan Friedland Gift Riley-Norman Milan Amritraj Ahsan Usmani Anastasiya Lisovska Gabi Yamout Austin Kim Brian Xu Edgar Partida

ILEAD North Hollywood 3,463 El Camino Real Charter High School 3,230 Oxford Academy 3,064 Bonita Vista High School 2,923 ILEAD North Hollywood 2,779 Fairmont Preparatory Academy 2,504 San Marino High School 2,502 Palos Verdes Peninsula High School 2,484 El Dorado High School 2,427 Orosi High School 2,348 James Logan High School 2,197 Canoga Park High School 2,178 Bonita Vista High School 2,153 Carlsbad High School 2,119 St. Vincent De Paul High School 2,091 Turlock High School 2,072 Los Angeles Center For Enriched Studies 2,047 Carlsbad High School 2,042 Notre Dame High School - Sherman Oaks 2,036 Los Gatos High School 2,014 ILEAD North Hollywood 1,993 Campbell Hall High School 1,992 Oxford Academy 1,967 Sherman Oaks CES 1,955 La Costa Canyon High School 1,892 Fairmont Preparatory Academy 1,876 San Marino High School 1,871 James Logan High School 1,867

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CALIFORNIA (continued) Alex Vergara Anirudh Prabhu Brandon Yu Mariah Stewart Loren Bassil Aaron Lundin Baum Jerry Wang Raam Tambe Chance Boreczky Kirin Heftye Gagandeep Gill Kunal Sharma Clayton Becker Daniel Ginsburg Dalton R. Boyt Alexandra Singleton Ryan Jiang Henry Huynh Sean Rogers Madison Smith Giselle DeSilva Bryan Yuan Wang Marcus Cohen Griffin Bodhi Molinary-Kopelman Victoria Villalobos Vinay Ayyapan Varun Kota Isabel Jeronimo Emilio Rivera Sathvik Gowda Kaiden Gipson Austin Moore Annie Xu Alex Zhao Samira Abed Victoria Castro-Chavez Arin Zwonitzer Wahab Ahmady Dylan Curtis Christin Villalobos Victor Li Cheyenne Bearfoot Gabriel Salazar Patrice Barnett Irene Quach Danielle Bloom Jon Le Jasmine Liu Tony Hackett Jack Wareham Jesus Cervantes Nancy Jung Vincent Le Mirwais Omarkhil Ravi Prasad Sameer Ziaee Jacob Reiter Sasha Rabich Eesha Chona Annie Gersh Nathanial Austria Sean Park Eric Culhane Sofia Koyama Sabrina Tsai

Bonita Vista High School 1,809 Bellarmine College Prep 1,792 ILEAD North Hollywood 1,759 Presentation High School 1,758 Citrus Valley High School 1,751 Miramonte High School 1,748 Palos Verdes Peninsula High School 1,747 Palos Verdes Peninsula High School 1,742 James Logan High School 1,741 Arroyo High School 1,727 James Logan High School 1,708 James Logan High School 1,699 Claremont High School 1,696 Miramonte High School 1,694 Stockdale High School 1,694 Gabrielino High School 1,686 College Prep 1,680 Arroyo High School 1,679 ILEAD North Hollywood 1,677 Yucaipa High School 1,671 Gabrielino High School 1,665 Miramonte High School 1,659 El Dorado High School 1,654 ILEAD North Hollywood 1,654 Gabrielino High School 1,648 Bellarmine College Prep 1,627 Davis Senior High School 1,625 Orosi High School 1,625 Chaminade College Prep 1,617 Leland High School 1,601 Bonita Vista High School 1,599 Los Angeles Center For Enriched Studies 1,596 Arroyo High School 1,594 La Canada High School 1,569 Edison Computech High School 1,560 Bear Creek High School 1,545 Carlsbad High School 1,540 James Logan High School 1,535 Carlsbad High School 1,533 Gabrielino High School 1,533 Arcadia High School 1,516 Delta Charter High School 1,512 El Camino Real Charter High School 1,509 Gabrielino High School 1,502 Gabrielino High School 1,500 Bonita Vista High School 1,494 Oxford Academy 1,491 The Harker School 1,489 CK McClatchy High School 1,472 Oakwood School - North Hollywood 1,460 James Enochs High School 1,454 Claremont High School 1,452 Milpitas High School 1,445 James Logan High School 1,444 James Enochs High School 1,431 Dougherty Valley High School 1,430 Brentwood School 1,428 ILEAD North Hollywood 1,420 The Harker School 1,418 Marlborough School 1,413 James Logan High School 1,379 Oxford Academy 1,378 ILEAD North Hollywood 1,376 Gabrielino High School 1,375 El Modena High School 1,372

2015-16 ALL STATE AWARDS CALIFORNIA (continued) Mary Talamantez Pedro Ribeiro Lindsay Neighbors Jonathan Hongde Zhou Amulya Donthi Abhinav Ketineni Emily Fu

Bonita Vista High School Delta Charter High School Citrus Valley High School Miramonte High School James Logan High School The Harker School Citrus Valley High School

COLORADO Eric Sun Noah Naiman Jarrek Holmes Cidney Fisk Anthony Sun David Wollins, Jr. Matthew Barad Teal Witter Sammie Leo Cory Vandenberg Bradley Johnson Wyatt Hurt Rachael L. Robinson Tyler Simants Brianna Terrell Quinn Oberg Mike Conrad Gage Anderson Elias S. W. VanLoo Donovan Droege Theo Champ Aidan Dykstal Jack Johnson Hannah Owens Ariana Garcia Nathan Quarton Matthew Manfredo Noah Spicer Samantha Hu Gillian Breuer Ben Gurka Avery Anderson Dylan Powers Alissa Ehlers Rachael Lamman

Pueblo West High School 2,397 Kent Denver School 2,245 Kent Denver School 1,967 Delta High School 1,965 Pueblo West High School 1,657 George Washington High School 1,633 Air Academy High School 1,627 Fairview High School 1,622 Rocky Mountain High School 1,603 Air Academy High School 1,578 Union Colony Preparatory School 1,541 Central Of Grand Junction High School 1,500 Castle View High School 1,423 Smoky Hill High School 1,423 Grandview High School 1,371 Highlands Ranch High School 1,369 George Washington High School 1,356 Cherry Creek High School 1,342 Greeley Central High School 1,333 Cherry Creek High School 1,317 Rocky Mountain High School 1,300 Fort Collins High School 1,270 Pueblo West High School 1,268 Delta High School 1,263 Canon City High School 1,255 George Washington High School 1,252 Canon City High School 1,248 Overland High School 1,242 Cherry Creek High School 1,221 Poudre High School 1,214 Central Of Grand Junction High School 1,203 Fairview High School 1,197 Smoky Hill High School 1,194 Central Of Grand Junction High School 1,188 Canon City High School 1,176

CONNECTICUT Christina Mitchel

Valley Regional High School





FLORIDA Justin David Graham William Turk Craig Heyne Faizaan Sadruddin Jacob Wallack Michael Hunschofsky Itiel Wainer Matthew Mellies Andy Towriss Brandon Becker Jake Becker Jacob Ronkin Joshua Schulster Zach Chou Graysen Martinez Ariel Friedman

Trinity Preparatory School 3,383 Oxbridge Academy Of The Palm Beaches 3,360 Nova High School 3,343 NSU University School 3,185 NSU University School 3,165 American Heritage School - Plantation 2,996 NSU University School 2,724 Western High School 2,587 Western High School 2,417 American Heritage School - Plantation 2,378 American Heritage School - Plantation 2,370 NSU University School 2,301 Boca Raton Community High School 2,250 American Heritage School - Plantation 2,117 St. Thomas Aquinas High School 2,100 NSU University School 2,089

1,370 1,363 1,361 1,355 1,352 1,344 1,334

FLORIDA (continued) Rudgy Estel Manuel Osaba Samantha Koreman Nathaniel Saffran Thomas Ebenger Caramen H. McDaniel Alex Towriss Gregory Seabrooks Maddie Wettach Simran Rajani Benjamin Burstein Karan Choudhary Varun Bhatia Matthew Redler Asha Rampertaap Dominik Collins Jacob Cimerberg Juliette Murphy Warner Ransone Neal Kapoor Samuel Joyce Kevin Hautigan Michael Puretz Victor J. Sanchez Emily Linares Jordan Press Julian James Aleksandra Jelonek Aravind Byju Daniel Siegel Michael Wang Sammy Nagabhairu Garrett Moon Jonathan Goldberg Daniel Chiarelli Oliver Niklas Trapp Parankush Bhardwaj Neil Press Maximiliano Goldstein Nalin Vattigunta

Nova High School 2,055 Western High School 2,046 NSU University School 2,037 Trinity Preparatory School 2,021 NSU University School 2,009 Wellington High School 2,004 Western High School 1,997 Oxbridge Academy Of The Palm Beaches 1,996 Lake Highland Preparatory 1,936 NSU University School 1,920 Miami Beach Sr. High School 1,912 NSU University School 1,910 Trinity Preparatory School 1,876 Nova High School 1,852 American Heritage School - Plantation 1,830 Nova High School 1,817 Western High School 1,810 Nova High School 1,806 Lake Highland Preparatory 1,801 Lake Highland Preparatory 1,782 St. Petersburg High School 1,738 Ft. Lauderdale High School 1,731 Nova High School 1,717 Wellington High School 1,707 NSU University School 1,704 Cypress Bay High School 1,700 Lake Highland Preparatory 1,698 St. Thomas Aquinas High School 1,692 Pine View School 1,679 Ft. Lauderdale High School 1,673 Dreyfoos School Of The Arts 1,666 Lake Highland Preparatory 1,637 Nova High School 1,637 NSU University School 1,629 Nova High School 1,627 Trinity Preparatory School 1,614 Western High School 1,596 Cypress Bay High School 1,595 Nova High School 1,585 Oxbridge Academy Of The Palm Beaches 1,585

GEORGIA Andrew Young Eli Lamb Sharvil Patel Molly Looman Thomas Vance Duvall Adair Conor Downey Yugansh Malik Will Taft Ryan McKenna Harrison Wilco Liliana Burgess

Columbus High School Lee County High School Columbus High School Henry W. Grady High School Marist School Marist School Henry W. Grady High School Lee County High School Henry W. Grady High School Marist School Henry W. Grady High School Woodward Academy

2,003 1,943 1,799 1,770 1,653 1,600 1,575 1,549 1,388 1,378 1,377 1,365

HAWAII Dante Hirata-Epstein Jenna Tom Toshiro Yanai Taja Hirata-Epstein

Iolani School Iolani School Iolani School Iolani School

1,271 1,136 1,011 909

IDAHO James Anthony Mullen Kendall Black Stephen Casper Katherine Cecilia McDonagh Connor Adam Davis Tucker James Lovell

Highland High School Skyline High School Skyline High School Centennial High School Bonneville High School Bonneville High School

3,168 2,498 2,415 2,280 2,176 2,103

Rostrum | FALL 2016 95



IDAHO (continued) Matthew Cole Lee Katie Hansen Tiger Ashtiani Logan Anne Potter Ximena Bustillo Zoe Esplin Gage Goodell Abigail Wood Maximillian Doren Arman Cuneo Eddy Encinas Kaelee Novich Joseph Dummar Joseph de Oliveira Tyler Simon Stauffer Gregory Steven Drake Fatima Tall

Highland High School Highland High School Lake City High School Mountain Home High School Vallivue High School Madison High School Bonneville High School Highland High School Bonneville High School Eagle High School Jerome High School Columbia High School Madison High School Skyline High School Rocky Mountain High School Blackfoot High School Vallivue High School

ILLINOIS Brian Roche Jimmy McDermott Faith Geraghty Daniel James Brophy Anthony Trufanov Douglas Stryker Mariam Mackar Michael Callahan Andrew Pittman Mary Spaulding Katherine Fitzgerald Hannah Shields Thompson Bill Kolpak Lena Grossman AJ Byrne Benjamin Barov Lexie Ziolkowski Presleigh Renner Vanessa Copeland Katherine Rohde Samuel Geiger William Kirby Jessica D’Souza Patrick Deneen Arjun Patel Peter Szpytek Hamdan Suhail Andrew Mcallister Emily Silber Maddie Corgiat Ian Grant-Funck Ryan Almer Alex Brown

Glenbrook South High School 2,468 Prospect High School 2,389 Niles West High School 2,240 Downers Grove North High School 2,047 Glenbrook North High School 2,003 Glenbrook South High School 1,962 Downers Grove South High School 1,960 Glenbrook South High School 1,934 Prospect High School 1,904 University High School 1,836 Prospect High School 1,821 Downers Grove North High School 1,808 Carl Sandburg High School 1,806 Niles West High School 1,782 New Trier Township High School 1,748 Niles North High School 1,733 Huntley High School 1,726 Hinsdale Central High School 1,686 Downers Grove South High School 1,659 Rolling Meadows High School 1,564 Belleville West High School 1,549 New Trier Township High School 1,537 Schaumburg High School 1,506 University High School 1,499 Maine East High School 1,488 Downers Grove South High School 1,473 Downers Grove South High School 1,433 Normal Community West High School 1,425 Niles West High School 1,418 Wheaton Warrenville South High School 1,405 Wheaton North High School 1,392 Wheaton North High School 1,380 Niles West High School 1,379

INDIANA Daniel J. Smith Ellie Johnson Tim Vincent Emily McKenzie Vivian Reba Kendall Gardner Jane Tullis Lynn Pratt Christian Sayers Jillian Smith Emma Rund Ezequiel Gonzalez Lauren David Garrett Garver Chloe Zatorski

West Lafayette High School Ben Davis High School Chesterton High School Plymouth High School Munster High School Fishers High School Valparaiso High School Fishers High School Valparaiso High School Plymouth High School Fishers High School Ben Davis High School Fishers High School Plymouth High School Munster High School

Rostrum | FALL 2016

1,931 1,927 1,922 1,914 1,909 1,880 1,878 1,864 1,796 1,750 1,724 1,707 1,654 1,640 1,633 1,604 1,594

2,230 2,091 2,013 2,001 1,958 1,818 1,765 1,637 1,637 1,621 1,620 1,616 1,584 1,569 1,543

INDIANA (continued) Nathan Gray Richard Bowman Yailin C. Rodriguez Meghan M. Egierski Jocelyn Chupp Alexandra Raycroft Teresa Heckman Ayesha Khan Connor O’Leary

Cathedral High School Ben Davis High School Plymouth High School Plymouth High School Concord High School Munster High School Cathedral High School Chesterton High School Fishers High School

1,520 1,504 1,488 1,465 1,396 1,373 1,371 1,336 1,323

IOWA Jacob Thompson Daniel Drane Owen Weber Trent Gilbert Kai Trepka Colette Sheaff Brandon Alpern David Ehmcke Josephine O’Connor-Miller Sigurd Anderson

Des Moines Roosevelt High School Des Moines Roosevelt High School Bettendorf High School West Des Moines Valley High School West High School - Iowa City Dowling Catholic High School Bettendorf High School Sioux City East High School Lincoln High School Des Moines Roosevelt High School

3,390 3,212 2,350 2,156 1,898 1,871 1,846 1,789 1,761 1,752

KANSAS Megan Kline Alexander L. Trobough Nathan McClendon Katy Dorrell Anthony Wingfield April Taylor Stefan S. Petrovic Julia Henry Srividya Dasaraju Charlotte Hutchison Garrett Tatro Ashleigh Fleck Harrison Young Isabelle Smith Michael Franklin Sebastian Loyd Braden Pomerantz Sarah Ai Myose Zubair Khan Bhavish Dinakar Spencer Mitchell Jacob Thomas Jack Delehanty James Wu Courtney Klaus Genevieve L. Prescher Dalton Kokmeyer Catherine Lei Cassidy Harden William Charles Mercer Cynthia Elin Matson Kennedy Griffin Kelly Bye Lily Ottinger William Bledsoe Nicholas Murdock Liying Liu Garrett Adam Rademacher Marcus Leong Dillon Engelbrecht Sebastian Johns Laura M. Nicolae McKenzie Watson Brian S. Truesdell Troy Carlson Gabe Esquivel

El Dorado High School 3,403 Sumner Academy 3,280 Manhattan High School 3,179 Olathe South High School 2,843 Wichita Heights High School 2,817 Maize South High School 2,637 Lawrence High School 2,629 Hutchinson High School 2,613 Washburn Rural High School 2,583 Fort Scott High School 2,564 Fort Scott High School 2,519 Southeast High School - Cherokee 2,498 Olathe North High School 2,447 Olathe Northwest High School 2,445 Sumner Academy 2,439 Fort Scott High School 2,436 Shawnee Mission Northwest High School 2,364 Sunrise Christian Academy 2,354 Wichita East High School 2,344 Shawnee Mission East High School 2,293 Shawnee Mission East High School 2,282 Shawnee Mission Northwest High School 2,261 Olathe Northwest High School 2,227 Washburn Rural High School 2,212 Mulvane High School 2,198 Lawrence Free State High School 2,197 McPherson High School 2,194 Manhattan High School 2,186 Seaman High School 2,135 Maize High School 2,133 Sunrise Christian Academy 2,126 Caney Valley High School 2,061 Wichita East High School 2,017 Shawnee Mission Northwest High School 1,995 Shawnee Mission East High School 1,989 Bishop Miege High School 1,988 Lawrence Free State High School 1,983 Shawnee Heights High School 1,944 Olathe Northwest High School 1,927 Eisenhower High School 1,926 Pittsburg High School 1,908 Washburn Rural High School 1,876 El Dorado High School 1,860 Topeka High School 1,858 Mulvane High School 1,843 Kapaun Mount Carmel High School 1,824

2015-16 ALL STATE AWARDS KANSAS (continued) Breanna Prater Darby Toth Paige Julia Lawrence Zachary Uttley Kyle Richardson Caelan Dean Gracie Taylor Sydney E. Monteith Dorian DeBose Caitlin Riffer Alexcis J. Barnes Dylan Ritthaler Colton Glasscock Nicholas P. Schroeder Maddy O’Rourke Zachary Wallentine Kathryn Rose May Lipka Sophia Swanson Stella Yang Joseph Adams Jackson Hoffmann

Abilene High School Fort Scott High School Lawrence Free State High School Pittsburg High School Andover High School Andover High School Wichita Collegiate Upper School Silver Lake High School Olathe North High School Blue Valley High School Salina South High School Campus High School Topeka High School Washburn Rural High School Independence High School Olathe North High School Shawnee Heights High School Lawrence Free State High School Wichita East High School Fort Scott High School Kapaun Mount Carmel High School

1,816 1,808 1,801 1,800 1,795 1,794 1,789 1,770 1,764 1,760 1,749 1,742 1,736 1,725 1,702 1,696 1,695 1,693 1,690 1,688 1,669

KENTUCKY Jorge Rojas-Ortega Raegan Marie Davis Nathan Sudenga Carson Kruml Kait Patrice-Marie Petter Jacob Sanders Zane Arnold

Trinity High School Assumption High School Boone County High School Boone County High School Assumption High School Harrison County High School Danville High School

3,087 2,747 2,647 2,556 2,313 2,198 1,941

LOUISIANA Timothy Shertzer Abbie Duncan Seth Latiolais Luke Kirk Grace Baum Thomas Paul Luke

Louisiana School For Math Science & The Arts Cecilia High School Cecilia High School John Paul The Great Academy Cecilia High School St. Thomas More High School

3,062 2,452 2,125 2,020 1,921 1,901

MAINE Nick J. Danby Quinn A. Stewart Alexander Fergusson Cavan Hagerty

Bangor High School Scarborough High School Orono High School Bangor High School

2,456 1,425 1,385 1,310

MARYLAND Will Arnesen Sam Arnesen Griffin Badalamente John Huebler Aiden Bissell-Siders Luke Scaletta

Walt Whitman High School Walt Whitman High School Montgomery Blair High School Loyola-Blakefield High School Loyola-Blakefield High School Loyola-Blakefield High School

2,028 2,014 1,980 1,625 1,400 1,274

MASSACHUSETTS Kory Turner Matthew Wolfe Aidan S. Bassett Kylie Donovan Lindsay Mahowald Marshall M Sloane Hari Kumar Benjamin E. Silvian Shira Abramovich Malcolm C. Davis Benjamin T. Makishima Seth Mahowald Bella S. Ehrlich

Sacred Heart High School Catholic Memorial School Newton South High School Shrewsbury High School Shrewsbury High School Milton Academy Shrewsbury High School Newton South High School Newton South High School Newton South High School Milton Academy Shrewsbury High School Newton South High School

2,819 1,961 1,908 1,859 1,829 1,788 1,551 1,509 1,431 1,427 1,340 1,328 1,311

MICHIGAN Emma Warnecke Henry Sullivan Atkins Jolie Sherman Harry Bagenstos Emma Kretchmer

West Bloomfield High School Grand Rapids City High School Midwest Speech & Debate Greenhills School Roeper School

1,987 1,699 1,564 1,124 901

MINNESOTA Stephanie Kahle Cassandra Edlund Kevin Bi Allen Wang Aekta Mouli Zahir Shaikh Alex Baker Dan Bannister Leah Dunlevy Brianna Goodchild Harley Pierce-Ramsdell Moti Begna Micah Spieldenner Kalli Doyle Claire Hoffa William Lai Ian Dill Ridhima Mishra Alicia Zhang Rishabh Gupta Lauren Kirkley Alex Fenner Olivia Shoemaker Jesse Bissen David Sebenaler Elijah Rockhold Anagha Komaragiri Grace Hauser Ryan Hankins Jackson Cobb Lauren Troldahl Trevor Taylor Sophia Ober Ellie Grossman Ben Portzen Jane Michaelson Collin Westgard Emma Wexler Daniel Lekah Anika Vij Sukriti Rawal

Apple Valley High School Apple Valley High School East Ridge High School The Blake School Eagan High School The Blake School Eastview High School Highland Park Senior High School Eagan High School St. Michael Albertville High School Blaine High School Apple Valley High School Chanhassen High School Blaine High School Apple Valley High School Rosemount Sr. High School Highland Park Senior High School Eagan High School East Ridge High School Eastview High School Rosemount Sr. High School East Ridge High School Lakeville North High School Orono High School Chanhassen High School Chanhassen High School Fairmont High School Eastview High School Maple Grove Senior High School Eagan High School Apple Valley High School Apple Valley High School Apple Valley High School The Blake School Eagan High School Apple Valley High School Eagan High School The Blake School Eastview High School Eastview High School Edina High School

2,946 2,525 2,332 2,213 2,202 2,108 2,038 2,011 1,960 1,943 1,925 1,917 1,884 1,828 1,815 1,794 1,789 1,781 1,699 1,692 1,687 1,640 1,595 1,568 1,554 1,548 1,545 1,542 1,527 1,489 1,481 1,469 1,455 1,417 1,344 1,339 1,335 1,308 1,307 1,302 1,298

MISSISSIPPI Ian Hennington Andrew Wildman Jermaine Van Buren Atticus Nelson Abby Nguyen Joshua McCoy Nikhil Arora

Madison Central High School Laurel Christian School Oak Grove High School Desoto Central High School Oak Grove High School Oak Grove High School St. Andrew’s Episcopal School

4,000 2,504 2,486 2,462 2,448 2,265 2,153

MISSOURI Amanda B. Morrison Connor Rothschild Anubhav Garg Vance J. Kelley Emily Raney Alexander Stewart Benjamin T. Rankin Karly Diana Kinsey Alex Millard Grant Pace

Central High School - Springfield Kickapoo High School Central High School - Springfield Lee’s Summit North High School Willard High School Republic High School Central High School - Springfield Independence Truman High School Independence Truman High School Park Hill South High School

3,161 3,142 2,900 2,898 2,710 2,703 2,472 2,348 2,311 2,282

Rostrum | FALL 2016 97



MISSOURI (continued) Madison Buzzard Christy Russow Brent Lamb Phoebe Alpern Louis Neal Brown Tyler Butler Simi Falako Natalie Schaller Quinlan E. Pulleyking Samuel Sanchez Kyle Craft Gabe Morrison William Truman Redinger Barrett Young Victoria A. Reaves Israel Hanke Joan Bentz Jay Patel Nathan Sumimoto Sonya Liu Ethan Daniel Smith Amber Katy Crawford Madison McBratney Kelly Gonzalez Issabella Wussow Austin Rene Moulder Makale Harris Lexi Jackson Riley Messer Kendon Herschel Hackworth Samuel Bennett Roseman Ethan Williams Paul Ambrose Katelynn Wilson Alexis Nelson Kylee Evans Terra Maslak Cole Baker Grace Watson Jordan Cowger Jacob West Patricia Ann Mulligan Shelbie Neece Rasika Sant Tillie Jerabek Isabel Lai Zoe Lawson Joshua Dollar Jonathan Satterfield Keegan Justis Julian Cantwell Chanel Dooley Inderpal Bains Bobby Zitzmann Andrew Impastato

Webb City High School Neosho High School Park Hill High School Liberty Sr. High School Glendale High School Lee’s Summit West High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Liberty Sr. High School Central High School - Springfield Neosho High School Jefferson City High School Greenwood Laboratory School Park Hill High School Nixa High School Central High School - Springfield Raytown High School Neosho High School Belton High School Park Hill High School Clayton High School Central High School - Springfield Glendale High School Platte County High School Central High School - Springfield Park Hill High School Raymore-Peculiar High School Neosho High School Nixa High School Fort Osage High School Glendale High School Glendale High School Independence Truman High School Liberty Sr. High School Willard High School Lebanon High School Kickapoo High School Central High School - Springfield Willard High School Greenwood Laboratory School Liberty Sr. High School Liberty North High School Central High School - Springfield Neosho High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Pleasant Hill High School Central High School - Springfield Francis Howell North High School Blue Springs High School Jefferson City High School Park Hill South High School Belton High School Parkview High School Central High School - Springfield Ladue Horton Watkins High School Parkway West High School

2,189 2,155 2,116 2,113 2,096 2,084 2,072 2,012 1,993 1,983 1,946 1,931 1,908 1,907 1,904 1,896 1,883 1,868 1,849 1,837 1,791 1,791 1,788 1,787 1,787 1,778 1,764 1,754 1,740 1,740 1,728 1,725 1,706 1,696 1,691 1,688 1,684 1,674 1,670 1,670 1,667 1,653 1,644 1,630 1,623 1,620 1,602 1,598 1,594 1,576 1,574 1,552 1,546 1,545 1,543

MONTANA Nick Sundberg Wyatt Dykhuizen Anika Fritz Brock Adkins Sarah Ward Nathan Breigenzer Michael Fuller Sophia Therriault Abby Van Allen Easton Powell Tate D. Volbrecht Brandon Cleveland

Stevensville High School Flathead High School Glacier High School Glacier High School Flathead High School Bozeman High School Helena High School Hellgate High School Glacier High School Corvallis High School Billings Sr. High School Hamilton High School

2,184 1,682 1,553 1,526 1,420 1,395 1,387 1,379 1,299 1,228 1,186 1,178

Rostrum | FALL 2016

NEBRASKA Madison Morrissette Monica Marsolek Sarah Mu Joshua Shaffer Oluwakamiye Obaro Seth Mavigliano Nicole Buntgen Dylan France Samantha Payant Brodey Weber Frannie Folsom Joe Howard Trisha Hruska Grant Brown Carla Seravalli Priya Kukreja Roman Schmidt Taylor Charlson

Millard North High School Pius X High School Millard West High School Millard North High School Millard West High School North Platte High School David City High School Gothenburg High School Lincoln Southwest High School Lincoln North Star High School Lincoln Southwest High School Millard North High School David City High School Millard North High School Lincoln East High School Millard North High School Gothenburg High School Millard West High School

NEVADA Chace Avecilla Felicia Kalkman Athena Patchin Adin J. Tarr Conrad Palor Omar H. Moore Donald T. Fagan Andrew Turner Ember Smith Isy Pacini Devon Brown Ariyani Challapalli Madeline Andrieu Lance Ledet Karla Burcham Heather Foster Jackson Paris Raychel Hodges

Green Valley High School 1,994 Coronado High School 1,878 Spring Valley High School 1,834 Advanced Technologies Acad 1,759 Green Valley High School 1,696 Advanced Technologies Acad 1,605 Advanced Technologies Acad 1,558 Coronado High School 1,539 Green Valley High School 1,482 Spring Creek High School 1,456 Palo Verde High School 1,392 Reno High School 1,370 Green Valley High School 1,360 Northwest Career And Technical Academy 1,316 Reno High School 1,238 Reno High School 1,235 Elko High School 1,228 Silverado High School 1,220


Bishop Guertin High School

NEW JERSEY Pranav Kumar James Burnett Madeleine Lapuerta Vaikunth Balaji James Dolan Christopher Mayer Sarah Park Jai Amin Wesley Hu Clare Halsey Katherine Kleinle Ariaki Dandawate Rosalind Stengle

Montville High School Montville High School Stuart Country Day School Ridge High School Delbarton School Montville High School Millburn High School Delbarton School Millburn High School Ridge High School Ridge High School Ridge High School Stuart Country Day School

2,811 2,508 2,469 2,280 1,982 1,957 1,864 1,845 1,799 1,769 1,757 1,715 1,608

NEW MEXICO Guillermo Rascon Erick Beltran Annika Nicole Davenport Michael Thomas Booton Matt Bedeaux Robert E. Naffziger

Rio Grande High School Rio Grande High School Jemez Mountain Home School Jemez Mountain Home School East Mountain High School Jemez Mountain Home School

1,935 1,852 1,723 1,659 1,402 1,321

NEW YORK Stephen Durosaiye Justin Cooper Kathryn Kenny

Democracy Prep Bronx Preparatory Charter School 3,077 Scarsdale High School 2,724 Harrison High School 2,631

2,488 2,370 2,188 2,049 1,951 1,883 1,839 1,829 1,821 1,820 1,816 1,816 1,762 1,730 1,636 1,619 1,590 1,588


2015-16 ALL STATE AWARDS NEW YORK (continued) Eitan Ezra Harrison Hurt Peter Charalambous Tavan Thomas Sarah Ryan Joshua Zakharov Isaac Bardin Caspar Arbeeny Dieynaba Dieng Raffi Piliero David Almonte Elyssa Alfieri Andrew Aoyama Daniel Altabet Roberto Montero John Staunton John Kieran Larkin Anthony Sikorski Jack Aiello John Chen

Poly Prep Country Day School 2,465 Poly Prep Country Day School 2,434 Chaminade High School 2,159 Democracy Prep Bronx Preparatory Charter School 2,120 Harrison High School 2,029 The Bronx High School Of Science 2,002 The Bronx High School Of Science 1,997 Poly Prep Country Day School 1,990 Democracy Prep Bronx Preparatory Charter School 1,898 Harrison High School 1,875 Poly Prep Country Day School 1,835 Harrison High School 1,834 Regis High School 1,781 Scarsdale High School 1,729 The Bronx High School Of Science 1,726 The Bronx High School Of Science 1,709 Chaminade High School 1,681 Chaminade High School 1,648 Regis High School 1,624 Syosset High School 1,607

NORTH CAROLINA Sebastian Ix Loften Deprez Eilene Yang Douglas Dubrowski Samhitha Sunkara Hunter Martin Ryan Kennedy Charles Brady Manisha Dubey Adia McLaughlin Michael Li Uwa Akhere Rohan Patel Sharnali Ghoshdastidar Shreya Nandi Michael Speiser Mia Aassar Samuel Wood Jack Watson Jack Stafford

Pinecrest High School Durham Academy Durham Academy Ardrey Kell High School Ardrey Kell High School Pinecrest High School Charlotte Catholic High School Ardrey Kell High School Ardrey Kell High School Pinecrest High School Durham Academy Charlotte Catholic High School Durham Academy Ardrey Kell High School Ardrey Kell High School Pinecrest High School Myers Park High School Ardrey Kell High School North Mecklenburg High School Cary Academy

2,809 2,768 2,521 2,336 2,327 2,213 1,999 1,826 1,796 1,698 1,627 1,611 1,568 1,550 1,492 1,465 1,460 1,376 1,356 1,321

NORTH DAKOTA Casey Orvedal Kaitlyn Kidder Nathaniel Thoreson Katherine Gladitsch Reid Nelson Hannah Isakson

Fargo Davies High School Fargo Davies High School Fargo Davies High School Fargo Shanley High School Fargo Shanley High School LaMoure High School

2,859 2,501 2,177 2,172 2,033 1,922

OHIO Phillip Hedayatnia Christian Borkey Pierre Paul Nicole Kastelic Sean Kelley Mary Grace Gorman Daniel Driscoll Owen Cappellini Alexander Kan Shannon Howley Will Taber Stefanie Pousoulides Connor McGinley Michael Kinkoph Geoffrey Schoonmaker Benjamin Wesorick Brianna Ledsome

Hawken School Gilmour Academy Wooster High School Hawken School Gilmour Academy Wooster High School Cardinal Mooney High School Sylvania Northview High School Canfield High School Perry High School University School Jackson High School Edison High School Stow-Munroe Falls High School University School University School Niles McKinley High School

2,093 2,020 1,925 1,791 1,745 1,654 1,646 1,592 1,564 1,545 1,518 1,483 1,430 1,428 1,427 1,405 1,374

OHIO (continued) Brianna Schmidt Will Frankel Gino Ginnetti Ozan Ergungor James Swingos Nick Downey John Mino Matthew Zhu Katie Mount Devesh Modi Jaret Hughes Alexis Hendershot Shelby Swanger Allison Christopher Andrew Brockway Edith Lui Aric Bird Emily King

Wooster High School University School Cardinal Mooney High School Hawken School Hawken School Mount Vernon High School University School Hawken School Wooster High School Hawken School Perry High School Perry High School Middletown High School Ursuline High School Cardinal Mooney High School Sylvania Southview High School Tuscarwaras Valley High School Chagrin Falls High School

1,371 1,369 1,368 1,349 1,341 1,341 1,332 1,330 1,313 1,259 1,258 1,255 1,250 1,249 1,230 1,230 1,227 1,224

OKLAHOMA Cheyenne Rose Martin Amanda Wheelock Micah Cash Erin Kelly Noble Sean Mason Grant Colquitt Dannye Carpenter Evan Jones Wyatt Brown Nicole Floistad Madison Hart Ian DuBois Mooers Logan Flake Evan Clear Megan McBride Maureen Haynes Madison Estes Dave Devavrat Kenzie Taylor Pranoy Behera Adam Harder Tanner Christian Brooks

Bishop McGuinness High School Norman High School Tulsa Washington High School Norman High School Bartlesville High School Moore High School Norman North High School Union High School Moore High School Bixby High School Bishop McGuinness High School Edmond Santa Fe High School Charles Page High School Bishop McGuinness High School Moore High School Union High School Union High School Heritage Hall School Muldrow High School Bartlesville High School Norman North High School Bartlesville High School

2,300 2,146 2,098 2,067 2,008 1,902 1,768 1,751 1,709 1,626 1,508 1,497 1,429 1,411 1,411 1,409 1,407 1,373 1,319 1,305 1,297 1,272

OREGON Brandon Roth Laurel M. Eddins Teddy Wyman Maia Abbruzzese Henry Lininger Grant Goodwin Conrad Sproul Colin T. M. Gesik Akshay Pulavarty Terrell Cunningham Robbie Cantrell Bhavin Gupta Brian Yang Ashwin Datta Noah Hoffman

Sprague High School Oak Hill School Cleveland High School Lincoln High School South Eugene High School North Bend Sr. High School Oak Hill School Sprague High School Westview High School Cleveland High School Gresham-Barlow High School Westview High School Lincoln High School Glencoe High School Lincoln High School

2,551 2,053 1,831 1,740 1,717 1,697 1,607 1,597 1,578 1,543 1,503 1,433 1,412 1,402 1,383

PENNSYLVANIA Collin Quigley Thomas John Belsterling Morgan Rowe William McCarthy Chase Miller Siddarth Narayan Apoorv Anand Namandeep Singh

Holy Ghost Prep Quigley Catholic High School Pennsbury High School Pittsburgh Central Catholic High School Upper St. Clair High School North Allegheny Sr. High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Mt. Lebanon Sr. High School

2,105 1,938 1,936 1,685 1,670 1,669 1,602 1,506

Rostrum | FALL 2016 99



PENNSYLVANIA (continued) Morghann Simon Jack Brownfield Izabella Czejdo Taylor Schmac Austin A. Kuntz Joseph Zampirri Alex Laufer Grace Jin Naomi W. Li Nicholas Petaccio Tyler Sheets Emily Augustine Alexandra Cornelsen Hunter Lantzman Jacob Dickey

West Allegheny High School Bethel Park High School McDowell High School West Allegheny High School Quigley Catholic High School Holy Ghost Prep McDowell High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Southern Lehigh High School La Salle College High School Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School Bethel Park High School Pennsbury High School Upper St. Clair High School Our Lady Of The Sacred Heart High School

1,489 1,487 1,464 1,401 1,345 1,337 1,334 1,319 1,312 1,311 1,310 1,262 1,245 1,245 1,242

SOUTH CAROLINA Carol Lee Matthew Harrington Devin Remley Chase Garrett Ceylin Ucok

Riverside High School Riverside High School Riverside High School Southside High School Riverside High School

3,317 2,313 2,251 1,872 1,452

SOUTH DAKOTA Brett Ries Shelby Kluver Raina Grimsley Gage Koistinen Ryan Solberg Destiny Pinder-Buckley Jacob Womack Michael Hauschildt Shreya Chandran Rebekah Tuchscherer Chris Larson Grant Werling Taylor Statler Zachary Foust Alexander King Sam Mehlhaff Molly Walker Sara Telahun

Watertown High School Watertown High School Mitchell High School Watertown High School Mitchell High School Mitchell High School Aberdeen Central High School Washington High School O’Gorman High School Milbank High School Sioux Falls Lincoln High School Watertown High School Lead-Deadwood High School Watertown High School O’Gorman High School Aberdeen Central High School Watertown High School Sioux Falls Lincoln High School

3,447 2,821 2,800 2,564 2,484 2,393 2,351 2,140 2,103 2,082 2,039 1,993 1,969 1,955 1,893 1,857 1,848 1,843

TENNESSEE Sydney Terry Michael Rankin Madeline Jarrard Paul Bousquet Cooper Smith Eve Petty Savannah Underhill Drew Taylor Tyler Thompson

Morristown West High School Brentwood Academy Brentwood Academy Battle Ground Academy Brentwood Academy White House High School White House High School Ravenwood High School Morristown West High School

3,004 2,549 2,476 2,437 2,242 1,929 1,914 1,889 1,885

TEXAS Ethan Morelion Matthew Cannon Thomas Mosmeyer Christine Vo Bennett R. Eckert Joshua Merritt Daniel Lehmann Danielle Hallissey Layla Hooshmand Shreetika Singh Michael J. Roets, Jr. Varad Agarwala Usmaan Hasan

Big Spring High School Harlingen High School South Holy Trinity Catholic High School Spring Woods High School Greenhill School La Vernia High School Cypress Creek High School Holy Trinity Catholic High School James E. Taylor High School Seven Lakes High School Princeton High School Greenhill School Plano West Sr. High School

4,464 3,852 3,753 3,426 3,378 3,001 2,899 2,896 2,812 2,795 2,787 2,760 2,738

Rostrum | FALL 2016

TEXAS (continued) Mary Angela Ricotta Jonas Thrasher-Evers Angel Ramirez Jacob Redmon Christina Gayton Sawyer Warrenburg Nico Williams Jimmy Garcia Travis Boyd John Thornton Lindsey Neil Patel Carmen Perez George Zhang Breann Smith Samuel Tekie Armand Chuca Colin Price Rohan Vaidya Cody Gustafson Franz Brotzen-Smith Aaron Raj Marshall Webb Caroline King Dino DeLaO Christina Bui Mohammad Habib Kalista Schauer Miguel Lozano Avneet Randhawa Naveen Santhosh Cristina Pop Cameron McConway Amber Liu Benjamin Fullerton Jillian Lauver Paris Bland Joseph Estrada Alyssa Hooks Jose Villafuerte Christina Morrison Alan Spencer Brents Kelli Ruth Kim Hsun Kay Edwards Josiah Atkinson Ayu Sofyan Jeremiah Menslage Karman Singh Marcus Ayala Allan Ngo Mark Werner Sahar Jiwani Drew Burd Kari Burns Corey Morse Allison Pennington Sabrina Bustillos Alec Ramsey Steele Musgrove Jillian McDermott Nathan Frederick Wutzke Arasha Lalani John Vick Anthony Guardado Kevin Choi Carlos Gregory Jennifer Neely Amber Monks

St. Agnes Academy 2,687 Lindale High School 2,674 Spring Woods High School 2,648 Richardson High School 2,589 Ronald Reagan High School 2,571 Harlingen High School South 2,558 Hendrickson High School 2,522 Ysleta High School 2,446 Spring Woods High School 2,433 Montgomery High School 2,415 Plano West Sr. High School 2,413 Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solutions 2,397 Bellaire High School 2,373 Liberty Christian School 2,361 Lamar High School - Houston 2,352 Ysleta High School 2,352 Cypress Creek High School 2,342 Seven Lakes High School 2,312 Lindale High School 2,310 Lamar High School - Houston 2,274 Plano West Sr High School 2,274 Saint Mary’s Hall High School 2,230 Ronald Reagan High School 2,228 JBS Law Magnet High School 2,192 Hendrickson High School 2,152 Langham Creek High School 2,139 Richard B King High School 2,133 James Bowie High School 2,131 Cypress Creek High School 2,109 Seven Lakes High School 2,102 Creekview High School 2,101 Cy-Fair High School 2,081 Bellaire High School 2,059 Holy Cross Catholic Academy 2,054 Holy Trinity Catholic High School 2,044 The Parish Episcopal School 2,037 Stephen F. Austin High School - Austin 2,029 Barbers Hill High School 2,028 Holy Cross Catholic Academy 2,015 Clear Creek High School 2,010 James E. Taylor High School 2,009 Big Spring High School 2,006 Winston Churchill High School 2,001 North Lamar High School 1,999 West Hardin High School 1,996 Hendrickson High School 1,981 Spring Woods High School 1,979 Cypress Falls High School 1,973 Hendrickson High School 1,970 Bellaire High School 1,963 Prosper High School 1,955 Clear Creek High School 1,952 Westlake High School 1,952 Lake Travis High School 1,946 Winston Churchill High School 1,934 Northland Christian School 1,933 Ysleta High School 1,925 Lindale High School 1,895 North Lamar High School 1,878 Ronald Reagan High School 1,866 Lovejoy High School 1,850 Ronald Reagan High School 1,850 Lamar High School - Houston 1,848 Chapin High School 1,847 A & M Consolidated High School 1,845 Hendrickson High School 1,833 Van High School 1,831 Big Spring High School 1,816

2015-16 ALL STATE AWARDS TEXAS (continued) Zayne Clayton Katie Koslan Allee Johnson Gregory Pauloski Suketh Subramanya Kelby Miller Jun-Yong Kim Adrian Berumen Whitley Perryman Jun Woo Patrick Lee Phillip Pergande Grant Burbach Rhea Kamat Parker Kelly Mafaaz Tanzeem Kirsten Broussard Margaret Purcell Drew McElvany Mohamed Abdelhady Elizabeth Isabell Kyle Donnely Rohan Trivedi Riley Randolph Kendal Heavner Danny Li Marcus T Sloan Jonathan Beavers Rem Aitbouchireb Elyssa Albaugh Caleb Newton Zac Aikman Miranda Nutt

Holy Trinity Catholic High School Spring Woods High School Lake Travis High School Lamar High School - Houston Clear Brook High School Seminole High School Seven Lakes High School Douglas MacArthur High School Montgomery High School James E. Taylor High School Round Rock Christian Academy Harlingen High School Ronald Reagan High School Memorial High School - Houston Carroll High School - Southlake Tascosa High School Northland Christian School Saint Mary’s Hall High School James E. Taylor High School Clear Brook High School Americas High School Plano Sr High School Princeton High School Chapel Hill High School - Mt. Pleasant Bellaire High School Magnolia High School St. Thomas High School Kerr High School Princeton High School James Bowie High School Seven Lakes High School Colleyville Heritage High School

1,812 1,808 1,807 1,806 1,797 1,784 1,781 1,775 1,756 1,745 1,740 1,721 1,711 1,705 1,694 1,694 1,693 1,692 1,690 1,686 1,684 1,684 1,678 1,666 1,664 1,661 1,661 1,651 1,642 1,637 1,631 1,627

UTAH Max Cline Caleb Christiansen Jaden Lessnick Emily Gordon Malcolm D. Harrison Parker Pingel Nicholas Compton Nicholas Magda Chantelle Gossner Federico Ortiz Gavin Serr Everest Fang Kylie Angell Kaira Bird Jacob Rice Gracie Long Chris Duhadway Zac Ray Jaedri Wood Olivia Whiteley Abe Griffiths McKadee Eyre Landon Hooley Cana Buckley Merry A. Joseph

Skyline High School Beaver High School Rowland Hall-St. Mark Rowland Hall-St. Mark Hunter High School Beaver High School American Leadership Academy Sky View High School Weber High School Mountain Crest High School Grantsville High School Skyline High School Beaver High School Alta High School Morgan High School Grantsville High School Mountain Crest High School Clearfield High School Stansbury High School Bingham High School Highland High School Beaver High School Sky View High School Intermountain Christian School Hillcrest High School

3,850 2,740 2,207 1,783 1,698 1,643 1,635 1,614 1,588 1,548 1,415 1,399 1,374 1,340 1,311 1,306 1,299 1,279 1,248 1,224 1,223 1,218 1,195 1,190 1,187

VERMONT Leah Sagan-Dworsky

Montpelier High School

VIRGINIA Rahul Soni Jordan Taylor Jonathan Corbin Victoria Bevard

Broad Run High School 2,363 Madison County High School 2,109 Fluvanna County High School 2,062 Thomas Jefferson High School Science & Tech 2,037


VIRGINIA (continued) Rittwik Dhar Camryn Powers Javaria Abbasi Bryanna Smith Anshul Nanda Jacob Corbin

Broad Run High School Madison County High School Broad Run High School Madison County High School Broad Run High School Madison County High School

2,006 1,896 1,617 1,584 1,293 1,036

WASHINGTON Austin Jang Jacob Anderson-Kester Jackson D. Taylor Peyton Ugolini Jordan Stevenson Vivian Noyd Braden Sigua Brennan Jacobson Kamraan Quddus Zane Chowdhry Jacob Dawson Samuel L Carter Abby Davison Eric Anderson Daniel Jekel

Union High School Ridgefield High School Ridgefield High School University High School Mountain View High School Wenatchee High School Snohomish High School Kingston High School Union High School Mountain View High School University High School Gonzaga Prep High School Wenatchee High School Gig Harbor High School Providence Classical Christian School

3,767 3,052 3,042 1,990 1,943 1,891 1,866 1,800 1,708 1,677 1,616 1,542 1,523 1,510 1,483

WEST VIRGINIA Hannah Meredith Philip Schwarz

Wheeling Park High School Wheeling Park High School

WISCONSIN Alekh Kale Will Bartkowski Bailee B. Harper Sullivan Sweet Hollis Rammer Niyaz Nurbhasha Evan Zhao John Misey Dakota Marlega Mark Maier Amanda Hoffman Shyam Mani Chue Feng Yang Anand Raman

James Madison Memorial High School Brookfield East High School Denmark High School James Madison Memorial High School Sheboygan South High School Brookfield East High School Whitefish Bay High School Whitefish Bay High School Waupaca High School Brookfield East High School Sheboygan South High School Brookfield East High School Rufus King High School Madison West High School

2,804 2,787 2,768 2,576 2,526 2,352 1,999 1,976 1,854 1,774 1,754 1,752 1,689 1,596

WYOMING Rannyn River Stephens Collin Zoeller Katarina Huss Javaun Garcia Mary Gray Derrik Conard Darren Leonhardt James Fantin Caroline Pring Dustin Welsh

Rock Springs High School Natrona County High School Natrona County High School Cheyenne East High School Kelly Walsh High School Cheyenne Central High School Hot Springs Co. High School Rock Springs High School Cheyenne Central High School Cheyenne East High School

3,222 2,326 2,104 1,912 1,838 1,812 1,685 1,662 1,625 1,615

579 543

Find additional rankings and awards recognition by visiting our website! www.speechanddebate.org/rankings www.speechanddebate.org/honor-society

Rostrum | FALL 2016 101

Welcome New Schools James Clemens High School Bentonville West High School Gravette High School Maumelle High School Prairie Grove High School Arizona College Prep - Erie Campus Copper Canyon High School Northland Preparatory Academy A. B. Miller High School El Segundo High School Grand Terrace High School Hamilton High School Hilmar High School ILEAD Santa Clarita Valley International Mayfield Senior School New Roads School Phillip J. Patino School Of Enterpreneurship BL Education DSST: Cole High School Gunnison High School Noel Community Arts School @ Montbello STRIVE Prep - RISE Strive Prep - Smart Academy West Early College High School Daniel Hand High School New Fairfield High School Sidwell Friends School Wellspring Christian Academy Fort White High School Franklin Academy High School Lake Placid High School Seagull High School South Tech Academy Trinity Catholic High School Whiddon Rogers Education Center Dominion Classical Christian Academy Calvary Chapel Christian School Ridgevue High School British International School West Chicago Community High School Andrean High School Marquette Catholic High School Chalmette High School East Ascension High School The Dunham School Glenelg High School North Harford High School Hebron Academy Gull Lake High School H. H. Dow High School Elk River Sr. High School Harrisburg High School Miami R-1 High School Northwest Academy Of Law


Rostrum | FALL 2016


(March 15, 2016 through October 15, 2016)

Summit Preparatory School Ennis High School Frenchtown High School Apex Friendship High School First Assembly Christian School Archbishop Bergan Catholic School Bedford High School Pope John XXIII Regional High School St. Augustine Preparatory School West Windsor-Plainsboro High School South Westfield High School Somerset Sky Pointe High School Columbia Secondary School Jericho High School Mamaroneck High School Our Saviour Lutheran School Queens Preparatory Academy The Geneva School Of Manhattan Riverside High School Veritas Classical Academy Langston Hughes Academy For Arts & Technology Conemaugh Valley High School Science Leadership Academy At Beeber Solebury School Dayspring Academy Mt. Pleasant High School Nolensville High School The Webb School Aledo High School Benjamin O. Davis High School Boerne-Samuel V Champion High School Cypress Park High School Eastlake High School Elysian Fields High School Energy Institute High School Fabens High School Faith West Academy Farmersville High School Holy Cross Of San Antonio Lexington High School London High School North Forest High School Sabine High School South Early College High School St. Dominic Savio Catholic High School Tatum High School Timber Creek High School Victory Prep Academy South Yorktown Education Ridgeline High School Skyridge High School Skyline High School Stuart Hall School William Byrd High School


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2016 Fall Rostrum  

Volume 91 Issue 2

2016 Fall Rostrum  

Volume 91 Issue 2