Page 1




Upholding the Code of Honor The Greatest Reward


National Tournament Preview | Around the World with USA Debate The Value of Speech and Debate in the Middle School Years | And More!

July 5 - 16, 2015

WKU team members, and former National Speech & Debate Tournament finalists, Austin Groves, Mark Allseits, Blake Knapp, Brent O’Connor, Lily Nellans, Jamaque Newberry, Carolyn Evans, Ian Dowty, Sam Moore, John Reynolds, Lyric Davis, Lataya Williams, and Darius Wilson.

THE NEW WKU SUMMER FORENSIC INSTITUTE We are excited to announce that WKU Forensics is expanding the SFI camp experience, offering 5 additional days of instruction to our traditional week of intensive study. We provide instruction in all major interpretation and limited preparation events, original oratory, public forum and congressional debate. Tuition includes all meals, dorm fees, and instructional material. WKU’s SFI challenges students to become the very best and then gives them the tools needed to be champions. If you want to compete like a champion, you need to work with the champions at WKU’s SFI !

July 5 - 16, 2015 - full session July 5 - 11, 2015 - one-week intensive Application Deadline: June 29, 2015

Pricing information can be found on our website. Just follow the QR code below.

Take advatange of early registration! Discounted rates if you register by May 30! Sending five or more students from the same school? Contact us for info on discounts for schools sending multiple students!

For more information, contact Ganer Newman - ganer.newman@wku.edu - 270-745-6340 WKU Forensics; 1906 College Heights Blvd. #51084; Bowling Green, KY 42101-1084 www.wkuforensics.com | Follow us on Twitter: @wkuforensics

The University of Texas National Institute in Forensics is one of the largest and most successful summer The University of workshops Texas National Forensics one of thefor largest and most successful summer speech and debate in theInstitute country. inUTNIF has aisreputation engaging students from across the speech and debate workshops in the country. UTNIF has a reputation for engaging students from across the nation in the kind of training that leads rather than follows performative and argumentative trends. Once nation UTNIF in the kind training that leads rather follows performative trends. Once again, willofoffer our 201x students thethan opportunity to learn fromand andargumentative with a top-notch, nationally again, UTNIF will offer our 2015 students the opportunity to learn from and with a top-notch, nationally acclaimed teaching staff. UTNIF students have won championships and final rounds at the National acclaimed teachingTournament staff. UTNIF studentsHumorous have won championships and final Poetry, rounds at National Speech & Debate in Extemp, Interp, Dramatic Interp, thethe House, the Senate, Forensic League national tournament in Extemp, Humorous Interp, Dramatic Interp, Poetry, the has House, the Policy Debate, Public Forum, and more. Join us this summer and see for yourself why UTNIF made Senate, Policy Debate, Public Forum, and more. Join us this summer and see for yourself why UTNIF has such an impact on speech and debate education for over 20 years. made such an impact on speech and debate education for over 20 years.

2015 UTNIF Program Dates Individual Events

June 27 – July 11

Individual Events with extension

June 27 – July 15

CX 6 Week Summer Survivors

June 25 – August 6

CX Session 1 (Skills Intensive, Advanced Topic Intensive, Sophomore Select) CX Session 2 (Skills Intensive, Advanced Topic Intensive, Novice)

June 25 – July 15 July 17 – August 6

Public Forum (experienced)

June 26 – July 3

Public Forum (advanced)

July 5 – July 12

Lincoln-Douglas (all skill levels accommodated)

July 18 – August 1

Lincoln-Douglas with extension

July 18 – August 5

For complete information on UTNIF Individual Events workshops, please visit www.utspeech.net For complete UTNIF debate camp information, please visit www.utdebatecamp.com UTNIF Contact: jvreed@austin.utexas.edu

WESTERN KENTUCKY UNIVERSITY The academic experience of a highly selective private institution with the educational and research opportunities available at a major public university…


The The Honors College at WKU is home to over 1,300 scholars with the 2014 entering freshman class average ACT/SAT ranking among the top 5% in the nation. • Recognized by the Chronicle of Higher Education as one of the nation’s top producers of J. William Fulbright grants • Recognized for excellence in science, mathematics, and engineering by the prestigious Barry Goldwater Scholarship program • More than $2 million in renewable scholarships awarded annually to the Honors freshman class • One of eleven institutions in the nation home to a Chinese Language Flagship Program


Applications for Fall 2015 now available. Minimum application requirements for Incoming Freshmen include any one of the following: • 27 ACT composite or combined verbal and math SAT of 1210 • 3.8 unweighted high school GPA • Top 15% of graduating high school class Honors College applications are considered for competitive admission in the incoming freshman class of 300 students on a rolling basis. Applications available online at www.wku.edu/honors.

• Less than half the cost of most private institutions For more information on the application process, or to schedule a visit with the Honors College at WKU, please contact: honors.admissions@wku.edu


St. Louis

Louisville Bowling Green, Kentucky Nashville Atlanta

Kristina Medero Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 2015 Honors College Class of New Voices” ave “Br O’s HB on ed Featur

Located in Bowling Green, Kentucky – home to downtown arts and theatre events, Fortune 500 companies, the Bowling Green Hot Rods minor league baseball team, and historic, natural beauty.

In this Issue


: Volume 89 : Issue 3 : WINTER 2015




Board of Directors January Meeting Minutes


From the Editor


Get with the Program: Upholding the Code of Honor


2014-15 Topics

by Steven Schappaugh


What We’re Reading


Applying the Code of Honor to Coaching: Teaching to the Trophy by J. Scott Baker and Adam J. Jacobi


Alumni Spotlight: Emily Stroud


Spark Leaders: Affirming the Code of Honor


From Our Community


Around the World with USA Debate



“I Don’t Run a Debate Club, I Run a Business”: The Delegation of Leadership by Ganer Newman

District in Detail: Yellow Rose (TX)


Diamond Coach Recognition


Donus D. Roberts Quad Ruby Coach Recognition


Forensics is a Contact Sport by Ned W. Lauver


Warrant the Argument: A Literature Synthesis by Josh A. Hamilton


The Value of Speech and Debate in the Middle School Years by Stefan Bauschard and P. Anand Rao, Ph.D.


Coach Profile: Lillian Ogunbanjo


Opinion – Opportunity, Not Crisis: A Response to Dr. Greenstein by Paul Elliott Johnson, Ph.D.


Academic All Americans


Student Service Citations

105 Meeting Alf by Tim Averill

National Tournament Preview 11

Welcome from the Local Host Committee


Overview of High School Tournament Logistics


Dallas Hotel Guide


Dallas Transportation Guide


National Tournament FAQ Sheet


Overview of Middle School Tournament Logistics

102 Welcome New Schools 111

Top 50 Districts

Like us on Facebook /speechanddebate Share with us on Instagram /speechanddebate Follow us on Twitter @speechanddebate

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 3

Board of Directors

From the Editor Integrity. Humility. Respect. Leadership. Service. As members of the National Speech & Debate Association, we pledge to uphold these core values in everything we do. These are the highest standards by which we measure our students—and more importantly, ourselves. Since these five principles guide our actions in countless ways, we wanted to explore these concepts in greater detail. What does it truly mean to be humble? In what ways are you giving back through service? How would you react if you were faced with an ethical dilemma? We heard from many coaches and students on this topic, and hope you will be inspired by several of the stories we’ve shared. This month, we also present important articles to help you make the case for speech and debate at your school. You’ll hear from a former coach turned school administrator about his approach to reframing the narrative and helping your program thrive. You’ll also learn from highly regarded individuals in our field about the many benefits of speech and debate activities at the middle school level. These and other key arguments are critical to share with school administrators, parents, and other stakeholders in your community. Finally, as we celebrate 90 years of tremendous history in our organization, we are thrilled to preview the 2015 National Speech & Debate Tournament within these pages. As we return to the big city of Dallas this June, we are reminded we should always dream big. Whether you and your students make it to the big stage or not, remember you have already achieved the greatest reward when you uphold our Code of Honor and give youth a voice through speech and debate.

J. Scott Wunn Executive Director National Speech & Debate Association

A PUBLICATION OF THE NATIONAL SPEECH & DEBATE ASSOCIATION 125 Watson Street | PO Box 38 | Ripon, WI 54971-0038 | Phone (920) 748-6206 | Fax (920) 748-9478

Emily Bratton, Graphic Design Assistant

SUBSCRIPTION PRICES Individuals: $10 for one year | $25 for two years Member Schools: $15 for each additional subscription

(USPS 471-180) (ISSN 1073-5526) Rostrum is published quarterly (Summer, Fall, Winter, and Spring) by the National Speech & Debate Association, 125 Watson Street, PO Box 38, Ripon, WI 54971. Periodical postage paid at Ripon, WI 54971. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to National Speech & Debate Association, 125 Watson Street, PO Box 38, Ripon, WI 54971. Rostrum provides a forum for the speech and debate community. The opinions expressed by contributors are their own and not necessarily the opinions of the Association, its officers, or its members. The National Speech & Debate Association does not guarantee advertised products and services unless sold directly by the Association.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Polly Reikowski, Ph.D., Admin Rep Eagan High School 4185 Braddock Trail Eagan, MN 55123 (651) 683-6902 polly.reikowski@district196.org Kandi King 6058 Gaelic San Antonio, TX 78240 (210) 641-6761 mamakjking@yahoo.com Tommie Lindsey, Jr. James Logan High School 1800 H Street Union City, CA 94587 (510) 471-2520, Ext. 4408 tlindsey@nhusd.k12.ca.us

David Huston Colleyville Heritage High School 5401 Heritage Avenue Colleyville, TX 76034 (817) 305-4700, Ext. 214 david.huston@gcisd.net


Vicki Pape, Assistant Editor

Pam Cady Wycoff, Vice President Apple Valley High School 14450 Hayes Road Apple Valley, MN 55124-6796 (952) 431-8200 Pam.Wycoff@district196.org

Pamela K. McComas PO Box 5078 Topeka, KS 66605 (785) 231-7414 pmcco@cox.net


J. Scott Wunn, Editor and Publisher

Don Crabtree, President Park Hill High School 1909 6th Avenue St. Joseph, MO 64505 (816) 261-2661 crabnfl@gmail.com

James W. “Jay” Rye, III The Montgomery Academy 3240 Vaughn Road Montgomery, AL 36106 (334) 272-8210 jay_rye@montgomeryacademy.org Jon Cruz The Bronx High School of Science 75 West 205th Street Bronx, NY 10468 (718) 817-7700 cruz@bxscience.edu Jennifer Jerome, Alternate Millard West High School 5710 S. 176th Avenue Omaha, NE 68135 (402) 715-6000 (school office) (402) 715-6092 (classroom) jjerome1984@gmail.com




Current topics and resources are available at:


2015-2016 Policy Debate Topic

MARCH 2015

Public Forum Debate

SURVEILLANCE Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially curtail its domestic surveillance. The controversy between national security objectives and privacy became a hot one for debate since it was disclosed in June of 2013 by former defense contractor Edward Snowden (supported by journalist and former debater Glenn Greenwald) that the NSA is engaging in extensive surveillance inside the United States in order to fight crime and reduce the threat of terrorism. The magnitude of the disclosure shocked many people, including elected representatives, who were unaware of the extent of the surveillance. Many civil rights advocates view the surveillance as an assault on liberty while law enforcement and national security officials see the programs as essential weapons in the war on terror, the fight against nuclear weapons proliferation and the general protection of U.S. national security. Possible affirmative cases include establishing general probable cause and reasonable suspicion requirements, banning the collection of metadata, restricting the collection of email or chat content, limiting the amount of time that information can be stored for, elimination of Section 215 of the Patriot Act and FISA Court reforms as they apply to the domestic arena. Advantages will focus on privacy, totalitarianism, commerce and racism. Negative positions can focus on terrorism, nuclear proliferation, crime and kritiks of reform-based approaches.

INTERP: Online publishing sources

Submissions for online publishing sources for the 2015-2016 school year will be accepted November 1 through March 1. To access the application form and view the list of approved websites for the current school year, visit www.speechanddebate.org/approvedwebsites.

Resolved: In the United States, students should be guaranteed two years of free tuition to a community or technical college.


Lincoln-Douglas Debate

Resolved: Just governments ought to ensure food security for their citizens.


Policy Debate

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its nonmilitary exploration and/or development of the Earth's oceans.

Send us your suggestions for PF topic areas and LD resolutions! Access the online submission forms by visiting our website: www.speechanddebate.org/topics

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 5



New Online! Fresh items have just been added to the National Speech & Debate Association Online Store! Find official merchandise to wear your pride, honor society insignia and awards to show off your accomplishments, books and videos to take your competition to the next level, and so much more!



A. Sport Neoprene Laptop Sleeve B. Aqua Zig-Zag Yoga Pants, “Speech” or “Debate” option C. USA Debate Keychain D. USA Debate Logo Tee



Board of Directors January Meeting


January 6, 2015

he National Speech & Debate Association Board of Directors held its January meeting on January 6, 2015. Present were President Don Crabtree, Vice President Pam Cady Wycoff, Polly Reikowski, Kandi King, Tommie Lindsey, Jr., David Huston, Jay Rye, and alternate Jennifer Jerome. Executive Director J. Scott Wunn was also present.

Moved by Huston, seconded by King: “Accept the proposal of the Competition & Rules Committee to establish a 30-second grace period in supplemental and consolation events for the 2015 National Speech & Debate Tournament and beyond.” Passed: 8-0

President Crabtree called the meeting to order at 6:00 p.m.

The meeting adjourned at 8:00 p.m.

Competition and Rules Updates Note: The Board of Directors holds its biannual Moved by Huston, seconded by Rye: “Accept the proposal of the Competition & Rules Committee to allow high school students to earn honor society credit points for competition against middle school students when at least four high schools are represented in the competition.” Passed: 8-0

meetings in Fall and Spring. In addition, the Board attends periodic online meetings throughout the year. If you have comments, suggestions, or policy proposals for the Board’s consideration, please contact J. Scott Wunn at director@speechanddebate.org.

Register and Tab with Us Put our Technical Solutions to work for you! Joy of Tournaments and Tabroom are now services of the National Speech & Debate Association. We provide our members with registration and tabulation software discounts, excellent customer support, and more.

Coming Fall 2015: Tabroom results will be available for automatic posting in the Points Application, making management of your Honor Society members easier than ever!

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 7


Rostrum | WINTER 2015



Check out our Dallas guide including lodging, transportation, schedule highlights, and more!

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 9

Nationals Tees! Available for Pre-Order

Pre-Order your 2015 National Speech & Debate Tournament T-shirt during online registration. Registration begins March 15! *Limited quantities available at tournament. Pre-order is recommended to ensure your size selection will be available!



allas is a Big City with Big Dreams. Never satisfied to rest on our laurels, we are always looking forward, constantly “expanding our reach to exceed our grasp.” This mindset is part of who we are as a speech and debate community, as well. The Dallas-Ft. Worth metroplex is the fourth largest in the United States, and the speech and debate programs here reflect that energy, size, and diversity. We challenge each other to work harder, to dig deeper, to reach higher. The coaches and schools from North Texas are proud to invite you to join us for a week of competition, collaboration, and celebration this summer. This will be the third time the North Texas area has hosted Nationals in recent history. This year, we want to help you follow your ambitions while at the same time celebrating 90 years of history in our organization. We have a chance to look back and reflect before dreaming of greater things to come as we move toward our centennial celebration.  Many of our committee members remain the same, but we have a few new faces ready to greet you and help you navigate the tournament site and our city. No matter where you turn, you should find a friendly face ready to help you feel at home. We look forward to sharing our home with y’all this summer. Welcome to Dallas, where “big things happen!”

Left to right from top: Cindi Timmons, Chair; Shona Huffman, Co-Chair; Jane Boyd; Wendi Brandenburg; Jonni Davis; Glenda Ferguson; Dave Huston; J.E. Masters; Robert Shepard; Rhonda Smith, and Patti Weinbrenner

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 11

National Speech & Debate Tournament


SUNDay • JUNE 14 (Registration)

Online Registration Opens March 15

Tournament registration and the expo will take place Sunday, June 14, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. in the Lone Star Ballroom of the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. The Sheraton also serves as the host hotel for the tournament. MONDAY and tuesday • JUNE 15-16 (Prelim Rounds/Early Elims/Local Host Posting Party) All preliminary competition of Policy Debate, Public Forum Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Congressional Debate, Humorous Interp, Dramatic Interp, Duo Interp, Original Oratory, United States Extemp, and International Extemp will be held at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Preliminary rounds of World Schools Debate will be held at the Crowne Plaza Hotel nearby. All preliminary competition and early elimination competition will occur between 7:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. on Monday and Tuesday. The local host posting party will take place Tuesday evening at Gilley’s Dallas downtown. Gilley’s is accessible by DART rail from any of the Association block hotels. Students eliminated from main event competition on Tuesday will re-register for the Wednesday supplemental events at the local host posting party. WEDNESDAY • JUNE 17 (Elim Rounds/Supplemental Events) All main event elimination and supplemental speech event rounds will be held at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel between 7:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. Extemporaneous Debate rounds will be held at the Crowne Plaza Hotel nearby. Those students eliminated from main event competition or supplemental events will be allowed to re-register for Thursday consolation events throughout the day at the Sheraton (if pre-registered.) THURSDAY • JUNE 18 (Elim Rounds/Supp-Cons Events/Interp Finals/Diamond Awards) Thursday morning, all elimination competition will continue at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel with the addition of consolation events. Extemporaneous Debate will continue at the Crowne Plaza Hotel nearby. Congress finals will be held throughout the day. Thursday evening, attendees will enjoy the national final rounds of Humorous, Dramatic, and Duo Interpretation, as well as the Donus D. Roberts Diamond Assembly in the Lone Star Ballroom of the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. FRIDAY • JUNE 19 (Supp-Cons/Main Event Finals and National Awards Assembly) The remaining main event final rounds (Original Oratory, United States Extemp, International Extemp, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Policy Debate, and Public Forum Debate), as well as supplemental and consolation event finals, will be held throughout the day on Friday at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel.

The National Speech & Debate Association (National Forensic League) has appeared on the approved list of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) National Advisory List of Contests and Activities since origination of the list. 12

Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Downtown Dallas will be an excellent location for the 2015 National Speech & Debate Tournament. To make planning easier, we have provided an overview of key logistics. Please refer to the following pages for essential venue and lodging information. Keep in mind that all details are tentative and subject to change.


Please read before selecting lodging. Tournament Hotel » The official tournament hotel is the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. All schools should attempt to book rooms at this property first. Staying at this property will be the most convenient and cost effective way to enjoy the 2015 National Tournament. Do not delay in booking this property, as space is limited! Additional Block Hotels » We anticipate that the Sheraton Dallas Hotel block will fill quickly. Although the Sheraton is the best option, the Association has negotiated other excellent hotel options for schools that book after the Sheraton fills—including the Marriott, which is connected by skywalk. It is essential that schools stay downtown at the Sheraton or one of the other recommended hotel properties. Morning and afternoon traffic jams will make commuting from non-recommended properties a very difficult task and could result in major issues for your team. In addition, the Association only has contracts with those properties listed and will not be able to assist you with issues in hotels outside the block. DO NOT STAY OUTSIDE THE HOTEL BLOCK. Benefits of Staying in the Block of Hotels » Schools will find several major benefits to staying in the Association’s recommended block of hotel rooms. Avoid the Cost of Vehicle Rental: All competition is being held at the Sheraton Downtown Dallas. The Sheraton can be accessed by DART rail from all recommended hotel properties and Love Field. A discounted rate has been negotiated with SuperShuttle, making transportation from DFW easy and affordable, rendering a rental vehicle unnecessary. Free Internet Access at Sheraton: All attendees who are lodging in an Association block hotel will receive free access to the Internet at the Sheraton. Easy Tournament Accessibility: Staying in the tournament hotel or within the Association block will avoid the risk of delays or major inconveniences related to traffic and morning parking. Easy Access to Meal Options and Special Events: The tournament hotel is the site of registration, all competition, the final rounds, and awards. There is a food court adjacent to the Sheraton and Marriott. There is a DART stop on site providing the best possible access to the opening ceremony, and the local host posting party. All Association block hotels sit near DART stops to provide access to all events and restaurants. Note » When calling hotels, all coaches must mention the “National Speech & Debate Association and/or National Forensic League block.” All room reservations within the Association block are subject to an automatic nonrefundable two-night deposit per room at the time of booking or upon cancellation, depending on the property. This avoids double booking and allows all attendees equal opportunity to book in the best available properties.

Additional tournament information will be available at www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. Rostrum | WINTER 2015 13


Crowne Plaza

SpringHill Suites


Hotel Indigo

Holiday Inn



For our interactive Google map, visit www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. 14

Rostrum | WINTER 2015


HOTEL GUIDE • DALLAS NATIONALS Booking Tip – For prompt service, mention the "National Speech & Debate Association and/or National Forensic League block" (or the Group Code noted below) when reserving your rooms to receive the advertised rate for the National Speech & Debate Tournament. All room reservations within the block are subject to an automatic non-refundable two-night deposit per room at the time of booking or upon cancellation, depending on the property.


CB = Complimentary Breakfast | CI = Complimentary Internet | GL = Guest Laundry | IP = Indoor Pool | OP = Outdoor Pool

FC = Fitness Center | R = Restaurant

Sheraton Dallas Hotel

Crowne Plaza Hotel Dallas Downtown

400 North Olive Street, Dallas, TX 75201 Phone: (214) 922-8000 DART Station: PEARL Amenities: FC, OP, R

1015 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75202 Rate: $119 Phone: (214) 742-5678 DART Station: WEST END Amenities: Free shuttle to Sheraton, CI, FC, GL, OP

Rate: $119

www.starwoodmeeting.com/StarGroupsWeb/ res?id=1501305740&key=23A7D12F


NOTE: The Sheraton Dallas Hotel requires a minimum five-night stay. If you cancel your reservation, the two-night, non-refundable fee per room will be charged at the time of cancellation.

The Fairmont Dallas

SpringHill Suites Dallas Downtown/West End 1907 North Lamar Street, Dallas, TX 75202 Phone: (214) 999-0500 Rate: $124 DART Station: WEST END Amenities: Shuttle service (not on weekends), CB, CI, FC, OP Group Code: NFLN www.marriott.com/hotels/travel/dalwespringhill-suites-dallas-downtown-west-end

Rate: $119


Holiday Inn Dallas Central - Park Cities 6070 North Central Expy, Dallas, TX 75206 Phone: (888) 983-5012 DART Station: MOCKINGBIRD Amenities: CI, FC, OP

Rate: $110

Group Code: NS5

Hotel Indigo Dallas 1933 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75201 Phone: (877) 846-3446 DART Station: ST. PAUL Amenities: CI, FC, GL Group Code: NFL

1717 North Akard Street, Dallas, TX 75201 Phone: (214) 720-2020 DART Station: AKARD Amenities: CI, FC, OP, R


Rate: $120


Aloft Dallas Downtown 1033 Young Street, Dallas, TX 75202 Phone: (214) 761-0000 Rate: $119 king/$109 queen DART Station: AKARD Amenities: CI, FC, OP, R

DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Dallas - Campbell Centre 8250 North Central Expy, Dallas, TX 75206 Phone: (214) 691-8700 DART Station: PARK LANE or LOVERS LANE Amenities: Free shuttle from DART, FC, OP, R Group Code: NDT

Rate: $100



For our interactive Google map, visit www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. Rostrum | WINTER 2015 15


Hertz is the Association's official rental car company. Whether you make reservations through hertz.com, a travel agency, or global online travel sites such as Orbitz, Travelocity, etc., use the Association account code below. Some restrictions may apply. For more information, call 1-800-654-2240 or visit hertz.com today.

CV # 04JZ0006

Receive discounts off your flights when you book with recommended carriers. Some restrictions may apply. See www.speechanddebate.org/nationals for details!

Additional tournament information will be available at www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. 16

Rostrum | WINTER 2015



Entries • World Schools teams are comprised of three to five students. The cost of entry is $50 per student. • Each National Speech & Debate Association district may automatically enter one team to the National Tournament. • Each Association district may enter a second team to a wait list to be considered for a spot, space permitting. • Guest nations may enter teams, as well. Judges • Each team must furnish one judge. The judge may not be entered into any other judging pool at the National Speech & Debate Tournament. • There are no hired judges available. • Judges must attend judge training on Sunday! Motions • There will be a mixture of prepared and impromptu motions for the competition. • Prepared motions will be announced by April 15, 2015. Tentative Schedule Sunday



Practice Rounds (2) and Preliminary Rounds (2)


Preliminary Rounds (4)


Begin Single-Elimination (Doubles/Quarters)


Semifinals and Finals


Additional educational sessions on World Schools Debate

Supplemental and Consolation Events • Teams who do not advance to the single-elimination rounds are eligible to enter in supplemental events if pre-registered. Teams must re-register during the local host posting party Tuesday evening. • Teams who do not advance to Thursday’s rounds may enter in consolation events if pre-registered. Teams must re-register Wednesday evening.

Additional tournament information will be available at www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. Rostrum | WINTER 2015 17

A look back to 1925 Then and Now

1925 2015 President

Calvin Coolidge



Barack Obama


Popular Automobile

Ford Model T

2 Cents

First-Class Postage

The Big Parade

#1 Box office Hit


Honda Accord

49 Cents

Transformers: Age of Extinction $1,087,404,499

Memorable Events Famous People Born in 1925 • Nellie Tayloe Ross takes office as governor of Wyoming. She is the first female governor in U.S. history! She was shortly followed by Miriam “Ma” Ferguson, elected as the first female governor of Texas, that same year. • Tennessee schoolteacher John T. Scopes is arrested for teaching the theory of evolution, forbidden by state law. • The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is published and The New Yorker debuts. • The deadliest tornado in U.S. history strikes Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, resulting in 695 deaths. The track left by the tornado was the longest ever recorded in the world. • The National Forensic League is founded by Bruno E. Jacob. Now known as the National Speech & Debate Association, it is America’s oldest and largest high school debate and speech honor society.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

• Jack Lemmon • Peter Sellers • Robert Kennedy • B.B. King • Margaret Thatcher • Malcolm X • Paul Newman • Sammy Davis, Jr. • Barbara Bush • Johnny Carson • Angela Lansbury • Dick Van Dyke • Yogi Berra


FAQ SHEET What is the Sheraton room rate, and is quad occupancy allowed? The Association has negotiated a flat rate of $119 per room per night with up to quad occupancy. The majority of the room block is made up of double-double rooms. Does the room rate include tax? No. All Dallas area hotels will include a 15% tax. What is the cost of parking at the Sheraton complex? The parking rate for all Sheraton hotel guests is $7 per day. Non-hotel guests will be charged $15 per day. All parking fees at the Sheraton include in and out privileges. The other Association block hotel properties are within either walking distance or a short DART rail ride to and from the Sheraton. These properties are also providing some discounted parking rates for guests. Are there any upgraded rooms available? Yes. A limited number of suites are available in the block. The rate for these rooms is slightly higher. How will airport transportation work? The Association has arranged reduced rates with SuperShuttle Vans from the DFW airport to all downtown Dallas area hotels. Attendees will receive $2 off one-way tickets or $5 off round-trip tickets. Visit http://www.supershuttle.com/default.aspx?GC=NNAXB to reserve your reservation online. Be sure to use group code “NNAXB.” In addition, the DART can be taken from DFW or Love Field (Southwest Airline hub) for $2.50 per person. How will the public transit system(s) work? DART (Dallas Area Rail Transport) is the “above ground” subway system in Dallas. It is clean and secure. There is a stop outside the Sheraton and it connects participants to all of the tournament properties, special event venues, and other downtown and regional establishments. Will you be providing free WiFi for all of your guests during this event? Free WiFi is available to all guests of Association block hotels in the National Tournament Internet Café.

Will pre-purchased meal options be available? Yes. Affordable, pre-purchased meals will be available during the tournament registration process. Students and coaches with pre-purchased meals will receive fast and convenient meal service during very busy competition time periods. Are there ample restaurants available in the area to accommodate large crowds of people? The prepurchased meal options will be the most convenient and timely option for lunch. The Sheraton and surrounding food establishments have accommodated crowds of this magnitude in the past. In addition to the on-site eating options, there is a 15-restaurant food court adjacent to the hotel in the Plaza of Americas and a variety of eating establishments in the West End, which are accessible within two stops on the DART. Other restaurants are within walking distance of the hotel. Will the elevators be able to accommodate such a large group of people? The hotel routinely accommodates this type of hotel use for large groups. Several banks of elevators are targeted to specific floors, making the process easier for guests. In addition, the hotel is equipped with a backup elevator system in case of emergencies. Finally, all of the competitors will have their schedules well in advance and will have plenty of time to get to their rounds, especially if they are hotel guests. Adult volunteers will help monitor elevator use during competition. Will there be a location to store tubs in the evenings? Yes. Overnight tub storage will be arranged at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Specific instructions will be provided at registration. Just how hot is it in Texas in June? Texas does get hot in the summer, but June is the mildest month. Dallas highs are typically in the mid-90s. Most natives don’t feel too much of the heat though buildings are cooled most of the year. Public buildings, like hotels, can actually be chilly; it’s not unusual to see someone carrying a light sweater or jacket into a hotel, theater, or restaurant.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 19


Middle School Details!

Please Read Before Selecting Lodging!

Tentative Schedule TUESDAY • JUNE 16

Please read the information for

Registration will be held from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel.

high school coaches, relative to

Wednesday • June 17 Middle school competition will take place at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Rounds begin at 8:00 a.m. and last until 6:00 p.m. Time has been built in for lunch.

Please mention the “National

Thursday • June 18 Middle school competition continues at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. Rounds begin at 8:00 a.m. and last until 7:00 p.m.

League block” when booking

Friday • June 19 Starting at 8:00 a.m., final rounds of Speech, Policy, and Congress, as well as semifinal and final rounds of Lincoln-Douglas and Public Forum, will be held at the Sheraton Dallas Hotel. The awards assembly will commence at 3:00 p.m., followed by the high school awards assembly at 6:00 p.m., where middle school champions will be recognized.

Important Middle School Dates • Coaches can register online at www.joyoftournaments.com. Entries are due April 24. • Congressional Debate legislation is due April 24. • The national office will begin sending out wait list notices by May 1. • Title, author, and ISBN information for Interpretation events must be posted on the registration website by May 1.

lodging (p. 13-15).

Speech & Debate Association and/or National Forensic rooms, and only book with recommended hotels for the reasons listed. All room reservations within the block are subject to an automatic non-refundable two-night deposit per room at the time of booking or upon cancellation, depending on the property. This avoids double booking and allows all attendees equal opportunity to book in the best available properties.

• Media release forms, signed by each student’s parent/guardian, must be submitted by May 13.

The host hotel (Sheraton Dallas

• All fees, including judge bond, must be received in the national office by May 13.

five-night stay. Middle school

• A late fee of $200 will be assessed for fees and forms received after May 13. A school/ club risks forfeiting participation if fees and media release forms are not received by May 20.

programs needing reservations

Hotel) requires a minimum

of less than five days should book at properties other than the Sheraton Dallas Hotel.

Other Details • Coaches are asked to carefully review all tournament information at www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. • Please note that each school is limited to five entries per event. • We will continue to rigorously train high school student judges. We are requiring middle schools to bring judges for each division in which they have students (Policy, LD, or PF, Speech, and Congress) as a condition for registering. More details are available on the website.


Additional tournament information will be available at www.speechanddebate.org/nationals. 20

Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Florida Forensic Institute

The FFI staff led the way to Kansas City and the result:

t t t

FFI Ft. Lauderdale

National Championships And finalists in numerous debate and speech events! Experience our students’ success... join us for an FFI summer

FFI 2014 Feedback

FFI is a great experience for students to learn from more National Champions than other camps at which I have attended and taught. Students learn the minute details that separate a competitor from a champion.” - Oratory Staff Member

FFI is a great opportunity to work with the best coaches and competitors in the country. Because of FFI, not only am I a better competitor, I have friends in every event—from Interp to Oratory to Public Forum.” - Congressional Debate Student, Pennsylvania

Will YOU be the lone star on stage? Don Crabtree (Curriculum

Director) is the current President of the National Speech & Debate Association and an eight-diamond coach from Park Hill HS in Missouri. With 40 years of educational experience, Mr. Crabtree brings the Florida Forensic Institute his incomparable expertise.

Coaches and students from all over the country flock to FFI to learn different styles of competition. Our goal is to provide the most stimulating and safe educational and competitively successful environment.” - Interp Staff Member

FFI has a large emphasis on varied modes of debate, which will be the way to win in the future.” - Public Forum Staff Member

FFI offers more one on one attention, prep work, and debating than other camps I have attended.” - Public Forum Student, New York

www.ffi4n6.com July 17 - 31, 2015 • Extension August 1 - 3, 2015


Get With the Program:

Upholding the Code of Honor by Steven Schappaugh


he Code of Honor applies to every aspect of coaching. We work to model behaviors we want our students to emulate. This short essay takes some common coaching situations and poses ethical questions to guide our decision-making. While there are some gray areas when considering these dilemmas, we, as teachers and coaches, must consider carefully the impacts of our choices. As oversight of our activity is rather limited, it’s up to us to reflect on our Code of Honor at all times.

A student is behind on writing

an LD case in time for an upcoming tournament. He struggles with research and writing, and you know it will take a lot of work to get him to competitive form. The student asks, “Is it okay if I just use someone else’s so I can go? I promise to write another one when we get back.” Many coaches have heard similar pleas from students who didn’t get their work done—to use someone else’s speech, cutting, or case. How should a coach react to this


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

question? Should the student go to the tournament? What message does that send to the rest of the team? What about rewarding original work of the student? What are the expectations for others? Will the student realize the true benefits of the activity? Isn’t this a case of plagiarism? What if you found out another team had done the same thing? As you reflect on these questions, consider that students often don’t realize they are entering an ethically challenging situation. In their minds, they just want to compete. Teams often share cases, arguments, and evidence. Have a discussion with the student about the importance of original work, meeting team expectations, and respecting the work of others as a demonstration of integrity. Sharing means bringing your own work to the table, as well. You may have to sit the student out of a tournament and give him an opportunity to work on the case prior to his next travel experience.

A student has been looking for the perfect example of an affected

member of a population for the introduction to her Oratory. She wants to make the audience practically cry. The student asks, “Can’t I just make up a person who fits the profile? It’s a personal example. No one will ever know the difference.” How should a coach respond in this situation? What message does this send to the student? What about other members of the team? Are we encouraging students to stretch the truth when it’s advantageous for them? Are we telling them it’s okay not to be fully truthful when winning is on the line? Students may not realize they are fabricating material, especially when so many personal stories are difficult to verify. Remind the student that high-profile journalists, including Stephen Glass and Jayson Blair, have lost their jobs and their professional reputations as a result of inventing narratives. If the student cannot find an introduction that meets her expectations, perhaps this is an opportunity for her to seek out a personal interview with someone who has been affected by the topic.


A student is in the prep room for

Extemp and doesn’t leave time for source memorization. He studied the content and knows it’s true. During the speech, he makes up just a couple of sources to make sure the speech goes smoothly. After the round, when you ask the student how it went, he says, “Well, I had to make up a couple of sources because I ran out of time—but it’s no biggie. Everyone has done that.” How should a coach respond to this comment? Was it truly a onetime, under the pressure moment? How might the rest of the Extemp squad react to this situation? Does the student’s comment that the information is real make a difference in this context? Does it matter if the practice of making up sources has happened before? Remember that students often model whatever they see and whatever they hear. Part of being a leader and acting with integrity is to go against the grain. Perhaps the student could refer to the content without a specific source. You can talk to the student about maintaining high standards for his speeches and for himself, even if it results in a lower rank in the round.

Two students are working on a

Duo cutting. They are struggling to cut it down to just 10 minutes. They know they could do it if they added one new section that would explain everything. One of the students asks,

“Can’t we just write a transitional scene to fix this problem?” How should a coach react here? How much material is too much? Does it matter how high the risk is? Do you have a discussion with regard to the ethics of cutting? Students who cut their own material will inevitably struggle with how much to cut and may make very personal connections to the material. Have a discussion with the students about original material and the importance of integrity as it relates to the author’s writing. Often taking a step back and reflecting upon the material later is one of the best ways to maintain the integrity of the piece and respect the author’s intentions without extensive modification.

You are working in the tab room and a student of yours goes overtime. The judge writes on the ballot, “You would have gotten the one if you hadn’t gone over time.”

Many coaches have found themselves in similar situations. Do you tell the student before her next round? What if the student asks you between rounds because she felt she went overtime? How should a coach respond to this question? What if you found out another coach had done the same thing? As a leader in the tabulation room, you have access to information that others do not. Talk to your students prior to the tournament about what it means to be a tournament official and to avoid asking questions that

would put the coach in an awkward situation at the outset. Remind them they are responsible for their own performance choices, as well. Conclusion The point of this article is not to point fingers but to remind ourselves that all of our decisions, all of our interactions with students, should be viewed through the lens of the Code of Honor. The long hours, stresses of program management, and other innumerable tasks may create a mistake along the way. Recognizing when mistakes are made and acknowledging them with the team can send a positive message. Opening up and talking to students about ethical challenges and specific scenarios they may encounter can lead to productive dialogue and improved educational outcomes. Letting students see the power of owning up to mistakes, learning from those mistakes, and talking about important issues like these affecting our speech and debate community can have long-lasting impacts on students’ lives. Integrity. Humility. Respect. Leadership. Service. If we consistently reflect on the National Speech & Debate Association’s Code of Honor as we encounter ethical dilemmas, our programs, coaches, and students will find tremendous success.

Steven Schappaugh is the Director of Programs and Education at the National Speech & Debate Association.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 23

Applying the Code of Honor to Coaching

Teaching to the Trophy by J. Scott Baker and Adam J. Jacobi

"Coaching competitively does not mean teaching to the trophy. The focus of success should be on how students perform each round, not the final placement at the tournament."


each to the test” is a phrase pervading discourse surrounding emphasis placed on educators and administrators to ensure students pass state and national tests seen as measuring educational competence. However, does this milieu transfer to the academic sport of speech and debate? Like athletic sports, our students practice, collaborate on strategy, compete interscholastically, and learn to win and lose with grace. Academically, they are developing high-level critical thinking skills, and exposing themselves to a tremendous “Marketplace of Ideas” every time they participate. Some coach educators struggle with the extent to which they influence students in developing interpretive programs, original speeches, and debate cases. More influence might be exerted out


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

of a coach’s experience of knowing what it takes to win. Yet, we ask: are they teaching to the trophy to guarantee some type of tangible success? This is a difficult question to answer since many coaches find themselves under constant scrutiny and tightened budgets and know funds or even job performance evaluations often can be tied to the hardware brought home. With this in mind, our educators are often caught in the conundrum between teaching meaningful skills and striving for their students to earn top accolades in competition. As coaches, we must analyze what our paradigm is when teaching our students, since the effects of our approach can resonate in a speech and debate program for years. The desire to win is natural, yet it clouds benefits won from losing. It takes maturity and willingness by coaches to disengage and allow

students the opportunity to make mistakes and lose, so they learn and become self-sufficient. Yet some coaches compete vicariously through their students. It takes humility to step aside and allow students the opportunity to fail. Many coaches prescribe certain content and presentation tactics simply because those tactics are successful, while others ask students to determine the intent and purpose of what they’re communicating to drive the creative process. This is akin to teaching methods that drive highstakes testing in schools, where rote instruction of test content trumps critical thinking about content and issues relevant in the lives of young people. In Star Trek lore, the Kobayashi Maru simulation requires Starfleet Academy cadets to face a no-win scenario to experience defeat.


Determined to pass, James T. Kirk reprograms the computer running the scenario because he believes there is always an alternative solution. In the original film series, this strategy earned him a commendation for creative thinking. Guiding students on their own path to success is far more empowering than prescribing gimmicks to win. This is leadership in action! A coach’s philosophy for running a speech and debate program stems from the seminal question of how both the student as well as coach and school measure success. In a competitive society, our inclination is to compare ourselves to others to determine our worth, rather than how well we are achieving personal growth and goals. For example, imagine a student who attends numerous local and national tournaments each year. She expects to win awards each week. For her, success comes from placing, not trying something new or different to expand her horizons. She wants to win, and often does. Her focus is the trophy. The coach makes her look for literature, to which she retorts, “don’t you have something already cut you can hand me?” She wants shortcuts, strategies, quick tips that will give her the edge. She doesn’t want to better herself by developing her own skills; she wants to better herself through out-rounds. She is a fighter, and, in our community, we appreciate her tenacity, even if we don’t see

eye-to-eye philosophically. She wants success immediately, as many in her generation. She is a great performer, but her coach wants her to learn the process. She wants to stand on the stage. While competition can foster some extrinsic motivation, that is ultimately shallow, and will not provide the lasting drive of intrinsic motivation. Contrasting her fiery spirit, another student simply craves knowledge. He desperately wants to learn as many skills as he can, while tournament success is secondary. For him, success is learning a new way to deliver an extemporaneous speech or finding a new source for his oration. He doesn’t need the stage to prove himself. He knows it for himself after a good speech, regardless of the rank by the judge. He beams coming out of rounds where in his mind, he has demonstrated a new strategy, a new way of speaking. His success lies in the ability to transcend a round and be present while performing for others. He is a sponge, soaking in all of the ideas, discussions, and practices we have in and out of class. He applies knowledge in his own way. This is how he sees success. How coaches measure success is critical in modeling the attitude students develop toward motivating growth. There are coaches who are cruel to their squads if they do not win a tournament, and who use anger to instill fear in their students, while

others are nurturing and inspire their students with unconditional love and support of their efforts. Just as the students we work with come from diverse backgrounds with varying gifts and abilities, we must foster an atmosphere where success is defined in a multitude of ways. Otherwise, we may lose disillusioned students who are not earning wins or breaking to elimination rounds if they do not have perspective on growth, and find a pathway to success. When we teach to the trophy, we focus on extensive competitions, the best standings, and proving our worth to administrators through awards. This motivation to push students hard is beneficial preparation for challenges and competition they will face in the real world. As adults, we are thrust into difficult situations and must fight our way out without others walking us through. Programs that focus on end results are those which want to see tangible success for students and themselves. This framework is about strategizing, learning how to figure out a problem quickly in a round, making the individual the winner in every challenge, and earning respect through hard work and fierce competition. This educational focus argues for real-world stress and pushes for excellence. These coaches, while often vilified for only caring about recognition, can still build leadership in their students.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 25

of how well students are working

speeches, and argue a variety of

not mean teaching to the trophy.

and applying skills or concepts.

contentions in local, regional, or

The focus of success should be

Further, as students observe

national importance. Regardless of

on how students perform each

peers at tournaments and receive

the focus coaches take, they must

round, not the final placement at

evaluations from judges, they can

remind themselves of a central aim

the tournament. Teaching students

write journal entries about what

of education: if we teach students

to be successful is important in

they will work to improve, and

life. Competition is a means to an

what strategies they will employ to

to be self-sufficient for when we’re

end, but not an end unto itself.

do so. Journals can easily be kept

Competition helps motivate, but

and shared from student to coach,

should not be the singular end goal.

electronically as Google Docs, or

Coaching competitively does

In contrast, another mindset

through other collaborative cloud-

of coaching is teaching students

based platforms. This also helps a

how to speak, argue, or express

coach gauge the extent to which a

themselves through cooperative

student is driven by competition or

groups, multi-layered projects, and

by other motivating factors.

assignments geared for divergent

There are a variety of strategies

not around, then they know how to be independent when we want them to be. Therefore, what learning objectives and skill mastery sets do we recommend? For starters, coaches must foster a squad ethos of cerebrating growth in many of its forms, and not just the quantifiable record of each

learning styles, allowing for options

coaches employ for guiding

outside the realm of competitive

students to quantifiable success

regulations. These coaches do

in speech and debate. They may

not do extensive research on new

teach conceptual frameworks, such

debate topics; rather they focus

as what plot and characterization

on imparting ideas and theory on

elements need to be in a literary

coaches should articulate what

their students who then conduct

cutting, what types of arguments

they expect to see from students

their own research. They aren’t

need to be in a debate case,

in various competitive events,

intensively focused on the next

or what persuasive elements

but allow students to find their

tournament, for what makes

need to be in a speech. Coaches

own pathways to achieving those

tournament. Next, just as judges bring certain paradigms for what they are looking for in outcomes of what they see from students,

speech and debate unique for each student in the classroom is paramount. A harmonious mindset merges competitive and educational philosophies. One method of

"Guiding students on their own path to success is far more empowering than prescribing gimmicks to win."

driving intrinsic motivation and conditioning a more meaningful

exclusively focused on teaching to

outcomes. The more specific

way for students to determine their

the trophy may provide students

the expectations, the better

own success is through reflective

rote models, or even formulae

the outcomes will be. Finally,

journaling. Asking students

that must be followed, and not

engendering the right attitude

to reflect on their process of

deviated from. Other coaches may

about long-term benefits of speech

developing an interpretive program,

give constant individual feedback,

and debate will help students

speech, or debate case gives

embark on literature discussions,

understand how what they’re

analyze current political and social

learning transfers into life skills.

coaches a window into the efficacy


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Each squad is its own island;

Code of Honor

however, as coaches, we must prepare our students to be competent, effective speakers, performers, and researchers to build a future generation of better leaders and communicators. Tailoring our philosophy of coaching to the needs of our students, we must be cognizant of how we balance competitive and educational approaches and attitudes.

J. Scott Baker coaches at Cypress Creek High School in Texas, has taught in the Cypress-Fairbanks ISD since 2000, and previously taught at Haltom High School from 1997-2000. He is currently Secretary of the Texas Forensic Association, and has served in leadership positions with the University Interscholastic League Regional Advisory Committee, Texas Speech Communication Association, and National Speech & Debate Association district committees. He has coordinated speech tabulation for the Middle School National Speech & Debate Tournament since it merged with the high school tournament in 2011. He is pursuing his Ph.D. in Curriculum & Instruction from Texas A&M University. Adam J. Jacobi is Executive Director of the Wisconsin High School Forensic Association. He previously coordinated coach education and programming for the National Speech & Debate Association, also serving as Middle School National Tournament Director and Congressional Debate Coordinator. He has directed Congress curriculum for the Harvard Debate Council’s summer workshops since 2010. He taught debate in Changzhou, China, and previously taught from 1997-2008 at Rufus King High School in Wisconsin. He is an adjunct instructor in Communication at Ripon College, and a three-diamond volunteer coach with Cypress Creek High School in Texas. Scott and Adam will earn their third diamonds this spring.

All members of the Honor Society pledge to uphold our Code of Honor. Integrity: Integrity encompasses the highest regard for honesty, civility, justice, and fairness. Humility: Regardless of a person’s level of success, he or she always looks beyond oneself to appreciate the inherent value of others. Respect: A member respects individual differences and fosters diversity. Leadership: A member influences others to take positive action toward productive change. Service: A member exercises the talents he or she has been given to provide service to his or her peers, community, and the activity.

Order Honor Society insignia, honor cords, and more in our Online Store!



Rostrum | WINTER 2015 27



Speech and debate in a rural community is like ice-fishing in a volcano—really hard. I’ve always pushed for inclusion and accessibility, but being from a 60-student school means membership is tough to increase. I’ve done my best to be an example for prospective and current members, and I plan on being a coach after high school to lead more students to the sport.” — Submitted by Luke Kuykendall, student from Butte Falls High School in Oregon. He currently ranks among the top 150 point earners in the nation.

We asked our member students and coaches to tell us how they are affirming the Code of Honor through speech and debate activities. Here are just a few of the many responses we received!


Code of Honor “As a member of the National Speech & Debate Association, I pledge to uphold the highest standards of integrity, humility, respect, leadership, and service in the pursuit of excellence.”

“Debate has taught me to uphold the Association’s Code of Honor, most notably in regard to humility and service. I upheld these tenets by creating a community group called ‘Autism Together,’ where I bring young adults with autism and other social disorders into a welcoming and inclusive environment to interact in social functions. I’ve learned humility: all of us have unique talents and our differences don’t separate us—in fact, they make us unique people of which no one type is superior. I’ve also learned service: the importance of giving back to the community and making a difference in the lives of others. I am a debater proud to uphold the National Speech & Debate Association’s Code of Honor!”

As timekeepers and moderators, the Los Alamos High School Hilltalkers Speech and Debate Team has collaborated with the Los Alamos chapter of the League of Women Voters to facilitate Candidates Forums the past four years. “Debaters are expert timekeepers, and the League of Women Voters really relies on their expertise for timing candidate speeches and responses to audience questions,” explained Margo Batha, coach of the Hilltalkers. “The League works to ensure a bipartisan atmosphere, and our students do a great job helping them maintain fairness for all candidates.” Volunteering at the Candidate Forum and State Legislative Previews teaches debaters about local and state issues, which they are able to use in their debate and speech rounds. President of the Los Alamos League Barbara Calef noted, “Students make forum procedures run more smoothly, benefiting the educational experience for all attendees.” During candidate forums, the Hilltalkers demonstrate characteristics of leadership, respect, humility, integrity, and service. Members of the Hilltalkers are happy to play a small part in the democratic process, and they respect the essential role the League of Women Voters plays in educating voters. “I am so glad I was able to help my community progress on the path toward a more active democracy,” explained Will McCumber, a member of the Hilltakers. The team’s community services to the League support transparency in state and county government. By the end of every forum, students believe their greatest achievement is benefiting the community.

— Submitted by Sherry Feng, student and SLC member from Chantilly High School in Virginia

— Submitted by Katherine Wang, student from Los Alamos High School in New Mexico

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 29

“Debate is a competitive event, so naturally participants get very excited at the prospect of making sound arguments, defeating their opponents, and advancing to the final round. While anyone can be an ambitious competitor, those who are respectful competitors are those who gain the respect of others. When I walk into the debate room, I remind myself I am here to give speeches and debate on a variety of topics. I am gaining new skills that I will use in the future, whether it is in college or in a job. Treating others with respect while maintaining one’s ground is a delicate balancing act that is the core of diplomacy, and diplomacy is a key skill to have, both inside and outside of the debate round. A lot of debaters feel the only way to accomplish their goals is to ruthlessly refute their opponents’ points and use whatever means necessary, but to me, this is not the point of debate. In the United States government, progress is made by way of compromise and diplomacy, not by way of bickering and stubbornness. It’s one thing to argue. It’s another to debate—respectfully.”

— Submitted by Sandip Nirmel, student from The Harker School in California

“This year, I launched my Gold Award Project, ‘The Speak Up Initiative,’ a public speaking outreach program at the middle school level in order to educate the youth in our community about the benefits of public speaking, the importance of speaking up, and of course, about this extraordinary activity. I feel that, as adolescents, we are very fragile whether that be emotionally, mentally, or physically. Although we may mask those fragments of fragility, I believe if we are equipped with the confidence to have a voice, there is a world of opportunity adolescents may explore. As a member of the Student Leadership Committee, I have also connected myself with the middle school subcommittee, where I plan to expand this project in any way imaginable. Currently, I am trying to host a cumulative public speaking fair at an underprivileged D.C. school, and I hope to get a large amount of the speech and debate community in my area involved.”

— Submitted by Michelle Ma, student and SLC member from McLean High School in Virginia

“I am assisting an awesome man who is fighting all odds for our kids to compete. He is a fulltime pastor. He is not a teacher, but has kids at the high school. He started the season with eight novices. Most are very shy, introverted kids. These are not the kids who fit in a clique. There are now eleven young men and women who are placing at tournaments, feeling successful, and it is changing them in ways they cannot yet see. We have had small attempts in the past, but this is someone to go the distance. He is using the small stipend he will be paid to bring in help, get good pieces—and it’s all for these kids in our small rural town. Eric Bingaman is a speech hero!”

— Submitted by Christina Minick, assistant coach from Angola High School in Indiana


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Last month, our assistant athletic director stood in front of ‘The Wall,’ asking me questions about how I use it to motivate my team.

I’m a coach of a small program, only 20 students, at a tiny private high school, 98 students total, in central Texas. On the wall are certificates for everyone on our team. The team leader is in the upper left. The certificates are placed in rank order, going down. After every tournament when points are entered, I rearrange the wall if there are any changes. I started the high school team at Round Rock Christian Academy because of an enthusiastic group of students I had in a middle school debate class. One of the first pieces of advice to me from an area coach was to join the Association, which we did in 2007. It’s the same advice I now give to new coaches, because of how much it has helped me develop my program and supported me as I have learned the ropes of coaching. It also gives students incentives for developing themselves as performers. One of the benefits of coaching is seeing how speech and debate competition transforms students’ lives. Within my own team, I could talk about several of my students, but my team captain, Anne Marie Berg, really stands out. Our team nearly doubled in size this year, and she has worked with me behind the scenes to make it a successful experience for everyone and has grown into a confident, capable leader. One of my other students, Phillip Pergande, is serving this year on the Association’s Student Leadership Committee. One of the most effective tools for developing performers is having them assist their younger teammates, or coaching and judging at middle school tournaments. Trent Sutton, an alumnus of my team, serves us by coaching Interpretation events. It is such an amazing activity for giving opportunities for competition, but also for personal development. — Submitted by Cathleen Ferose, teacher and coach from Round Rock Christian Academy in Texas

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 31

Stuttgart, G

ermany - Cul

NYC - Coolidge Foundation Event

ture Night

Around the World with USA Debate Watch out, World!

New Orleans, LA

Family Stuttgart, Germ

any - Palace

Good Memories

Great Friends


NEW PILOT IN 2014-15

World Schools District Team For Nationals


t the 2014 Summer Leadership Conference, attendees expressed an interest in expanding access to the National Tournament. Members also expressed widespread excitement and support for the World Schools format of debate, which the Association began sponsoring in 2013-14. Given this enthusiasm, combined with the acknowledgement of our members that expanding access to the National Tournament is good, the Board of Directors adopted a pilot proposal to create district teams that can compete at Nationals in World Schools Debate. Methods to Select the World Schools District Team Teams are comprised of three to five members from each district opting to participate. After the entire district tournament series (speech, debate, congress) is complete, any student who competed at districts but did not qualify to Nationals would be eligible for participation on the World Schools District Team. The established criteria of the district should be made available to all coaches attending the district tournament. This could be done via the tournament invitation or through an email announcement. A district has two options for selecting its members:

Option A – Districts may invite alternates to be on the team. To provide an objective method of selecting the team members, districts would do the following:

• Invite the highest point earners that are senior, 1st alternates to serve on the team. • If a student turns down the opportunity, go to the next name on the list of senior, 1st alternates by merit points. • If you get through all senior, 1st alternates, then go to senior, 2nd alternates by merit points. • Keep working through the senior alternates (3rd, 4th, 5th, etc.). If there are no seniors left, go to junior, 1st alternates by merit points, then sophomores, and then freshmen. Joy of Tournaments can produce this report for any district that uses the JOT software to tabulate the district tournament series.

Option B – Any district participant would be given the opportunity to apply for consideration. The district would select a committee to examine the applications and make decisions to field the team. The selection committee may consist of active coaches, retired coaches, community members, administrators, and more. Selection committee members should recuse themselves from scoring their own student applicants. In addition to the criteria suggested in option A, the selection committee might also consider additional criteria, but are not bound to them: • Give preference to applicants who are from schools that did not qualify to the National Tournament.

• Give preference to applicants from schools with fewer than three entries. • Give preference to new schools in the district. • Give preference to schools with new coaches in the district. Note: If your state association prevents hybrid teams, a district may select entries all from one school to enable a participating team to attend Nationals. Coach of the World Schools District Team The coach of the district team could be selected by the District Committee. This person would be the main point of contact between the national office and the district team. Entry to the National Tournament The cost of entering a team to the World Schools competition is $50 per student. As with any entry to Nationals, the cost of travel and lodging is the responsibility of the participants. Districts need to provide a judge to evaluate preliminary and elimination rounds. Additionally, there will be a waiting list for Nationals to grant additional entries to the National Tournament. Priority will be given based upon overall district tournament participation. Participation in Supplemental and Consolation Events World Schools contestants are eligible to pre-register for supplemental and consolation events.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 33

What We're Reading As we explore the Code of Honor this month, we offer insights into the values of integrity, humility, respect, leadership, and service with more of our favorite books.

The student leadership guide

The happiness hypothesis by Jonathan Haidt

by Brendon Burchard The Student Leadership Guide is a step-by-step guide to learning leadership, understanding your role in empowering others to be their best, and finding an ethical compass by which to lead by example. The book tackles the hard work of finding a vision and working toward it while offering easy to use checklists and activities. This work is essential for anyone who wants the audience, their employees, or even their friends to work toward or understand a shared goal.

THE FRED FACTOR by Mark Sanborn Fred is a postman who made a positive impact on the life of author Mark Sanborn. Through various examples, Mark anecdotally examines ways in which Fred embodies integrity, humility, respect, leadership, and service by going above and beyond with his job to make a positive difference in the life of others. The book looks at various “Freds” who exist in society. The simplicity of the text makes it a quick, easy read. It could be beneficial in helping student leaders understand the value of all positions related to mentorship, tournament management, or fundraising.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Finding Flow is a study in finding that spot where we are living life fully and being present in our own actions. The connection to communication and finding flow is powerful—finding the truth in your words and then learning how others respond to your words can create a state of ‘flow’ that brings you and others to live more presently and more mindfully. Based on psychological studies and the human experience this read puts life, work and love into perspective.

INVICTUS: NELSON MANDELA AND THE GAME THAT MADE A NATION by John Carlin Invictus is an inspiring story about how competition can build respect and how leadership can change a society. If you’ve seen the movie, you’ve only seen a small part of the story. This book is a historical page turner that will leave you empowered to change the world!

The Happiness Hypothesis takes the idea of happiness and turns it on its head. Are we supposed to be ‘happy’ all the time? What does that mean for our relationships at home, at work, at school? Where else could you find a chapter about finding faults in yourself and feeling good about it? This book forces us to look at our own leadership styles, how we relate to others, and where our own core vales intersect with our ‘happiness.’

THE CONTRARIAN’S GUIDE TO LEADERSHIP by Steven B. Sample Best known for turning around the University of Southern California as its president, Sample authored this classic on leadership by sharing stories of how his unique vision was realized through a series of decisions that would seem by many to be counter-intuitive. One of his best examples is to avoid the trap many leaders make, which is hiring beneath you. Sample wants his ‘lieutenants,’ as he labels them, to be smarter and better at their jobs than anyone else. In essence, you can’t do your best job if you’re afraid of losing your job to others.



“I Don’t Run a Debate Club, I Run a Business”: The Delegation of Leadership by Ganer Newman

“Delegating leadership is about capitalizing on the creative assets of your students, developing your students into future leaders, and shaping a disciplined team culture.”


remember vividly the day I walked into the speech and debate headquarters at Teurlings Catholic High. Although at the time, I didn’t know that it was the speech and debate headquarters, or that speech and debate was offered at my high school, or even what speech and debate was. I saw several students entering a building and, scared out of my mind and desperate for friendship, I followed them. The team was housed in a small chapel on our small Catholic school campus. The chapel doors opened to a peculiar classroom with laminate-top student desks instead of pews. In the foreground were the obvious newbies; some stood aimlessly and others sat at a chosen desk with perky postures, projecting that they would make ideal team members. Beyond the desks was an altar repurposed as a stage. There, the veteran members moved like characters out of an Aaron Sorkin TV drama. Some carried commitment forms, others stapled information packets, a few senior members scanned a meeting agenda, other

senior team members introduced themselves to the newcomers. I overheard one of them say, “We travel all over the state and even go to some national competitions. This year our national tournament is in New York City!” They looked like sharks, moving through the space with a confident sense of purpose. They knew exactly what they were doing. I made myself comfortable by sitting on top of a desk. Then out of nowhere a senior member zipped by me and said in a tone that was authoritative and warm all at the same time, “We don’t sit on the desk tops because they can break.” I would never sit on the desk top ever again. I didn’t know what I wanted to do with my life or how I was going to survive the second week of high school, but I knew I wanted to move and speak like that. What I was witnessing was the result of strong leadership delegation. Among the many duties and responsibilities facing a head coach are establishing an effective communication climate,

monitoring the academic progress of students, managing conflict, budget administration, travel administration, personnel administration, program administration, public relations, and shaping and reinforcing a positive team culture. Coaches also teach courses, recruit students, serve on committees in the activity, travel to tournaments, and give “life coaching” lessons to their students. Given this, delegating the workload is essential to the effective management of the team. Lisa Miller of Nova High School once told me, “I don’t run a debate club, I run a business.” As the head coach at one of the largest and most successful programs in the country, she has discovered that a strong organizational structure is key to sustained success in the activity. The delegation of essential team responsibilities benefits the culture of a team in a variety of areas. In my years working as a consultant for a variety of high school programs and as a coach and administrator at Western Kentucky University, I have learned that program directors should engage in the practice of

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 35

leadership delegation regardless of team size, history, or the availability of institutional resources and support. Why Delegate Leadership? Teams may hypothetically operate under a purely vertical leadership structure, where the head coach or director doles out commands at weekly team meetings. However, the wide variety of day-to-day responsibilities required to effectively run a team combined with the evershifting nature of the competition necessitate a sharing of leadership responsibilities. Pearce (2004) argues that “shared leadership occurs when all members of a team are fully engaged in the leadership of the team and are not hesitant to influence and guide their fellow team members in an effort to maximize the potential of the team as a whole” (p. 48). Pearce furthers that shared leadership among knowledge work teams, or teams that engage in work that requires significant investment of intellectual capital from members, is most necessary when tasks are interdependent, creative, and complex. At its basic core, the activity requires students to compose and perform material at tournaments. All members of a forensic program must work together to achieve even the most rudimentary of organizational goals. After all, it is rare to find a terribly successful student who is completely self-coached, and a coach cannot expect his or her team to perform well without student competitors. On a deeper level, coaches and students must depend upon one another and learn from each other’s experience in order for a team to grow competitively. Our tasks are also highly demanding creatively. Pearce and Manz (2005) contend, “For organizations that need continuous innovation...as well as perform in


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

the most up-to-date and effective ways, self- and shared leadership are essential” (p. 136). In speech and debate, students are expected to design and present dynamic arguments, find the newest selections of literature, and keep up with ever shifting trends. Shared leadership eases some of the demands of the creative process. Forensics is a highly complex activity. There are a wide variety of events offered in the activity and a reality many coaches face is that some events elude our understanding. At the same time, most student competitors enter speech and debate with no previous experience in the activity. As Pearce (2004) notes, “The more complex the task, the lower the likelihood that any one individual can be an expert on all task components” (p. 49). Delegating roles helps students become experts in particular areas and ensures a well-rounded team. Leadership Delegation and Empowerment Effectively delegating responsibilities can serve a valuable function in the development of a student. Obviously, as directors of competitive programs, we all have our own competitive goals. We also hope for our students that in their time in the activity, they grow as critical thinkers and contribute creatively to the events in which they compete. We want our students to learn as much as they can about the activity, so that they may one day give back to it. The effective delegation of leadership roles on a team can aid in accomplishing each of these goals. Lefton and Buzzotta (2004) note that redesigning a role through the addition of responsibilities encourages organizational members to “tap into previously unused personal resources” (p. 143). When a student is charged with an important team responsibility, they are likely

to sharpen existing skills or develop new ones in order to meet the demands of the task. When a student is delegated the role of an “event leader,” they will do what they can to become an expert in that particular event. Shared leadership leads to greater team empowerment “by heightening members’ sense of meaningfulness, autonomy, impact, or potency” (Carson, Tesluk, & Marrone, 2007, p. 1221). Moreover, Zhang and Bartol (2010) contend that empowering leadership positively influences creative outcomes because it taps into intrinsic task motivation. When a head coach or program director delegates leadership roles to team members, he or she overtly communicates trust and fosters a sense of shared purpose. For example, when students are instructed to coordinate an important aspect of tournament administration, they will internalize the responsibility and do whatever they can to ensure the successful completion of the task. When that senior member told me not to sit on the desk top, he didn’t say, “You shouldn’t sit on the desk top.” He said, “We don’t sit on the desk tops.” Empowering veteran team members to administrate over new team members in the completion of crucial team functions cultivates a team culture of discipline. Basic Tips for Effective Leadership Delegation A program director would be wise to avoid simply administering orders over email or in team meetings. For one thing, students can have terrible memories and rarely write things down. When they do take notes, they are often scribbled on a scratch piece of paper and lost in the abyss of their book bags. This approach also misses a critical opportunity to reap the benefits described in the preceding sections. Delegating


leadership among coaches requires even more careful thinking. When an assistant or volunteer coach is put in charge of certain events, s/he plays a major role in the competitive success of those events. Over time, for better or for worse, that coach shapes a team’s competitive legacy in the events s/he is delegated to lead. Therefore, whether it is assigning roles in tournament or fundraising efforts or bestowing event responsibilities to coaches, leadership delegation requires careful planning, assessment, and a willingness to intervene if necessary. Clearly Define Roles. When delegating team roles, it is important that the role is clearly defined and that there are mutually understood deadlines for when the task will be completed. The makeup of your team will have a significant influence on how roles are defined and coordinated. You may be the sole coach of a small team of ten students. In this case, it may be helpful to create formal roles like team captain/president, cocaptains, treasurers, historians, and public relations leaders. Directors at fledgling programs may also delegate student coaches by genre rather than by event. No matter how you choose to organize your team, you must work with the student leaders to design a clear vision for their particular role with concrete benchmarks that must be met over an agreed upon time frame. This is also essential for larger programs with multiple volunteer coaches. Both coaches and students must know their role in the overall mission of the organization. Follow Up. It is essential that directors follow up with all delegated responsibilities. This can be done in a variety of ways. I recommend that directors hold at least two weekly meetings: one with team leaders and another general meeting with the students. Having a regular meeting

time helps the director assess the progress of delegated responsibilities and give him or her time to provide feedback to students. Weekly meetings are also a great time to gain feedback on your leadership. Offer Praise. As a program director, it is important to signal appreciation for a job well done. When your team hosts a tournament, publicly thank your student competitors and coaches before the awards ceremony. One great tradition is the weekly recognition of a “Team Member of the Week,” where the director praises the student for his or her exemplary work in front of his or her peers. Simple gestures like this signal to all members that their delegated role, no matter how small, is vital to the team’s collective goals. Intervene When Necessary. A program director has to be prepared to intervene if a team member is on a failing trajectory. As the director, it is your role to guide students if they seem to be struggling with their delegated duties. If the problem concerns tournament administration, you may need to step into the role or reassign the role in order to ensure the smooth operation of the tournament. If you recognize a concern with a team member’s

coaching abilities, I recommend first working in joint coaching sessions to provide a stronger model for the student leader. While a director should avoid micromanaging as much as possible, it is substantially easier to fix event problems in the foundational stages than in the days leading up to the big tournament. Final Thoughts Delegating leadership is not about making your life as a coach easier. It is about capitalizing on the creative assets of your students, developing your students into future leaders, and shaping a disciplined team culture. When we empower our team members, they will rise to the occasion.

Ganer Newman is the Director of Forensics at Western Kentucky University. As a competitor for WKU, Ganer was the National Champion in Poetry Interpretation and Communication Analysis at the AFA National Tournament in 2010 and competed in several late out rounds and final rounds in Public Address and Interpretation that helped the team sweep five national championships. WKU remains the only team in the nation to win AFA NIET, NFA IE and Debate, and IFA championships in the same year—a feat the program has accomplished six times.

References Carson, J.B., Tesluk, P.E., & Marrone, J.A. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1217-1234. Lefton, R.E., & Buzzota, V. (2004). Leadership through people skills. New York: McGraw Hill. Pearce, C.L. (2004). The future of leadership: Combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge work. The Academy of Management Executive, 18(1), 47-59. Pearce, C.L. & Manz, C.C. (2005). The new silver bullets of leadership: The importance of self- and shared leadership in knowledge work. Organization Dynamics, 34(2), 130-140. Zhang, X. & Bartol, K.M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. The Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107-128.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 37


Order Extemp Questions for your upcoming tournament!


2014–15 !

The National Speech & Debate Association is providing FREE Extemp questions for District Tournaments in the 2014-15 school year! Tournaments can access up to seven rounds of questions for United States Extemporaneous Speaking, International Extemporaneous Speaking, or Mixed Extemp.

Tournaments will receive: • Topic areas to post before the tournament (requests will be taken, but specific topic areas cannot be guaranteed) • A minimum of ten questions per round • Up to seven rounds of questions • Electronic access to the questions the THURSDAY before your tournament Extemp Questions are FREE for nationally-qualifying District Tournaments. Invitational Tournaments can purchase a set of questions.

Member School Hosts: Single Division

Two Divisions



Resource Package Subscribers: Single Division

Two Divisions

$100/up to seven rounds!

$150/up to seven rounds!

All questions are created by the team that produces the National Speech & Debate Tournament questions!

Contact Steve Schappaugh to order questions for your tournament! steve.schappaugh@speechanddebate.org

Simpson College is proud to host



$425 includes: Five day camp All meals except breakfast • Open to students entering grades 9-12 in the fall of 2015 • The camp will include five days of direct instruction, practice rounds and a camp tournament • Evening activities and supervision provided

$525 includes: Five day camp w/lodging All meals • Students and coaches will be taught by some of the top debate instructors in the country • First-timers and experienced debaters welcome • Air-conditioned lodging

For more information, please email spencer.waugh@simpson.edu or visit the web.


Forensics is a Contact Sport: Speaking the Language of Athletics Can Help Your Speech and Debate Program Thrive by Ned W. Lauver

“As we build and sustain our programs, it is critical that we strategically engage all parties in a manner reflective of what our larger society already knows and understands.”


t is often said that to be successful in public service, one must be able to raise the level of discourse and educate the electorate. The same challenge applies to coaches in the speech and debate world—and the task of educating our communities about what forensics is and why they should care is more critical than ever. Capitalizing upon a community’s existing understanding of an athletic framework may be one of the best ways in which to accomplish this task. Even if we don’t follow a particular sport, it is likely that we still possess general knowledge of what a basketball game looks like, the basic rules governing football (whether American or European!), or the dimensions of a baseball diamond. Before students, their families, or any other community stakeholder attends a speech and debate tournament, does anyone


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

really know what we do each Saturday in the dead of winter? Thus, as we build and sustain our programs, it is critical that we strategically engage all parties in a manner reflective of what our larger society already knows and understands. Recruitment and Feeder Programs Community youth programs and recruitment pipelines are essential for high-powered athletic programs. Without the equivalent of a Hot Stove or AAU organization, what’s a debate coach to do? Begin with the basics. During a relative lull (!) in the competition season, create opportunities for team members, especially upperclassmen, to travel to the middle school(s) in your area to demonstrate events and stoke enthusiasm. Recruit rising freshmen by utilizing gifted/honors class rosters, teacher/administrator recommendations and, if applicable,

the National Junior Honor Society rolls. Build a targeted recruitment list, write letters, and make personal phone calls to students and their families. Later, move toward more complicated goals. Does the middle school have a dedicated speech and debate-oriented elective? Would you be able to work with a teacher and/ or administrator in order to create one? Do gifted and talented pull out services in the district’s elementary schools possess any alignment to forensics categories? They could and should! Administrators and coaches understand the language of pipelines and recruiting classes—use the lingo as you pursue your agenda. It may open doors. Document Your Team’s Legacy It pains me to admit that, as a history major and social studies teacher by training, I neglected to do enough in this area as the head coach of


the Wooster High School Speech and Debate Team during my fouryear tenure from 2007-11. Thankfully, I was able to rely on parents and community members to steer things in the right direction. As parent, former coach, and frequent judge Dan O’Rourke has both discussed with me and written in Rostrum [Winter 2014, Vol. 88, Issue 3], writing a team history can be a productive and powerful way to connect team to community. Chances are that your high school athletic department and booster organization can tell you the dates and back stories of every state, regional, or district title, individual milestones and achievements, and much more about their programs. We should be able to do the same. Dan and his son Morgan scoured a century of records in order to produce their book, A Good Town Speaking Well: A History of the Wooster Speech and Debate Team. In the process, they helped us to connect to our own history in powerful ways and generated valuable publicity for an already storied program. They wrote of champions and legacies and commitment to causes greater than one’s self. They regaled readers with tales of tournaments and travels and titanic struggles against both actual opponents and the weather. Save for the details, we could be talking about any sports program in the nation. Community members will relate to these stories. Consider it an imperative to tell them. Ensure Equal Recognition Good news for all the LincolnDouglas debaters out there: Factual, value-based approaches to recognition on par with your school’s

athletic counterparts are winners with school administrators. Call it a team, not a club or an activity, and make it clear that you expect to be treated as such. It is only right that a school that awards varsity letters for athletic participation and, often, marching band would also award varsity letters for forensics. It is only just that a school that holds hallway sendoffs for state qualifiers in athletic competition would do the same for the speech and debate team. In conversing with school leadership, propose thresholds for such recognition proportional to those demanded in the world of sport. For example, tenure of participation at the varsity level and distinguished achievement are often requirements for a letter award in high school interscholastic athletics. Author a proposal that requires team members to complete two full varsity speech and debate seasons in good standing and the earning of, say, the Association’s Degree of Excellence (150 points) in order to earn a varsity letter in speech and debate. Only the myopic administrator would reject such stringent criteria (and excellence, no less!). Only a school with a selfdestructive culture and climate would deny your students participation in a brief hallway pep rally to celebrate state-level achievement. It’s win-win. Dress for Success “Forensics” on a letter jacket can become a point of pride rather than a target for bullying if promoted by a critical mass of students. Many students forego the letter jackets these days, but hoodies, team warmups, and that old stand-by, the team T-shirt, are still as popular as ever. Your team should have them and

they should be designed in school colors. By the same token, the coach sets the tone for this outpouring of school spirit. Casual Fridays, pep assemblies, athletic contests, speech tournaments, and more represent myriad opportunities to link your program to the larger esprit de corps and mission of the school. You are a head coach and your team is a team. When you and your team dress in a manner and style similar to your athletic counterparts, it will send the message that your school is unified—and other teachers, administrators, and community members will take notice. Inform (and Persuade) with Strategic Language Weekly press releases and strategic communication with school and district administration are essential. Reading ballots is still a good way to pass the time on a long bus ride home, but it is increasingly important to spend some of that time rolling out team stories on social media and preparing a press release to parents and local media outlets. High school athletic departments tweet in-game updates and provide releases to local newspapers—we should do the same. Additionally, strategic language is important. Instead of simply reporting a fourth place finish at a nameless local tournament, emphasize how many teams were competing (e.g., 4th among 21 teams competing), the location of the tournament, and individual tournament champions. Establish a league championship and declare individual league champions in each event. When providing interviews for members of the local media, find ways to equate speech and debate to track or swim meets

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 41

(or other recognizable athletic competitions) and discuss forensics in visceral terms. Speech and debate tournaments (especially at the upper echelons of competition) are just as physically and mentally exhausting as their athletic counterparts—use language that illustrates the point. Presence and Connections When new head football coaches are hired, they are often fêted by the community and expected to return the favor. They aren’t just putting in time on the gridiron or in the weight room; they are attending community events, conducting fundraisers, and maintaining a strategic presence at everything from

district feeder schools, community organizations, and the local grocery store. We can learn much from this example. We can be joiners (Rotary, Kiwanis, fraternal organizations, etc.), attend fundraisers, and ensure that our students are consistently serving (and performing) in public. Perhaps most important of all, we can build relationships with other coaches and the athletic director. These connections can be the most important of one’s career. The strongest speech and debate programs have found ways to elucidate their identity and value to the larger community. I submit that a critical way in which to accomplish this is to utilize the strategic language

and methods of successful athletic programs. As education budgets continue to tighten, we need allies and advocates more than ever. The more community members who see speech and debate programs as serious, competitive teams and not just after-school clubs, the stronger that advocacy will be. Let us take a greater role in defining our status within the larger community—and let us thrive.

Ned W. Lauver is an Assistant Principal at Westlake High School in Ohio. He formerly coached at Wooster High School in Ohio. Now an administrator, speech and debate remains close to his heart.

Seeking Coach Clinic Instructors If you are planning on attending the National Tournament in Dallas and are interested in volunteering to lead a coach clinic, please complete our application form by April 1. Decisions about session offerings will be announced by May 1. If you have any questions, please email steve.schappaugh@speechanddebate.org.



Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Spend Your Summer at Dartmouth College!

Ivy League Education

As professional educators, we strictly adhere to the importance of small class size with an educationally sound curriculum.

Fundamentals of Argumentation, Public Forum, and Parliamentary Debate

July 1 - July 10

Policy Debate Options DDIx July 1 - July 10 DDI July 12 - August 8 2015 DDI Staff

Chris Crowe, Univ. of Cal-Berkeley (CA) Sean Kennedy, Univ. of Kansas (KS)

Mikaela Malsin, Univ. of Georgia (GA) Ian Miller, Niles North HS (IL) Dylan Quigley, Harvard (MA)

Lindsey Shook, James Madison Univ. (VA) Sarah Spring, Univ. of Houston (TX) Ken Strange, Dartmouth (NH)

2015 DDIx Staff Jeff Miller

Matt Struth, Univ. of Minnesota (MN)

Everett Rutan

Nicole Wanzer-Serrano, NSDA

Marist School (GA) CT Debate League (CT)

Dr. Darrel Wanzer-Serrano Univ. of Iowa (IA)


Keegan Tomik, Dartmouth (NH) John Turner, Emory (GA)

Students live and learn in Dartmouth College settings and are taught by the same folks who recruit for the debate team—the nationally successful Dartmouth Debate coaches.


Emily Stroud Where did you compete and in what events? What is your profession now? I competed at Homewood High School in Alabama from 1980 to 1984. My best events were Extemporaneous Speaking, Policy Debate, and LincolnDouglas Debate. I also competed in Humorous Interpretation and Dramatic Interpretation. After graduation, I went to Northwestern University where I was on the debate team for a couple of years. I graduated with a Journalism degree and have worked in broadcast news for 25 years. Right now I am a feature reporter and fill-in anchor at WBIR-TV in Knoxville, Tennessee. I'm also an author. My novel Broken News is a comic/tragic tale set in a newsroom. Why did you join your speech and debate team? My drama coach, Patricia Bailey, was also the debate coach. She encouraged me to give it a try. Tell me about your successes and failures as a competitor, and what you learned from those experiences. My most surprising success was qualifying in Extemp for the National Debate Tournament in San Francisco my sophomore year. That was an awesome trip! When I drew the topic at the qualifying district tournament, I had zero supporting information on it. My heart sank. I ended up kind of winging it and drawing from a personal experience instead of


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

official sources. The judges gave me top scores. What seemed like an embarrassing loss turned out to be a victory after all. I also went to Nationals my junior year in Extemp in Kansas City. My senior year I also qualified for Nationals in San Antonio, but a car wreck the day after graduation kept me in the hospital instead. That was my biggest disappointment. The first time I debated in class—not even an actual tournament—I cried. My debate partner and best friend, Robert McAliley, encouraged me to stick with it. We won a lot of rounds together, and we lost a lot, too. Debate taught me to be gracious in both losing and winning, support your teammates in good times and bad, and know that whatever happened the last round doesn't matter—you must focus on the task at hand. Do you have any favorite memories from your time as a competitor? Late nights at the library researching. We didn't have the Internet or even computers! Long van rides to tournaments. Coming up with just the right question during cross examination.

Eye contact and raised eyebrows with Robert during an opponent's speech, knowing we could win that particular argument. Learning about a big world beyond my high school and small town. Meeting super smart students from across the country. Figuring out that my teenage self did not have all the answers. How do you think speech and debate has helped you become successful in your career? From my first job interview, I used the skills I learned in debate: eye contact, firm hand shake, communicate clearly, sum up why you should win the round / get the job. As a reporter, part of my job

"Debate taught me to assemble facts quickly, discern what is important, then present them in a logical and compelling way."


Help Us Share Your Stories!

is interviewing prominent people. Debate set the foundation for the confidence to do that. Another part of my job is absorbing a lot of information, then molding it into a story on a deadline. Sitting in court all day then boiling it down to a two-minute report uses skills I developed through Extemp. Twenty minutes to prepare a sevenminute speech on a foreign policy question? No problem. Arriving at a murder scene 10 minutes before I need to go live? Debate taught me to assemble facts quickly, discern what is important, then present them in a logical and compelling way. What advice would you give to students who are joining speech and debate? Nailing the details is important, but don't miss the big picture. Oh, and drink some water right before you stand up to talk. Dry mouth is not good!


he National Speech & Debate Association is excited to take part in an effort to establish an online National Forensics Oral History Archive (NFOHA). The goal of the archive is to become a resource and repository for use by anyone— educators, current students, alumni, and parents—interested in and supportive of speech and debate. This joint venture is proudly co-sponsored by Pi Kappa Delta and administered by MediaLab at Pacific Lutheran University. The site will contain videos, photographs, and other artifacts that celebrate the rich history of speech and debate in the United States. We currently are accepting submissions of documents, photos, film, and audio that offer some perspective on the history of speech and debate at your school, in your city, in your state/ district, at the National Tournament, and beyond. Your experience need not be specific to membership in our Association. We want to capture the historical highlights of our activity in general! If you have content you believe is suitable for this site, please contact info@nfoha.org with a brief description of the content you wish to submit. You’ll receive further instructions on delivering the content to us from there!

Is there anything else you want to add? I loved my time in speech and debate. It was just one of my many extracurricular activities in high school but by far the most fun and by far the one that had the biggest impact on my life.

Want to write for Rostrum? Emily Stroud is a 1984 graduate of Homewood High School in Alabama. She is a feature reporter and fill-in anchor at WBIR-TV in Knoxville, Tennessee. She is the author of the novel Broken News.


Email editor@speechanddebate.org with your ideas or comments!

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 45


NATIONAL DEBATE COACH ASSOCIATION NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS Join us  for  the  NDCA  National  Championship   Tournament  April  11-­‐13,  2015  at  the  University  of   Nevada-­‐Las  Vegas   Policy  Debate  •  Lincoln-­‐Douglas  Debate  •  Public  Forum  Debate  •   Congressional   Debate    


Warrant the Argument: A Literature Synthesis Examining the Benefits of Teaching Strategies and Active Competition within Speech and Debate

by Josh A. Hamilton


chool districts across the United States are continually in a state of change. Whether by their own accord or via a topdown local, state, and federal mandate, change is constant. In endeavoring to keep pace with continual change, teaching strategies become more relevant than ever as they remain a constant basic platform; teachers will always need strategies for teaching. However, with the implementation of Common Core, in conjunction with other state mandates to measure student success, once again teaching strategies must adapt. Implementing strategies to aid students with critical thinking, argumentation, analysis, and research/reading strategies may assist teachers and students in their quest to meet these new standards. Strategies such as these employed within speech and debate classrooms may do just that (O’Connor, 2014). Although


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

sparse, literature concerning the use of speech and debate strategies for teaching and the effects on student performance exist, and aid to assist the argument to be made for the use of these strategies across the curriculum. Thus, this literature synthesis will seek to analyze what, if any, benefits can be found for students’ academics from either teaching strategies employed across the curriculum by teachers and/or students’ active competition within a speech and debate program at the secondary level. The synthesis will begin by reviewing teaching strategies associated with speech and debate, move on to analyze teachers’ usage of said skills from a constructivist lens, and finally the direct benefits of competition for students. The traditional use of debate within the classroom is modeled from students advocating for or against a set topic. The process is designed

as a way of assessing students’ abilities to effectively research and construct arguments (Huryn, 1986). Debate, specifically in a competitive sense, can be seen as an individual or partner activity; however, in the classroom setting, this may easily be expanded. Kennedy (2007) examined the use of debate strategies employed for students within a collegiate level classroom. These practices were confirmed within this case study to be applicable to secondary courses, as well. Several teaching practices using speech and debate strategies exist; this article begins by examining the “fish bowl” style of debate, in which the class is divided into two groups and debates as a unit back and forth. Think-pairshare follows the traditional model of this exercise but has students in their partnership list potential pros and cons of a topic to decide which side to take on a proposed topic. Post this initial thinking and sharing,


teams engage in debate within partnerships. Kennedy notes that “this strategy requires all the students in the class to practice their writing, thinking, listening, and speaking skills” (p. 187). These are only a few examples of debate strategies that may be employed within a classroom to advance critical thinking skills as well as practices of writing, speaking, reading, and listening. Omelicheva (2007) cites several other scholars in order to develop a case for debate within an academic setting. The overarching emphasis focuses on English, Social Studies, and Political Sciences courses, but finds over-arching themes within educational classrooms as a whole that use debate as a teaching strategy. The article claims: “The strongest argument for using academic debates zeros in on the acclaimed contributions of debate to three domains of student learning: (1) cognitive domain (development of critical thinking); (2) affective domain (generation of interest in the subject matter); and (3) a domain of skills and abilities (communication and teamwork)” (p. 163). These aforementioned domains have implications across curricula. As educators, we continually focus within our day-to-day teaching on these domains in some aspect. Critical thinking has been addressed throughout the literature and is also a mainstay within teaching throughout curricula. Furthermore, the student-centered interest/ teaching has been noted to be a fundamental component to “good” teaching. This practice is derived from understanding and tapping

into student interest through the use of relevant pedagogy as well as student-centered learning (Poetter, 2013). Finally, the basic tenets of communication and teamwork can be found within any classroom on any given day from simple responses of students to presentations, as well as group work. Thus, it stands to reason that competitive debate may be an effective contributor to the everyday classroom as it focuses on these three domains utilizing the student interest, their voice, and building an environment that aids critical thinking and development. When seeking to implement these strategies across the curriculum it can be argued that the importance of debate stems from its multidimensional usage. Allison (2002) in addressing the subject of debate within a classroom setting sought to describe the experiences of debaters in classroom settings across a curriculum. Within this analysis, Allison first notes the importance of debate as a cross-curricular opportunity due to its multiple functions, including reading, writing, analysis, and speaking. Furthermore, he asserts “debating is flexible and with the growth of new demands for cross-curricular studies, it is relatively easy to combine school disciplines” (p. 14). Thus, if school dynamics, policies, strategies, etc., are constantly in flux, then a flexible teaching strategy may aid teachers in the daunting task of keeping up with the change of the moment. These strategies are simply a first glance into the potential benefits for students’ academic performance when utilizing the principles of speech and debate. Constructivist research would advocate the use of competitive

forensic strategies, such as public speaking, to allow a student to build upon one’s schema in order to gain new knowledge. Bellon (2000) asserts this to be the case, as well, by emphasizing the notion that the use of public speaking builds upon prior knowledge to enhance critical thinking. Debate strategies such as building arguments, creating blocks, and prior preparation for either side of an issue allow students greater access to learning via the use of constructivism. This is due in larger part to the student building upon prior learning, accessing and creating schemas for new knowledge, and critically analyzing for the purposes of argumentation. Moving into a classroom setting, one such example may be an ELA classroom. Teachers may use the debate strategies associated with argument construction to aid in student writing. Understanding the process of argumentation structure, in addition to the use of evidence to support claims, can aid in persuasive writing prompts. Students who are active participants within competitive speech and debate programs have shown to be more likely to produce English course writing that is formatted soundly and cohesively versus their non-participant peers (Dickson, 2004). In addition to the notion of constructing knowledge is also the use of schema theory to create a classroom where students are actively engaged, or studentcentered learning. Research has indicated that students tend to find discourse and active analysis more effective to learning than simply submissively consuming the content (Bonwell & Edison, 1991).

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 49

Students’ critical thinking skills have been shown to be linked with engagement and provide a positive correlation to students’ academic performance (Carini, Kuh, & Klein, 2006). Research results vary in terms of demonstrating a clear correlation of improved critical thinking skills with participation in competitive forensics. This enhanced ability to think critically from participation in speech and debate, however, has been noted to boost students’ critical stances in course work outside of the speech and debate community (Musselman, 2004). Several studies have been conducted that have presented conflicting and often vague results as to a positive correlation. The cornerstone criticism of such studies as outlined by Musselman (2004) stems from research using the Watson-Glaser test. Watson-Glaser simply scores on correct or incorrect responses, which fails to acknowledge critical thinking responses since it is only examining right or wrong from a pre-test to post. Allen, et al. (1999) responded to such criticisms employing a meta-analysis of prior research of both published and unpublished works to find a strong answer to the hypothesis. Within their research, the comparison of both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies were reviewed and found that within each sub-set of forensics (debate, mock trial, and individual events) an increase in critical thinking had a strong positive correlation. Wong & Kwan (2014) reiterated, “constructivist learning environments are believed to be important in students’ learning” (p. 192). These environments, the authors go on to assert, are stimulating students’ critical thinking, which is foundational


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

for constructivist teaching/ learning and critical to students’ long-term learning. Additionally, the study illustrated that students who participated in competitive speech and debate had larger gains in critical thinking skills than those who simply participated in public speaking. Thus, the authors suggest the forensic community continue to engage in discourse on how the use of these strategies can be considered in courses across curricula to bolster comprehension. Through the constructivist lens, it becomes evident that the benefits of debate as a teaching tool are prevalent via the engagement pieces of discourse that provide student-centered learning, and build upon abilities to critically analyze as well. Bridging the gap between the lenses of constructivism and practice one can examine Goodwin (2003) who challenged herself within a post-secondary classroom of sophomore-year students to use debate strategies as part of her teaching of postmodernism. Post lesson, she conducted an analysis of the students’ overall experiences. The study used probing questions to have students in a structured manner go back and fourth on a particular topic, a simple debate strategy. Two key findings were that first, “all but one of the 52 students expressed positive assessments of their debate experience” (p. 160). These findings indicated that a majority of students, to some degree, found this to be an engaging way to study a unit. Also, “the great majority of students, 79% however, focused on how the debates had encouraged or indeed ‘forced’ them to better learn the course content” (p. 161). This reveals

that students felt they needed to have a better understanding of the content in order to better assert their side within the debate. Although this is a post-secondary course, the implications for secondary teachers are great for two major reasons. First, it allows insight into the potential effects that could occur within a similar setting, and second, it demonstrates a possible scenario of learning students may experience later within post-secondary education. The student-centered focus combined with the ability for students to understand they needed to better construct the knowledge in this activity in order to learn and argue their perspective, is a worthy example of the theory and practice coming together. Most recently, Lux (2014) examined the benefits of competitive speech and debate at both the high school and collegiate level. However, Lux notes that debate about debate stems from the common practice that is occurring within programs across America: budget cuts to programs despite their benefits. Ultimately, after the completion of data collection via survey distribution of former competitive forensic students, the conclusions drawn were that the activity promotes several skills. The survey indicated the skills obtained from those who participated in this activity included increased communication skills, opportunity for competition, and enhanced critical thinking skills, as well as analysis of evidence/ arguments. Additionally, students found they had an “enhanced ability to think fast” (p. 31) which aided in their overall academic abilities due to enhanced comprehension in a timely


manner. Thus, it seems apparent that several skill sets can be obtained from participation within speech and debate. Furthermore, “Educational Visions of Interscholastic Debate: A Content Analysis of Discussions with Secondary School Coaches” (1987) began an investigation at the national level with several coaches’ justifications for competitive forensic programs. The study indicated that from their interviews of coaches on the circuit the justifications for participating in competitive forensics were consistently the same from each coach, and rarely, if at all, changed based upon the audience. The order of justification usage (which were described in-depth within the study) went as follows: enjoyment/fun of the activity, increased communication skills, increased “life skills,” and an increase in academic achievement in some manner. In this final justification, answers varied among coaches as a rationale for usage in other classes to college readiness, but overall, consistently the last justification was used to promote competitive speech and debate. Academic performance associated with Common Core standards have found benefits from speech and debate competition, as well. For instance Kuyper (2011) notes that in order to compete in speech and debate, “one must have an eye for good literary writing, a solid foundation of literary and rhetorical theory, a working knowledge of current events, a keen grasp of structure and outlining, and a broad base of pop culture and historical knowledge” (p. 20). These are the basic premises aligned within a reading/ writing/social studies curriculum.

Additionally, one must remember we often overlook the intangible or unquantifiable benefits of programs when assessing their academic use. Within education, speech and debate often fall within this realm. Take for example the premise that participation in speech and debate can help a student gain a better sense of identity, improve self-worth, build self-esteem, and give a student social interactions they might not have attained from this team sense without the program (Hinck, 2003). These types of benefits, although not quantifiable, have larger impacts in the realm of teaching. If, as educators, we strive to make our students better prepared for the world ahead of them, then the aforementioned intangible benefits must be addressed as well. Speech and debate programs have the ability to do just that. Within the realm of speech and debate, both the involvement within the competitive forensic community, as well as the use of teaching strategies that correlate with said activity, have shown to have a positive impact on student academic performance. This can be seen first through a constructivist lens, which focuses on the use of schema theory and student-centered learning. This constructivist approach allows students an ample opportunity to explore critical lenses to assist in developing their critical thinking skills. Furthermore, the research indicates that the use of debate teaching strategies within the classroom have boosted student critical thinking/ analysis skills. Through the use of strategies that carry across into competition such as switch-side debate, think-pair-share, as well

as argument construction and research, one can determine that ultimately the use of these teaching devices and/or active competition within speech and debate have a positive influence on student performance. The literature suggests that students’ comprehension, critical thinking, argumentation/ construction strategies, and a host of other skills that aid student academic performance can be found from the use of speech and debate. Furthermore, active competition within speech and debate as well has been shown to boost students’ capabilities regarding a range of skills sets, including but not limited to reading comprehension, writing, cognition, public speaking, teamwork, etc. Thus, with a continually changing education system and implementation of various standards and benchmarks, it is evident that the use of speech and debate teaching strategies and/or active competition can have a positive influence for students’ academic performances.

(For article references, see next page.)

Josh A. Hamilton is a one diamond coach currently teaching and coaching speech and debate at Denton Guyer High School in Denton, TX. He competed in forensics throughout high school and pursued a B.S. in Communications and a Masters in Secondary Education with a minor in Sociology from Texas A&M UniversityCommerce. Currently, Mr. Hamilton is in his second year pursing a Ph.D. in Philosophy with a concentration in Literacy and Language from the University of North Texas.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 51

References Allen, M., Berkowitz, S., Hunt, S. B., & Louden, A.D. (1999). A meta-analysis of the impact of forensics and communication education on critical thinking. Communication Education, 48(1), 18-30. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com. (AN: 1487398) Allison, S. (2002). Debating with talented and gifted students. School Libraries in Canada, 22(1), 1314. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/ docview/222549089 Bellon, J. (2000). A research-based justification for debate across the curriculum. Argumentation & Advocacy, 36(3), 161. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com (AN: 2667257) Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. (1991). Active learning creating excitement in the classroom. Washington, DC: JosseyBass. Carini, R.M., Kuh, G.D., & Klein, S.P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning: testing the linkages*. Research in Higher Education, 47(1), 1-32. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2 Fs11162-005-8150-9 Dickson, R. (2004). Developing “real-world intelligence”: teaching argumentative writing through debate. English Journal, 94(1), 34-40. Retrieved from http://search. ebscohost.com (AN 14657167) Educational visions of interscholastic debate: a content analysis of discussions with secondary school coaches. (1987). Conference Proceedings – National Communication Association/American Forensic Association (Alta Conference on Argumentation), 341349. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com (AN: 20749494) Goodwin, J. (2003). Students’ perspectives on debate exercises in content area classes (book). Communication Education, 52(2), 157. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com (AN: 9923634) Hinck, E.A. (2003). Managing the dialectical tension between competition and education in forensics: a response to Burnett, Brand, & Meister. National Forensic Journal, 21(2).

Huryn, J.S. (1986). Debating as a teaching technique. Teaching Sociology, 14(4), 266-269. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1318385 Kennedy, R. (2007). In-class debates: fertile ground for active learning and the cultivation of critical thinking and oral communication skills. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 19(2), 183. Kuyper, C. (2011). Fistful of sand: quantifying the intangible benefits of forensic participation. Forensic, 96(1), 17-24. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com. (AN 72660447) Lux, J.T. (2014). Are they getting what they need? An analysis of the skills former collegiate forensic competitors find most useful in their current careers. Forensic, 99(2), 21-34. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com (AN: 98383839) Musselman, E.G. (2004). Using structured debate to achieve autonomous student discussion. The History Teacher, 37(3), 335-349. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/ stable/1555673 O’Connor, J. (2014, October 6). Why a Miami middle school is teaching debate to conquer common core. State Impact. Retrieved from https://stateimpact.npr.org/ florida/2014/10/06/why-a-miami-middle-school-isteaching-debate-to-conquer-common-core Omelicheva, M.Y. (2007). Resolved: academic debate should be a part of political science curricula. Journal of Political Science Education, 3(2), 161-175. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/61937233 Poetter, T. (Ed.). (2013). Curriculum windows: What curriculum theorists of the 1960s can teach us about schools and society today. Scottsdale, Arizona: Information Age Publishing. Wong, A., & Kwan, Y.W. (July 2014). The constructivist classroom learning environment and its associations with critical thinking ability of secondary school students in liberal studies. Learning Environments Research, 17(2).

Powering the voice of our future.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


FROM OUR COMMUNITY Top Ten Songs to Get You Pumped Up! compiled by Charles Olney

• • • • • • • • • •

The Arcade Fire – “Wake Up” Ariana Grande – “Break Free” The Clash – “London Calling” Dessa – “Fighting Fish” Janelle Monáe – “Cold War” Japandroids – “The House That Heaven Built” Metric – “Gimme Sympathy” Public Enemy – “Bring The Noise” Sleater-Kinney – “One Beat” The War on Drugs – “Red Eyes”

Charles Olney, an alumnus of the National Speech & Debate Association, debated at Oak Harbor High School (WA) and Whitman College, where he was the Top Speaker at the 2003 National Debate Tournament. He is currently a graduate student in politics at UC-Santa Cruz and a debate coach at Dartmouth College. He writes about music, politics, and other things at www.heartachewithhardwork.com.

Healthful Hospitality Keep your judges, coaches, and students fueled with great food and snack options throughout the day! • breakfast burritos • breakfast casserole or quiche • whole fruit – apples, oranges, bananas, clementines

• hummus and a veggie bar (including squash, broccoli, cucumber, peppers, etc.)

• cut fruit – including cantelope, watermelon, or pineapple spears (tip: use vitamin C powder instead of lemon juice to stop certain cut fruit from browning)

• mixed nuts

• gogurt or greek yogurt

• chex mix/trail mix

• hard boiled eggs • oatmeal bar – oatmeal in a crockpot with optional toppings (cinnamon, brown sugar, raisins, etc.) • variety of bagels or bread for toasting with peanut butter, jam, or low-fat cream cheese

• cheese sticks

• granola bars • make your own sandwich bar with assorted breads, sliced meats, cheeses, veggies, and condiments

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 53

RECIPES Check out these great recipes sent in by member coaches from across the country—perfect for your next judges’ lounge, potluck team gathering, or parent meeting!

Minestrone Soup (Slow Cooker)

Mom’s Recipe – Frances Gammon Boyd From Jane Boyd (TX)

Nebraska Debate Institute Enchilada Casserole From Toni Heimes (NE) This is our traditional “tournament day” lunch at NDI. I have also used it in my hospitality lounge at the Nebraska State Debate Tournament. I usually serve this with creamed corn, salad, fruit, and corn muffins. You can make this ahead of time and freeze until the day needed. Thaw completely in the refrigerator before baking. Ingredients • 2 lbs. hamburger • 2 cloves minced garlic • 1 cup chopped onion • 1 can cream of chicken soup • 1 can cream of mushroom soup • 1 tsp. cumin • 1 (4oz) jar chopped green chilies • 2 cups enchilada sauce • 1/2 cup brown sugar • 1 cup milk • 2 cups shredded Monterey Jack cheese • 10-12 flour tortillas, cut into two-inch strips Directions Brown hamburger, onion and garlic; drain. Stir in soups, enchilada sauce, brown sugar, milk, olives, chilies, and cumin. Bring to a boil. Remove from heat. Spread 1/4 of sauce in a greased 9x13” pan. Layer 1/3 of the tortilla strips, 1/4 sauce, and 1/3 cheese. Repeat three times, topping with the cheese. Cover with foil; bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes. Remove foil and bake an additional 20 minutes. Variations • Replace the beef with 1-1/2 lbs. canned or baked chicken. Add the shredded chicken after the enchilada mixture comes to a boil to avoid overcooking the meat. • To make this a vegetarian dish, use cream of celery instead of cream of chicken soup, leave out the hamburger, and add more cheese. You could also add strips of peppers to this version.

First off, don’t be scared by the long list of ingredients in this recipe. Much of it is dried herbs that you likely have on-hand, plus basic pantry items like canned beans and tomatoes. This recipe can be doubled or even tripled easily for larger groups! Ingredients • 4 cups low-sodium vegetable stock • 1-1/2 cups water • 2 (14.5 oz.) cans diced tomatoes • 1 cup diced celery (3 stalks) • 1 cup diced carrots (2 medium carrots) • 1 cup diced yellow onion (1 small) • 1 Tbsp. chopped fresh parsley (or 1 tsp. dried) • 2 tsp. dried basil • 1 tsp. dried oregano • 1/2 tsp. dried thyme • 1/2 tsp. dried crushed rosemary • 2 bay leaves • 1/2 tsp. sugar • Salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste • 1-1/3 cups diced zucchini (1 small) • 1-1/3 cups shell pasta (dry) • 4 cloves garlic, minced • 1 (15 oz.) can dark red kidney beans, drained and rinsed • 1 (15 oz.) can white beans (navy or cannellini), drained and rinsed • 2 cups slightly packed chopped fresh spinach • Finely shredded Romano or Parmesan cheese, for serving Directions • Add vegetable stock, water, tomatoes, celery, carrots, onion, parsley, basil, oregano, thyme, rosemary, bay leaves, and sugar to a 6- or 7-quart slow cooker. Season with salt and pepper to taste and cook 6 to 8 hours (low) or 3 to 4 hours (high). • Add zucchini, pasta, garlic, kidney beans, and white beans. Cook an additional 30 to 40 minutes on high heat until pasta is tender. Stir in spinach and cook several minutes until heated through. Serve warm topped with Romano or Parmesan cheese. (Serves 6)

Do you have a sweet or savory recipe to share?


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Email us at editor@ speechanddebate.org and your ideas might appear in our next issue!

**Check out our amazing 2014 Patriot Games Classic Tournament**

Camp Information : Regular Session:


George Mason Institute of Forensics

July 12-25th, 2015

Extension Session: July 25-28th, 2015

For More Information about GMIF or The Mason Team gmif.gmuforensics.org team.gmuforensics.org or Assistant Director of Forensics

Jeremy Hodgson jhodgso1@gmu.edu

GMIF ALUMNI DOING AMAZING THINGS: GMIF students have traveled across the country competing at large tournaments that include: NSDA, NCFL, NIETOC, Extemp TOC, Wake Forest, Yale, St. Marks, Villiger, Blue Key, Glenbrooks, New York City Invitational, and The Patriot Games Classic resulting in:

18 Champions 77 Finalists 91 Semifinalists 108 Quarterfinalists



Spark a Revolution

EMPOWER. INSPIRE. SPARK A REVOLUTION. Enter our spoken word poetry competition and you could win a scholarship and a chance to perform at the National Speech & Debate Tournament in Dallas, TX this summer! Visit www.LightTheStage.org for details and registration. (Submit a recording of your poem by March 20!)

Top Policy Lab with Dr. Ryan Galloway, who was voted 3rd Best Collegiate Policy Debate Judge of the Decade.

Don’t miss legendary July 4th Celebration

The Samford University Debate Team

S u n d a y, J u n e 2 1 - S a t u r d a y, J u l y 4 , 2 0 1 5 Why choose Samford Debate Institute? 

Learn from a national – caliber staff at a reasonable price.


Samford is committed to maintaining low prices during tough economic times. Limited financial aid is available.


$1,400.00 (including $50.00 deposit)

Commuters with meals

$1,100.00 (including $50.00 deposit)

Commuters without meals

$950.00 (including $50.00 deposit)

Public Forum Division

Dates: Sunday, June 22nd - Saturday, June 28th

Residents for Public Forum

$700.00 (including $50.00 deposit) 800 Lakeshore Drive Birmingham, Al 35229 For more information, please visit our website at: www.samford.edu/ debate or contact Dr. Ryan Galloway at rwgallow@samford.edu.

Commuters with meals for Public Forum $550.00 (including $50.00 deposit)

Victory Briefs Institute Three Locations, One VBI

We don’t claim to make champions, but VBI is where champions choose to go. Our alumni have won 37 national championships (NSDA, TOC, NDCA, NCFL). Last season in LD, VBI alumni closed out the TOC in quarterfinals, won every octofinals bid tournament, earned most bids to the TOC, and won all four national championships. VBI 2015 will feature a 4:1 student-instructor ratio, mentors for every student, a core philosophy curriculum led by published philosophers, guest lectures by world-class professors, a Public Forum option, and more practice rounds than ever before.

This year, VBI is offering sessions at three locations throughout the summer: ‣ Swarthmore College (Philadelphia, PA): June 28–July 11, LD & PF. ‣ Occidental College (Los Angeles, CA): July 12–25, LD only, Focus Week July 25–Aug 1.

‣ University of Chicago (Chicago, IL): Aug 2–15, LD & PF, Sept/Oct Prep Aug 15–22. Visit vbidebate.com for pricing, faculty, registration, need-based financial aid, logistics and more. For questions and suggestions, please email directors Jake Nebel and Chris Theis at help@victorybriefs.com.




The National Speech & Debate Association’s Coach Scholarship Program partners with speech and debate institutes across the country to offer eligible coaches a variety of waivers and discounts: • Coverage of tuition, plus lodging and meals • Coverage of tuition only


• Discount off tuition rates Check out our partner websites at left for more information and to register with the institute of your choice!


Coaches are also invited to attend the Association’s FREE Coach Clinic during the Summer Online Institute. Visit www.speechanddebate.org/institute for details. Questions? Email Steve Schappaugh at steve.schappaugh@speechanddebate.org.


The Value of Speech and Debate in the Middle School Years by Stefan Bauschard and P. Anand Rao, Ph.D.

"Since speaking, argumentation, and reasoning skills are considered foundational for any academic and career success, it is important that students develop these skills when they are young."

Introduction The middle school years constitute an important phase in children’s development. During this time, children experience the turning point between childhood and adulthood and start to develop the ability to move beyond concrete reasoning to develop abstract decision-making capabilities, to understand their own identity and place in the world, and begin to reason with abstract concepts and ideas. The educational needs of this age group are unique, and middle school academic programming should “respond to the unique educational and social needs of this age group; it should be based on content standards, habits of mind, and thinking skills; and promote collaborative teaching, learning, and assessment” (CCE, 2005). In this essay, we will explore how participation in a variety of National Speech & Debate Association middle school speaking and debating events supports these unique needs and works to enable middle school students to develop lifelong skills in a supportive


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

environment that is developmentally appropriate. The first section of this essay provides a brief overview of the events. The second section articulates the benefits of participation in terms of the ability of different events to serve the unique educational needs of the students. The third section outlines some of the positive benefits of the tournament environment. We complete the essay with some final thoughts.

The Events Public Forum Debate. The format is a two-on-two competition, with two debaters representing the Pro and two debaters representing the Con. Each person in the debate delivers a four-minute constructive or rebuttal speech and then a two-minute summary or final focus speech. All debaters participate in “cross-fire” questioning and answering periods. Each month, debaters are exposed to a new topic. The February 2015 Public Forum resolution is, “Resolved: On balance, economic globalization benefits worldwide poverty reduction.” The resolutions focus on questions of fact, value, or policy. Policy Debate. The format is a two-on-two contest, with two debaters on one team representing the affirmative and two debaters on another team representing the negative. Each person in the debate delivers an eight-minute constructive speech, a five-minute rebuttal speech, asks questions for three minutes, and answers questions for three minutes. In Policy Debate, students debate a resolution for the


entire academic year, though they will debate subsets of the resolution, such as Law of the Sea ratification and Arctic energy development, in specific debates. The current Policy Debate resolution for 2014-15 is, “Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-military exploration and/or development of the Earth’s oceans.” The resolutions are always focused on questions of public policy. Lincoln-Douglas Debate. LincolnDouglas Debate is a one-on-one format where each side delivers one constructive speech and at least one rebuttal speech. The January-February 2015 LincolnDouglas resolution is, “Resolved: Just governments ought to require that employers pay a living wage.” The topics last for two months and generally concern questions of value. Congressional Debate. This style of debate simulates the U.S. legislative process. Referred to as Senators or Representatives, the student competitors generate a full agenda of bills and resolutions for debate. Competitors give speeches in support and in response to proposed bills and network to garner support. The topics for discussion vary by tournament, and competitors submit proposed bills ahead of time. Extemporaneous Speaking. This is a limited preparation speaking event that relies upon research of current topics and individual analysis in response to a prompt given at the tournament. Students compile research materials on current events and topics that they and their coaches anticipate will be selected. Extemp is often considered the speaking event that is closest to debate in that participants develop research skills, prepare for a variety of topics, and construct speeches with limited preparation. Original Oratory. In Original Oratory, students present a tenminute speech on a topic of their choice. The speech can be intended

to inform or persuade and is prepared in advance. The speech should be well-researched and developed. Competitors balance content with delivery and style, and are encouraged to select topics that they care about. A prepared speech can be used for multiple competitions. Storytelling. Students select a published story that meets a specified theme and then perform up to five minutes of the story. Participants prepare to tell their story to young children. Manuscripts are not allowed. Storytelling includes a full performance of the story, and competitors often use the full stage space to act out the story. Competitors prepare new stories for each tournament to meet the specified themes. Core Skills Although there are a variety of events, there are fundamental skills that all students who participate in these events have the opportunity to develop, including public speaking and argumentation skills—the fundamental building blocks of speaking and debating. Through learning these skills, they will develop many other academic skills and have the opportunity to grow as individuals as they develop from children into adults. There is a growing body of research that demonstrates participation in speaking and debating competition promotes a host of fundamental skills that lead to academic and personal success. Reasoning and decision-making skills. The CCE (2005) argued that middle school teachers need to “ask students to grapple with open-ended questions based on meaningful work and to synthesize information so they can support their opinions with evidence.” This is important because middle school students are “capable of critical and complex thinking and develop these skills by using them.”

This type of reasoning and decision-making is exactly the skill set that competitive debate helps students to develop. In order to take any position in a debate, students must confront an openended question in the form of a resolution or motion and synthesize information from a variety of resources that they discover on their own to make a consistent argument that is supported by evidence. This type of reasoning and decision-making skill is the foundation for critical thinking skills. Austin Freeley and David Steinberg (2005) contend, “since classical times, debate has been one of the best methods of learning and applying the principles of critical thinking” (p. 2). Other meta-studies including Allen, et. al. (1999), Colbert (1987), Barfield (1989), and testimonial research (Katsulas & Bauschard, 2000) reach similar conclusions. Ideally, middle school academic opportunities will provide students with chances to “explore relationships and connections, and integrates information across disciplines” (CCE, 2005). Since speaking and debating research will require students to draw on content in economics, philosophy, and political science, middle school competition encourages students to make connections across these various fields to produce an argument. To succeed in competition, students will need to “explain, interpret, apply, analyze, synthesize, solve problems, and communicate information” effectively to a judge. Abstract reasoning and empathy. It is important for middle school students to “listen to others and develop respect for divergent viewpoints” (CCE, 2005). Since debate requires students to address both sides of the topic, students are forced to confront and understand the perspective of the other. Development of this type of empathy is important for individuals

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 61

to accept the outcome of decisions regarding matters of importance to them and to be able to properly engage their opponent’s arguments (within a contest debate or outside in the community). At least one study (Rogers 2002, 2005) indicates there is evidence that debaters are more socially tolerant. This occurs because debaters have to develop arguments on both sides of an issue, leading students to develop empathy for the position of their opponent (Harrigan, 2008; Muir, 1993). Empirical research proves that debate involvement enhances beneficial argumentative skills, while reducing verbal aggression (Colbert 1993, 1994). Reflecting on the Open Society Institute’s lengthy experience, Breger (1998) reports that “debate teaches students to command attention with words, provides students with an alternate outlet for day-to-day conflicts, and gives them a tool with which they can combat physical aggression” (p. 66–67). Presentation skills. Students should have mastered common presentation skills by the time they finish middle school (Kendall, 2008). Debate competition facilitates the development of a number of public speaking skills. Participation in Public Forum Debate requires students to present information that they prepare in advance on important public policy controversies to inexperienced judges and to convince them that their side is best argued. Lincoln-Douglas Debate requires the same type of presentation but ordinarily on value topics. Original Oratory requires students to create a unique presentation that will move an audience emotionally. Extemp requires students to quickly assemble presentations on a variety of current events. Confidence. It is important for middle school students to develop confidence and self-esteem (CCE, 2005). There is considerable evidence that competitive debate develops confidence and supports student empowerment. Debate participants


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

“often experience debate as a form of personal empowerment. This includes feelings of personal efficacy, educational engagement, and political agency” (O’Donnell, 2010, p. 51). It gives students confidence they need to interact with peers and authority figures. As Cori Dauber (1989) explains, debate teaches students that “they ought not be intimidated by the rhetoric of expertise” surrounding policy issues (p. 207). See also Bauschard (2014). Oral communication and advocacy. The development of oral communication skills is an important part of any middle school curriculum (Henderson, n.d.). Oral communication, including the persuasion of legislators, judges, executive branch officials, and the public at large is the lifeblood of democracy. Debaters consistently rank improved oral communication skills as one of the top benefits of participation in debate (Huston, 1985; Lybbert, 1985; Matlon and Keele, 1984; Oliver, 1985; Williams, McGee, and Worth, 2001). Leadership training. Today many middle skill students are interested in developing leadership skills. Debate is a “premier training ground for...future leaders” (O’Donnell, 1998). In the U.S., many former debaters occupy strong leadership roles in society. These include Thomas Goldstein, cofounder of SCOTUSBLOG and a litigator who has argued more than 20 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court; Neal Katyal, the deputy solicitor general of the United States; John F. Kennedy Jr.; and numerous U.S. senators and representatives. Practical life skills. Middle school students “need variety in their day and in what is asked of them... [They also] need increasing autonomy and responsibility as well as opportunities to demonstrate that they can behave responsibly” (CCE, 2005). Debate competitions provide this not only by introducing substantial active learning during the day but also by introducing an environment where students have to behave in a mature

manner between competitions, move about responsibly between rounds of debate, and interact with other adults and peers in a responsible manner. Tournament environments also provide a space with “abundant energy and interest that should be tapped instead of squelched” (CCE, 2005). Social interaction skills. The expanded core curriculum has identified the importance of social interaction skills for middle school students. Well-developed social interaction skills are central to building relationships, establishing positive self-esteem, and for acceptance into society (“Social,” 2012). While most students at this age know most common social rules, middle school is the time for them to recognize social challenges and problem-solve to resolve those difficulties. Participation in speech and debate provides the opportunity to engage in role-playing and discussion of scenarios, both of which may be especially helpful for developing strong social interaction skills. “Social skills can be refined by participating in activities such as drama, debate, and health classes” (“Social,” 2012). Communication apprehension. Many middle school students suffer from some level of communication apprehension (CA) or stage fright (Comadena & Prusank, 1998). CA is not limited to public speaking, however. We all experience different levels of apprehension in various communication settings, including public speaking, meetings, interpersonal, and groups. Left unattended, high levels of CA correlates with poorer academic performance as students disengage and withdraw. Studies have also documented that levels of apprehension increase as students progress from elementary to middle school. Throughout this progression, researchers have found that not only do higher levels of CA correlate with lower academic achievement, but also that lower


levels of CA correlate with higher academic achievement. For example, this study found that students with low CA had achievement scores that were 23% higher than students that were high in CA (Comadena & Prusank, 1998, p. 274). Participation in speech and debate, however, better prepares students for handling their apprehension. In a study conducted with at-risk middle school students in Atlanta, participation in a computerassisted debate project resulted in lower levels of apprehension in all forms of communication, including interpersonal, group, and public speaking (Winkler, 2007, p. 797-8). Additional Benefits In addition to skills development, participation in speech and debate also offers a number of other benefits. Significance beyond the classroom. The CCE (2005) argues that activities middle school students participate in should have significance beyond the classroom. Participation in speech and debate is certainly an activity that has that significance. Students speak and debate about issues relevant to their local and national communities, attempt to persuade judges and other students in the debate of their point of view, and may often need to confront questions of their own identity when issues related to race and gender are introduced into the debates. A safe and trusting environment. The CCE (2005) reports that middle school students “are willing to take risks if they believe they are in a safe and trusting environment.” Debate competitions offer such an environment because students engage in individual rounds of competition in a classroom against specific opponents with a single judge who provides constructive feedback to the students. This “safe space” makes it possible for participants to test their skills and grow as speakers and debaters without all of the risks associated

with participating in a greater public space. Student Development and a Variety of Events Different speech and debate events also serve the developmental needs of different students as they transition from childhood to adulthood. Storytelling supports the growth of concrete memorization and basic presentation skills. Extemp builds on these basic developmental skills by requiring students to organize arguments and supporting information into a presentation for an audience. Lincoln-Douglas Debate requires that application of argumentation and more abstract reasoning skills during an on-the-fly, give-and-take process. Public Forum Debate utilizes that same process but requires students to do it while working with a partner. Policy Debate requires all of that plus the ability to manage a large quantity of information and work with a partner throughout the entire process. Participating in speech and debate during middle school years is arguably the most important because they “are highly formative for behavior patterns in education and health that have enduring, lifelong significance” (CCE, 2005). Since speaking, argumentation, and reasoning skills are considered foundational for any academic and career success, it is important that students develop these skills when they are young. Conclusion The middle school years are highly formative and provide the building blocks for essential skills that will enable students to succeed in high school, college, and later in life. Deanna Kuhn’s research on the use of debate in middle school classrooms confirms just how important the practice of debate is for preparing students for academic success. Kuhn, Professor of Psychology at Columbia University, compared two sets of

students in a public middle school in Harlem. Both sets of students took a twice-weekly philosophy class from sixth through eighth grades. One group was provided with a traditional classroom, with a textbook and teacher-led discussion. A second experimental group participated in online debates, with four new topics introduced each year. The students in this experimental group were assigned to sides on the topics, and were encouraged to research their sides and anticipate the arguments that their opponents might make. At the end of each year, both groups of students were given writing prompts, and the experimental group demonstrated just what participation in debate has to offer. By the end of the third year, “nearly 80 percent of the students in the experimental group were writing essays that identified and weighed opposing views in an argument. Less than 30 percent of the students in the comparison group were doing so” (Burns, 2012). With their debate experience, students in the experimental group demonstrated an ability to recognize divergent opinions, critically engage opposing views, and think about how opposing positions could be weighed and reconciled. It is difficult to imagine a parent or teacher who wouldn’t want the same for their child or student. (For article references, see next page.)

Stefan Bauschard is the Debate Coach for the Lakeland School District and an assistant coach for Harvard Debate. He blogs at bauscharddebate.com

P. Anand Rao, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Communication and Director of the Speaking Center and the Speaking Intensive Program, University of Mary Washington.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 63

References Allen, M., Berkowitz, S., Hunt, S., & Louden, A. (1999). A meta-analysis of the impact of forensics and communication education on critical thinking. Communication Education, 48, 18-30. Barber, B. (2004). Strong democracy: Participatory politics for a new age. Berkeley: University of California Press. Bauschard, S. (2014). Empowerment through debate. Presentation in the Dominican Republic, March 15. Breger, B. (1998). Building open societies through debate. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 19, 66-68. Burns, M. (2012). No debate: Kids can learn by arguing. Retrieved from http://www.psmag.com/books-and-culture/no-debate-kids-canlearn-by-arguing-38932 CCE. (2005). Turning points: transforming middle schools. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509803.pdf Colbert, K.R. (1987). The effects of CEDA and NDT debate training on critical thinking ability. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 23, 194-201. Colbert, K.R. (1993). The effects of debate participation on argumentativeness and verbal aggression. Communication Education, 42, 206-214. Comadena, M.E. & Prusank, D.T. (1998). Communication apprehension and academic achievement among elementary and middle school students. Communication Education, 37(4), 270-77. Costa, C.V. (2005). Education for citizenship in the Caribbean: A study on curricular policy and teacher training in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Retrieved from http://www.hrea.org/index. php?base_id=104&language_id=1&erc_doc_id=5209&category_ id=4&category_type=3 Dauber, C. (1989). Debate as empowerment. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 25, 205-207. Developing self-confidence and self-esteem in middle school students. (2010, December 8). Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/developing-selfesteem-self-confidence Finkel, S. (2000). Civic education and the mobilization of political participation in developing countries. Retrieved from https:// www.princeton.edu/csdp/events/Participation2000/finkel.pdf Fishkin, J.S. (2009). When the people speak: Deliberative democracy and public consultation. NewYork: Oxford University Press. Foundation for Democratic Youth (2014). Think in 3d: Community debate methods. Manual on file with author. Freeley, A.J., & Steinberg, D.L. (2005). Argumentation and debate: Critical thinking for reasoned decision making. 11th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Harrigan, C. (2008). A defense of switch-side debate. Retrieved from https://wakespace.lib.wfu.edu/bitstream/handle/10339/14746/ harrigancd_05_2008.pdf Henderson, S.J. (n.d.). Integrating oral communication skills into everyday learning. Retrieved from http://languageandliteracytheoryandpractice.wikispaces.com/ Integrating+Oral+Communication+Skills+into+Everyday+Learning Huston, D. (1985) What should be the goals of high school debate? An examination and prioritization. Paper presented at the National Forensic League Conference on the State of High School Debate, Kansas City, MO. ERIC Document #ED272942.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Innovations in civic participation. (2010). Dominican Republic. Retrieved from http://www.icicp.org/resource-library/icppublications/global-youth-service-database/americas/caribbean/ dominican-republic/ Katsulas, J., & Bauschard, S. (2000). Debate as preparation for the legal profession: A survey of debaters from the 1970s to 1990s. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern States Communication Association, New Orleans, LA, March 29-April 2. Kendall, J. (2012). Common core standards for middle school English language arts. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/CommonStandards-Middle-English-Language/dp/141661463X Louden, A.D. (Ed.). (2010). Navigating opportunity: Policy debate in the 21st century. International Debate Education Association. Lybbert, B. (1985). What should be the goals of high school debate? Paper presented at the National Forensic League Conference on the State of High School Debate, Kansas City, MO. ERIC Document #ED272941. Matlon, R.J., & Keele, L.M. (1984). A survey of participants in the national debate tournament, 1947–1980. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 20, 194-205. Mitchell, G.R. (1998). Pedagogical possibilities for argumentative agency in academic debate. Argumentation and Advocacy, 35, 41-60. Muir, S.A. (1993). A defense of the ethics of contemporary debate. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 26, 277-295. O’Donnell, T. (1998, January 7). The great debaters: A challenge to higher education. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered. com/views/2008/01/07/odonnell Owen, D. (2004). Citizenship identity and civic education in the United States. Paper presented at the Conference on Civic Education and Politics in Democracies sponsored by the Center for Civic Education and the Bundeszentrale für Politische Bildung, San Diego, CA, September 26-October 1. Peters, J.D. (2005). Courting the abyss: Free speech and the liberal tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Rogers, J.E. (2002). Longitudinal outcome assessment for forensics: Does participation in intercollegiate competitive forensics contribute to measurable differences in positive student outcomes? Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 23, 1-27. Rogers, J.E. (2005). Graduate school, professional, and life choices: An outcome assessment confirmation study measuring positive student outcomes beyond student experiences for participants in competitive intercollegiate forensics. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 26, 13-40. Social interaction skills and the expanded core curriculum. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.eccadvocacy.org/section.aspx?FolderI D=13&SectionID=143&DocumentID=6110 Williams, D., McGee, B., & Worth, D. (2001). University student perceptions of the efficacy of debate participation: An empirical investigation. Argumentation and Advocacy, 37, 198-209. Winkler, C. (2007). Extending the benefits of debate: Outcomes of the computer assisted debate project. Conference Proceedings – National Communication Association/American Forensic Association, Alta, Utah: 792-800.


Beehive Beehive Forensics Forensics Institute Institute July 5-19, Summer 2015 July 5-19, 2015 2015 bfi.utah.edu bfi.utah.edu Our regionally diverse and nationally recognized staff offer Our regionally diverse and nationally recognized offer students insights that have helped them win overstaff a dozen students championships insights that have helped themand wincollegiate over a dozen national in high school national championships in high school and collegiate forensics. forensics. Winners of the camp tournament receive partial Winners of the tournament receive partial scholarships to camp the University of Utah scholarships to the University of Utah

Public Debate Forum Policy Policy Debate Lincoln-Douglas Debate Lincoln-Douglas Debate Extemporaneous Speaking Extemporaneous Only) Congress (One WeekSpeaking Congress (One Interp—HI, DI, Week DUO Only) (One Week Only) Interp—HI, DI, DUO Coaches’ Clinic (One (One WeekWeek Only)Only) Coaches’ Clinic (One Week Only)


TUITION ONE or TWO week options ONE or TWO week options Resident or commuter Resident July 5-12 or or commuter July 5-19 July 5-12 July Tuition asor low as5-19 $350 Tuition as for lowearly as $350 Discounts registration/ Discounts for early registration/ Utah students Utah students BENEFITS BENEFITS College Credit

College CreditInstruction Personalized Personalized 5:1 Student toInstruction Faculty Ratio Student to Faculty Ratio A5:1focus on critiqued practice ACustomizable focus on critiqued practice curriculum Customizable Social events curriculum Social events

STAFF STAFF of combined coaching experience Century

Century of combined coaching All staff members have coached state,experience regional and All staff members national championshave coached state, regional and national champions

Mario Herrera - Grady HS, Atlanta, GA Mario Jordan Herrera- University - Grady HS,ofAtlanta, Jason Utah GA Jason Jordan University of Kyle Cheesewright – CollegeUtah of Idaho Kyle Cheesewright College of Carol Shackelford -–Bingham HS,Idaho UT Carol Shackelford Bingham HS, Nicholas Russell - California State,UT Long Beach Nicholas Russell - California State, Long Beach

District in Detail Yellow Rose (TX)

District Committee Jimmy L. Smith, Chair Princeton HS – Princeton, TX

Chelsea Avalos Godley HS – Godley, TX

Chris Mosmeyer Holy Trinity Catholic HS – Temple, TX

Roy Rodriguez A&M Consolidated HS – College Station, TX

Donna Szumila Home Educator’s Outsourcing Solns – Plano, TX

compiled by Chris Mosmeyer

Tell us a little about your district and what makes it unique. The Yellow Rose district, established in 2012, is arguably one of the most diverse in the nation—both geographically and scholastically. The district appeals to many different schools. The top six schools in the district by degree strength include two small public schools, two small private schools, one large public school, and a home school organization. The district spreads from west of I-35 to the Louisiana border and from north of Dallas south to Austin—nearly 60,000 square miles, or about the size of Illinois. This year’s district tournament is at Hamshire-Fannett High School, 332 miles southeast of Godley High School, which hosted last year’s district tournament. Being geographically diverse enables us to compete in different


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

areas of the state against many different schools. Though district schools support each other by competing at their tournaments, there is enough room in the schedule and a large enough base that most schools also have a fair number of tournaments where they don’t see other schools from the district. We will see a school or two from our district at tournaments, but the next week, we’ll see totally different schools. Another unique aspect of the Yellow Rose district is its variety of approaches in debate strategy. While many of the districts in Texas are dominated by a progressive style of debate, Yellow Rose is one of a handful of districts with many schools that stress a more traditional approach. Because we are so large, however, one style certainly does not fit all.

This issue of Rostrum talks about the Code of Honor. In what ways are students and coaches in your area exhibiting these core values? One way we best stress the elements of the Code of Honor to our students is by demonstrating them. To the coaches in our district, that means that we do our best to work together. We have a sense of camaraderie and teamwork that can best be described as amazing. It isn’t all about winning. We are all a family and go above and beyond to help each other out. An example of this cooperation is when a student’s laptop died at an invitational tournament, a coach from another Yellow Rose school loaned the student his personal laptop to use for the duration of the tournament. Another example: if a school within our district is hosting a


tournament, that coach will do whatever he or she needs to do to make sure it is a learning experience for every student. It is commonplace for tournament directors to print cases for students who forgot theirs, make copies of something, loan laptops, and everything in between. Since the Association began emphasizing the Code of Honor, we have followed suit, and the results have been noticeable at many schools. Many of us have seen our students gain confidence, and it has helped them in leadership positions. Our student leaders have learned to care more about the student next to them, rather than just themselves. Our students have taken their confidence to lead and speak in inspiring a variety of groups outside of the school atmosphere. These students have become

“Parents and students alike are grateful that being part of a team means so much more than just earning a trophy or medal at a speech and debate tournament. Being a member of the Honor Society calls each member to be their best, period.” leaders in Boy Scout Troops, Generation Joshua, and other civic groups; they have volunteered in local, state, and national political campaigns; and they routinely coach and judge their middle school counterparts. What challenges do you face as a district? Like most schools, finances are an ongoing challenge. Most of our schools are small public or private schools that often do not have a substantial budget for speech and debate.

Many of our schools are new. Once a school establishes a team, they usually can hang on to the budget, but sometimes getting the administrations to buy into the Association initially can be a challenge. In Texas, many administrators focus on UIL competition. The Association is a “new” thing to them, so it takes some coaxing to get them to sign on. We also do everything we can to keep district costs low and accessible to all schools.

Pictured are the 2014 national qualifiers from the Yellow Rose district. They include Holy Trinity’s Anthony Doak, who advanced to the top 60 in U.S. Extemp two years in a row, and the Policy team of Jacob Bell and Hunter Hall from Midway High School, who placed 10th at Nationals in 2014. Caleb Roberts from Princeton High School took third in the nation in Storytelling in 2013 and also qualified in 2014.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 71

We have low entry fees for the district tournament and work with schools on keeping judge fees low. What are some best practices you would like to share with other district leaders? Our District Chair, Jimmy Smith, coach of Princeton High School, has worked to create a sense of team among the schools. At the end of each district meet, the coaches with qualifiers meet to discuss hotel arrangements. It is common for schools to share hotels and transportation. It seems relatively minor, but committing to sharing hotels and transportation enables some schools with very limited finances to compete in the National Tournament. A team with one male student, one female student, and one coach does not have to get three rooms for a week. Rather, we make sure the students and even the coach have a room they can share with another team. Several schools have shared transportation to Nationals, and at Nationals, all schools pitch in to make sure contestants get where they need to go. The concept of creating a collegial district is something Smith has done for years. Yellow Rose is actually the third district he has worked to create. A founding member of Texas’ UIL district, Smith saw that district grow until it split into two in 2006 creating the LBJ district. LBJ then grew to more than 40 schools and split in 2012 creating Yellow Rose.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Jillian Lauver and Zayne Clayton show off their yellow roses as the 2014 national qualifying Duo team from Holy Trinity Catholic High School.

Also, because of the large area of our district, we attempt to rotate the location of the district tournament each year. So, last year, the district meet was on the western edge of the district in Godley. This year, our district meet in Hamshire-Fannett is on the far eastern edge. Moving the district tournament ensures every school will have an opportunity every three years that requires very little, if any, travel. It also ensures no one school becomes the host site year after year and emphasizes to our schools that every school is important. How important is the Honor Society in recruiting new schools or new students to the activity? It is a fact that promoting the Honor Society has been the best recruitment tool for our teams. Parents and students alike are grateful that being part of a team means so much more than just earning a trophy or medal at a speech and debate tournament.

Being a member of the Honor Society calls each member to be their best, period. Especially at a time when there are so many other things on which to spend money, it helps to be able to tell a new school and a new principal, this isn’t just another activity. It’s an Honor Society. When we try to recruit schools to the Association, there are essentially three things we emphasize: it’s an Honor Society for students in speech and debate; the Association provides great resources that can be used in the classroom; and you are not alone—we are a family and will help. Of course, we talk about the opportunity to compete at Districts and Nationals, but a lot of principals will look at that as another potential expense. Emphasizing the Honor Society and the things that will help teachers in the classroom is usually a big part of the decision to join. Is there anything you’d like to add? When we created this district two years ago, we had a lot of fun tossing out name ideas. They ranged from “Black Gold” in recognition of the oil in Texas to “Lightning Whelk,” which happens to be the state seashell. We ultimately decided on “Yellow Rose,” in part because we thought it would be neat to hand out yellow roses to our national qualifiers!


LEARN with the BEST!

ENDI staff are diverse: college coaches, high school teachers and trained college student assistants. ENDI focuses debate skills for competitive success, academic enhancement, and community engagement.

Two Sessions Available

June 7-20, 2015: 2-Week Residential $1700 June 7-27, 2015: 3-Week Residential $2550

Discounts Available for: early registration, four or more students from one school, and commuters.

Atlanta is the Cradle of the Civil Rights Movement. Students will have an opportunity to explore the National Civil and Human Rights Museum & the Martin Luther King Center.

The Barkley Forum is a pioneer in creating debate opportunities for middle schools. Our staff has taught middle school students and helped them transition to high school and college. An optional college information session available with representatives from Emory Admissions.

More information and application at: www.emory.edu/BF

the modern link to legal history The National Speech & Debate Association is proud to partner with William S. Hein & Co. to provide all League members with access to HeinOnline—an outstanding source of legal scholarship normally only available to law students and legal professionals—at no additional cost! According to Hein: “HeinOnline is Hein’s premier online research product with more than 80 million pages of legal history available in a fully searchable, image-based format. HeinOnline bridges the gap in legal history by providing comprehensive coverage from inception of more than 1,600 law and law-related periodicals, and much more.” Perfect for debaters and extempers, HeinOnline is available as yet another benefit of Association membership!

Students and coaches—sign in and access HeinOnline by visiting:


Spark Success

july 5 -18, 2015 charlotte, nc the coaches:

It’s as good as you’ve heard.


Erickson Bynum from Southside HS, SC. Coach of the 2014 NSDA Duo Interpretation Final Round Champions and numerous other finalists.


Lynne Coyne from Myers Park HS, NC. Coach of perennial national finalists and semifinalists in all debate events.


Carol Green from Harker School, CA. Coach of the 2012 NSDA Champions, and TOC Champions in 2009 and 2011.


Shellie Kingaby from Central Cabarrus HS, NC. Coach of numerous national semifinalists and finalists in all individual events.

This summer, join other highly motivated students for programs focused on quality education for competitors of all skill levels. We invite you to experience the ISD Difference.


quality instruction.

Lillian Ogunbanjo from Hastings HS, TX. Coach of Ogunbanjo the 2014 NSDA National Champion in Dramatic Interpretation.

summer fun.

competitive success.


Jonathan Peele from Charlotte Latin School, NC. Coach of numerous state and invitational champions in a range of events.


Robert Sheard from Durham Academy, NC. Coached the 2008 NSDA Champions as well as national runners-up in Congress and Extemp.


Brittany Stanchik from Desert Vista HS, AZ. Architect of her school’s Congress program which has produced numerous national finalists.

Home of the 2008, 2011, 2012 & 2014 NSDA Public Forum National Champion Coaches The Institute for Speech and Debate is a camp designed, managed, and staffed by speech and debate coaches. Our coaches who have coached numerous National Champions across all events give us the best faculty in the country.

Visit ispeechanddebate.com for additional information and to apply for our 2015 Institute. We look forward to seeing you in Charlotte on the campus of Queens University from July 5-18, 2015 as you experience the ISD Difference.

the ISD difference – in all events. congressional debate. extemporaneous speaking. interpretation of literature. original oratory. public forum debate. @ispeechdebate




Fr. Michael Tidd, OSB from Delbarton School, NJ. Coach of the 2011 NSDA Champions as well as 2010 and 2011 NCFL Champions. Chase Williams from Hawken School, OH. Coach of 2014 NSDA Champions in Public Forum & Congressional Debate.

the reviews are in. “The small ratio between lab leaders and students makes it easy to develop your ideas with them and improve.“ – Eilene Yang, Durham Academy ‘16 “Great camp! It’s a lot of fun.” – Will and Sam Arnesen, Walt Whitman ‘16

a project of the coaches group, llc

Diamond Coach Recognition Seventh Diamond u Seventh DIAMOND u Paul Gieringer Marshall HS, MO November 23, 2014 21,039 points Paul has taught History and coached in rural central Missouri for 37 years. He has coached a State Champion in Policy Debate.  Ten students have qualified to the National Tournament under his direction.  A five time District Chair of the Heart of America District, Paul works tirelessly in the tab room at the District Tournament.  He is known as the “predictor” of rounds in debate competition.  The longtime History Department Chair at Marshall High School, Paul also has been the girls’ and boys’ assistant tennis coach for more than 25 years.

Sixth Diamond Vickie Fellers, co-host of the 2007 u Sixth DIAMOND u Wichita Nationals, spent the first Vickie Fellers Wichita East HS, KS 17 years of her coaching career at December 13, 2014 Goddard High School and the past 19 23,020 points years at Wichita East High School. She has served the Association as a District Committee member and Policy Debate tab member for many years. In 2013, she was inducted into the National Speech & Debate Association Hall of Fame. As a coach, she has qualified more than 160 students to the National Tournament since 1997, with 12 students finishing in the top-12 in Policy Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate, Congress, Extemp, and Expository. Wichita East has also earned five School of Excellence trophies, and the school has won 16 consecutive district sweepstakes awards. At the state level, her students have earned 14 individual state championships in forensics and two debate championships. She is currently the chair of the Liaison Committee to the state activities association, and Kansas coaches have honored her with initiation into both the KSCA Hall of Fame and the DCI Hall of Fame.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Fifth Diamond u Fifth DIAMOND u Tommie Lindsey, Jr. James Logan HS, CA December 29, 2013 40,138 points

Five-diamond coach Tommie Lindsey, Jr., has changed the landscape of opportunities for students in his program at James Logan High School. The diverse circumstances faced by many of his students have made his career both challenging and rewarding. For the community, he has given a voice to the voiceless. Tommie, the 1999 National Coach of the Year, is currently serving his second term on the Board of Directors. He has been a member of the San Francisco Bay District Committee since 1990, an active member in GGSA, and a founder of the executive council for the National Individual Events Tournament of Champions. His honors as an educator include California Teacher of the Year, Oprah Winfrey’s Angel Network Use Your Life Award, Toastmaster’s Educator of the Year, the Pelham Award, and the Spirit Award for teaching and mentoring. He has been featured in People Magazine, “The Jim Lehrer Hour,” and was chronicled in the PBS award-winning documentary “Accidental Hero: Room 408.”

Fifth Diamond Mark Quinlan began his coaching career u Fifth DIAMOND u at Centennial High School in Circle Pines, Mark Quinlan Centennial HS, MN Minnesota in 1979. He was encouraged May 16, 2014 by a friend and colleague to bring his 13,084 points team into the world of the National Speech & Debate Association in 1987. He is currently in his 37th year as head speech coach and director of theater at Centennial, where he continues to teach English, Speech, and Theater. Mark has been honored to serve on the Central Minnesota District Committee for more than 20 years, serving as chair for 10 years. He has served on various national tab room committees since 1998, most currently on the Public Forum Committee. He has coached students to quarterfinals at Nationals in both Dramatic and Humorous Interpretation. In Minnesota State High School League competition, since 1992, Centennial has been the section team champion 14 times and runnerup eight times, qualifying numerous students for the state tournament, including several state finalists. Mark has managed the section tournament for several years, and hosted the state tournament in 2003 and 2004. He has served three terms representing Speech, Debate, and One-Act Play on the Region Committee, and from 2004-2008, he represented those activities as a member of the Minnesota State High School League Board of Directors. Mark was honored to serve a two-year term as president of the Minnesota Speech Coaches’ Association. He received the 2001 Class AA (large school) “Coach of the Year” award from that organization as well as the 2010 “Distinguished Service Award.” In 2005, he received the award for “Outstanding Individual in Communication and Theater” from

the Communication and Theater Association of Minnesota. Through the past 37 years, Mark has enjoyed the friendships he has formed with coaching colleagues and the former students who have gone on to become coaches themselves. He loves hearing from former students in occupations as diverse as attorney, college professor, police officer, and airline pilot about the lasting, positive effect that forensics has had on their lives.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 77

Diamond Coach Recognition


u Fourth DIAMOND u Doug McConnaha Corvallis HS, MT November 23, 2014 10,000 points

u Fourth DIAMOND u Russ Tidwell Garden City HS, KS November 24, 2014 12,183 points

u Third DIAMOND u Toni Heimes Lincoln Southwest HS, NE January 11, 2015 8,325 points

u Second DIAMOND u Karen Gossett John H. Guyer HS, TX May 11, 2014 3,001 points

u Second DIAMOND u Darin M. Maier St. Andrew’s Episcopal School, MS October 4, 2014 3,012 points

u Second DIAMOND u Vince Willaredt Granite City Sr. HS, IL November 3, 2014 3,001 points

u Second DIAMOND u Melissa Donahue Mason HS, OH November 19, 2014 3,992 points

u First DIAMOND u Julie Laflen Pittsburg HS, KS October 7, 2014 2,665 points

u First DIAMOND u Lynn A. Miller Derby HS, KS October 21, 2014 2,841 points

Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Diamond Coach Recognition


u First DIAMOND u Angela Cole Brown Bountiful HS, UT October 22, 2014 1,526 points

u First DIAMOND u Josh Aaron Hamilton John H. Guyer HS, TX October 31, 2014 1,500 points

u First DIAMOND u Jeff Kahn Strath Haven HS, PA November 14, 2014 1,500 points

u First DIAMOND u Hannah Flake East Mountain HS, NM November 17, 2014 1,552 points

u First DIAMOND u Jonathan MacMillan Dougherty Valley HS, CA November 19, 2014 5,487 points

u First DIAMOND u Patrick Mobley Carson HS, NV November 21, 2014 1,500 points

u First DIAMOND u Sarah Botsch-McGuinn Notre Dame HS, CA November 25, 2014 1,504 points

u First DIAMOND u Sean Hiland St. Pius X Catholic HS, GA December 4, 2014 1,500 points

u First DIAMOND u Jan Hovind North Sargent Public School, ND December 9, 2014 2,230 points Rostrum | WINTER 2015 79

Diamond Coach Recognition

u First DIAMOND u Chase Williams Hawken School, OH December 14, 2014 1,625 points

u First DIAMOND u Shannon R. Rote Copley HS, OH December 20, 2014 1,501 points

u First DIAMOND u Woody Zorn Assumption HS, KY January 10, 2015 1,500 points

Want to write for Rostrum? Email editor@speechanddebate.org with your ideas or comments!


Corrections As part of our Diamond Coach Recognition section, Steven Davis was inadvertently listed at the wrong school on p. 52 of the Fall Rostrum. Mr. Davis coaches at Washburn Rural High School in Kansas. He earned his sixth diamond December 4, 2013, with a total of 16,001 points. The Leading Chapter Award for the Rushmore (SD) district was listed incorrectly on p. 119 of the Fall Rostrum. Yankton High School won the 2013-14 award with 663 total degrees. The Rostrum editorial team sincerely apologizes for these errors.


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Donus D. Roberts Quad Ruby Coach Recognition The Association is proud to honor coaches who have earned their first 1,000 points.

Christine Hubbard Ben Miller Evan Feldman Jordan D. Hart Jennifer Shumway Adam Higgins Jennifer Lynn Owen Daniel Pappalardo Christina Speiser Luke Cumbee Jesse D. Meyer R. Kyle Bean Gordon Peer Erin Henry Shiloh Dutton Callie Ham Robert Lebeda Kala Cookendorfer Josh Symmonds Gregory H. Johnston Jacob Schriner-Briggs Kyle Chaney Scott W. Woods Stacey Billingsley Sohail Jouya Kristal Ann Kleiner John T. Schaaf Kris Wright Jordan Innerarity Vicky Hyde Tom McCaffrey Rob Cox Sue Hennessey Nicole Smith Kaveh Dilmaghani


Skyline High School, ID Cypress Bay High School, FL North Hollywood High School, CA Jefferson City High School, MO Blackfoot High School, ID Blue Springs High School, MO Lincoln High School, OR South Range High School, OH Pinecrest High School, NC Roosevelt High School, SD Lincoln High School, IA Bellaire High School, TX Roy High School, UT Glenbard West High School, IL Staley High School, MO Bentonville High School, AR Chaminade College Prep, CA Rowan County Sr. High School, KY Northwest Career And Technical Academy, NV Virgin Valley High School, NV Canfield High School, OH Perry High School, OH BASIS Scottsdale High School, AZ Diamond High School, MO Lincoln College Prep, MO Manhattan High School, KS Mercyhurst Prep School, PA J.B.S. Law Magnet High School, TX Hockaday School, TX Chiawana High School , WA Jasper High School, TX Butte High School, MT Acton-Boxborough Regional High School, MA El Dorado Springs High School, MO Tahoma Senior High School, WA

1,439 1,436 1,370 1,351 1,308 1,283 1,262 1,232 1,224 1,223 1,216 1,214 1,203 1,202 1,189 1,186 1,179 1,176 1,163 1,140 1,139 1,123 1,117 1,102 1,092 1,088 1,086 1,084 1,083 1,082 1,071 1,071 1,065 1,064 1,063

Christina Staab Eileen Sullivan Marty De Ryan Nassif Andrea Stevens Sarah Rainee Bahr Courtney Coffman Jo Daley-Croft Myra L. Whitlock Stephanie Franca Abramovitz Zachary R. Brown Micah Everson Kurt Schaefer Vince Alvarez Heather Mudd Jason Emord Maryann Stavney Susan Mcgraw Bonnie L. Gerard John Knetzger David Harper Allison Armstrong Carrie R. Cofer Todd Crites Emily Graham Kaitlin Fuerstenau Michael A. Gallagher Erin Tuttle Sean Lent Terri A. Branson Melinda Kalb-Beith Howard R. Ritz Mark Fellowes Keith E. Anderson

(October 15, 2014 through January 15, 2015)

West Plains High School, MO Mount Michael Benedictine High School, NE Los Altos High School, CA Clear Lake High School, TX Columbine High School, CO Fort Scott High School, KS Northland Christian School, TX Cyprus High School, UT Irma Rangel Young Women, TX Ridge High School, NJ Hutchinson High School, KS Murrah High School, MS Peak To Peak Charter School, CO Shenzhen Cuiyuan Middle School, China (PRC) Parkway West High School, MO Silverado High School, NV Eagle Valley High School, CO Charles W. Flanagan High School, FL Casady School, OK West Bend East High School, WI Denmark High School, WI Kickapoo High School, MO Lincoln-West High School, OH Grinnell High School, IA El Dorado High School, KS Aberdeen Central High School, SD Green Mountain High School, CO Highlands Ranch High School, CO Falmouth High School, ME Danville High School, KY Little Rock Central High School, AR Legacy High School, TX Revere High School, MA Richardton-Taylor High School, ND

1,062 1,053 1,051 1,050 1,050 1,046 1,045 1,040 1,040 1,036 1,036 1,035 1,033 1,033 1,032 1,028 1,028 1,026 1,025 1,023 1,019 1,019 1,018 1,017 1,015 1,012 1,011 1,009 1,006 1,006 1,005 1,004 1,003 1,002

Raise Money For Your Team Âť We've partnered with Causecast to help more than 70 schools raise nearly $150,000 through the Give Youth A Voice campaign. As a member coach, you have exclusive access to this service! Complete our online form and you'll be invited to set up an account. Visit www.speechanddebate.org/GiveYouthAVoice to learn more.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 81

National Speech & Debate Association Trophy Shop

Experience Our World-Class Service. The National Speech & Debate Association Trophy Shop has the answers to all of your award needs! Our selection offers custom award options at affordable, competitive rates. Chad Wagner, our trophy specialist, will work with you to replicate your existing designs or create a personalized look all your own. Visit our online store or email Chad at chad.wagner@speechanddebate.org to discover the possibilities for your next tournament.

Chad Wagner is the best! The

awards are thoughtfully designed,

beautifully executed, and arrive

on time in perfect condition. Chad helps us stay within budget but still produces a product our guests are excited to take home. I would highly recommend his services to any tournament director!� – Megan Loden West, Director of Speech and Debate, Cypress Bay High School, Florida



Mean Green Workshops • Student-Centered Learning. UNT is a pioneer in applying Best Teaching Practices in debate. • Cutting Edge Innovation. Our workshops integrate major changes happening right now! • Comfort and Safety are the primary concerns for Residential Life Director Kandi King and full time Health Officer Dr. Naomi Meier. • Improve Debate Skills. We want you to leave as a better debater! We prioritize process over product. Spend time with instructors and in practice sessions learning skills to move to the next level! • Directed by Coaches. The institute and workshops are directed by career high school teachers with years of classroom management experience. High School students are our first priority! • Diversity of Staff and Students. We pride ourselves on diverse participation and arguments. • Attention to Geography. We want you to leave with what’s most valuable for your situation. We prepare you to perform in your region and circuit, and we are committed to adapting to you. • Unbelievable Staff & Cost. Why pay thousands more? Work with some of the Best Minds in debate. • Commuter Option. Save more and stay at home with a discount of $100 per week! • Squad Discounts & Financial Aid. We’ve awarded over $600,000 in aid and discounts in 11 years.

Policy Debate Director: Dr. Brian Lain (UNT) *Launching our Student-Centered model! Three Weeks: June 28 – July 18, $2500 Two Weeks: July 12 – July 25, $1800 *With guaranteed practice rounds and top-notch Policy & Kritik Instruction! Lincoln-Douglas Debate Director: Aaron Timmons (Greenhill School) Three Weeks: June 28 – July 18, $2500 Three Weeks: June 28 – July 11, $1800 Congressional Debate Faculty: Barbara Garner, Kevin Eaton (Stanford), Daniella Cohen Two Weeks: July 12 – July 25, $1500 Public Forum Debate Director: Cheryl Potts (Plano Senior) Two Weeks: July 5 – July 18, $1700 One Week: July 5 – July 11, $950 Individual Events (Oral Interpretation or Public Speaking) Directors: Kristy Thomas, Bruce Garner, Chris Agee Session One: July 5 – July 11, $950 Session Two: July 12 – July 18, $950 Middle School Speech & Debate Beginners: July 5 – July 11, $750 (Commuters Only) Experienced: July 6 – July 12, $750 (Commuters Only) Teacher Institute Director: Glenda Ferguson (Coppell) Two Weeks: June 28 – July 11, $600 *Fellowships Available!

Visit our website:


For more information, write Institute Director Jason Sykes:

director@meangreenworkshops.com ®

12ethrsary! v i n An


Lillian Ogunbanjo

“There is no need to reinvent the wheel; you just have to know the tires that best suit your program.”

What was your first experience in speech and debate? My first experience in the world of speech and debate was my senior year in undergrad. My class assignment required us to go and volunteer judge at a speech and debate tournament during the semester. Much to my surprise, I fell in love with the speech world. From my first judging experience, I was hooked. I immediately decided to teach speech communication and secured my first job at a middle school in Alief. It was an established middle school program with 100 members strong. Do you have any speech and debate mentors? During that first year, I made connections with the high schools in my district and helped judge TFA and UIL tournaments, but I never had an interest or even thought I would ever coach at the high school level. A few years later, with Hastings coach Teresa Lee Galiazzo as my department chair and mentor along with Allen Stewart, the former coach from my sister school at Alief Taylor, helped introduce me to the world of high school forensics. One of the


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

Houston coaches I was introduced to was Eloise Weisinger Blair, who took me under her wing and brought me with her into every tab room, including her own tournament, to teach me the ins and outs of running a tournament. Later that same year, I was blessed to receive a scholarship from the National Speech & Debate Association and attended camp at Mean Green Workshops. There I met Glenda Ferguson and Kandi King who taught me how to run a successful program. Aaron Timmons, Beena Koshy, and Jonathan Walton taught me how to teach novices in Lincoln-Douglas. Cheryl Potts mentored me on how to run a successful Congress and Extemp program. Also, in that same summer, I was able to get Demond Wilson to come and teach my students how to put on the Perfect Performance. I’m not mentioning all these people to name drop, but to impress upon others that these are just a few of the people who were instrumental in my journey. If there is nothing else you take away from my matriculation it is that mentors are a vital part of growth. There are so many people in this activity who have a vast

amount of knowledge with years of experience, and contrary to popular belief, there are many coaches in this community who are willing to give any coach a helping hand. All you have to do is ask! New coaches, there is no need to reinvent the wheel; you just have to know the tires that best suit your program. I took something from each of them to build a curriculum and techniques that worked best for my program. Tell us a little about your school and the features that make your program unique. My school and my district do not have feeder schools. Our draw system does not allow for early recruitment. Also, we have the choice between having a speech or theatre program in my district. So when my Debate I and Oral Interpretation I classes are made up of a mixture of students, I have learned that in my novice classes, whether they have previous experience or not, teaching them all of the events helps them learn the Hastings way of doing things. This also makes them have an appreciation for how the other side prepares for competition.


What advice would you give to a coach who is feeling burned out? I learned to prevent burnout in two ways: I no longer chase points, and I got help. I said goodbye to chasing points or quals and got my kids to adopt the philosophy that it’s not necessarily about quantity but quality. Not to knock anyone who does compete every weekend, but I discovered that in order for me to give my students the best, I have to be at my best. We only compete at the most twice a month. This way, my students give it their best every time they go out, and they can also have lives outside of speech and debate. The second way I helped prevent burnout was getting my principal to agree to hire an assistant coach. I know this second path depends on the school, but just like PE teachers are also athletic coaches, if there is more than one speech teacher at your school, try to get your principal to see to it that they also coach speech and debate. When you think about the future of speech and debate as an activity, what excites you? What challenges do you foresee? What excites me about the future of speech and debate is witnessing the addition of new schools and new coaches. There are so many schools without programs, and it really is a shame because I truly believe the skills learned in this activity prepare students like no other activity offered in the high school experience. What scares me about the future of this activity is the rising cost to compete nationally—not to mention the cost of sending students to the various camps around the nation. I feel if we don’t find some type of

solution soon for these rising costs for students and programs in rural and urban communities, the diversity that this organization desperately needs will just cause an even greater gap between the haves and the have nots. If we truly want to give youth a voice, this issue must be resolved, so every child who wants to compete has the opportunity or exposure to it.

it’s difficult choosing one moment from the journey. However, it had to be when my team and my close friend Erickson Bynum’s team circled up in prayer before our kids went to compete in round 12. It just was a magical moment that shows what this activity is all about: making those relationships and enjoying the journey together. For those making their first trip to Nationals this year in Dallas, just enjoy the moment to the fullest and win, lose, or draw, make sure that your students do the same. Unfortunately, everyone doesn’t go home a National Champion, but the relationships and connections that you make during the process can outlast all the accolades earned during the experience.

This issue of Rostrum talks about the Code of Honor. In what ways are your students exhibiting these core values? There are several norms I have created over the years that coincide with the Honor Code. Leadership and service stand out the most because one thing I teach every student who enters my program is to never forget where they come from and to always pay it forward by giving back. Not only do my students mentor each other while on the team, but after graduation, they are required to give back to the program their first year out of high school, whether it’s coming back and helping judge at tournaments or coaching at our team summer camp. What is so great is that they continue to come back even after fulfilling their first year out commitment. (As a side note, I did not come up with this idea on my own—I took it straight from Cheryl Potts and Karen Wilbanks and implemented it in my program!)

Is there anything else you would like to add? There are experiences that let me know I am not just a coach, but the head of a family. A few years back, one of my seniors said to me, reflecting on her four years in the program, that she spent more time with me and the speech and debate team than she did with her own family. When I have students who say this was their first time out of Texas, or their first time flying on a plane, I know I have helped give them something much more valuable than what the basic curriculum of a speech class could ever provide.

You coached the National Champion in Dramatic Interpretation last summer. What is your favorite memory from that experience? What advice would you offer firsttime students or coaches who will be making the trek to Dallas this June? I have so many fond memories of the 2014 National Touranment, so

Lillian Ogunbanjo is in her twelfth year of teaching and tenth year coaching speech and debate. She coached at the middle school level for one year, then took a three year hiatus from coaching before becoming the Director at Hastings High School (TX) in 2006. She received her first diamond in 2011 and has served on the Space City District Committee for seven years.

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 85

Richard J. Holland Memorial Scholarship

The Holland Family Legacy Foundation has established the Richard Holland Memorial Scholarship to be awarded annually to a chosen qualified applicant. The purpose of this scholarship is to continue the legacy of Richard Holland—his passion for helping people while enjoying life. The scholarship is a $2,500 award, renewable for up to three additional years.

Accepting Applications January 1, 2015 – March 15, 2015 Please visit www.rjhollandscholarship.org for more information or check out Facebook/RichardJHollandMemorialScholarship. The Holland Family Legacy Foundation info@rjhollandscholarship.org 3804 Dutton Drive, Plano, TX 75023

Opinion Opportunity, Not Crisis: A Response to Dr. Greenstein PEER PERSPECTIVES

by Paul Elliott Johnson, Ph.D.


o judge from Dr. Michael Greenstein’s recent essay, “An Activity at Risk: A Call for TopicCentered Debate,” 1 one imagines a debate community in crisis. Take Greenstein’s words: “the current state of debate is on a collision course with irreversible consequences”; “our activity is at risk”; “I fear for the life of an event that for so long has done so much for so many.” What does Dr. Greenstein fear? Greenstein worries that debates no longer mirror the mores, assumptions, and attitudes of the world outside debate. For Dr. Greenstein, this world’s central features are formal institutions and their representatives: legal venues, university administrators, employers, and so forth. Crucially, the scope of actions imaginable by these institutions and their representatives is static and fixed, standing outside persuasion. That is, students in debate are to learn what does and does not work in the world, and these parameters are fixed and definable. The real world apparently places robust, almost ironclad constraints on student learning. The real world in the guise of employer will fire you if you point out the presence of sexism and racism at a workplace (never mind


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

that there is the relevant concept of retaliation under employment law). The real world in the guise of the law will not listen to you if your knowledge of it is not intricate. And, crucially, the real world is a place where your personal experience does not matter. For Greenstein, debate exists as an instrument that trains students to live in—and with—the world as it is, with its attendant possibilities but also accompanying circumscriptions of action, attitude, and opportunity. No doubt there is a hint of truth in Greenstein’s description of the harsh realities of the world outside the contest round. But, what is wrong with debaters seeing these failings of the real world as imperfections in need of modification rather than permanent facts? Greenstein risks investing too much power into the content of educational practices rather than emphasizing that debate is a method for producing certain habits of mind and thought. One generation’s facts can be another generation’s discarded, outmoded mores. Debate teaches students to raise questions about the status of certain propositions as uncritically accepted facts. Attitudes about our realities are just that— attitudes—and making the character of our world subject to contestation and

interlocution is perfectly in line with sound argumentative practice. As I see it, the main benefits to Policy Debate education are providing an unparalleled level of preparation, competition, and contestation. The nature of Policy Debate, which is to have a single topic for an entire season and to structure research around this single topic, is particularly unique in that it encourages students to dig deep into these various and sundry areas of discussion. For a long time the contours of this research were focused almost exclusively on the conventionallyunderstood policy minutiae of the topic: implications various plans might pose for international stability, economic growth, disadvantages posed in terms of netnegative consequences for the adoption of some policy, and challenges to the ability of these plans to solve problems. Some critiqued this practice, suggesting that esoteric topic focus results in an overly technocratic and narrow relationship to the topic, one that delves into details of policy matters at the expense of producing more generalizable knowledge. Debaters have also come under fire for the rapid-pace of their delivery, more akin to auction hawker than deliberative democrat.


In fact, the precise sort of debate that Dr. Greenstein argues against does work as a corrective to these concerns because it places the burden on conventional debate practitioners to defend their educational choices. Raising relevant questions about the real world implications of the traditional model of debate advocacy does not so much moot these values as force its advocates to think about some of their own taken for granted theories about the world. Of course, a legitimate counterargument holds that some of the theories now in vogue among a segment of critical arguers are themselves dense and difficult to interpret. On this point I agree to an extent: these texts are challenging. If debaters making arguments utilizing these bodies of literature are not communicating with judges, then judges will not vote for these arguments, which should encourage the refinement of the competitor’s arguments. Competitors should continue to point out logical flaws in arguments, as we all should know full well that disagreeing is not the same thing as devaluing one’s competitor. Only where disagreement comes without the elements of sound argumentation— grounds, data, and backing—does disagreement slip from meaningful democratic practice into prejudicial prejudgment. Perhaps the most attractive attribute to a college admissions officer reviewing a high school student’s application is a capacity for critical thinking. Debaters who adopt less traditional argumentative stances are still learning the vital skills of advocacy, communication, and revision. Even if this process is unfamiliar and seems slightly alienating to us as judges at times, it remains highly valuable for students themselves. In this vein, Dr. Greenstein’s concerns about what he takes to be flagging interest in Policy Debate suggest that teachers and judges should think carefully about how they discuss argument choices with students. One option is to conflate familiarity with desirability, to understand these practices as evidence of an activity in

intellectual decline. The other path involves acknowledging that difficulty and unfamiliarity are often vital signs that education is occurring. Dr. Greenstein’s own examples are actually more ambiguous than he acknowledges. He laments the naïveté of the student in Michigan who protested their admissions practices, claiming the student would have been better off “to go through legal channels and work within the system by engaging the government in the hope the Supreme Court would reverse its previous decision.” In narrowly defining the political choice of protest as hopelessly naïve, Dr. Greenstein not only ignores that symbolically petitioning an institution is, in fact, a

and reason-giving can change reality? Such a belief goes against almost everything for which debate stands. Similarly, the example of Charles Athansopoulos’ and Geo Liriano’s appeal to the Tournament of Champions can be read as debaters utilizing the “portable skill” of risk calculation taught and employed by debaters for time immemorial. Debaters often argue that high magnitude impacts (getting to debate at a prestigious tournament) with a low probability outcome (rules cannot be broken, but are often subject to broad interpretation) warrants taking a chance that has a low rate of success. There is every reason to believe the students involved understood that what they were doing had a low perhaps even a

“Greenstein risks investing too much power into the content of educational practices rather than emphasizing that debate is a method for producing certain habits of mind and thought.” form of governmental engagement, he also fashions institutional decisions and actions as hopelessly static, using a narrow heuristic to define meaningful political action as that which correlates with an immediate instrumental outcome instead of understanding that protests can have broader salutary effects. One need only to look at the student’s statements at the protest to see that she understands there is a broader context for her actions. Of course the University of Michigan is constrained by the law: protests gesture at inequalities in society, even—or especially—legal inequalities, to underscore their unfairness. Dr. Greenstein wants to tag this story “Debater Fails to Understand Reality” instead of “High School Student Engages in Meaningful Political Action.” Do we really want to teach students that the world is immune to their protestations and claims, that no amount of education

near-zero chance of succeeding. Yet they petitioned onward. These two examples serve as evidence of the success of debate pedagogy by A) showing that even against institutional constraints one can still create change, albeit at a socio-political level rather than the purely legal plane Dr. Greenstein imagines, and B) that debate teaches skills that transcend the content of the debates. As was their right, the TOC denied their appeal, suggesting it was not even particularly disruptive. Dr. Greenstein makes another set of arguments related to A) the introduction of personal experience and/or people’s social location into contest rounds, B) the importance of preserving the comfortable and safe space of debate, and C) broader structures of exclusion operational in society, noted in his essay as encompassing race and gender. I share Greenstein’s concerns about the

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 89

introduction of personal experience as a means of resolving debate rounds in one sense: I am uncomfortable with calling on judges to render verdicts on difficult-to-verify facts from outside the debate round. However, the objections to arguments derived from personal experience are strong enough that they might be deployed in the contest round in order to push back against these positions. For example, Joan Scott’s insightful essay “The Evidence of Experience” in Critical Inquiry provides some very straightforward objections to this mode of arguing. 2 Also, individual experiences do have a role to play in political deliberation: they are another form of data that should be engaged with in the process of contestation. There are, and always have been, multiple ways of interpreting the relationship the debaters have to the topic. These arguments go by the name “topicality.” Today, people continue the tradition of interpreting the topic, albeit in seemingly more idiosyncratic ways than in days past. But, I would suggest, these are often matters of degree rather than kind, with the differential perception of the two having more to do with the chosen impact claims advanced by today’s debaters. Debating the topic has value, and if there are affirmative teams who either refuse to debate the topic or who manufacture unpersuasiveto-the-point-of-being-specious claims to be topic-relational, competitors can still demonstrate that a traditional approach to the topic produces valuable knowledge and persuade judges of this claim. It is on this basis that I find Greenstein’s call for work outside of debate rounds to increase the investment of resources into promoting debate in a broader swath of communities confusing. No one is suggesting that there is a zerosum relationship between raising these

questions in debates and working outside of them to grow debate’s reach. On the matter of discomfort, safe spaces, and discussions of broader lines of discrimination in society, Dr. Greenstein has certainly raised valuable points. We should be mindful that there is no such thing as a perfectly comfortable space. Instead, we are differentially aware of the discomfort that pervades our daily lives. This is especially true in high school, which at best is still a socially difficult space. It follows that I am especially sensitive to the idea that students might raise charges of racism or sexism, but it is always important to remember that power structures like racism have individual and institutional components. Pointing out that some practices contribute to racial stratification is different than accusing someone of being a racist. Competitors would do well to remember this point. Incidentally, these observations and others are discussed at-length by a number of well-regarded scholars in education and pedagogy. I would argue the bulk of peer-reviewed scholarship on pedagogy and education, especially in the context of race, concludes that posing the question in terms of facilitating comfortable spaces makes more difficult the vital work of raising questions regarding broad, societal inequality. 3 We must understand that the world— especially the one that Dr. Greenstein envisions as the “real” one, riven as it is with competition that is nasty, brutish, and short—imposes itself in an especially harsh manner upon those who do not presumptively fit into its confines. In a debate round, one may argue the impertinence of theses about structural racism with regards to a particular case: “no link” arguments continue to be persuasive. But when we explicitly or implicitly suggest such

End Notes Greenstein, M. (2014). An activity at risk: A call for topic-centered debate. Rostrum, 89(2), 70-72.


Scott, J.W. (1991). The evidence of experience. Critical Inquiry, 773-797.


For just a couple of many essays on this topic, see: Aveling, N. (2006). "‘Hacking at our very roots’: Rearticulating white racial identity within the context of teacher education." Race Ethnicity and Education 9(3), 261-274 and Delpit, L.D. (1988). The silenced dialogue: Power and pedagogy in educating other people's children. Harvard Educational Review 58(3),280-299.



Rostrum | WINTER 2015

theses have little to no value by deciding in advance that they are inaccurate, we are forswearing the hard, argumentative work of subjecting our own beliefs to rigorous testing and interrogation. Many debate competitors—and coaches—do not live and work in diverse environments. Coding certain debate arguments as inappropriate simply because they acknowledge the complexities and difficulties of the world contributes to a confirmation bias where the discomfort of the judge or coach upon hearing the argument indicts the argument’s soundness, where it might very well suggest the opposite. Today we are seeing debaters raising incredibly urgent questions about how debate’s prioritization of a certain set of hyperbolic impact claims might occur at the expense of everyday impacts related to discrimination and exclusion. Hearing these arguments out is not tantamount to uncritically accepting ideological proclamations. Frankly, considering such claims is beneficial to educators and students whose daily lives do not include such a breadth of perspective.

Dr. Johnson (Ph.D., University of Iowa 2013) is a Lecturer and the Associate Director of Debate at the University of Pittsburgh in the Department of Communication. His research has appeared in Critical Studies in Media Communication and the proceedings of the Alta Conference on Argumentation. His research focuses on the relationship between argumentation, American democracy, and political conservatism.

Editor’s Note: Visit our Rostrum archives at www.speechanddebate.org /Rostrum to read Dr. Michael Greenstein’s article from the Fall 2014 issue (p. 70-72).

We invite you to join this and other conversations online. Comment on our Facebook page or email ideas to editor@speechanddebate.org. We want to hear your perspective! www.facebook.com/speechanddebate

Education First Nationally Recognized Staff Proven Student Success SWSDI 2015 Faculty Includes: • Coaches from nationally recognized programs • Locally and nationally successful lab leaders • Top competitors from the college circuit

2015 Summer Institute

July 5-19, 2015

Barrett Honors College Arizona State University What our students think SWSDI does best: “The close knit environment of the lab, and the consistent effort of the lab leaders” “The mix of instructors. We had people with a lot of experience, as well as the perspectives of judges, coaches, and competitors.” “There was a lot of communication and help among everyone. There was a very comfortable feeling that I really liked & hope to feel again next year.” “SWSDI sparked a passion for forensics in our daughter. They strike the perfect balance between rigor and fun.”

Find out More and Register at www.swsdi.org

SWSDI Tournament Join us on one of the last stops on the road to the TOC and the NIETOC! TOC Bids in Lincoln-Douglas, Public Forum, and Congressional Debate. NIETOC Bids in all IE’s. Dates:

March 6-7, 2015

Location: Mesquite High School 500 S. McQueen Rd. Gilbert, AZ 85233 Registration At: joyoftournaments.com

ACADEMIC ALL AMERICANS The Academic All American award recognizes students who have earned the degree of Superior Distinction (750 points); earned a GPA of 3.7 on a 4.0 scale (or its equivalent); received an ACT score of 27 or higher, or SAT score of 2000 or higher; completed at least 5 semesters of high school; and demonstrated outstanding character and leadership.


ALASKA Terek Robert Rutherford

South Anchorage High School

CALIFORNIA Shaheryar Ajmal Mahnoor Ali Andrew Kirby Bower Fatima Shah Hasanain Jonathan Huang Alexander Michael Jang Grant Kalasky Ashlee Macalino Sean William McFeely Ann-Kathrin Merz Riley Murphy Anant Pai Sanjay Raavi Earnest Scott

Oak Ridge High School Los Osos High School Miramonte High School Miramonte High School Gabrielino High School Miramonte High School Santa Margarita Catholic High School Chaminade College Prep Miramonte High School Leland High School San Dieguito Academy Redlands High School Oak Ridge High School Gabrielino High School

COLORADO Nick Gunther Rowan Hussein Jessica Piper Vani Topkar

Fairview High School Fairview High School Fairview High School Fairview High School

FLORIDA James Euteneuer Jenna Gilley Jacob Greene

Boca Raton Community High School Southeast High School Boca Raton Community High School

ILLINOIS Rebecca Harbeck James McLellan

Niles West High School Niles West High School

INDIANA Caroline Berlage Magdalena Yeakey

Cathedral High School Bethany Christian High School

KANSAS Yash H. Kamath Brennan Spoor Elliott Vanderford Cooper Yerby

Wichita East High School Olathe North High School Bishop Miege High School Olathe North High School

KENTUCKY Meg Hancock

Paducah Tilghman High School

MAINE Sam Larson Desmond Molloy Serene Singh

Falmouth High School Falmouth High School Falmouth High School

MASSACHUSETTS Ethan K. Kestenberg Jae Seung Lee

Newton South High School Newton South High School

Rostrum | WINTER 2015

(October 15, 2014 through January 15, 2015)

MASSACHUSETTS (continued) Benjamin Shteinfeld Newton South High School Yasmin Yacoby Newton South High School MISSISSIPPI Robert Grady Pickering

Laurel Christian School

MISSOURI Kimberly Jones Austin Koster Ryan Largent Emily Raney Michael Rubel

Willard High School Brentwood High School Willard High School Willard High School The Pembroke Hill School

MONTANA Erin Johnson

Sentinel High School

NEBRASKA Sarah French Abbie Perry Katelyn E. Richerson

North Platte High School Millard West High School Lincoln Southeast High School

NEW MEXICO Quinter Nyland

East Mountain High School

NORTH CAROLINA Angeline Morales

Charlotte Catholic High School

OHIO Morgan Austin Alex Hasapis Yijia Liang Han Mahle Jonathon Shapiro

Hathaway Brown School Wooster High School Upper Arlington High School Wooster High School Beachwood High School

OKLAHOMA Gabi Glidewell

Moore High School

PENNSYLVANIA George Burnet Alexander Fried Matthew Klucher Maria Meyer

Quigley Catholic High School Abington Heights High School Abington Heights High School Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic High School


Spearfish High School

TENNESSEE Rhea Manohar

Ravenwood High School

TEXAS Anne Marie Berg Jacob Link Junyuan Tan

Round Rock Christian Academy Hereford High School Kerr High School

UTAH Logan H. Pedersen Sean Robinson

Karl G. Maeser Preparatory Academy Karl G. Maeser Preparatory Academy

WASHINGTON Sean Brislin Carlin Cherry

Kingston High School University Prep

WYOMING Daniel Pickard

Natrona County High School

Public Forum, Lincoln-Douglas, and Congressional Debate


rvice e C S i t t n a e t i d ons u t S The following students have received new Student Service Citations from the National Speech & Debate Association in recognition of outstanding service to speech and debate education. Students receive a citation for every 100 service points earned through activities such as community speaking or outreach. A single act of service usually garners between two and five service points. These citations were earned between October 15, 2014 and January 15, 2015.


Student Service Citation, 8th Degree (800+ points) John Jefferson Newton, II East Carteret High School Marshall High School Hallie C. Harper


867 855

Student Service Citation, 6th Degree (600+ points) Sabrina Ellen Carraway East Carteret High School William DeVito Chaminade High School


608 600

Student Service Citation, 4th Degree (400+ points) Eva Ruth Christophel Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Cecelia Porter Christian Brothers Academy Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Brianna Poe Nick J. Danby Bangor High School Abe Stauber Chanhassen High School Lincoln High School Phylicia S. Brown John Kieran Larkin Chaminade High School David City High School Allegra Hardin Christian M. Farris Marshall High School Carmen Perez Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Francesca Chavez Buffalo Grove High School Maria Meyer Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic High School Jaclynn Elaine Payne Central High School - Springfield Anders Osterling Downers Grove North High School Kory Turner Sacred Heart High School Hannah Bosisio Canon City High School Haley Blackwell Bixby High School Johnathan Bryan Joyner East Carteret High School Keegan M. Troth Marshall High School


458 455 453 445 438 430 420 419 415 412 411 411 411 405 404 403 400 400 400

Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Olivia Wright Truman High School Giovonni Bahena Lincoln High School Zach Mellow Buffalo Grove High School Samantha Covell Yucaipa High School Evan Jewell Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns


382 367 362 361 359

Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Student Service Citation, 3rd Degree (300+ points) Jackson P.M. Reed Centennial High School Thomas Marszewski Downers Grove North High School Kickapoo High School Connor Rothschild Caleb Jones Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Nicole E. Ramirez Lincoln High School Georgette Voss Buffalo Grove High School Michelle Feigler Buffalo Grove High School Bishop McGuinness High School Allison Hopfer Erin Kelly Noble Norman High School Rio Grande High School Erick Beltran Ashlyn McMillon Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Madison County High School Summer Davis Morgan Leanor Tracy Rio Grande High School Truman High School Daphne Werz


358 351 349 345 332 331 320 320 319 307 307 301 300 300

Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Naba Rahman Pine View School Hoover High School Autumn Jocas Bailey Macejak Pine View School Los Gatos High School Leron Perez Nabia Khan Buffalo Grove High School Pine View School Chris Winton-Burnette Camryn Powers Madison County High School Madison County High School Shannon Blow Marcus Martin Copley High School Pine View School Neena Patel Sam Schimek Pine View School Pine View School Emma Hollingsworth Davis Simpson Bixby High School Middletown High School Cameron Mathis Ashley C. May Lincoln High School Morgan Walker Vermilion High School American Falls High School Kyle Nye Brandon Winn Lincoln High School Buffalo Grove High School Matt Shapiro Blake Overman Mulvane High School Jackie Dews Madison County High School Madelein Bowman American Falls High School Kerstin Vaughn Norton High School Irish Amundson Willard High School Dallas McCash Morristown West High School Kathryn Nagle Bangor High School Kendra Rocha Hartland High School Kristen Trandai Buffalo Grove High School Kennedy Blankenship Bixby High School Samantha Hanan Pine View School Jordan Taylor Madison County High School Conner Dammann Chanhassen High School Liam O'Dowd-White Canon City High School John Wroblewski Norton High School Caleb Hennigan Norman High School Lakeville North High School Melissa Mason Sierra Weaver Madison County High School Jacob Hutchison La Junta High School


277 272 272 270 268 267 266 261 260 259 257 252 248 247 247 242 240 240 238 237 236 235 235 231 229 229 226 226 224 224 224 220 220 220 218 217 216 215

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 95


Student Service Citation, 2nd Degree (200+ points) Jacob George Zorehkey Central High School - Springfield Erin H. Burke Princeton High School Norman High School Allison Draheim Sara Huang The Bronx High School Of Science Sirena Paige Mosby Oak Ridge High School Brooke Brady Yucaipa High School Rachael Lamman Canon City High School Norman High School Alexis Lanzo Ireland Nichols Harrisburg High School BC Academy Harry Youngnam Kim Rannyn River Stephens Rock Springs High School Cathedral Prep Seminary Tyler Flannery Jami Tanner Klein High School Paducah Tilghman High School Meg Hancock Daniel Redfield Lakeville North High School Madison County High School Bryanna Smith Leah Tancer Suncoast Comm High School Oak Ridge High School Bryce Christopher Brady Aneesh Chimbili Oxford Academy Mountain Home High School Thomas Fatzinger Steven Planitzer Norton High School Paducah Tilghman High School Palmer Stroup Olivia Vaughan Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Grants Pass High School Kitra Moeny Ashley Joanna Domke East Carteret High School Rowan County Sr. High School Bridget D. Kim Michenna Adams Marshall High School Shaylyn Benson Madison High School Chanhassen High School Tom Busch Kevin McSorley Chaminade High School Juan Miranda Rio Grande High School Copley High School Claire Twigg


215 213 211 211 211 210 210 210 210 209 208 207 207 206 206 206 206 205 205 205 205 205 205 204 203 203 200 200 200 200 200 200

Student Service Citation, 1st Degree (100+ points) Michael Koppinger Cardinal Gibbons High School Conor Downing Mulvane High School Taylor Bradley Mulvane High School Los Gatos High School Kelly Young Elan Friedland Los Gatos High School Jordan Boden Mulvane High School Elizabeth Fitzhugh Johnson Ben Davis High School Eva Sparks Norman North High School Derek McGinnis West Plains High School Elizabeth McGoldrick Truman High School Brian Anderson Larue County High School Amanda Bannon North Kitsap High School Connor McGinley Edison High School Michael Wang Dreyfoos School Of The Arts Vishal Harpalani Suncoast Comm High School Taylor Schmac West Allegheny High School Basil Anthony Burke Jr. Wellington High School Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Maria Voltin Anthony Massa Hoover High School Rebecca Miller Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Faith Roush Carrollton High School Caroline Vana Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School


196 185 180 176 175 170 170 163 160 160 159 155 155 155 153 152 150 150 149 147 147 147

Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Student Service Citation, 1st Degree (100+ points) Jacob Corbin Madison County High School Dominique Smith Fluvanna County High School Miami Coral Park High School Chelsea Lopez Isabella Ruggiero Downers Grove North High School Hannah Bryant Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Ryan Moore Wadsworth City School Riley Stewart Norman North High School Norman North High School Ian McDougall Cole Randall Norman North High School Yucaipa High School Mary Ribaya Rielly Zimmerman West Allegheny High School Hoover High School Ashley Horn Julio Murillo American Falls High School American Falls High School Abby Rios Caitlyn Cook Gabrielino High School Norman North High School Riley McGinnis Jon Murphy Wheaton Warrenville South High School Norman High School Morgan Breedlove Mariah Mitchell Bixby High School Willard High School Conor Wadle Arbel Illya Chaminade College Prep Garland High School Dave Baychoo Colin Groh Buffalo Grove High School Noblesville High School Katelyn Maudlin Jules Wheaton Santa Fe Preparatory School Fluvanna County High School Zach Dobrin Mary Milton Fluvanna County High School Logan Payne Spring Creek High School Kickapoo High School Caleb Rice Jae Whitney Newcastle High School Kelly Gonzalez Kickapoo High School Princeton High School Celina C. Largent Albert Li James E. Taylor High School Wooster High School Tom Myers Angelica Cannata Buffalo Grove High School Ethan Dodd Ponderosa High School Mars Hill Bible School Sidney Harmon Alex Hasapis Wooster High School Prospect High School Benjamin Marshall Kathryn Poe Hoover High School Mikayla Chandler Norman High School Delaney Gagliano Downers Grove North High School Mylan Gray Sumner Academy Riley Greenwood Valley Center High School Gabrielino High School Jason Wong Dartalia Alati Hoover High School Jessica Hansen Spring Creek High School Jordan Howard-Jennings The Bronx High School Of Science Griffon James Lindale High School Josh Pratt Lakeville North High School Maddie Wheaton Lakeville North High School Isaac Bardin The Bronx High School Of Science Blanche Froelich Brookings High School Nina Macaraig CHAMPS Charter High School Of The Arts Ryan Miller Breckenridge High School Asia Amos Hall High School


146 145 144 144 143 143 143 140 140 140 140 138 135 135 134 133 133 132 132 132 131 130 130 130 129 128 128 128 128 128 127 127 127 127 125 125 125 125 125 125 124 124 124 124 124 123 122 122 122 122 122 121 121 121 121 120

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 97

Student Service Citation, 1st Degree (100+ points) Benjamin Anderson Garden City High School Alyssa DeJoan Munster High School Notre Dame High School Meredith Duflock Jacob Godbehere Brophy College Prep Levi Long Mulvane High School Diamante Martinez Douglas MacArthur High School Shirin Mavandad Los Gatos High School Marist School Claire Maxa Natasha Menon Brophy College Prep Randolph-Henry High School Cassidy Osborne Sophia Schick College Prep Cherry Creek High School Michael Serio Josh Villarreal Hendrickson High School West Allegheny High School Catherine Wheatley Maddie Corgiat Wheaton Warrenville South High School Wheaton Warrenville South High School Caitrin Gallagher Rebecca Johnson Wheaton Warrenville South High School The Bronx High School Of Science Carolyn Lau Thomas Ly Sherman Oaks CES Chanhassen High School Hunter Pederson MichaelEllen Walden Paducah Tilghman High School Bethel Park High School David Erzen Karina Franke Hackley School Mountain Home High School M. Holland Shyanne Redlin Watertown High School Eisenhower High School Azsa Enoch Yarely Guerra Eisenhower High School Joseph Sager St. Frederick High School Overland High School Noah Spicer Neel Yerneni James E. Taylor High School Ridge Allen Mars Hill Bible School Mulvane High School Troy Carlson Laura Carr Lakeville North High School Chaska High School Dobbs DeCorsey Sarah French North Platte High School Jonathan Gilbert Los Gatos High School Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Sutton Haye Connor Innes Mulvane High School Whitmer High School Troy Lefevre Tawnie Rene Lord Mountain Home High School Devon Nielsen Lakeville North High School Issac Silva Garden City High School Peyton Tinder Munster High School Kallee Walton Mulvane High School Lindale High School Ashley Ward Georgia Dunham Norman High School Gabi Glidewell Moore High School Nicky Halterman Norman High School Christopher Mayer Montville High School Andy Sandweiss Bangor High School Alexia Walker Bixby High School Tomer Cherki Scarsdale High School Caleb Christiansen Beaver High School James Farquharson Prospect High School Jordyn Russell-Mills Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School Merhawit Tsegay Norman North High School


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 119 119 119 119 119 119 119 118 118 118 118 117 117 117 116 116 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 114 114 113 113 113 113 112 112 112 112 112


Student Service Citation, 1st Degree (100+ points) Victoria Whitten Lincoln High School Ann Marie Anderson Harrisburg High School Princeton High School Angela Curtis Madison Hart Bishop McGuinness High School Habeeb Hooshmand James E. Taylor High School Rachel Ortega Walker High School Kaila Sanders Oak Ridge High School Hall High School Asia Stewart Caitlyn Anderson Buffalo Grove High School La Reina High School Hannah Bartels Taylor Bennington Wooster High School Hall High School Erica Braswell Ben Cox Chaska High School Lakeville North High School Ellie Crawford Madeline Dunham Norman High School Jefferson High School Layke Fowler Justin Gaither Alpharetta High School The Bronx High School Of Science Aidan Gibbons Robert Gibson Norman High School Buffalo Grove High School Daniella Goldstein Ashton Hopkins Canon City High School Marist School Tim Kiely Dalton Kokmeyer McPherson High School Prospect High School Ryan Kopp Esmeralda Martinez Jefferson High School Norton High School Sarah Rose William Sadler Haskell High School Alec Short North Kansas City High School Diamond High School Megan Thomas Abagail Westbrook West Lafayette High School Nicholas White Chisholm Trail High School Maconaquah High School Avery Withrow Evan Woods Oak Grove High School Pratt High School Courtney Blankenship Adam Carlisle Butte Falls Charter School Samantha DuVall Independence Truman High School Montville High School Shad Yasin Jenna Nicole Crowe Mountain Home High School Cheyenne South High School Jessica Determann Marissa Fulbright Mounds High School Tanis Ham Harrisonville High School Sung Yeon Joel Kim James E. Taylor High School Edward Kunz Cardinal Wuerl North Catholic High School Evan Clear Bishop McGuinness High School Newton South High School Rebecca L. Williams Margaret Berno St. Agnes Academy Bailey Marshall Middletown High School Claire Sullivan Montville High School Ryan Vanhorenbeck Bethel Park High School Elizabeth Pearl Bowman Rowan County Sr. High School Kim Cano Garden City High School Gil Carter Mars Hill Bible School Micaela Davidson Woodland Park High School Julia Donheiser The Bronx High School Of Science Tara Douglas Noblesville High School Katie Foy Concord High School


112 111 111 111 111 111 111 111 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 109 109 109 109 108 108 108 108 108 108 107 107 106 106 106 106 105 105 105 105 105 105 105

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 99

Student Service Citation, 1st Degree (100+ points) Kayla Gabrielle Rio Grande High School Nina Gary Prospect High School Breckenridge High School Elyssa Glick Chantelle Gossner Weber High School Nikita Grant Royal Palm Beach High School Cavan Hagerty Bangor High School Justice Jones Millard North High School Fluvanna County High School Kara Kline Jade Koompin American Falls High School Home Educator's Outsourcing Solns Virginia Krog Amelia Lamp Elko High School Norton High School Bradon Lewis Sarah Longfellow Norton High School McAllen High School Brianna Margo Tiffany Mendenhall Bixby High School David City High School Maya Peirce Erica Ramos Garden City High School Jefferson High School Nico Reason Michael Sarno Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School Carl Junction High School Steven Stokes Elakya Thirumoorthy Milpitas High School Chaska High School Aimee Townsend Sarah Walterman Lakeville North High School Wooster High School Zack Buchholz Gabriel Delsol The Bronx High School Of Science El Dorado Springs High School Kylena Goodwin Pranav Kumar Montville High School Caroline Liongasari Notre Dame High School Wheaton Warrenville South High School Haylee Sippel Brock Spencer Union High School Hattie Sumrow Oak Grove High School Santa Fe Preparatory School Elena Wirth Joshua Conrad Maconaquah High School Oak Ridge High School Brittany Foley Cassandra Ngo St. Mary's Colgan High School Adrian Pettis Madison County High School Skyline High School Tyler J. Roberts Emily Ross Concord High School Mountain Home High School Bianca Yvonne Wilson Sam Dekhterman Buffalo Grove High School Katlin Nicole Fannin Rowan County Sr. High School Marissa Gammon Poland Regional High School Faizaan Sadruddin University School Jay Sirot Montville High School Montville High School Natasha Dusaj Vicky Han Montville High School Emily Smith Monticello Central High School Bhaskar Suri Chaminade College Prep Cameron Wright Father Ryan High School Sarah Behr West Allegheny High School Jennifer Benge Maconaquah High School David Blackstad Lakeville North High School Sheridan Elizabeth Brown Woodland Park High School Veronica Cisneros McAllen High School


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 102 102 102 102 102 101 101 101 101 101 100 100 100 100 100


Student Service Citation, 1st Degree (100+ points) Taylor Eash Westview High School Mitchell Evenson Chaska High School Appleton East High School Monica Fieck Cierra Forrester West Allegheny High School William Foshee Odessa High School Chase Gale Hendrickson High School Lauren Gillespie Trinity Valley School Hoover High School Abby Grisez Ryan Hahn North Hollywood High School West Allegheny High School Daniel Hovanec Jennie Hudson Bob Jones Academy Ursuline High School Micaela Kreuzwieser Viviana Lizarraga Bishop Ward High School North Platte High School Seth Mavigliano Zoe McKee Westmoore High School Loyola-Blakefield High School Zachary Phillips Sophia Pollock-Bernard Douglas MacArthur High School Munster High School Alexandra Raycroft Jacob Rosen Natick High School Fishers High School Emma Rund Rachel Ryan Bixby High School Jefferson High School Yaritza Sanchez Adele Smith West Allegheny High School Hendrickson High School Ayu Sofyan Matthew Stanwix Harrisonville High School Towanda Jr.-Sr. High School Kayla Tolan Olivia Voegeli Valley Center High School Alec Walberg Olathe Northwest High School Poland Regional High School Katherine Walker Amy Willers Lincoln High School Ian Zimmers-Kraft Appleton East High School


100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Spark Leaders Do you have what it takes?

Academic All American No cost to apply! Visit our website to download the official application:

www.speechanddebate.org/AAA Rostrum | WINTER 2015 101

Welcome New Schools East Limestone High School


West End Academy


Accelerated Learning Laboratory


Westlake High School


CALS Early College High School


Westside High School


ECALS High School


Moscow High School


James Foshay Learning Center


CICS Northtown Academy


Lakeview Charter High School


Emiliano Zapata Academy


Magnet Learning Academy


Marine Military Academy


Mare Island Technology Academy


UNO Soccer Academy High School


Mission High School


William R. Harper High School


Mt Eden High School


Cheney High School


New Design Charter School-University Park


Redbird Christian School


Rose City High School


Dutchtown High School


South Gate High School


West Jefferson High School


Triumph Charter Academy


Boston Green Academy


Yorba Linda High School


Green Street Academy


Changjun High School


Laurel High School


Changsha No. 15 Middle School


National Academy Foundation


Mingde Middle School


Suitland High School


Nanya Middle School


Arbor Prep High School


No. 1 High School Of Changde


Cornerstone Health & Technology High School


No. 1 High School Of Liuyang


Detroit Christian Schools


Yali High School


Detroit Denby High School


Contemporary Learning Academy


Detroit Edison Public School Academy


Manual High School


Detroit School Of The Arts


Mapleton Public Schools


Grace Community Center


Summit Academy


Jalen Rose Leadership Academy


Vista Academy


Romulus High School



University Prep Science And Math High School


University YES Academy


Vista Peak High School Colegio Continental

Dominican Republic

Delphi Academy Of Florida


Winans Academy


Osceola County School For Arts


Youth Development Commission



Pinecrest Preparatory Charter


(October 15, 2014 through January 15, 2015)

Gordon Parks High School


Coretta Scott King Young Womens Leadership Academy


Rockford High School


Early College Academy Of Columbus


African Centered Education


East Columbus Magnet Academy


Allen Village School


Kendrick High School


Central Academy


King’s Ridge Christian School


Pacific High School


KIPP Atlanta Collegiate


Holly Springs High School


Pebblebrook High School


Howard Health And Life Science


South Cobb High School


The School For Creative Studies


Spencer High School


West Fargo Sheyenne High School


The Galloway School


Bard High School Early College Queens


Rostrum | WINTER 2015


Welcome New Schools

(October 15, 2014 through January 15, 2015)

Fort Hamilton High School


Canistota High School


High School For American Studies At Lehman College


BASIS San Antonio


High School For Law Advocacy & Community Justice


Cesar Chavez High School


John Jay High School


Dallas Academy


Mott Hall Bronx High School


Mott Haven Village Preparatory High School


H. Grady Spruce High School


New Dawn Charter High School


Harmony School Of Political Science & Communication


Pathways In Technology Early College High School


Harmony School Of Science High


Science Technology & Research High School


Jordan High School


Sunset Park High School


Justin F. Kimball High School


The Urban Assembly Academy For Green Careers


Kathlyn Joy Gilliam Collegiate Academy


William E. Grady CTE High School


Mickey Leland College Prep


William H. Maxwell CTE High School


Seagoville High School


Catlin Gabel School


Ben Lomond High School


Archbishop John Carroll High School


San Juan High School


Sun Valley High School


West Ridge Academy


Charleston Charter School For Math And Science


Orcas Island High School

ibu ntr


and tions ons s e u sq issi ome d subm deos. c l e n w i as, a box nd v Soap story ide hotos, a n issio s, p ts, m e n l b e c u i s at t m , get mail us . com of ar s t h se e oug .org ur th ore, plea ddebate o y m are an To sh ines, and @speech x el guid soapbo



Soapbox is published under the direction of the Student Leadership Committee (SLC), a group of several hundred civically engaged young people who help us fulfill our mission. Soapbox is different from Rostrum magazine—it is a solely web-based publication. Online publishing allows content to be updated as it becomes available, so it’s as fresh possible. Online content is also easy to comment on, share, and re-blog!

www.studentsoapbox.org Rostrum | WINTER 2015 103

Careers Berkeley City College Seeks Part-Time Volunteer Debate Coach Berkeley City College, part of the Peralta District, is a small community college located in downtown Berkeley. The burgeoning debate team, formed in 2013, is seeking an experienced debate coach to prepare for collegiate parliamentary and policy debate invitationals. The coach will need to donate two hours of the week in helping the students work on strategies and team preparation, as well as in practicing live debate. Club meetings are on Friday from 2:00 to 3:30 p.m., but the coaching can be scheduled to fit the coach’s time frame. Please send an email to berkeleydebateteam@gmail.com if interested. ENREACH Seeks Full-time Speech and Debate Coaches (China) ENREACH is seeking full-time speech and debate coaches to be based in high schools and ENREACH centers in partnership with Dipont Education Management Group in different cities around China. The teacher may be asked to teach in the evenings and on weekends, and the teaching hour will be no more than 26 class periods per week, amounting to no more than 40 working hours. For consideration, please email cover letter and CV to joyofdebate@dipont-edu.com and stefan.bauschard@gmail.com. For more information, visit www. speechanddebate.org/careers. The Minnesota Urban Debate League (MNUDL) Seeks Program Associate The Minnesota Urban Debate League (MNUDL), a program of Augsburg College, seeks to hire an energetic, dedicated full-time Program Associate to assist our Program Director in implementing a critical program that transforms students’ lives. The position offers an opportunity to build skills and make a difference in education, community development, and nonprofit administration. The Program Associate is a new position that will play an essential role in the daily management of the program and our 30+ partner schools. For more details, visit www.speechanddebate.org/careers. Harker Middle School (San Jose, CA) Seeks Assistant Debate Coach The Harker Middle School Speech & Debate Program is currently seeking assistant coaches in Debate. The position is part-time and includes after school practice Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays with additional time spent on research, caseediting and video review. Assistant coaches are also expected to attend tournaments with the team several weekends during the school year as well as several evening scrimmages during the semester. Assistant coach responsibilities include working with competitive debate students to develop and edit cases, judge practice debates and provide constructive feedback, track student progress throughout the season, and host skills


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

More Employment Opportunities Available Online:

www.speechanddebate.org/careers workshops with the debaters. Applicants must have previous experience in competitive debate at the high school or college level and must have a high school diploma. Applicants should also have excellent interpersonal skills as well as research, verbal communication, & written communication. Experience working with middle school students is preferred. If interested, please email a cover letter and resume as one PDF or Word document attachment and reference “MS Debate” in the subject line to teach@harker.org.

Harker Middle School (San Jose, CA) Seeks Assistant Speech Coach The Harker Middle School Speech & Debate Program is currently seeking assistant coaches in Speech. This position requires that the individual support the lead coach of the program in assisting students in the development and editing of speeches for competition. The position is part-time and includes after school practice Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursdays with additional time spent on speech editing and video review. Assistant coaches are also expected to attend tournaments with the team several weekends during the school year as well as several evening scrimmages during the semester. Applicants must have previous experience in drama or competitive speech at the high school or college level and must have a high school diploma. Applicants should also have excellent interpersonal skills as well as research, verbal communication, & written communication. Experience working with middle school students is preferred. If interested, please email a cover letter and resume as one PDF or Word document attachment and reference “MS Debate” in the subject line to teach@harker.org.

Sunrise Fellowship for Global Debate Sunrise International Education is a social enterprise devoted to promoting global education reform and international engagement. We are the biggest provider of extracurricular enrichment in China, and have been recognized inside and outside China for our role in fostering critical thinking and civic values in a new generation of Chinese. We are currently seeking program fellows to work on and advance the missions of our National High School Debate League of China (NHSDLC) and Alliance for Global Debate (AGD) programs. The Sunrise Fellowship for Global Debate is a one-year position, with possible renewal, in our Beijing headquarters. Fellows will engage in outreach, training, tournament administration and academic development. Ideal candidates will be socially and culturally conscientious and committed to promoting civic and international engagement, comfortable living abroad and enjoy working independently on a diverse set of tasks. Visit www.speechanddebate.org/careers for more details. We are looking for candidates to start on either March 15 or September 1. Interested candidates should submit their resume and cover letter to fellowship@sunrise.education.



Meeting Alf by Tim Averill

Hall of Fame coach Tim Averill recalls a chance encounter with the former Governor of Kansas, leading to one very memorable evening—and a lifetime of inquiry.


n my sophomore year of high school in 1962, I decided to join the debate team at Topeka West High School. The team had the reputation for being the perfect refuge for nerds like my friends and me. I eagerly began my research, reading the Topeka Capitol Journal on September 9, 1962, looking for articles on our national topic: “Resolved: That the United States should promote a common market for the Western Hemisphere.” Like hundreds of other debaters in Kansas, I was copying quotations onto 3x5” notecards in the hope of finding the perfect “killer card” to prove my affirmative case or to refute the affirmative cases on my opponents. While cruising through the paper, I happened to glance at a 24-point headline, “Governor Landon Celebrates 75th Birthday at Topeka Estate.”

the article, I thought to myself, “How could I use this birthday announcement?” I slid a piece of erasable paper into my Smith Corona and began to type: Dear Governor Landon, Happy 75th birthday! On behalf of all the residents of Kansas, I want to thank you for your service to our State of Kansas and the whole nation. We are lucky to have leaders like you. Alf Landon in 1962

Alf Landon, Governor of Kansas from 1933-1937, was the 1936 Republican candidate for President, and he had been buried in FDR’s landslide victory for his second of four Presidential victories. Yet, despite this, Landon had emerged as a leading advisor to the party and to Presidents. After reading

I am very interested in politics myself and am currently a member of the Topeka West debate team. We are researching the prospect of creating a common market for the Western Hemisphere, and I wonder if you might direct me to a few resources on this topic to enhance my research. I would certainly appreciate any response that you have time to give. Sincerely, Tim Averill

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 105

I asked my mom to proofread the letter. I sealed it, licked a four-cent stamp, and sent it to the Landon mansion at 10th and Gage. Then I went back to my research. Four weeks later, while at lunch in the school cafeteria, the lunch lady called me over and told me to report to the principal’s office right away. This was totally unusual for me. My mind raced with a menu of possibilities: mom was sick; dad had been in a car accident; they’d discovered who clogged the toilets with whole rolls of paper; or maybe even some good news that I’d scored high enough to get into Science Seminar. Dr. Henson’s secretary greeted me and handed me a slip of paper with a phone number: It said, “Please call Theo Landon [the Governor’s wife] at Governor Landon’s office.” The conversation went something like this: Me: This is Tim Averill, returning a call from Theo Landon. Theo: Good afternoon, Tim. Governor Landon got your letter and wondered if you would be interested in being his guest for a dinner and colloquium at Kansas University on Monday, October 22. The Governor will be discussing European Common Market, and he thought that you might be able to learn more for your topic. Me: Wow! Really? Yes, I’d love to come. I’m pretty sure my mom could get me to Lawrence. What time and where? Theo: It’s an early dinner. Why


Rostrum | WINTER 2015

don’t we pick you up at three o’clock at the school? Governor Landon doesn’t drive any more, but there’s plenty of room in his limousine. We’ll drive you home after. Me: What should I wear? Theo: It’s a gathering of professors, hosted by the Chancellor. Wear what you wear to debates. Me: Thanks, and I’ll see you at 3:00 p.m. on the 22nd. So on October 22, Alf Landon, his driver, an advisor, and Mrs. Landon pulled up in front of the school in a Lincoln Continental limousine to take me to Lawrence. We made some small talk about debate, my parents, and Landon’s career and interests. But about 20 minutes into the ride, we were interrupted with a call to Landon’s short wave radio-phone, a large and bulky item about the size of a hiking boot. Landon answered and it was the Associated Press on the line, asking for Landon’s reaction to rumors President Kennedy was about to address the nation about the presence of Russian missile silos in Cuba. Kennedy and Landon had met in the spring of 1962, and they admired each other and consulted on occasion. 1 Landon completed the call, and I can only remember that he spoke about the options, the risks, and the possible outcomes of actions that the President might take. That call was followed by one from United Press International and a number of other newspaper

reporters, all asking what Kennedy should do, what were the risks, and how much danger we were in if he did nothing. Riveted to my seat, I was privy only to Landon’s side of these conversations, but I knew whatever was about to be announced was very serious and would take precedence over the original plan we had for the evening. I could not believe I was going to be a witness to history in the making and be the first to know Alf Landon’s perspective on the emerging crisis! When we arrived at the Student Union, we were escorted to a private dining room for our dinner and the scheduled speeches, but they were never to take place. Chancellor W. Clarke Wescoe arrived and asked that a television be brought into the dining room. As the invited guests arrived, he and Governor Landon began a discussion of what was likely to be included in the President’s address to the nation, which was about to go live. I had never been in a room with so many influential people, and I was so impressed with what I saw that I later choose to attend KU. At age 15, I found the experience awe-inspiring as the professors, Governor Landon, and Chancellor Wescoe pieced together the things they knew and discussed Kennedy’s likely courses of action. At 6:00 p.m. Central, Kennedy addressed the nation and announced the blockade. The content of the speech is wellknown. 2 Because I had heard some of the deliberations leading up to


the decision, I felt just a bit like an insider. After the speech, the rest of the evening’s discussion was about the wisdom of a blockade compared with a possible surgical air strike. I cannot recall the opinions of the professors and chancellor, but I do know that Landon thought the “strict quarantine” was indeed the most prudent option. After about two hours of discussion and a very forgettable meal, the colloquium broke up and we returned to Landon’s car, where he took additional press calls for the 40-minute ride back to Topeka on the Kansas Turnpike (built in 1956 under the Eisenhower Interstate Highway Program).

Landon dropped me off at my house, apologized for not giving me any insights about my debate topic, and promised to send me copies of his prepared remarks for the colloquium that never happened. About a week later, materials arrived in the mail, and I was able to share them with my team and coach. About six months later, I invited the Governor to attend my Eagle Scout ceremony. He declined but sent a kind and congratulatory note. To this day, whenever a new topic is announced, my current debaters and I take a similar chance and invite someone (often via Skype) to come to class and share insights with the team as

we test our ideas against those of people who are in the field. It was Alf Landon who gave me the confidence to do that, and his support has made a big difference to me and my teams over the past 45 years.

Tim Averill has been coaching debate for 45 years at Manchester Essex Regional High School (MA) from 1971-2005, and currently at Waring School in Beverly, MA since 2005. Tim is a five diamond coach, a member of the National Speech & Debate Association Hall of Fame, and a key coach of the Barkley Forum. His teams won the NSDA and TPC Nationals in Policy Debate in 1987, and his Public Forum teams closed out the National TOC in 2006. Outside of debate, Tim enjoys bocce, bicycling, reading, writing, and spending time with his four grandchildren.

End Notes 1

Schlesinger, A.M. (1965). A thousand days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Houghton Mifflin, 677.

According to Schlesinger: In the spring of 1962, Alfred M. Landon of Kansas, the Republican candidate for President in 1936 and one of the most likable men in American politics, paid a call on Kennedy. “Our conversation drifted from the North to South and from South back to North,” Landon later told me, “like the smoke from a hookah.” I asked him whether Kennedy reminded him at all of Roosevelt. Landon said, “No. Kennedy is very frank and straightforward. Roosevelt was always on the stage, always giving a performance.” He went on to describe Truman: “For the first two years he was too humble. Thereafter he became too cocky. Kennedy is neither humble nor cocky.” (Subsequently, Kennedy said about Landon, “I liked him. Very Trumanesque.”) According to the JFK Library’s website: “In his speech President Kennedy reports the establishment of offensive missile sites presumably intended to launch a nuclear offensive against Western nations. The President characterizes the transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base as an explicit threat to American security, and explains seven components to his proposed course of action: quarantine all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba, increase the degree of surveillance, regard a possible attack launched from Cuba as a Soviet attack, reinforce the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, call for a meeting of the Organ of Consultation, call for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council, and demand that Premier Nikita Khrushchev cease his current course of action. In his speech the President famously states, ‘Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right—not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom, here in this Hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world.’”


Retrieved from http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/sUVmCh-sB0moLfrBcaHaSg.aspx

Rostrum | WINTER 2015 107

There’s nothing smarter for those who want to succeed There’s nothing smarter for those who want to succeed

There’s nothing s

Work one-on-one with former admissions officers and Work one-on-one withfrom former admissions officers Work and one-on-one w admissions experts all the top-ranked colleges: admissions experts from all the top-ranked colleges: admissions expert

Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Brown, and more. Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Brown, and Harvard, more. Yale, C 42% of high school students don’t get in to any of their top choice 42% of high schoolcolleges. students don’t get in to any of their top choice colleges.

The numbers are mind-boggling, but The numbers are mind-boggling, InGenius can help give you the but edge you InGenius give you the edge you need tocan get help accepted to your top school. need get accepted your topin school. Theto InGenius team to is the best the world. The InGenius team is the best in the world.


ü Application Counseling College applications beschool overwhelming. Our don’t g ü Application Counseling 42% of can high students

teamapplications of former admissions officers and recent College overwhelming. Our theircan topbechoice colleges. college graduates can guide youand through the team of former admissions officers recent process. college graduates can guide you through the The numbers are mind-bogg process.

ü Candidacy Building InGenius can help give you t Whether Building choosing the right classes, summer ü Candidacy

need to get accepted to your experiences, extracurriculars or volunteer Whether choosing the right classes, summer work, we can help InGenius you plotoryour path to college experiences, extracurriculars volunteer The team is the bes so you are an ideal candidate come application work, we can help you plot your path to college time. so you are an ideal application “THEcandidate ADVICE I come RECEIVED FROM INGENIUS HE time. IMMENSELY DURING THE COLLEGE PROCESS

ü Interview Prep ASSISTANCE I WAS ABLE TOand IMPROVE FACT We knowPrep how to be cool in the hot spot ü Interview RECOMMENDATIONS TO MY RESUME AND ST show how. We’ve been Wecan know howyou to be cool in the hot there. spot and D.J., COLUMBIA UNIVERS APPLICATION.” can show you how. We’ve been — there.

Schedule a Free Consultation! Schedule a Free Consultation!

1.800.722.3105 info@ingeniusprep.com 1.800.722.3105 www.ingeniusprep.com info@ingeniusprep.com www.ingeniusprep.com

Schedule a Free Co

Miss a live session? Check out our archive of recorded webinars! • Common App: Tips from the Pros • Filling Out Your Financial Profile for College

Students, watch your inbox or log in to your dashboard to register for our upcoming webinars! www.speechanddebate.org

• How to Create a Well-Rounded College List • How to Write a Great Essay • Law School Applications: Tips and Strategies • MBA Application Tips • Should I Send More than Two Recommendations and Other College Questions • Using Speech and Debate to Get Into Your Dream School • Writing a Winning Resume

About InGenius Prep InGenius Prep has over 50 years of admissions experience at the top undergraduate, medical, law, and business schools. Comprised of former admissions officers from the most competitive schools around the country and top students from the best graduate and professional programs, they are the largest, most experienced group of admissions counselors from top schools in the world. InGenius Prep is the most recognized solution for students aiming to attend competitive institutions. InGenius Prep is a web-based company,

InGenius Prep webinars offered in partnership with

allowing students to use its services from anywhere in the world.

National Speech & Debate Association members receive 10% off any service! Use code NSDA-INGENIUS. Visit www.ingeniusprep.com to get started today.

For more great webinars, log in to your dashboard at www.speechanddebate.org!




Visit the National Speech & Debate Association website at

www.speechanddebate.org/CoachOfTheYear to access the online nomination form!

Top 50 Districts (Ranked by average number of charter chapter degrees as of January 1, 2015) Rank Change District

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 21 22 22 24 25 26 27 27 29 30 30 32 32 34 35 35 37 38 39 39 39 42 42 44 45 45 47 48 48 48

-- -- -- -1 -- -- 2 -2 5 -2 1 4 -3 -1 -6 1 2 -1 2 4 -6 7 6 -- -- -- 5 -1 -- -11 3 5 -1 7 -2 -2 -15 3 8 -1 6 1 -3 -8 5 -6 1 3 12 -2

East Kansas Florida Manatee Three Trails (KS) Kansas Flint-Hills Nebraska East Los Angeles (CA) Rushmore (SD) Northern Illinois Northern South Dakota Eastern Ohio New York City Idaho Mountain River California Coast Northwest Indiana Ozark (MO) Sunflower (KS) Show Me (MO) West Kansas San Fran Bay (CA) Rocky Mountain-South (CO) New Jersey Heart Of America (MO) Northern Ohio South Florida Golden Desert (NV) Carver-Truman (MO) East Texas Southern California West Iowa Central Minnesota Colorado North Coast (OH) Eastern Missouri South Kansas Lone Star (TX) South Texas Southern Minnesota Florida Oceanfront Montana Illini (IL) Pittsburgh (PA) New England (MA & NH) Magnolia (MS) New Mexico Hoosier Heartland (IN) Carolina West (NC) Northeast Indiana Big Valley (CA) Colorado Grande South Carolina

No. of Degrees

Average Leading Chapter No. of Degrees 195 162 148 146 141 140 138 137 135 132 127 118 118 117 115 111 105 96 95 95 94 93 93 92 91 90 89 89 88 87 87 86 86 85 84 84 82 79 77 77 77 76 76 75 74 74 72 71 71 71


Olathe Northwest High School Nova High School Blue Valley North High School Manhattan High School Millard North High School Gabrielino High School Sioux Falls Lincoln High School Glenbrook North High School Aberdeen Central High School Perry High School The Bronx High School Of Science Highland High School Leland High School Munster High School Central High School - Springfield Valley Center High School Lee’s Summit West High School Hutchinson High School James Logan High School George Washington High School Ridge High School Liberty Sr. High School Canfield High School Braddock High School Green Valley High School Neosho High School William P. Clements High School Carlsbad High School Dowling Catholic High School Apple Valley High School Cherry Creek High School Solon High School Ladue Horton Watkins High School Pittsburg High School Grapevine High School Bellaire High School Lakeville North High School Boca Raton Community High School Bozeman High School Downers Grove South High School North Allegheny Sr. High School Newton South High School Oak Grove High School Los Alamos High School Fishers High School Asheville High School Chesterton High School Turlock High School Pueblo West High School Riverside High School

458 798 621 309 472 785 335 331 313 338 878 418 723 260 607 410 322 249 287 375 339 483 316 225 292 321 390 371 293 288 572 216 176 209 245 473 261 229 236 274 439 309 174 164 233 175 329 142 210 254

View complete rankings online at www.speechanddebate.org. Rostrum | WINTER 2015 111

le Schednu a n! auditio Western Kentucky University

Austin Groves, class of 2015 and Lily Nellans, class of 2018.

THIS IS WKU FORENSICS To the University, Forensics is an opportunity to demonstrate academic excellence, to excel in competition of the intellect, and to extend the academic atmosphere. To the student, Forensics is an opportunity to cultivate life-long friendships, travel the country, and do what you love.

PASSION • HUMILIT Y • UNIT Y • SERVICE • GR ATITUDE SAVE THE DATE! The WKU SUMMER FORENSIC INSTITUTE will be held July 5-16, 2015! Check our website for details on our new intensive summer camp experience.

WKU Forensics; Ganer Newman 1906 College Heights Blvd. #51084 Bowling Green, KY 42101-1084 phone: 270-745-6340

email: ganer.newman@wku.edu www.wkuforensics.com Follow us on Twitter: @wkuforensics

T h e S p i r i T o f e n g ag e d e xc e l l e n c e

I want to lead by example. Seeing the world and exemplifying the ideals of WKU are Sarah’s main objectives. Being an Honors College scholar and studying abroad at Harlaxton College are just two of the ways she is reaching those goals. At WKU she is part of a community that encourages her to experience all the world has to offer! Sarah StackhouSe

Bowling Green, Ky

www.wku.edu/honors facebook.com/wkuhonors @wkuhonors @wkuhonors

National Speech & Debate Association



SUMMER ONLINE INSTITUTE! The Online Institute was a worthwhile experience! I gained insights on new ideas and techniques to be successful. The dedication and willingness of the instructors to help were beyond my expectations, and the environment was very engaging. I had a lot of fun!” — Anne Lheem, Student


Sessions: ff FREE! Coach Clinic

WENDI BRANDENBURG ff Congressional Debate


ff Extemporaneous Speaking


ff Interpretation


ff Lincoln-Douglas Debate


ff Original Oratory


ff Policy Debate

BRIAN RUBAIE ff Public Forum Debate



Profile for Speech & Debate

2015 Winter Rostrum  

Volume 89 Issue 3

2015 Winter Rostrum  

Volume 89 Issue 3