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Chronological -- Order points in a time-related sequence This organizational pattern is used to explain how something happened or evolved; or how something will evolve. The speaker moves forward or backward in a systematic way.

Spatial -- Arrange points by their location This pattern is often based on geography or physical proximity (East to West, top to bottom, inside to outside, etc.). It allows the speaker to explain a scene, place, or object in terms o f its parts.

Topical (Categorical) — Group points by a common theme This type o f pattern is used in presentations which enumerate aspects of persons, places, things or processes. Major points may list components o f things; reasons for supporting some proposition; or deal with major questions about some idea.

Cause - Effect -- Attach points with causal relationships The speaker may use this pattern to move from a description o f the present conditions (the effect) to an analysis o f apparent causes — OR — may describe several current realities, moving to their logical end. Typically the speaker begins with whichever is better know and moves to the lesser known, whether it be cause of effect.

Problem - Solution — Group remedies with problems This organization scheme typically begins by describing (and proving the existence of) a problem. The speaker then presents a solution or solutions and their merits.

Organizational Schemes