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Wine by Design Second Edition


This edition first published 2010 Š 2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Registered office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom

For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com. The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Executive Commissioning Editor: Helen Castle Project Editor: Miriam Swift Publishing Assistant: Calver Lezama Content Editor: Françoise Vaslin ISBN 978-0-470-72141-4 Cover design, page design and layouts by Spazio8 Printed in China by Everbest


Wine by Design Second Edition

Sean Stanwick Loraine Fowlow


Contents Acknowledgements 7

New Vintages 74

Preface 8 Introduction 10

Introduction 76 Rocca di Frassinello, Italy by Renzo Piano Building Workshop 78

Branding The Vine 28

Bodegas Darien, Spain by Jesús Marino Pascual 82 Winery Esterházy, Austria by Pichler & Traupmann Architekten ZT

Introduction 30

GmbH with Anton Mayerhofer Architekt 90

Adega Mayor, Portugal by Álvaro Siza 32

Vignaioli Contrà Soarda, Italy by Henry Zilio 94

Marqués de Riscal, Spain by Gehry Partners, LLP 38

Feudi di San Gregorio, Italy Hikaru Mori Architect and Massimo and

Bodegas Ysios, Spain by Santiago Calatrava 42

Lella Vignelli Interior Designers 98

Bodegas Julián Chivite, Spain by Rafael Moneo

Disznókö, Hungary by Ekler Architect 106

Architect 46

Loimer, Austria by Andreas Burghardt Architect 110

Clos Pegase, USA by Michael Graves & Associates 50

Bodega Otazu, Spain by Jaime Gaztelu Quijano Architect 116

Dominus, USA by Herzog & de Meuron 56

Bodegas Juan Alcorta, Spain by Ignacio Quemada Architect 120

López de Heredia Viña Tondonia, Spain by Zaha

Cantina Rotari (MezzaCorona), Italy by Alberto Cecchetto Architect 124

Hadid Architects 60

Weingut Leo Hillinger, Austria by Gerda and Andreas Gerner

Petra, Italy by Mario Botta Architect 66

Architect 130

Le Clos Jordanne, Canada by Gehry Partners, LLP 70

Alois Lageder, Italy by Abram & Schnabl Architects 136


Young Terroir 140

Beyond The Vineyard 210

Introduction 142

Introduction 212

Mission Hill, Canada by Olson Sundberg Kundig Allen 144

Loisium Visitors’ Centre, Austria by Steven Holl Architects 214

Novelty Hill and Januik, USA by Mithun Architects 150

The White Tower Restaurant, United Kingdom by Elumin8 /

Fielding Estate Winery, Canada by Superkül inc |

Speirs and Major Associates 218

architect 158

Prince Wine Store, Australia by Chris Connell Interiors 222

Evelyn County Estate, Australia by Philip Harmer Architects 166

Peregrine, New Zealand by Architecture Workshop 172

Wineries and Architects Listings 228

Jackson-Triggs Niagara Estate, Canada by Kuwabara Payne

Further Reading 230

McKenna Blumberg Architects (KPMB) 178

Viña Pérez Cruz, Chile by José Cruz Ovalle Architects 184 Opus One, USA by Johnson Fain 190 Byron, USA by Johnson Fain 196 Quintessa, USA by Walker Warner Architects 202 Roshambo, USA by Jacques Ullman Architects 206

Above, from right to left: Feudi: At Feudi di San Gregorio, every interior detail, from furniture to silverware was overseen by the design team. The overall effect is both polished and glamorous Feudi: Bright red loungers beside a crackling fireplace, tan marble floors and white ceilings with soft, indirect light help set the overall mood Fielding Estate Winery: For the owners of Canada’s Fielding Estate, the appreciation for the rustic lodge in the woods is so ingrained that they will readily admit it’s an important part of defining who they are


Executive Commissioning Editor: Helen Castle Development Editor: Mariangela Palazzi-Williams Design and Editorial Management: Famida Rasheed Publishing Assistant: Louise Porter To my beautiful wife Jennifer Flores and to my supportive mother Dianna Stanwick. All my thanks. For Sara, Dave and Mom, forever. L F

Photo Credits

Key: t=top, b=below, c= centre, l=left, r=right

Cover: © Peter A. Sellar / Klik pp 1, 132–39, 194 & 212–17 © Trevor Mein, Meinphoto; pp 2–3, 79–81, 154–157 & 218–21 © Roland Halbe; pp 4(c), 30–33, 92, 94 & 96–97 courtesy of Allied Domecq World Wines®; p 9 Alexander Lowry / Photo Researchers, Inc; pp 10, 56–61, 124, 140–42, 143(r), 144(t), 145(b), 146 & 147(t) © Patrick Reynolds; pp 12–13, 14(t), 16, 20 & 23 courtesy of Petra Winery; p 14(b) Caroline Houlden/Royal Horticultural Society; p 15 © Loraine Fowlow; p 18 courtesy of Stephen Dominick; p 24–29, 62–63, 64(t+c) & 65(bl) © Gehry Partners, LLP; pp 34–37, 93 & 95 © Duccio Malagamba; pp 38–42 & 43(t) © William Taylor; p 43(b) © Michael Graves & Associates; pp 44–47 © Margherita Spillutini; pp 52–55 courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects; pp 64(b) 65(tr+cr+br) Courtesy of Yolles Structural Engineers; pp 66–67 & 106–13 courtesy of Leo Hillinger Winery; pp 69 & 98–105 courtesy of Cantina Rotari Winery, NOSIO Spa; pp 70–77 courtesy of Ekler Architect; pp 82–87 © Andreas Burghardt; pp 88–91 courtesy of Jaime Gaztelu Architect; pp 120–23 courtesy of Alois Lageder Winery; pp 143(l), 144(b), 145(t), 147(c+b) courtesy of Architecture Workshop; pp 148, 149, 150(c+b), 151(l), 152 & 153(t) © Peter A. Sellar / Klik; pp 150(t), 151(r) & 153(b) courtesy of KPMB Architects; pp 158–9, 160(b), 161(r), 162(t) & 163(tl+b) © Johnson Fain: Photos by Tim Street-Porter; p 160(t) © Mark Defeo Heliphotos; pp 161(l), 162(c) & 163(tr) © Johnson Fain; p 162(b) © Johnson Fain: Photo by Charles Callister Jr.; pp 167(b) & 168(t) © Johnson Fain; pp 164-166, 167(r), 168(b) & 169 © Johnson Fain: Photos by Erhard Pfeiffer; pp 174, 175, 178 & 179(t) © Richard Barnes; p 176 © Mark Defeo Heliphotos; pp 177 & 179(b) courtesy of Walker Warner Architects; pp 180, 181, 182(tl+tr+b) & 183 © Roshambo Winery: John Sutton Photography; p 182(c) © Roshambo Winery: Ed Aiora Photography; pp 197 & 208–10 © Chris Gascoigne; pp 198–201 Photos by Robert Alexander Herbst; p 206(b) courtesy of Giner + Wucherer Architects; p 211 courtesy of Richard Kirk, Elumin8; p 224 PhotoDisc, Inc./Getty Images


Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge and thank the following for assistance with this book: Helen Castle for her enthusiastic support for this project from the outset, and always gentle editing; Steve Denyer and Jamie Patriquin for invaluable research assistance; Raphael Neurohr for quick and helpful translation work; Jane Holland at Lewis Carroll Communications;Tye and George Farrow of Farrow Partnership Architects (Toronto), for their professional support and enthusiasm; and a huge thanks to Jennifer Flores, for her fluid words on Roshambo and for championing the project coordination effort. Special thanks to Don Triggs, President and CEO of Vincor International for his warm hospitality and generous contributions. Lastly, many thanks to Maggie Toy for getting it all started in the first place and to Mariangela Palazzi-Williams for her dedication to the project. We would also like to thank all the wineries, architects, designers and photographers from around the world for graciously providing their time, effort, drawings and photographs, without which this book would never have become a reality.


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Preface This book has its origins, literally, in a vineyard. While attending the unveiling on the site of the new Frank Gehry-designed winery in the Ontario countryside, it occurred to us that this combination of great architect with fine wine would make for a wonderful book. There was something so delicious about visually consuming fabulous architecture while actually tasting great wine that we thought others would enjoy this conjunction too. Therefore, this book is about architecture and wine, but it is also about the people who make and share their precious product. Wine has long had a close relationship with the buildings that housed its production, but now there is a new relationship developing. Forged by entrepreneurial vintners with an eye both to a new vision of the role wine plays in society and culture, and to the booming growth of wine tourism, these canny business people are reshaping how we experience wineries. Wine and tourism are now becoming inextricably linked as wine clubs, foodie magazines and the wine tour explode in popularity. Many of these vintners are hiring international superstar architects such as Frank Gehry, Rafael Moneo and Santiago Calatrava to design their wineries. Why? Some of the reasons behind this question are addressed in this book, as are the issues of commerce and art, economics and design. Also discussed is the offspring of this conjunction of wine and tourism: the themed wine destination. Consumers are now able to feed their desire for all things wine far beyond the vineyard, in venues that are increasingly departing from the traditional notions of retail. Quite simply, wine has never tasted, and looked, so good.

Opposite: Adega Mayor: There is a poetic simplicity throughout the winery, even in the production and fermenting cellars with their simple stripped concrete walls and floors

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Introduction The first edition of Wine by Design, published in 2005, charted the development and growth of the phenomenon of wine tourism. Since then the industry has seen new developments in terms of the winery experience, not least the construction of new signature buildings to promote brand identity and provide the wine tourist with architecture as memorable as the vintages and their vineyards. And the experience has been further enhanced: select wineries now offer guests luxurious hotel accommodation and the chance to visit their customised spa. Since the earliest days of wine-making, the physical winery has consisted of processing and storage areas, particularly in the French wineries where tradition and provenance have lasted for centuries. In many wineries this has not changed. What has changed, however, is the expansion of these facilities to include, embrace, and actually lure the visitor. Opposite, from top to bottom, left to right: Adega Mayor: At night, the poetic simplicity of this volume is immediately appreciated Fielding Estate Winery: Exposed cedar captures the comfortable feel of a summer cottage while the running bands of windows expose the winery operations for all to see Jackson-Triggs Niagara Estate Overlooking the vines, the winery with its great hall is a sensitive progeny of a strong Canadian regionalism with every detail inspired by the traditional farm buildings of the area Feudi di San Gregorio The wonderful Asian style terraced gardens are abundantly stocked with typical Mediterranean aromatic plants, old vines, ancient rose bushes and century-old olive trees

The Wine Tourist There is a revolution currently under way in the world of wine as both established and new wineries discover the dual marketing advantage of coupling exquisite, brand-name designer architecture with the winery tour. The role of tourism in the wine industry is rapidly growing as both the casual tourist and the organised groups of wine connoisseurs increasingly seek out these new wineries. Tourism is now such a large factor in winery design that the locations for new wineries are often chosen as much for adjacency to other tourist attractions as for the quality of the soil and growing conditions. Just as the experience of a meal is enhanced by a rare vintage, so the contemporary winery is designed as much for the winery tour as for wine production itself – wineries such as Le Clos Jordanne by Frank Gehry have intentionally factored in the tour as a design consideration. In addition, the dual tourism appeal of a Gehry building in close driving distance to Niagara Falls guarantees that this winery will be a magnet for visitors. INTRODUCTION

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One very physical manifestation of the growth of wine’s popularity is seen in the increasing inclusion of wineries on the tourist’s itinerary. For example, Ontario, Canada actively promotes its annual ‘summer wine tour’ through the Niagara region, with stops at Jackson-Triggs and Le Clos Jordanne. Wine clubs are organising tours for their members throughout the winemaking world, taking wine connoisseurship to the level of pilgrimage. In addition to visiting wineries, for the growing number of wine tourists a new form of architecture is springing up, one entirely devoted to wine. For example, the Loisium in Austria offers visitors the opportunity to learn about wine while sampling wine products. A cross between a museum, tasting bar and retail outlet, this new hybrid typology extends the experience of wine beyond the winery itself. Devoted to the appreciation of all things wine, these new facilities are expanding the horizons of how we consume this ancient beverage. A logical extension of the wine tourism phenomenon is the winery hotel and, increasingly, the associated spa. No longer merely offering comfortable accommodation to visitors touring within a wine district, these new winery resorts feature a complete package of deluxe accommodation, spa and even conference facilities. Although there is a growing number of these extraordinary resorts, preeminent among them has to be the hotel and spa at the Marqués de Riscal winery in Elciego, Spain, designed by architect Frank Gehry. The Ciudad del Vino (City of Wine) is a complex encompassing the oldest winery in the Rioja, the original 1858 Marqués de Riscal, as well as the new hotel, spa, restaurant, meeting and conference centre and banqueting hall. Operated by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Group’s prestigious Luxury Collection brand, the Riscal hotel can be described as a 21st-century château with a twist – quite literally, since the design of the building showcases Gehry’s trademark swoops and curves. The winery is also promoted as ‘a world full of living sensations’, for this is what wine tourism is really all about: the sensual experience. Affording as full-bodied an experience as the wine itself, the Riscal Ciudad provides guests with the opportunity to immerse themeselves in experiences designed for, and devoted to, the senses. From the beautifully appointed rooms to the serenity of the spa, to the delectable creations of a Michelin-starred chef, it is the senses that are catered for in this city of wine. Another sensory adventure can be found in the quiet countryside of the Lengenlois region in Austria. Designed by architect Steven Holl as part of his scheme for the Loisium Visitors’ Centre, the Wine & Spa Resort Hotel integrates the exploration of wine in the centre with a destination designed to provide the ultimate in pampering of body and palate. As both architectural and metaphoric counterpoint to the Visitors’ Centre, the hotel and spa give guests the opportunity for leisurely enjoyment in an environment dedicated to sensory pleasures.

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Opposite, from top to bottom, left to right: Loisium Wine & Spa Resort Hotel Par t of the complete package of luxe accommodation and spa, the pool offers guests the oppor tunity for the leisurely enjoyment derived from an environment devoted to sensorial gifts Loisium Wine & Spa Resort Hotel Designed by architect Steven Holl as par t of his scheme for the Loisium Visitors’ Centre, the Wine & Spa Resor t Hotel integrates the exploration of wine in the Centre with the indulgence afforded by a destination designed for the experience of Dionysian ideals Marqués de Riscal Hotel The Caudalie Vinothérapie spa at the Marques de Riscal Hotel offers visitors vinotherapy treatments that utilize the powerful antioxidant qualities found in grapes, their seeds, and vines


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In addition to catering to tourists, both the Marqués de Riscal and the Loisium present themselves as unique settings for conferences, meetings and banquets, the provision of the winery environment for business gatherings being yet another development in the range of wine tourism attractions. In the competitive world of business accommodation, the winery conference centre provides a relaxed backdrop designed primarily for pleasure, yet inherently suited to more serious pursuits by virtue of its facilities. First rate dining, seamless service and beautifully designed architecture combine to provide a highly competitive alternative to the usual conference and meeting venues. This new business direction is an emerging aspect to winery design with enormous potential, particularly for wineries close to city centres, such as the Loisium, which is near Vienna. The savvy entrepreneurs behind Loisium have also entered the lucrative market for children’s birthday parties, an international growth industry, as parents vie with one another to give their offspring ever more unusual party experiences. Another interesting new angle on the wine tourism phenomenon is the wine spa, which uses real wine as part of its treatments, taking a logical step further the wine-is-good-for-you philosophy now validated by medical studies of the health benefits of red wine. It is well known that grapes, their seeds and vines are powerful antioxidants, and all are now being incorporated into this new venture in the global spa industry: vinotherapy. Today it is rare to find a spa that does not feature some form of vinotherapy. Originating with skin treatments developed in France in the early 1990s by Mathilde Thomas of Caudalie Vinothérapie, vinotherapy also forms the basis for entire spas, such as Les Sources de Caudalie. With its luxury branding it is hardly surprising that the Marqués de Riscal Hotel spa is a Caudalie Vinothérapie. The trend is also spreading through hotels in wine country in the US, such as the Kenwood Inn and Spa in the Sonoma Valley. Wine tourists can enjoy a soothing vine bath after a day of wine tastings, often in a tub shaped like an oak barrel. A day that begins and ends with the yield of a wine barrel is indeed a day of leisure and escape.

Culture and Wine The production of wine dates back thousands of years and has always required a close relationship between humans and the environment. In A Short History of Wine, Rod Phillips states that, ‘the journey that wine made from the vine to the glass ... has always been one in which humans and the environment have collaborated’1. As the grape is a product of the land, the qualities of the wine have always been inextricably linked with the earth itself. The notion of ‘terroir’ in the winemaking industry pairs the characteristics of the land with the specific traits of the wine produced, and now, increasingly, with the architecture. But the history of wine is also the history of human culture. Whether wine was

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Above: Loisium Wine & Spa Resort Hotel Designed by architect Steven Holl as par t of his scheme for the Loisium Visitors’ Centre, the Wine & Spa Resor t Hotel integrates the exploration of wine in the Centre with the indulgence afforded by a destination designed for the experience of Dionysian ideals


viewed as a gift from God or the work of Satan, its consumption has always mirrored the cultural mores of the society that produced it. Wine has played a prominent role in numerous societies – in religious ritual and daily diet, as political symbol, economic driver, even medical treatment, and much else, all of which directly reflect the cultural and social ideas of their time. So, what does the consumption of wine tell us about ourselves now?

The Age of Lifestyle Today a convergence of influences is resulting in an unprecedented interest in lifestyle and quality of life, including an interest in all things wine.The manifestations of these influences include the cocktail culture; the proliferation of lifestyle magazines and television shows; the ease and growth of travel, and the Slow Movement. It is the Slow Movement that perhaps best illustrates the reasons behind this surge of enthusiasm around life-style. In his book, In Praise of Slow, Carl Honor states that, ‘Fast and Slow do more than just describe a rate of change. They are shorthand for ways of being, or philosophies of life’.2 In this fast-paced digital age, more and more people feel a desire for balance in their lives. There Below: The White Tower With brand-name designers such as Philippe Starck and Karim Rashid rapidly being called upon to design überlounges for the newly chic, it’s no surprise that the latest incarnation of the trendy airpor t lounge is the Wine Tower, a 13-metre-high shimmering obelisk dedicated entirely to wine

is a recognition that quality of life is important, as well as quantity, and with this comes the interest in, and demand for, lifestyle choices. And one of those choices is wine. Wine tours and tasting both at home and at specialty stores and events, is rapidly becoming a growth area driven by a design-conscious, mobile public increasingly focused on life-style and environment. In this context, the UK’s Wine Tower at London’s White Tower Restaurant has been specifically tailored to the culture of mobility and the jet-set. With the growth of interest in novel travel destinations and increased accessibility thanks to competitive air travel costs, the average tourist is now looking beyond the traditional sun and sand holiday package. There is a new breed of tourist exploring lifestyle travel. Meanwhile, popular media such as films contribute to public awareness of unusual destinations. The 2005 film Sideways, which saw a group of 30-somethings working through relationship issues in California’s wine country, has ‘uncorked a tourism swell in the Santa Ynez Valley’.3 Local tour operators offered customised tours based on locales shown in the film, and visitors purchased Sideways T-shirts with their bottles of wine. In addition, the film’s official website had a link to the Sideways Wine Club, which offered a catalogue of related wines available to order. Traditional European and North American interests in wine and art are also expanding to encompass a new generation with both the interest and, financial wherewithal to embrace wine connoisseurship. Both the number and membership

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of wine clubs have grown exponentially in recent years. Hundreds of food and drink publications now exist worldwide, and innumerable websites are devoted to wine information and discussion groups. A further indication of the growth of public interest in wine has been the Wine Idol competition launched by the Australian wine company Hardys. In conjunction with the TV channel UK Food, Wine Idol looked for the next TV wine celebrity. Other television shows, such as Jancis Robinson’s Wine Course in the UK, have both fed and fostered the growing interest in all things wine. Interest in wine and vineyards even extended into the realm of floral design: at the 2005 Chelsea Flower Show, designer Kate Frey designed the Fetzer Wine Garden, her inspiration the diversified and sustainable agricultural system of Fetzer’s Vineyards in the area surrounding Mendocino County, California.4

Above: Francis Ford Coppola signing a bottle from Rubicon Estate Perhaps the godfather of all celebrity wine, is that produced from Rubicon Estate in California, owned and operated by Francis Ford Coppola

The Culture of Celebrity The cult of celebrity is an inescapable and undeniable aspect of contemporary Western culture. While this is not a new phenomenon historically speaking, of course, what is new is the multiplicity of media formats that ensure global identity and exposure of celebrities and their antics in the blink of an eye. Celebrities are now such a part of most Western lives that we think nothing of buying their salad dressing, listening to and acting on their political opinions, copying their fashion sense, and naming our children after them. It should come as no surprise, then, that we are now also buying their wine. The scope of the relatively new phenomenon of celebrity wine runs the gamut from simply using a celebrity’s name and likeness on the label, to wineries that are actually owned and run by celebrities. Celebrity Cellars, based in California’s Sonoma County and Los Angeles, ‘bottles the most recognizable names and faces in the world’.5 These include Barbra Streisand, Celine Dion, KISS, Madonna, and the Rolling Stones. Elvis is also now swilling wine: for US$12 a bottle you can enjoy Jailhouse Red Merlot or Blue Suede Chardonnay. Licensed with Elvis Presley Enterprises, Graceland Cellars is

Opposite, from top to bottom, left to right:

producing the Elvis line of wines in Napa Valley, California. Another celebrity-

Enie Els

endorsed California vino undertaking is Marilyn Wines, begun in 1983 as the playful venture of a small group of friends. Marilyn Merlot was the result, and other offerings from the winery now include Marilyn Cabernet, Norma Jeane wines, and

Novelty Hill and Januik The crushed glass fire pit is embedded into a solid slab of basalt, which doubles as an outdoor tasting bar and Zen-like gathering spot on warm summer evenings Feudi di San Gregorio Over 650 feet in length, the concrete cellar holds more than 6,000 French oak barrels for ageing reds, along with several Austrian oak vats for select whites

the Velvet Collection. The winery has an exclusive agreement with Ms Monroe’s estate, and royalties paid to her estate from the wine sales help support a special child treatment centre. In addition to the label-thin use of celebrity to market wine, however, there is now a long list of celebrities who are actually making wine, many of whom do not stamp their name on either label or winery. Included on this list are: Sam Neill

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(Two Paddocks, New Zealand), Olivia Newton-John (Koala Blue Wines, Australia), the Smothers Brothers (Remick Ridge Vineyards, California), Mick Hucknall of Simply Red (Il Cantante, Sicily), Gérard Depardieu (Château de Tigné, France) and Sir Cliff Richard (Cor tes de Cima, Por tugal). Perhaps the godfather of all celebrity wines, however, to use a well worn but in this case tongue-in-cheek expression, is that produced by California’s Rubicon Estate, a winery owned and operated by Francis Ford Coppola. Originally the Niebaum estate in Napa Valley, where the winery was founded in 1840, the property was acquired by Coppola in 1975 as a summer home where he could pursue his winemaking hobby. After more than 20 years producing critically acclaimed wines, the winery was renamed Rubicon Estate after all the original vineyards of the estate were reunited and in honour of their flagship wine. But a sure sign that celebrity wine has come of age occurred in 2007 when lifestyle guru Mar tha Stewar t entered into par tnership with E & J Gallo to produce Mar tha Stewar t Vintage. A long-time friend and advertiser in Stewart’s magazines, Gallo Wines has put Stewar t’s name on three of their wines. A shared passion for food, drink and entertaining led to this ‘natural outgrowth of their friendship’. 6

The Housing of Wine Architecture has in the past taken a back seat in winemaking. Buildings were designed and used to house the process of creating wine and, often, the winemakers themselves. Quietly set within the countryside, whether in Italy or Por tugal, wineries simply produced wine. It was the winemaking itself and, of course, the wine that predominated. In recent years, however, these roles have been changing dramatically. Viticulture has historically been an agricultural pursuit, part of the work of a farm or monastery. The process of making wine was undertaken in simple vernacular structures, which were not purpose-built, but were most likely to be sheds, barns and cellars. The first château specifically built for winemaking is believed to be the Château Haut-Brion at Pessac, completed in 1525. Cultural and economic forces in late 18th-century Bordeaux in France led to the use of the name ‘château’ in the designation of wines, resulting in the first association between winemaking and the buildings related to the estate. This early form of branding was utilised to identify par ticular wines as products of the aristocracy, as distinct from the mass of simple wine producers. So popular and successful was this strategy that the use of ‘château’ in the naming of wines spread well beyond the Bordeaux region, into the Loire, the Midi and eventually to Australia, Canada and elsewhere. As wine production and public interest grew dramatically in the latter part of the 20th

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Opposite, from top to bottom, left to right: Feudi di San Gregorio The wonderful Asian style terraced gardens are abundantly stocked with typical Mediterranean aromatic plants, old vines, ancient rose bushes and century-old olive trees Esterházy Built amid recently created vineyards on the outskirts of Trausdorf, the new Esterházy Winery is within view of its historic ancestor, the Schloss Esterházy in Eisenstadt Mission Hill Passing through an allée of trees and a perfumed rose garden, the senses are overwhelmed and there is little doubt that something unique awaits within López de Heredia Inside, visitors and bottles contrast comfortably against gloss white furniture, polished stainless steel and an array of colourful bottles of aged Bordeaux


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century, so too did interest in the buildings that housed the wine. The public identity of vintners is taking on a higher profile as interest in wine grows and, with it, interest in the buildings themselves. Many contemporar y wineries are using new designs by top architects such as Herzog & de Meuron, Zaha Hadid and Frank Gehr y to stamp their brand on the international market. In the world of winemaking, this marks a shift in attitudes between the Old World and the New. ‘Architecture is an arena where a culture’s attitudes toward past and future play out in concrete forms.’ 7 Vintners understand, now more than ever, that they must invest in the culture of their product and respond not only to the palette of the senses, but also to our aesthetic palette by promoting the space of wine; a place of ambience, of life-style, of architecture.

Brand and Identity The direct association between the making of wine and the buildings that house it goes back to the late 18th century, when winemakers in the Bordeaux region of France began using the word ‘château’ on their labels. Today, the representation of the winery through label design has progressed beyond merely using the name, to using the image itself. An example of this practice is the Disnókö Winery in Hungary, which proudly displays imagery of the winery complex on many of their Opposite, from top to bottom, left to right:

bottles.

Bodegas Darien Perched atop a small terrace of land overlooking the Ebro River, Darien glows bright white against the rolling green hills of the Rioja wine region

The significance of branding for the wine industry is increasingly related to the

Dominus Dubbed the ‘stealth winery’ because of the way it simply disappears into the land, Dominus is an abrasive object set within rows of delicate vineyards. On closer examination, though, the boldly elongated, monolithic volume actually yields an intense combination of emotional and sensorial pleasures

brand and wine producers who are new to the market are increasingly looking to

Disnókö Set against the for tified stone wall of the forecour t, the ragwork outer skin of the tractor shed is in total contrast to the warm glow of the skeletal wood trusses inside Loisium Wine & Spa Resort Hotel This typical guest room displays the luxurious accommodation set within fabulous design is the hallmark of the new breed of winery hotel and spa

sales of the product. As wine sales move out from specialty retail outlets and into supermarkets in many parts of the world, the ability of the consumer to identify wine choices is challenged. One solution is to improve the readability of the architecture as a form of branding for their products. We live in an age of the brand-conscious consumer, whether we’re looking at the brand of jeans, car, toaster or even hotel. Stamping a brand is a means of claiming an identity. Consumers choose the brand that most closely matches their own values and ideals, and today the consumer can be a museum or university just as easily as an individual. We are seeing public and private institutions and corporations utilising the design of their buildings to forge their identities. This is the age of the star architect, who produces a product that represents the ultimate in branding exercise: the signature building. This is not architecture as fashion so much as architecture as identity. It is also architecture as tourism magnet, now known as the ‘Bilbao effect’, after the tremendous success of the Frank Gehrydesigned Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

INTRODUCTION

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The Business of Wine The spread of viticulture to the New World brought traditional methods and values related to wine, but in return the New World is contributing and challenging these established approaches to winemaking. For centuries wine has been economically important to many regions in the Old World, some of which are still leading wine producers, including France, Portugal, Spain and Italy. The export of wine is now increasingly important outside the traditional Old World, for countries such as the United States, Australia, Chile, and Canada, as wine consumption rose substantially in the second part of the 20th century. Within the context of continental Europe, Rod Phillips writes: ‘To some extent neighbourhood sociability has been replaced by a more intense sentiment of domesticity, manifested by people increasingly entertaining in their homes rather than meeting their friends in public places like cafés ... a sea-change has taken place, not only in the amount of wine consumed in some important wine-producing countries, but also in the contexts in which it is consumed.’ 8 Beyond Europe, the consumption of wine has risen, fallen, and risen again due to cultural and economic factors. Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, medical evidence of the beneficial effects on health of red wine created a spike in US sales of red wine, which temporarily increased four fold. The average consumption in the US prior to the Second World War was 2 litres a year, more than 8 litres by the 1980s, and down to about 7 litres a year by the 1990s owing to the fall in demand due to the imposition of federal taxes. Australia, which has the highest wine consumption rate per capita in the Englishspeaking world, saw consumption rise from 17 litres per year in 1980 to 21 litres in 1987, only to decline to 19 litres in the early 1990s. Other countries have also experienced a rise in annual wine consumption, including Japan and the Netherlands. China is a market gearing up to explode in the wine industry. Fuelled initially by the government’s switch in 1987 from grain-based liquor to grape-based wine, the Chinese market for wine is rapidly expanding. The population in China most likely to consume wine as a lifestyle choice is the upwardly mobile youth, a demographic that currently numbers over 300 million. This is more than 10 times the potential market of the US and many more times that of other Western countries.9 Brand allegiance is strong in China, as shown by the dominance of Coca-Cola in the softdrink market. This vast country is still a virtually untapped market for international wine producers, if one that is quickly gaining recognition. With a population of 1.3 billion and growing, the potential in China for the wine industry is simply astounding. Due both to the size of the market and to evolving Chinese tastes that favour Western style leisure and luxury, there is speculation that China ‘could become 22

WINE BY DESIGN

Opposite, from top to bottom, left to right: Novelty Hill and Januik A simple modern space defined by heavy concrete walls, the Novelty Hill tasting area is warmed by cedar beams and natural light Novelty Hill and Januik At Novelty Hill, large overhangs create a delightful shadowplay against the clean concrete walls Feudi di San Gregorio The library and lounge enhance the rich atmosphere with deep brown Poltrona Frau leather sofas. For those who want to further their wine knowledge, a collection of related publications is also available for browsing


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the industr y’s next Chile: a fount of quality and affordable wines’. 10 The wine industr y in China was wor th around $10.5 billion in 2007, but is projected to grow to approximately $13.7 billion by 2010, with the country set to become the world’s eighth largest wine consumer by 2012. As the customer base soars, the Chinese wine industr y is working to keep up and expand domestic production. Currently, there are more than 500 wineries in China, but these are mostly small, with 70 yielding less than 1,000 tons of grapes per year. In order to shift the bulk of consumption from impor ts to domestic product, the home industr y is seeking to capitalise on their own growing market. Changing life-styles among young urban professionals in China that reflect the por trayal in the popular media of wine as sophisticated and classy are projected to help stimulate both Chinese wine consumption and production. That Chinese taste is turning towards grape-based wine was demonstrated in March 2007 when a record 23,000 Euros wor th of wine and spirits were purchased at Paris’s duty free shop by a Chinese œnophile. In the New World, the growth in the 1980s and 1990s of public interest in the quality of wine affected both scale of production and number of producers. Many new wineries sprang up in previously untapped geographic regions, such as in many US states in addition to traditional producer California, in the southern parts of New Zealand, the Okanagan region of western Canada, and in new areas of Australia such as Margaret River. The stunning Peregrine Winery showcases Australia’s national strategy for wine tourism as developed by the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia. As well as the founding of new wineries, the scale of wine production is shifting as large corporations such as Mondavi purchase established and successful small and medium-sized wineries. For example, Byron Winery in California, initially a small independent winery, was bought by Mondavi as a vehicle for their experimental growing programmes. A corporate approach to the ownership of wineries is now increasingly common in both the New and Old Worlds, as newer companies merge or enter into partnerships with older, established wine-producers.11 An example of this is the partnership between Ontario-based Vincor International Inc, and Jean-Charles Boisset, Vice-President of Boisset, La Famille des Grands Vins of Nuits-St.-Georges France. It was this consortium that hired Frank Gehry to design Le Clos Jordanne in the Niagara region of eastern Canada. Increased higher-quality production is due in part to improved mechanisation among small producers, which was previously economically less viable, and to better pest control throughout wine-growing regions. Another factor contributing to superior wine production has been the greater sophistication of technologies for the clonal selection of vines, which has resulted both in vines of higher quality and in pest- and virus-resistant varieties.

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The changing dynamic in the operation of New World wineries also involves a new approach to the business of housing wine and interacting with the public. Not reliant on centuries of tradition and provenance, New World growers began to want wineries designed to foster public interest in winemaking and, of course, the resulting purchase of wine. Napa Valley in California was at the forefront of this new approach in the latter decades of the 20th century with wineries such as Clos Pegase by Michael Graves. In the new Millennium, Australia and New Zealand are considered the hot-beds of wine tourism, with wineries designed by high-profile practices such as Harmer Architecture and Architecture Workshop. Countries and regions in the New World are discovering, and tracking, the fact that wine and wine tourism are big business. A 2003 Australian study found that 4.9 million international and domestic tourists visited a winery in that year, spending a total of $4.6 billion during their travels around the country. A reflection of the boom in the industry is the fact that a large section of the official website of the Wine Federation of Australia is devoted to wine tourism. It states that ‘wine tourism has been identified by virtually every state and territory tourism organisation as an important element of the range of experiences being sought by the visitors of today. Tourists are looking for a more participatory style of holiday experience, one that offers them the opportunity to do more than just be a spectator, and high quality winery visitation can offer these sorts of experiences.’ Even small wine producing areas such as the US Missouri River Valley are benefiting from the surge in wine tourism: with 52 wineries statewide, more than 1.5 million visitors are drawn to the area, spending approximately US $26 million on tourism and wine. Larger US wine producing areas such as Sonoma County now top US $1 billion in tourism spending, ranking the industry in the same economic league as retail, health-care and high-tech. Even South America is embracing eno-tourism: the Mendoza region of Argentina saw a 35 per cent rise in tourist numbers between 2003 and 2005, with guided tours by oenologists hired by the country’s travel agencies and which feature demonstration polo matches and tango shows in addition to traditional wine tastings. Nor are innovative developments restricted to the New World. Architects such as Calatrava, Moneo and Gehry are designing new bodegas in Spain and characteristic of these new wineries is visitor access to several stages of the winemaking process. The process itself is still closely guarded by vintners, however – although public access is encouraged, it is nonetheless limited. While the traditional winery tour in the Old World may have consisted of a walk in the vineyard, today’s visit to a winery in both Old and New Worlds includes the melding of wine and design. The relationship between wine and architecture is clearly being forged in new directions, with benefits surely to come for both industries.

INTRODUCTION

25


The Millennials are Coming A 2007 Nielsen survey found that ‘the 70 million strong Millennial Generation – 21 to 30 year-olds – is set to become the most influential group in terms of drinks buying, at the same time as the US is poised to become the top wine buying nation in terms of dollars by 2010’.12

Almost as large in number as the baby

boomers, this is the next generation significantly to influence market trends, not only through sheer size, but also through new attitudes. Arguably, this generation has been raised with more market exposure and consumer choice than any previous generation in history. Thanks to the marketing of goods through unprecedented media outlets, which now include advertisements on Facebook as well as those sent via text messages,13 and their web savviness, the Millennials are a truly international generation, who ‘believe all of the cool stuff from around the world was made for them, and that includes wine’.14 Wine clubs (internet-based, of course) devoted to this group are springing up, and pleasurable and fun tasting and eating are at the core of their œno-focus. The Young Winos of Los Angeles is such a group, their irreverence for tradition inherent in their very name, as well as a blog entitled ‘Brown Paper Bag’.Their website proclaims: ‘Edutoxicating Los Angeles Since 2005’.15 According to Patrick Merrill, a San Mateo-based wine market researcher: ‘When it comes to wine, they drink more, know more, spend more, and enjoy a broader international selection of wines, on average, than any generation before them’. 16 So, what does all this mean for wineries and their design? Quite simply, it means a burgeoning consumer base with discriminating and adventurous tastes that is eager for new experiences. This is, of course, good news both for wine tourism and for winery design. Here is a target market that is looking for, and appreciates, the richness and intensity of experience of a winery designed not only for the production of exquisite wine but also for their visit. Such consumers will seek out the adventure, and blog about their experiences for an international audience to share. Such consumers will continue to educate themselves about wine and the industry, just as they are at the beginning of their earning years. And they are only 30 years old, at most. Good news, indeed.

The case studies in this book are presented in four different chapters.The first chapter, ‘Branding The Vine’, looks at the growing trend of using brand-name architects to forge an easily recognised identity for wineries that include Le Clos Jordanne and Dominus. The second chapter, ‘New Vintages’, explores the innovative architectural

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approaches being taken in the traditionally Old World of winemaking that are revitalising the global position of these regions. The third chapter, ‘Young Terroir’, presents case studies of wineries in the New World that are breaking ground, both in terms of design and their approach to wine tourism. The final chapter, ‘Beyond the Vineyard’, takes as its theme the extension of the wine experience outside the winery and into a new hybrid of viticultural design that combines museum with wine-tasting bar.

Notes 1

Rod Phillips, A Short History of Wine, London: Penguin Books, 2000, p xv.

2

Carl Honor, In Praise Of Slow, Toronto: A Knopf, 2004, p 14.

3

Kitty Bean Yancey, “Sideways” Fans Go for Taste of Wine Country’, USA Today.

4

http://www.rhs.org.uk/chelsea/2005/exhibitors/show_gardens/fetzer.asp.

5

http://www.celebritycellars.com/about.php.

6

‘Gallo Launches Martha Stewart Range’ (http://www.decanter.com/news/145267.html).

7

T Matthews, ‘Building Bold’, Wine Spectator (electronic journal), 30 June 2003: http://www.

winespectator.com. 8

Phillips, A Short History of Wine, p 311.

9

Dr Stephen Reiss, member first US Wine Delegation to the People’s Republic of China.

10

‘China’s Vintners Well Set as Wines Come of Age’ http://www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articulated=US

SP16149220080914. 11

Phillips, A Short History of Wine, pp 323–4.

12

‘Wine Gains on Beer as US Youth Drink of Choice’, Decanter.com, 29 November 2007. http://www.decanter.com/news/164434.html.

13

‘Snafu – First Wine to Text Message Tasting Notes and Food Pairings to Your Phone’, http://vinoverve.blogspot.com/2007/11/snafu-first-winery-to-text-message.html.

14

‘Young Winos: the Millennial Generation is a Thirsty One’, Los Angeles Times, 12 March 2008. http://latimes.com/features/food/la-fo-youngwine12mar,0,3257664,print.story.

15

http://youngwinosofla.com/?page_id=2.

16

Ibid.

INTRODUCTION

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Branding the Vine

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Branding the Vine

The design of the winery has taken an enormous leap into the realm of branding through the collaboration of vintner and brand-name architect. The innovative coupling of a recognisable design identity with the winery itself is producing a new breed of winery. Born both of love for the industr y and canny awareness of marketing, these wineries are redefining how we experience winemaking. To define a brand is to claim an identity, and this is precisely what these wineries are striving for, and achieving. In a visual culture, the image of a building is an easy signifier. Embodying both an individual statement and a broader cultural definition, the branded building provides owner and public with a mutual understanding of the product. This is not a superficial exercise; it is not trend. Rather, it is a sophisticated manifestation of the understanding that visual communication transcends all others, par ticularly today. The global truth of this, of course, is evident in the power of the visual message, communication that goes beyond language; it is truly international. It is not only the addition of the world-renowned architect to the mix; it is also the recognition of the potential for the winer y tour that is breaking ground. Most of the wineries in this chapter incorporate the tour as an integral par t of the overall design. Le 30

WINE BY DESIGN


Branding the Vine Above: Adega Mayor The winery spreads itself proudly across a raised level plinth and dominates the multicoloured horizon. Set high above the vines and hills which roll away on all sides, the winery seems almost like a guardian to a sacred deity previous page: Adega Mayor The winery spreads itself proudly across a raised level plinth and dominates the multicoloured horizon. Set high above the vines and hills which roll away on all sides, the winery seems almost like a guardian to a sacred deity

Clos Jordanne by Prize-winning architect Frank Gehr y has been designed with the entire journey in mind, beginning with the visitor approaching the site in their car, and culminating with the tasting of the product underneath his undulating, floating roof. Likewise, Petra’s design by Swiss architect Mario Botta offers the visitor an identifiable symbol of the winer y from a distance, signalling the beginning of the tour experience. Arguably the first by a brand-name architect, Clos Pegase in California designed by Michael Graves, takes the visitor back to ancient Greece and the mythical origins of wine itself. Frank Gehr y has also designed the hotel for the MarquÊs de Riscal winer y in Spain, adding enormous tourist potential to this well-established, well-regarded winer y. The exception to the phenomenon of tourism-centred design in this chapter is Dominus in California, designed by another Prize-winning architectural firm, Herzog & de Meuron. The design for Dominus has been internationally published, arousing great interest in architectural circles. Perversely, however, this is one winery that was not designed for the tour ; it is exclusively private, much to the disdain of the design equivalent of foodies. Most will only ever savour this exceptional design within the pages of a publication. Despite this, however, the winer y design has a high recognition factor due entirely to its architectural provenance. BRANDING THE VINE

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Adega Mayor Álvaro Siza Location: Campo Maior, Portugal Completion date: 2005

Spain may be in the midst of a massive bodega boom, but Portugal is certainly not content to watch from the sidelines. Some of the world’s most famous architects are using their signature designs to help elevate the global wine brand and the arresting new Adega Mayor winery by architect Álvaro Siza is sure to bring Portugal to the attention of many an international wine tourist. A wine pavilion or a temple on the hill? Rising above the pristine landscape of the Alentejo Plains, Siza’s long and sleek white washed structure is perhaps a bit of both. Situated on the very edge of Campo Maior, a small town of approximately 8,000 inhabitants in the Alto Alentejo region, it looks out over an area dotted with ancient relics, rich reminders of its Roman past. It seems fitting, then, that this new temple to wine should assume a refined white silhouette in keeping with its historic counterparts. The undulating plains and rich fertile soil make this some of the best agricultural land in Portugal, with plentiful cork, olive oil and, of course, exquisite Vinhos do Alentejo (Alentejo wines). Operating for the Nabeiro Group, a well established coffee and cork producer in the region, Adega Mayor is designed both as a production facility and as a showpiece for the Mayor wine brand. Mayor intentionally integrated small architectural details and a customised font into their labels: on the centre point of the ‘o’ in Mayor appears a neat allusion to Siza’s signature cork-sealed concrete which is used throughout the winery’s interior. The winery spreads itself proudly across a raised level plinth and dominates the multicoloured horizon. Set high above the vines and hills which roll away on all sides, the winery seems almost like a guardian to a sacred deity. In this case the deity is the grape and its fruitful bounty. A thin road slices through the rolling hills and granite contours to provide the first clear view of the elongated structure. Approaching via a gently rising slope, visitors first cross a simple paved plaza. One immediately notices the weight and mass of white-washed brick base, a typical detail in the region. Atop this plinth, the winery rises up on the south-western end to define the public entry. Cantilevered overhangs project out to further enhance the entry court and create dances of light and shadow across the bright-white alabaster skin. The poetic simplicity of this shape is in sharp contrast to the complexity of interior spaces, where soaring volumes devoted to production and

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Opposite: Some of the world’s most famous architects are using their signature designs to help elevate the global wine brand and the arresting new Adega Mayor winery by architect Álvaro Siza is sure to bring Portugal to the attention of many an international wine tourist

Below: Mayor intentionally integrated small architectural details and a customised font into their labels and signage


Adega Mayor Address Telephone Website Opening hours Tours Design style Recommended wines & icewines Tastings / special events Vintners Special features

Herdade das Argamassas, 7370–171 Campo Maior, Portugal +351 268 699 440 www.adegamayor.pt Contact winery Book through website – 11am, 3pm and 5pm Stark-white simplicity (7) Seven 2006, Reserva do Comendador 2007 Contact winery Owner Rui Nabero Topaz reflecting pool set within a green roof

Adega Mayor

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Above: Every detail is considered, including the barrel racks which are reduced to their purest form while single long wooden beams rest on cubic concrete feet

Above: Producing the exquisite Vinhos do Alentejo (Alentejo wines) Adega Mayor is designed both as a production facility and as a showpiece for the Mayor wine brand Opposite: Inside the details are crisp, with tan marble floors and white walls softened by warm wood furnishings

storage sit side by side with those used for social gatherings, tasting and unalloyed enjoyment of the wine. Inside the details are as crisp, with tan marble floors and white walls softened by warm wood furnishings. In the meeting areas marble and masonry give way to traditional wainscoting and wood flooring. With his unique understanding of the landscape, Siza then masterfully perforates the white walls with horizontal bands of glass and floating mezzanines to frame the views and expose the full splendour of the panorama beyond. The narrative continues with the ripening of the grapes and their journey through the production areas located in the northern end of the building. Along with a quality control laboratory, the process includes fermentation of Aragonez, Castel達o and Verdelho varieties, vinificators, vacuum presses and storage racks.

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