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Development and Evaluation of a multimedia CAL system on Circuit and Electronic Technology Experiments V.B. Gadkar, Department of Electronic Science , New Arts, Commerce & Science College , Ahmednagar.414 004 ( Maharastra-State) E-Mail: vijaygadkar@yahoo.co.in A.D. Shaligram Department of Electronic- Science, University of Pune, Ganesh-khind, Pune- 07(Maharastra State) ABSTRACT Multimedia and simulation techniques are becoming very popular tool in circuit design and electronic technology for industries and educational

institute CAL systems are reported to

improve the design and testing of electronic system design. In this paper we have reported a CAL system developed on Electronic

circuit design and experimentation for the undergraduate

laboratory experiments. As the system developed uses multimedia, which make system userfriendly and having powerful simulation ability. The system is developed for utilized for the first year Electronic-Science Class. The evaluation results are reported with statistical analysis.

Key words :Computer Assisted Learning ( CAL) , Multimedia, Simulation. Introduction : Computer Assisted Learning ( CAL) is a technology which supports teaching and learning via a computer and the web technology. It bridges the gap between a teacher and a student in two different geographical locations. Advancement in internet and multimedia technology is the basic enabler for e-learning. e-learning applications facilitate online access to learning content and administration. Software applications built for planning, delivering and managing learning events has become a crucial need for the corporate training departments of large organizations. e-Learning is learning by means of advanced technologies, such as the internet, extranet, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, CDROM and so on. The term eLearning[1] can be used to describe a range of learning situations, including distance learning, web-based learning, virtual classrooms and more. What they all have in common is the use of communication technologies as a media for learning. Objectives : The aim of this paper is to present the Undergraduate Electronics Laboratory from the Undergraduate studies of Electronics. In the curriculum of undergraduate studies of ElectronicScience in the University of Pune efforts are made for the focusing on Electronic- Design using

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software’s for development of practical courses at the undergraduate classes. Following are the main objectives of this work. 1) To use a new technologies to develop a CAL to enhance instructional effectiveness for the content which is difficult to grasp. 2) To test whether the multimedia package of circuit simulations are effective in rising conceptual understanding in circuit design of target group. 3) To compare the effectiveness of the print material vis-à-vis the multimedia package to promote the understanding of the subject of the target group. Electronics Laboratory Course In this work the attempt is made for the developments and use web based learning module Slab-1 of Circuit simulation at the First Year of Electronic-Science of B.Sc. at the DOES, of New Arts, Commerce & Science College, Ahmednagar. The Practical Course of First Year B.Sc. of Electronic- Science consists of the module, 1) The Practical course consist of 20 experiments 2) Any Two of the following activities with proper documentation will be considered as equivalent 4 experiment weightage in term work. i) Preparatory Experiments ii) Hobby Projects iii) Internet Searching iv) Industrial Visit 3) All the students have to perform 16 experiments from the following modules a) Group A Study of Characteristics of Semiconductor Devices , It Includes Diodes, BJTs, JFET/ MOSFETS, Thyristors-SCR . b) Group B Verification of Network Thereoms, Study of Fiter Circuits, Amplifiers, Applications of OPAMPS . c) Group C Design of Logic Gates using DTL /TTL, , Counters and Shift Resisters Using Ics . d) Group D Build and Testing of Logic Gate Circuits using Digital Ics and its Applications such as Multiplexers, Key Board Encoders, Diode Matrix ROM. Research Methodology: Background Study: To ascertain the present level of conceptual understanding of the target group and understand their cognitive beliefs about Electronics and its understanding Various software[2-3]. Simulation software’s like SPICE, MultiSIM are popular in circuit simulations However these are developed in

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western countries and need , special training and manpower. Hence author thought a need based package for the students at the entry level specially in the Indian Universities in rural areas . An indigenous software’s are searched [4-6]. It has advantage of user-friendly ness in our situations and are flexible for the development . Sparsha Learning Technologies , SLAB-1 was one of the searched and is reported here. The present work relates To test the efficiency of developed Circuit Simulation Software Slab-1.[6]. The Demonstrated student Version Slab-1 was released during 2010 for limited group of teachers from the various Universities , the author was benefited by the group activities. About The package: Sparsha Learning Technologies , SLAB-1 It is an e-learning technology startup founded in 2010 by IITians/IIM alumni. Sparsha is headquartered at IIT Kharagpur. Science Technology and has an extended R&D center at PESIT CORI (Crucible of Research and Innovation), Bengaluru. Sparsha's vision is to enable learning through innovative and engaging learning methods. Sparsha Learning Technologies are forefront innovators empowering high tech institutes to embrace "distributed learning". Sparsha is a leading provider of content based learning solutions.. Sparsha integrates its experience with content and technology to provide end-to-end e-learning services. In addition to that, Sparsha provides industry specific solutions that cater to specific learning needs of the high tech industry verticals like semiconductor, EDA, VLSI, CAD etc. Slab-1 helps in circuit drawing, it includes linear and non-linear electronic components and input /output Instruments like Signal generator, Digital

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Fig.1 Simulation software Multimeter, Cathode ray Oscilloscpe-CRO. can be connected. The circuit analysis is done with software tools , which are selected with icons- buttons as shown in Fig.1. The input parameters such as frequency, shapes, voltages are adjustable, the response of the circuit is observed on the screen display. The responses with changing values of the circuit elements such as resistance or capacitance are seen on the screen. Formation and Testing of samples The unbiased samples were formed form the population of F.Y. B. sc. Students in Ahmednagar, Maharastra state, India. To form these groups the marks obtatined by the students in the Electronics/ Physics / Mathematics were considered. Size of each group was 10. One of the groups of samples was randomly designated as the Experimental group and the other as the control group.

Undergraduate F.Y. B. Sc. Group

Experimental Group

Control Group Learn through Experimental Demonstration

Software Simulation

Post Test

Comparison & Analysis

Post Test Fig.2 : Formation of sample

Conclusion Procedure of study of Implementation of the Experiment: Based on the students feedback of inventory and survey, researcher could know students understanding level. It helped researcher in developing and implementing the method. The tool was developed in the form of opinionative [Pimpale G.P. 2009][9].The procedure followed in two phases. The first phase consist of performing simulation of any 4 experiments but at least one from each group. Then He has to do the experiment in laboratory as per the design and under the teachers guidelines and tabulate the results obtained. In the second phase of the experiments he has to give analysis by Comparing those with the expected results by the simulation techniques. The data collection was done form the teachers about experimenter group and the Target Group. Data was collected

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with the help of pre test, post test, to study the effectiveness of the Simulation software used and its effectiveness in understanding the concepts of the electronics. Evaluation Techniques: . The Hypothesis Testing for comparing two related samples is done by statistical methods[9] According to C.R. Kothari [10] Paired t-test is a way to test for two related samples. For a paired t-test, it is necessary that the observations in the two samples be collected in the form what is called matched pair or related pair. Such test is generally considered appropriate in a before- and –after- treatment study. To apply this test we first workout the difference score for each matched paired, and then find out the average of such differences, Ď, along with the sample variance of the difference score. If the values from two matched samples are denoted by Xi and Yi and the difference by Di ( Di=Xi-Yi), then the mean of differences i.e., Ď =∑ Di /n

…….1.

and the variance of the differences or Standard Deviation of Differences σdiff = √ ( ∑ Di²) - ( ∑ Ďi)² ∙ n ∕ (n-1) …… 2 assuming the said difference to be normally distributed and independent , we can apply the paired t-test [11] for judging the significance of mean of differences. It concerns a judgment as to whether apparent differences or relationships are true differences or whether they are merely results from sampling error. The experimental formulas for statistical purposes a null Hypothesis[11]a no difference or no relation hypothesis and work out the two tailed test. , The appropriate t critical value for rejection of the null hypothesis would be found for (N+N-2 ) degrees of freedom, using the t distribution statistics t as under t = Ď -0 / σdiff / √ n

…………….3

with (n-1) degrees of freedom where

Ď = Mean of the difference. And σ diff Standard Deviation of difference

n = number of matched paired. The calculated value of t is compared with the table value at the given level of significance for testing purpose.

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SLAB-01

PACKAGE TESTING AT F.Y.B..Sc.

D'=(d' * d') Table: 1 Observations Performanceof the experimental and control group Sr.No Experimental GroupA control Group B Mean X X' Y Y' d=X'~X d'=Y'~Y 1 58 66 53 58 8 5 2 56 61 54 56 5 2 3 55 63 55 62 8 7 4 48 54 52 54 6 2 5 53 59 54 57 6 3 6 63 68 60 61 5 1 7 70 78 61 65 8 4 8 56 63 54 52 7 -2 9 60 66 60 61 6 1 10 70 76 54 55 6 1 11 45 42 48 54 -3 6 12 59 62 50 51 3 1 13 50 55 70 74 5 4 14 63 69 61 62 6 1 15 57 66 56 59 9 3 SUM 863 956 842 881 85 39 AVG 57.53333 63.73333 56.13333 58.73333 5.666667 2.6

D=(d*d) D'=(d' * d') 64 25 25 4 64 49 36 4 36 9 25 1 64 16 49 4 36 1 36 1 9 36 9 1 25 16 36 1 81 9 595 177 39.66667 11.8

Results and Discussions : Table 2 shows that the mean score for post-test is much greater than the corresponding value of pre test. The standard deviation (SD)of the experimental group is significantly reduced than the control group

Table 2: Comparison of Pre and Post and retention tests of Experimental Group and control Group

Table:2 Results Sr.no Quantity Expt Group Control Group Tabulatd t-Value 1 N 15 15 2 population avg 63.77 59 3 4 5

S. D. S1=2.845 S2=13.05 Sensitivity t-value t-observed 1.372

5% 1.701

1% 2.467

. The SD of the retention is also get reduced than the control group, indicated that Experimental group even after one month was passed after the exposed of the package. In other words, there is a significant retention of scientific attitude for experimental group.

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The calculated value of t for the data obtained for experimental group by us is 1.372 after the experimental group is exposed to the multimedia package. According to the t-value table for 0.05 level the t-value equals 1.701, which exceeds than calculated , the null hypothesis may be rejected at the 0.05 level of significances . we can conclude that there is significant increase in the UTI of experimental group after exposed to the package. Conclusions: Web based Interactive multimedia package Slab-1 was tested for circuit simulation and for explanation of the working principles, The Experimental group was administrated with the self-instructional multimedia package with the control group was given only traditional class room training. It can be concluded that 1. From the pre-test ad post test of the experimental group, it was found that there is a significant difference in conceptual understanding of working of the circuit.. 2. From the performance in the post-test of the experimenter group and the control group. It is seen that

there is significant rise in self leaning process, through

interactivity with the developed package. 3. The t-value calculation concludes null hypothesis is rejected at 0.05 significant level, It means that the package used by researcher is effective to improve the quality of education and scientific attitude among the students of the target group. 4. The software icon helps students in understanding control operation of real instruments in the electronic laboratory. Which improved the experimental skills of the experimenter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author Gadkar V.B. would like to make special mention of financial assistance given by BCUD University of Pune, for this project. Thank are also due to College authorities and Principal, Dr. B. H. Zaware ,New Arts, Commerce and Science College , Ahmednagar for utilizing all the necessary facilities for the completion of this work.

REFERNCES 1. Advanced Research in Computers and Communications in Education edited by G Cumming, T. Okamoto, L. Gomez ,Vol.2 Asia Pacific Chapter, Proceeding of ICCE ’99. IOS Press. 2. Wikipedia, http://en . wikipedia.org

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3. www.Stylusinc.com 4. http://www.youtube.com 5. http://www.edumedi-sciences.com 6. www.sparsha-learning.com 7. Steinmetz, R., Nhrstedt, K., (1995), “ Multimedia:, Computing, communication and applications”’ Printice hall PTR. 8. Parker, R. (1990) “ 101 Design solutions for Destop publishing, galgotia publications pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 9. G.P.Pimple, Vadnere R.V. “ Testing of the Self-instructionalMultimedia Package in Astronomy for higher secondary Students for its effectiveness to promot Scientific Temper” A Monthly Journal of edu. in Physics and Related Areas. Vol. 1 No. 10 Oct, 2009. 10. C.R. Kothari ., “ Research Methodology Methods and Techniques , New Age nd

International Publishers, 2 . Edition 2004. th

11. Best ,J. W., Kahn J.V. Research in Education, 7 edit. New Delhi Prenttice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 12. George Argyros “ Statistics For Research with a guide to SPSS 2

nd

ed. Sage Publications

2006.

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Publication -- Indian Science Congress  

A recent paper that was published in the Indian Science Congress ( Feb, 2011 ) on our software and methodology. This paper scientifically de...