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American Studies

Gilded Weekly Volume 1, Issue 1

Thursday March 10, 1900

The Light Bulb Thomas Edison’s Brings Light to the World By: Juliana Brassfield

Special points of interest: Political Cartoons Crosswords Letters to the editor Feature Articles Editorial Articles Advertisements Propaganda Obituaries

Inside this issue: Tilden and Hayes Compromise


Jim Crow Laws


Pendleton Act


Editorial: Chautauqua Movement


Letter to the Editor: Chinese Exclusion Act


Letter to the Editor




Political Cartoons


Thomas Edison, famed inventor of many inventions including the phonograph, the Dictaphone and the mimeograph, perfects a new invention: the Light Bulb on December 3, 1879 and it is sure to change American lives forever. Edison made the big reveal of his invention by setting up a display of light bulbs for the public at Menlo Park and it was surely a sight to see. This new light bulb can light up a room, a whole house; even change it from night to day. When asked how he accomplished this task he said, “Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration” and for

Edison that is true. He is said to have experimented with some six thousand different filaments before arriving at his current invention. However, Edison did not discover the idea of the actual light bulb, he only perfected it. Many men, such as Henry Woodward, had thought up the ideas for such an invention and had created functioning bulbs. It is even rumored that Edison purchased the patent to the bulb idea from Woodward. The other inventor’s light bulbs may have been functioning but there has never been one without a major flaw. Some primitive bulbs had short lifetime, or were too expensive to

mass produce but Edison’s is the first to have enough power and last a long enough lifetime to have actual commercial use. Because of this, this light bulb is sure to have a long lasting effect on society. Once this bulb gets into circulation, people will have them in their homes, they will be able to see hours after dark and the human race will not be limited by natural light. Most of all, this invention of the light bulb will lead to many other inventions coming about. Inventors are undenia-

Edison in his Laboratory

bly motivated by each other and this is no small victory in the inventing world.

Editorial: Haymarket Riot Chicago Police Clash with Protesters By: Nikita Patel Recently the Haymarket Riot took place, the police clashed violently with militant anarchists and labor movement protesters in Chicago. Seven policemen and several protesters were killed, leading to murder convictions for seven. Four of the seven radicals are on trial, they may possibly be executed.

These riots are very unfortunate events. The government should think twice before they take actions like these. The police had asked the people who were protesting to stop and someone threw a bomb at them, so the police decided to open fire on all of the people around them. The protestor who threw the bomb

defiantly handled the situation the wrong way. He should not have thrown the bomb, but the police officers also should not have reacted that way. They should have handled the situation differently and though they started off trying to handle it peacefully they ended up hurting and killing many people.



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Tilden and Hayes Compromise Hayes Takes Presidency but Tilden Pulls Troops By: Juliana Brassfield

Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden ran against each other in the election of 1876

The Compromise of 1877, otherwise known as the Electoral Count Act was passed by Congress yester-

day. The Act was put into action to help determine which party would win the election. The 2 candidates for the election are Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. Hayes is a former Whig party member and also a former member of Free Soil party. Tilden is a Bourbon Democrat and has been fighting very hard to keep our taxes down. 15 men from the Senate, House of Representatives, and Su-

preme Court were selected to serve on an electoral commission. In the end the committee decided that the Republicans have won the election, meaning that Hayes will take the presidency. It was very close Hayes had a totally of 185 votes and Tilden had 184. With this agreement the Republicans have agreed to withdraw federal soldiers from the positions in the South, enact federal legislation that will spur indus-

trialization in the South, appoint Democrats to patronage positions in the South, and appoint a Democrat to the president’s cabinet. Now that the Republicans have agreed to this, things are around here are going to change very much.

Propaganda: Jim Crow Laws Separate but Equal? Or Not? By: Chad Janis African Americans and White Americans have been living in completely separate worlds ever since the invention of the Jim Crow Laws. Although these laws were said to make things “separate but equal”, a world where blacks had beaten facilities and whites used clean build-

Political Cartoon depicting women‟s struggles to gain independence because of the „leash‟ society has on them.

African Americans schools and teachers are inferior by far in comparison to the sophisticated schools that White children attended. After school and throughout the day, busses were popularly used. Once again, Whites were treated like kings because African Americans were forced to move

to the back of the bus or stand to make room for the Whites to sit down in the front. One of the most well known rebel black woman at the time was Rosa Park. She had the courage to stand up for herself and equal rights

ings was the outcome. Public officials and political leaders try to convince the nation that everything is fair between these two major racial groups but it’s obvious that their living conditions were nowhere close to similar.

to all humanity when Whites were entering a bus and she refused to give up her seat. Even basic facilities and restrooms were not created equally. Covered with junk and dirt, African Americans are still receiving treatment that defiles the Constitution and Declaration of Independence

Starting with education,

stating that everyone deserves the same rights and freedom. To put it in direct terms, America is becoming a split nation. We can’t be united if our facilities aren’t shared. The two nations that we have created somehow occupy the same area but don’t interact at all.

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Feature: Pendleton Act The End of Spoil System? By: Chad Janis

As a response to James Garfield’s assassination and the suspected fulfillment of the spoils system after his death, the Pendleton Act was enacted during Chester A. Arthur’s term in office. Previously the spoils system was named as such because political leaders would spoil their friends like babies if their friends would help them get into office or obtain a high political position. The spoils system had been used for many years before an act was placed against it because citizens were taking it too far. With the assassination of a president, the line was drawn and regulations were passed that enforced a merit system by which someone had to pass to be placed in a political

position. This made it very the selfish spoils system was difficult for those who were to provide a new system in unqualified to be which those that were conveniently put in high nominated for political spaces seats. would be judged to see if they were being ‘spoiled’ or they In an interview with had justly earned the right to Chester A. Arthur, occupy we asked him why their said he believes it is “To the victor belong position.” necessary for the the spoils” Pendleton Act to be passed. “With all of O t h e r the awful events unfortunate events that have that have occurred in history taken place from the because of the spoils system influence of the spoils system and the insanity of people who want to get into office, it has become necessary for us to enforce a way to regulate control over those that wish to have political influence. The easiest way to oppose

began with the election of Andrew Jackson who was the first to instill this way of persuading people to help you achieve what you want. Since this first deceiving act other presidents have followed in his footsteps in order to gain presidency. “To the victor belong the spoils” is a quote originating from William L. Marcy that was used to describe these leaders that gained their positions unfairly.

Letter to the Editor By: Juliana Brassfield Dear Editor, In light of the recent Congressional act to remove silver as a currency in this country, and your paper’s apparent agreement with it shown in your article last Sunday titled Coinage Act Provides a Shiny Future, I would like to tell you my complaints about the damage this will do to us. I am a debtor living in California. I made a mistake of depositing too much of my money in the bank and when they went bankrupt,

my money went with them. A miner by trade, I have worked hard for the amount of money I have earned and I understand that times are hard because of inflation, but I do think that the government should be doing everything they can to repair the damage. There are millions of debtors in this country and they are the ones that need assistance during hard times, not the wealthy creditors or government officials. And the thing that could help the poor debtors the

most is if silver was a form of currency. It would give us Silver miners business and be of great use to the government. To me, silver as a currency is the only way to help this economy but unfortunately the government has thwarted us from economic success by this Coinage Act. -Thomas Bridges (CA)

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Editorial: Chautauqua Movement A Change for America By: Nikita Patel The Chautauqua Movement has begun! People are beginning to travel around our beautiful country, just to see our movement. The Chautauqua movement has brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers, preachers and specialists from around the country. These are just a few of the things the Chautauqua movement has to offer. There are many opportunities to participate and go view their hard work. The movement is helping people bond and come together. This is such a good thing in such a time in our United States. We must all come together and support

this movement. There are many ways to learn about new things and develop this great country of ours. This movement will provide us with the information and resources to do this. The Chautauqua movement holds eight week sessions in the summer and many important people have been making appearances. Mark Twain, William Jennings Bryan, and President Grant and many

others have been to these prestigious sessions. Word has been going around that someone is developing a

home-study program for those who cannot attend the summer sessions, so be on the lookout for those.

Letters to the Editor By: Chad Janis

Dear Editor,

labor immigrants to come into our nation.

The Chinese and Asian immigrants have been stimulating our With this set of laws being economy for a long time. Whether passed, we can only hope that our they realize it, these poor individuals nation will find another way to prohave been providing the grunt work vide this unfinished work. No Ameriin America for poor pay. While they can is going to want to work for have been constructing railroads, the cheap income like the immigrants. government has profited off of their The main reason for allowing them savings. Logically, when to construct railroads was to the economy is moving save money and now that we forward because of a have forced them to leave, source such as quality fellow Americans will be obwork for cheap pay, a ligated to take up these lowperson would continue life jobs. Arthur has just using this source in ormade a problem for us in the der to amplify his proflong run. His concern that its. Unfortunately, Chesimmigrants would be taking ter A. Arthur was not advantage of this country’s logical. He passed the freedom is legitimate but his Chinese Exclusion Act, response is foolish. The making it nearly imposchoice he has made only sible for inexpensive Little Chinese Children in gives our country and govAmerica

ernment a bad name. The duration of the ban that this Act has placed is estimated to last ten years. Think of the situation America will be entangled in ten years from now. We are taking a step back from our industrial progress. The supply for jobs will only increase as more factories are opened when new industries and inventions are introduced. The demand for these occupations to be filled will increase but will remain empty because of the lack of population. As a result, these factories will not be successful and will shut down, and we will be back at the start, waiting for the Chinese to move to America. Immigrants need us just as much as we need them. Their lives can only get better by beginning a new life here and our country can only get stronger by utilizing the cheap labor they are willing to provide. -Franklin Pierce

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Letters to the Editor By: Juliana Brassfield Dear Editor,

mas’s views. I live with my husband and 2 children in a dumbbell apartment in New York City. My husband is I have read the latest article an immigrant from Poland and he came Anthony Thomas has written about the over to America with the custom of new 18th amendment’s unconstitution- frequent drinking. I blame our poverty ality. In article, Mr. Thomas expresses and sadness on his drunkenness as he his beliefs of free will in stating that spends more time at the saloon than this new amendment to prohibit the working at the factory and he spends sale and manufacture of any alcohol more money on his alcohol than he anywhere in this country is not consti- does on our living arrangements. These tutional because each man and busiare situations I would never want anness man should have the right to deother to endure and I believe that alcocide for himself what to drink and sell. hol prevention would have prevented This article has made me wonder about many of my life struggles. That is why I the moral issues of this paper and I am grateful for this Prohibition Moveneed to express to you how and why I ment. I am so proud that the valiant disagree wholeheartedly with Thoeffects of the WCTU and the National .

Gilded Age Word search By: Nikita Patel

Prohibition Party are finally being seen and that the nation is listening a little more to Frances Willard and a little less to the alcohol saloons. I am absolutely positive that this noble experiment will result in a decrease in poverty because Americans will no longer be spending their money on alcohol and it will improve every American man and will allow him to be free from the evil effects of alcohol. So you mister Thomas might feel that this 18th Amendment is restricting your choices, but it is saving my life and for that I believe it is of worth. Sincerely, Margaret Adams

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Obituaries By: Vili Kuvaja

March 7, 1898 Samuel Clemens, also known as Mark Twain, Mark Twain died yesterday around 4 pm due to problems with his heart. Many people are mourning for this great man. He was very intelligent man, a great author, and a beloved father. Twain was interested in being a river pilot when he was young, and he did in fact, for a while work on the Mississippi river. He gave up on this dream after a while, due to his huge success as an author. He wrote many books including Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Gilded Age, and many more great novels. Some might have even called him a “prophet” of writing. Even though his writing career was great, he was depressed at times. His wife, Olivia Clemens, died of illness, and only one of his children, Clara Clemens, is still alive. This has been a tragic incident and he we be forever missed.

Three days ago, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce tribe was shot by a fellow tribe member. The Native American who shot him had Chief Joseph been outraged about Chief Joseph’s ways of not defending their homeland, and letting the United States army push the Nez Perce around from place to place. Chief Joseph was the leader of the Nez Perce tribe. He was a peaceful man and was a great leader. He always found the peaceful way of doing things. He always said “It does not require many words to speak the truth.” This showed that he always spoke the truth and trusted that others were truthful with him also. He even would share his food and belongings with almost anyone. He hated war and did anything to avoid it. This was a hard task to accomplish, since his fellow leaders were “war-heads” and always wanted to go to war. He won the arguments most of the time, but not always. He also had to make hard decisions for the sake of the people. He even abandoned his father’s dying wish of never leaving their homeland to avoid war. Chief Joseph was a man who could be used as an example of a great leader. Leaders in our government could take note of his actions. Chief Joseph will always be remembered as a great man.

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This political cartoon shows the immigrants traveling, the man in the hat is Uncle Sam and the men behind him are showing disapproval of the immigrants.

Referring to the Plessy v. Fergusen case, this political cartoon shows that the nation has not become “separate but equal� and is moving toward corruption as tension and differences separate the nation.

Gilded Age Newspaper  

Nikita Patel, Juliana Brassfield, Chad Janis, Vili Kuvaja