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Folcroft Preserve of the

John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge

Image

courtesy of

Anna Anisko

Folcroft Landfill looking north from the Impoundment Trail of John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge

Lower Darby Creek Redevelopment Strategies: Master Plan and Site Design Proposal Sue Ann Alleger LA R C 8 1 5 3 P u b l i c L a n d s s t u d i o December 2011


Preserve

within

Framework Plan

Executive Summary

folcroft

T h e F o l c r o f t L a n d f i l l area is located on north

John Heinz National Refuge poised between

Wildlife Folcroft

the

neighborhood

and refuge marsh

and stream

floodplain.

Water,

Introduction

edge of

marshland and

floodplain are the immediate c o n t e x t s u rr o u n d i n g t h i s

site. The John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge is part of the Atlantic Flyway and is well

0

2000’

visited by migratory birds for

Literature Review

N

breeding and nesting.

T h e F o l c r o f t E n t r a n c e Design Concept responds to the need and desire for remediation and reuse of

Examples

this disturbed tract, and the need and desire for access to an open space network for underserved adjacent neighborhoods.

It

will

connect the human realm with the wildlife realm by wildlife

Design

Project

habitat creation and trail

form the inherent structure of natural and

human created spaces.

If

you approach this area by flying

high above the eastern seaboard, as a bird does, several patterns are evident.

This

design attempts to give respect

and credence to those patterns.

Context - Location Site Design

Context - Existing Circulation 2

Site Design

References

P a t t e r n s

Conclusion

system development.

3


Property Buyouts

open space

US Fish & Wildlife US Fish Service & Wildlife Service John HeinzJohn HeinzWildlife National National Wildlife Refuge Refuge

gateway

Philadelphia Philadelphia Airport Airport

views

City of Philadelphia City of Philadelphia DelawareDelaware County County DELCORADELCORA Wastewater Wastewater TreatmentTreatment Plant Plant

neighborhood

DelawareDelaware County Conservation County Conservation District District DCCD DCCD

water trail

Darby Township Darby (Clearview Township (Clearview Landfill) Landfill) Tinicum Township Tinicum Township

Introduction

Job Property Growth Buyouts

Industrial Job Growth

local access roads Commercial Industrial Urban Farm Growth

Historical SignifiCommercial canceFarm Urban

Waste Historical Signifiwater cance

Waste Stormwater water Management

CStormwater ontamination Creek CManagement l e a n uCleanup p

Greenway Trail Cleanup Creek Connections

Greenway Environmental Trail Education Connections

Environmental Walking Trails Education

Viewing Trails Aeas Walking

Deer Viewing Aeas Managment

Native Bird Restoration Watching

Wildlife Bird Habitat Watching

Wildlife Habitat

SStakeHolders t a kStakeHolders e hMatrix old er Matrix* Matrix

Native Deer Restoration Managment

Opportunities

Executive Summary

Adjacent Community -Reuse Suggestions

train

Eastwick Neighborhood Eastwick Neighborhood

Survey Results Respondents: S t u d e n t s o f G e o r g e P e p p e r M i d d l e S c h o o l S o u t h w e s t P h i l a d e l p h i a C o m m u n i t y A d v i s o r y G r o u p S W CAG O n l i n e S u r v e y C o m m u n i t y P a r t i c i p a n t s

Additional items mentioned Stakeholders list:

in recent community surveys not on the

Constraints Contaminants

EPA

Marsh/Swamp

Active recreation areas such a basketball courts S u pp o r t f o r N a t i o n a l W i l d l i f e R e f u g e a c t i v i t i e s O p e n S pa c e

* Information

gathered at

Sewage Right-of-way Single access road

EPA R e u s e A s s e s s m e n t C o m m u n i t y F o r u m

N

1000’

0

Context - Stakeholders Site Design

Opportunities 4

Site Design

and

Constraints

Project

1000’

Examples

0

Design

N

Citizens forCitizens Clean for up Clean upDarby of Lower of Lower Darby Creek Creek

Conclusion

major access road

Darby Creek Darby Creek Valley Valley Association Association DCVA DCVA

References

SouthwestSouthwest CDC - Community CDC - Community Develop- Development Corporation ment Corporation

Literature Review

Clean Air Clean Air Council Council

5


Executive Summary

T h e F o l c r o f t E n t r a n c e D e s i g n C o n c e p t

c o nn e c t s t h e u r b a n g r i d

with the organic natural form by study of the patterns evident from s e v e r a l p h y s i c a l s c a l e s a nd t i m e p e r i o d s .

help

Migratory Patterns Introduction

The most evident landform patterns are those of: • the geologic features distinctly evident in Pennsylvania which form the bird migratory path of the Atlantic Flyway • the geometric urban grid of metropolitan Philadelphia. • the pattern of marshland, water bodies and streams and the associated patterns of plant growth

• The design process used these patterns as inspiration for: • the form of circulation pathways, trails, observation deck

and

connector bridge designed to provide the adjacent community passive recreational space connection to the physical, educational and

the planting pattern inherent in marsh and riverine landforms of the

Middle Atlantic

area of the

Literature Review

inspirational resources of the magnificent refuge

US .

Sensual Experience

Visual Experience

Patterns - Landform Site Design

Patterns - Migratory Flyway 6

Site Design

References

Potential Experiential Patterns

Human Grid Pattern

Conclusion

Design

Project

Examples

Geologic Landform Pattern

7


Executive Summary Introduction Literature Review

Marshland of the Delaware River, 1937

signature,

Signature

of upland topography

Closeup

Patterns Site Design

8

Site Design

of lowland area

view of above color represented patterns

Patterns - Historic

hydrology

Signature

signature

References

Conclusion

Potential Circulation Patterns

Design

Color representation of plant Folcroft landfill area 1937

Project

Examples

Dendritic Stream Patterns

9


areas

Trail Viewshed Human Use Area

B scaled: approximately

2x

Reed Bed

size of map below

B

Bridge

Existing Trail

Comparison

of these graphic

displays of vegetation

N

throughout the marsh shows:

Restoration Management Plan for the Lower Darby Creek

Identified Target Ecological Communities • 2006 Figure 4. Identified Target Ecological Communities

a change in marsh structure on the western edge due to dredging the fortunate persistence of

Cattail

and

Crucial

Hibiscus

of some species such

community, succession forest,

forest will provide nesting, breeding

poorly due to disturbance from urban development and the highly fragmented nature of it green spaces.

The

National Refuge, is a step in the • Strategically graded pathways

to these patterns

The

1000 acres John Heinz

addition of a functional green space to the nearly

Pennsylvania,that direction.

of the largest remaining freshwater wetlands in right

w a d i n g a n d t e rr e s t r i a l a n i m a l s .

is the

will provide access to the mitigated landfill for

deposition of trash and fill have raised the topography of the coastal plain above

21

t h e s u rr o u n d i n g m a r s h l a n d , a l t h o u g h t h e s e e l e v a t i o n s b l e n d w i t h t h e s t e a d y r i s e o f t h e

for plant diversity on

coastal plain toward the piedmont elevations nearby to the north.

the folcroft landfill to

Isolation

a n d l e a c h a t e b e h i n d s t e e l s h e e t p i l i n g m a y i s o l a t e t e rr e s t r i a l a n i m a l s .

counteract the march of

• Installation

pervasive and invasive plant

and

species.

Site Design

/edge

birds of prey. H a b i t a t f r a g m e n t a t i o n a n d h a b i t a t l o s s h a s b e e n m a j o r r e s u l t o f h u m a n development; this has resulted in a reduction of species diversity and species loss. Habitat quality is based on parcel size, condition and context. The study area scores

has reinforced the need

Historic

shrub

Pin Oak

habitat for residents and nesting,breeding and stopover habitat for passerine, and

Comparison is hindered by non-comparable plant groupings.

Patterns -

of marsh wetlands,

riverine forest community and upland

as smartweed

Source: Restoration Management Plan for the Lower Darby Creek, Delaware Riverkeeper Network, 2006

to the design goals is the segregation of spaces used by human

Wildlife Use Area: • The reintroduction

monoculture

Reference

500’

visitors and wildlife residents and visitors.

vegetation

• Influx of Phragmites into Spatterdock and Typha area near the Folcroft Landfill forming a • Loss

0

Project

Source: Two Studies of the Tinicum Marsh, The Conservation Foundation, 1970

Examples

Not

Executive Summary

Gateway and Node

Literature Review

Trees Shrubs Open water Recently developed

Design

Wild Rice, Zizania aquatica Common Reed, Phragmites communis Mixed Aquatics Cattail, Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia Spatterdock, Nuphar advena Creeping primrose willow, Jussiaea repens Smartweed, Polygonum spp. Giant ragweed, Ambrosia trifidia Oldfields

Introduction

Tinicum Marshes, 1968

Conclusion

of the

of trash

of habitat structures such as osprey platforms, purple martin houses,

snags for woodpeckers and nester.

• Vigilant

monitoring for invasive plant encroachment.

Concept Design

vegetation of the refuge 10

Site Design

References

Vegetation

11


H a c k b e rr y

ash

Sycamore

Succession Forest

0’

100’

Selections from Pin Oak Mixed Hardwood, and Mixed Mesophytic Upland Forest Plant Communities

9’

B l a c k b e rr y

E l d e r b e rr y

River

birch

Pin

oak

Sweetgum

Silver

Mixed Mesophytic Upland Plant Community

0’

maple

100’

9’

N

creeper

Spicebush

Gray

dogwood

White

Beech

ash

Tulip

tree

0’

Selections from Riparian, Pin Oak Mixed Hardwood, and Mixed Mesophytic Upland Forest Plant Communities

500’

9’

Sweetfern Red-twig

dogwood

Spicebush

E l d e r b e rr y

A rr o ww o o d

Warm Season Perennial Grasses

Mixed Mesophytic Upland Plant Community Shrub Community

Conclusion

Riverine Plant Community Succession Forest

Reed Bed 6’

6’

Warm Season Perennial Grasses Reed

Sedge

bed

Planting Plan Site Design

Examples

Dropseed Gamma

grass

Little

bluestem

Big

of suggested restoration plant material

which offer food, nesting and shelter for wildlife

12

Site Design

bluestem

Nut

grass

Executive Summary Project

Shrub Community

Design

0

Virginia

Introduction

A rr o ww o o d G r e e n

dogwood

Soft

rush

Plant Types

References

Buttonbush Silky

Literature Review

9’

Examples

100’

Riparian Plant Community

13


Soil Cap

Circulation

Trash

piling

a nd

Sheet

Silt

piling

Vegetation

Bedrock

R u n - o ff

I nf i l t r a t e

Leachate Collection Pipes

Sheet

piling

Landfill Mitigation Structure

Design

Project

Reedbed

Reedbed

Image

c o u r t e s t y o f www . p n d e n g i n e e r s . c o m

O pen C ell S hee tpile ® B ulkhead • U seful in soft soil conditions

Topography

0

and

Context

N 500

Design Layers

Landfill Mitigation Site Design

14

Site Design

Conclusion

Sheet

S a nd

Literature Review

Reedbed

Introduction

Executive Summary

Leachate Collection Plan

Examples

i s o l a t i o n a nd

References

Trash

15


Reedbed Parking image courtesy of

Sue Ann Alleger

Darby Creek image courtesy of

Clivus Composting Toilet

Bridge

Sculpture

Kristen Brown

Canoe L a nd i n g

Image

c o u r t e s y o f www . c l i v u s m u l t r u m . c o m

View

toward

Impoundment

N

Osprey

platform

500

Warbler

Image nest boxes

Iguazu

courtesy of

National Park Service

viewing platform,

Brazil

image courtesy of

Kristen Brown

Potential view to marsh Observation Platform

from

Image

courtesy of

Frank Germann

Image

courtesy of

Illustrative Plan Site Design

Frank Germann

Image

courtesy of

Dick Tuttle

Image

16

c o u r t e s y o f www . i n s t a b l o g s i m a g e s . c o m

Site Design

Precedent

and site character

Conclusion

0

Kestrel Box

Crissy

Bridge and Trail Field, San Francisco

Sue Ann Alleger

Design

Observation Platform

restoration,

image courtesy of

Project

Wetland

Executive Summary Literature Review

Reedbed

Examples

Gateway

References

Composting Toilet

Introduction

Folcroft Borough

Existing Gateway structure at John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge

17


Executive Summary

100

Introduction

50

N

Bridge

view

- Model

simulation

MHW + 1’

MLW + 5’

MLW

Minimum water depth

Canoe Landing image courtesy of

Naomi

Illustrative Plan Site Design

0

5’

10’

Illustrative Plan 18

Site Design

References

Pedestrian Bridge, Amsterdam

Conclusion

Design

Project

Examples

Literature Review

0

19


Folcroft Preserve