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25 Ensayo de un crimen Los Olvidados Tristana

imaginable, from documentary to the musical, but all his films bore his distinct style and themes. They are all unmistakably Buñuelian – a combination of a rebellious assault on religious and aristocratic institutions, a rejection of intellectual reason, and an embrace of the irrationality of dreams as a way to combat the imprisonment of structures both moral and social. While attending the University of Madrid, he developed close friendships with poet Federico García Lorca and painter Salvador Dalí, with whom he later collaborated in creating the iconic Un chien andalou, a Freudian provocation meant to incite and shock the intellectual bourgeoisie of his youth, and the controversial surrealist opus L’Age d’Or (The Golden Age 1930). His relationship with Dalí deteriorated over differing political views as the film went into production. While Buñuel was keen on undermining the morals of high society, Dalí sought to scandalize the Catholic Church for attention but ultimately wanted to be a part of the same aristocracy Buñuel despised. In 1933, he directed a documentary entitled Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan (Land Without Bread) in which he overlaid a disaffected travelogue narration over scenes of extreme poverty in rural Spain. Both the Republican government and subsequent Nationalist dictatorship under Franco banned the film. While working for the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War as the coordinator of its propaganda films, he visited the United States with his family and opted to stay there once Franco seized power. Nonetheless, his attempts at a career in Hollywood were futile so he moved to New York where he briefly worked at MoMA until his infamous reputation as the director of L’Age d’Or cost him the job. He eventually settled in Mexico, where he first directed the critically panned and financial failure Gran Casino (1947), a musical starring Argentine star Libertad Lamarque and Mexican singer Fernando Negrete, but then found commercial success with the comedy El Gran Calavera (The Great Madcap) in 1949. Renouncing his Spanish citizenship that same year, Buñuel became naturalized as a Mexican citizen and remained as such for the rest of his life. His career flourished as he directed mostly commercial films that managed to still explore his lifelong themes of sexual pathology, the absurdity of religion and how women disrupt the inherent patriarchy of Hispanic culture in Mexico’s specific national setting. During this period, the initially rebuked Los Olvidados (The Young and the Damned 1950) which went on to win him Best Director at the Cannes Film Festival and the locally maligned Él (1953) were later reinterpreted as masterpieces, one for its uncompromising portrayal of impoverished youth in rural Mexico and the other for its irreverent linking of primal obsessions, bourgeois violence and religious hypocrisy. Even at its most conventional, Buñuel’s Mexican oeuvre always had room for sequences of dreamlike surreality that disrupt the film’s otherwise realist narratives, such as Archibaldo’s murderous fantasies in

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The 2016 fall / winter season of SPAIN arts & culture offers a wide range of cultural activities around the United States and Canada

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