Vol 15 No. 12 JUNE 2018
ART ARCHITECTURE INTERIOR
THE ELUSIVE MASTER PLAN OF
Today is new interpretation of Yesterday
Baha and Bahi of Patan
WHERE MODERN EYES MEET THE ANCIENT
THE NAMO BUDDHA
An interview with the architect
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Contents Volume 15 NO. 12 | JUNE
The elusive Master Plan of Pashupati
Conservation of Baha and Bahi of Patan
The Namo Buddha Resort
42 PERSONALITY Today is new interpretation of Yesterday
48 ARCHITECTURE An interview with the architectKIRAN MATHEMA
62 ART Where modern eyes meet the ancient
66 FROM THE SHELF
Importance of Colors in Architecture
The Archaeologistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Toolkit
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Volume 15 N 12 | JUNE O.
Ashesh Rajbansh Editor-in-Chief
Ar. Sarosh Pradhan Contributing Art Editor
Madan Chitrakar Kasthamandap Art Studio
Shreya Amatya Sristi Pradhan Pratap Jung Khadka Contributing Editor
President of Society Of Nepalese Architects (SONA) Ar. Brinda Shrestha Advisor
Ar. Pawan Kumar Shrestha Ar. Pravita Shrestha Photographers
Pradip Ratna Tuladhar
Kai Weise is a Nepali national of Swiss origin who has been working as a planner and architect in the Himalayan Region. Kai Weise has been facilitating the establishment of management systems for World Heritage properties and was involved in earthquake response and rehabilitation for the culture sector in Nepal and Myanmar. He is president of ICOMOS Nepal and fellow of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Durham University. Asha Dangol is a contemporary Nepali visual artist. He is co-founder of the Kasthamandap Art Studio and E-Arts Nepal. He holds Master’s Degree in Fine Arts from Tribhuvan University, and has been creating and exhibiting his art since 1992. He has 10 solo art exhibitions to his credit. Dangol has participated in numerous group shows in Nepal and his work has been exhibited in different countries outside Nepal. The artist experiments with painting, mixed media, ceramics, installation, performance and video.
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Bansri Pandey is an architect from India who is in love with stories. She has been writing about several issues on architecture since 2007. She came to Nepal in 2010. At the time, she established a training centre for teaching new technologies in the field of architecture/engineering in Nepal. After completing her masters in International Project Management from Germany in 2013, she worked in the field of construction technologies in Germany and in Qatar. After coming back to Nepal, her love for storytelling got her to write and perform a play in Nepali at a theatre in Kathmandu. Currently, she continues to write about architecture as well as work in the field of construction technologies in Nepal. Chhavi Vashist is a Delhi-based, graduate in Bachelors of Architecture and Post Graduate of Landscape Architecture. She is experienced in content writing as an Interior Designer. She is a blogger, and working as a faculty of Interior Designing. She is practicing as an architect and her firm undertake projects of varied complexity in terms of Architectural Design and Execution, ranging from Concept making, Space planning, Detailed designing, Interior Designing, Fresh construction, Addition and Alterations in existing buildings, and Renovation work for every type of Residential, Commercial, Retail projects. Shweta Shakya is an aspiring architect with a passion for exploring traditions and cultures. Being a heritage enthusiast, she has been involved in projects concerning understanding and preservation of traditional architectural constructs within Kathmandu Valley. During her spare time, she pursues writing as a hobby. Suprasanna Aryal did her bachelor’s in development finance from K.U. Starting her professional life in 2012 as a feature writer, she has written articles for Nepali magazines and newspapers on diverse issues, includes art, culture, music, literature, theater, food, travel, environment, careers and education. She is currently involved as a freelance writer for various publication houses in Nepal.
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Prabin Bajracharya is working as a civil engineer for the last fifteen years. With specialization in seismic engineering, he has been focusing on construction management in the last seven years and has worked as a project manager for various infrastructure development projects such as Patan Hospital Maternity Ward “Nick Simons Block” at Patan, “Tiger One Resort” in Bhairahawa etc. He believes that quality construction and implementation of the design should be given more priority to have a better earthquake resistant structure. Rajina Shrestha is currently working full time for Marketing and Operations at Threadpaints Store, a moderated online selling platform. She is a also co-founder at Women Leaders in Technology (WLiT) and Vice-President at Women LEAD. She is a freelance writer and asks too many questions.
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Regd. No 30657/061-62 CDO No. 41 SPACES is published twelve times a year at the address above. All rights are reserved in respect of articles, illustrations, photographs, etc. published in SPACES. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without the written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the publisher and the publisher cannot accept responsiblility for any errors or omissions. Those submitting manuscripts, photographs, artwork or other materials to SPACES for consideration should not send originals unless specifically requested to do so by SPACES in writing. Unsolicited manuscripts, photographs and other submitted material must be accompanied by a self addressed return envelope, postage prepaid. However, SPACES is not responsible for unsolicited submissions. All editorial inquiries and submissions to SPACES must be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org or sent to the address mentioned above.
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Editorial Nepal remains one of the leading countries having outstanding universal value illustrated by religious monuments and buildings displaying the full range of historic and artistic achievements, so becoming one of the major sources of income from visitors from all walks of life throughout the world. A cubic construction with a golden spire on top of two storied copper roofs covered with gold with all four doors covered with silver sheets, the main temple of Pashupatinath glimmers the richness of culture and technology the country used to have not so long ago. Though the master plan was expired almost a decade ago, the area underwent through many changes towards positive, a thoughtfully revised new masterplan could maintain its legacy of being the most iconic focal point not only for Hindu believers but appealing to any and all sect adoring the preservation and maintaining the much-applauded wonder piece of Nepal. The newer generation of optimists never takes anything for granted that something innovative cannot happen in Nepal, refashion of peace is bound to circle again. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;There was never a night or a problem that could defeat sunrise or hope.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; - Bernard Williams
Ashesh Rajbansh / CEO
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REBUILDING BHAI DEGAH TEMPLE
he Cultural Heritage Conservation Group (CHCG), formed by a group of citizens with a shared interest in the conservation of Patan’s urban heritage, came forward to rebuild the Bhai Degah Temple and started raising funds for this project. The Bhai Degah Temple, originally a three-tiered temple built in 1687 was destroyed during the 1934 earthquake, and was never rebuilt in its original configuration and left as a moghul style dome shaped structure. Under Kathmandu Valley Preservation Trust’s technical guidance and financial support of Nepal Investment Bank Ltd, the reconstruction was initiated officially in 2012 and later got extended support from Royal Norwegian Embassy and Lalitpur Metropolitan City Office.
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A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed between Mr. Prithvi Bdr. Pandey, Chairman of CHCG and the Norwegian Ambassador H. E. Mr. Lasse Bjørn Johannessen in the Royal Norwegian Embassy, Bakhundol on 30th May 2018. The temple is under a rebuilding process held up to the highest possible standards, ensuring that it is a valuable addition to Patan Durbar Square and a justified replacement to the stucco dome structure. Once the temple is restored to its historic configuration, the day to day maintenance of the temple will be taken care of by the local stakeholders, the Metropolitan City Ward Office, the Department of Archaeology, the Patan Durbar Monument Maintenance Office, and the Guthi Samsthan. n
THREE NEPALI ARTISTS WIN GAM 2018 AWARDS
he latest version of GAM-Global Art Movement 2018 was held recently in Toyota Municipal museum of Arts, Nagoya, Japan. The annual event is held with active participations from globally known artists and is an event of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;International art competition cum Exhibitionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. This year three young and active Nepali artists were able to win the GAM Awards. The exhibition lasted for a week starting from May 15th to May 21st 2018. But this is the first time that the Nepali artists have had the privilege to participate in this global event. Seven well known artists, Sarita Dongol, Sanjeet Maharjan, Satyashila
Kasajoo, Krishna Gopal Shrestha, Sandhya Silwal, Narbhahadur BK and Aastha Tuladhar represented Nepal in the event. Amongst the sixteen award provisions, three awards were awarded to Nepali Artists. The awards were named after certain high dignitaries of Japan. Likewise, Sarita Dongol was awarded with Toyota City Chairman Award, Sanjeet Maharjan with Nikon Industrial Award and Krishna Gopal Shrestha with Aichi Prefecture Chairman Award respectively. All the participating artists represented their respective countries with
their unique features of art works like paintings, sculptures and other mediums as well, including photography and printmaking. Also, there were presence of wood and metal sculptures, paper cuts and craft works. While Nepali artists exhibited their paintings and artist Sandhya Silwal presented her paper cut art work. Moreover, the event provided a unique opportunity for all the artists from all over the world to share experiences and at the same time to understand better knowledge about the various cultures of the participating countries. n
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SIRJANA -2018 For many reasons, a collective Art Show recently organized by Sirjana College of Fine Arts and Sirjana Contemporary Art Gallery proved to be unique. Entitled Sirjana 2018, and held at Nepal Art Council, Baber Mahal, at the first glance it could instantly provide an impression that it represented the entire mood and state of present day Art scene of Nepal, in a nut-shell. It seemed so - primarily because the décor and the ambience it created a viewer could experience a grand modern panorama awe-inspiring – with beautifully crafted organization of exhibits – proper light fixtures to highlight the needed focus. It maybe also because, a viewer is greeted first with an array of works of some of the most celebrated artists of the country – including an attractive sculpture of a galloping horse made of waste paper by eminent artist Shashi Shah. Moreover all the artists also happen to be the faculty and gallery members. A mosaic of unique diversity in style and contents, their works did narrate a brief narrative of the very evolution of Nepali modern art. A viewer is easily led to the next generation: and then subsequently to the up and coming generation of Nepali Art. With little doubt, a viewer thus, within a short round of the exhibition would have made a short journey of entire history of Nepal Art within a few minutes. To allow a visitor to experience the history - the growth and changes that has had taken place in Nepali Art here – a desired objective of the organisers, the Show was cleverly designed into three specific sections. It was begun with the works of the senior artists: and was titled Seniors: the Masters. 16 / SPACES JUNE 2018
It included the rare and iconic works of artists like Shashi B.Shah, Batsa Gopal Vaidya, Madan Chitrakar, Krishna Manandhar, Shyam Lal Shrestha and K.K.Karmacharya. It was followed by an equally interesting panorama of works of the present day active mid -generation artists. It was aptly titled ‘the Mid-Generation’. The impressive names in this category include Radhe Shyam Mulmi, Sharada Man Shrestha, Sharad Ranjit, Rabindra Jyapoo, Ashok Man Singh and few others. The works included here are not only Paintings but also Sculptures – even made with Post-modernist thoughts. In the last section titled – The Next: Up and Coming, there’s an interesting panorama of works made by the younger generation of artists – replete with newer ideas and forms. It also included an interesting segment – entitled a Paper World, a series of paper crafted art forms. The works of promising names like Manish Lal Shrestha, Mukesh Shrestha, Saur Ganga Darshandhari, Roshan Bhandari, Dewen Pandey and few others are featured here.
As said earlier, the exhibits exclusively remained confined to the creations of the College Faculty and the members of the Gallery only – showcasing the diverse creative strength of the faculty members have. The event was additionally made more meaningful by continual screening of a short clip about the artists and their art works during the entire show. Obviously it did help to add interest and attract the visitors to enjoy the works art - of their choice. The inaugural event proved to be brief with a short welcome speech made by Madan Chitrakar- the principal of Sirjana College of Fine arts. The exhibition was formally inaugurated by Mohan Bahadur Basnet, the mayor of Nagarjung Municipality. The event was concluded with the vote of thanks delivered by Navindra Man Rajbhandari – the Vicechairman of College Management Board. Well curated by Saroj Bjracharya along with Bijaya Maharjan and Roshan Bhandary, the Show indeed represent a unique of its kind and can safely be described as a trail blazing event in exhibition of Art here. n
EARTHQUAKE AND EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES Program By Rotary Club of Bhaktapur The Rotary Club of Bhaktapur organized an event named “Earthquake and Earthquake Resistant Structures” on 9th May 2018 at Hotel Sweet Home at Bhaktapur in which Er. Jagadishwor M. Shrestha, a Quality Control Engineer spoke about earthquake resistant structures. In this event, he quoted that it’s not an earthquake that takes human life but, it’s the inferior quality products and non structural designed construction that does. He focused on some of the
THE ARCHITECT SPEAKS EPISODE-4
major reasons on building earthquake non-resistant construction and made people aware of the necessities and information to consider for building an earthquake-resistant construction. Some of the major reasons for the failure in construction included lack of structural analysis, proper knowledge and awareness, improper details of sanitary and electrical drawings and in favor of contractor for inexpensive and immediate construction rather than detailed analysis, cost-efficient
and time-consuming construction by engineers. The suggestions and awareness that is provided by a structural engineer includes a proper plan of mapping and elevation, verifying structural analysis with a flexible budget to be estimated for every floor of a building to be built, preventing from a huge loss in the future. Er. Jagadishwor M. Shrestha’s proficient lesson was highly beneficial for the Nepalese community in its growth to a level-headed structure. n
The Architect Speaks Episode-4, which was organized by Society of Nepalese Architects (SONA), was held at Himalaya College of Engineering on 18th May 2018. The program provided a platform for senior architects, practicing and emerging architects to share their experiences, vision, and goals regarding the architectural future of Nepal in the global context. Himalaya General Insurance Corporate Head Office Building Design competition winner –Ar. Kamal Krishna Maharjan from Line Work Architects and SONA Award on Single Residential Building 2017 winner – Ar. Chandra Prajapati form One Line Architects showcased their presentations . This program was beneficial for the students studying Architecture as they were able to learn more extensively about design and architecture. n
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IDN 3D RENDER INTERIOR DESIGN COMPETITION Interior Design Nepal (IDN) is going to organize the first 3D Interior Design Render Competition that encourages new ideas and techniques of design in Nepal. Any interior designer, interior architect or architect may submit their inbuilt design project(s) or newly design project. The winners from each category will be awarded with cash prize of NPR 50,000 and will be given one year subscription of SPACES magazine. The winner selected by the jury members design will be submitted to the best of ASIA PACIFIC DESIGN AWARDS 2018, organized by INTERNATIONAL INTERIOR DESIGN ASSOCIATION (IIDA) Chicago, USA. The competition form opens from July 2nd 2018 till July 10th 2018. n
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THE ELUSIVE MASTER PLAN OF
TRADITIONAL TOWNS AND A MODERN APPROACH TO URBAN AGRICULTURE Text & Photo: Kai Weise
PASHUPATI IS LINKED TO MANY LEGENDS OF LORD SHIVA IN THE FORM OF PASHUPATI, LORD OF THE ANIMALS, WHERE HE FROLICKED IN THE LEGENDARY SLESHMANTHAK FOREST IN THE FORM OF A DEER. PASHUPATI IS A TIRTHA OR HOLY RIVER CROSSING, A PLACE WHERE PILGRIMAGE COME AND BATH. IT IS ALSO THE PLACE FOR CREMATIONS, WHERE THE SOUL FORDS FROM THIS LIFE ON TO THE NEXT. DEOPATAN, THE RELATED SETTLEMENT WAS FOUNDED IN THE FORM OF A BOW AND ARROW, WITH THE ARROW LEADING DOWN TO THE WEST GATE OF THE MAIN TEMPLE. THIS SETTLEMENT WAS ESTABLISHED IN THE LICHHAVI PERIOD WITH INSCRIPTIONS SHOWING THE IMPORTANCE GIVEN TO PASHUPATINATH BY THE EARLY KINGS.
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Original Plan for World Heritage 1979
he Pashupati area was developed over the centuries with donations provided by the monarchs and rich merchants. Donations came in the form of restoration works on the monuments, new structures and statues or donations of land. The Pashupati Guthi owned large tracts of land which even today is said to reach from Dhobi Khola to Manohara River. The land where the international airport has been built used to be the Gaucharan, the field where retired animals brought to Pashupati could graze. Pashupati is one of the most important sites for Hindus, with many more religions and communities carrying out rituals and festivals in and around the site. Keeping the various interest groups balanced has been one of greatest concerns of the management. The juxtaposition of the various contradicting beliefs and actions provides tension and continued wrangling, however by ensuring that this doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t lead to any direct conflict, it provides an example of how even communities with extreme differences can live together.
Boundary of Pashupati Area as Gazetted 1998
Redefined Boundary of Pashupati MZ 2006
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A SHORT HISTORY OF MANAGING PASHUPATI
The Pashupati area was managed over the centuries by the Guthis that were endowed with large sums of money, gold and donations of land. Under constant royal patronage, the temple complex and surrounding areas was well maintained and protected. It was a special site where people came for refuge or in preparation for their passing. The festivals and rituals continued over centuries, various cultures and religious beliefs mingling and amalgamating. The royal patronage that would have begun during the Licchavi times was continued by the Malla kings, followed by the Shah monarchs. The interference of the kings in the management of religious sites gained in prominence, leading
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to the nationalization of the Guthis through the creation of the Guthi Corporation in 1964.
Conservation planning as per western approach was introduced in the 1970s through the preparation of various Master Plans for the Kathmandu Valley. “Kathmandu Valley, The Preservation of Physical Environment and Cultural Heritage, Protective Inventory” (UNESCO / UNDP 1975) provides recommendations for a comprehensive approach to the preservation of the cultural and natural heritage of the valley. “The Master Plan for the Conservation of the Cultural Heritage in the Kathmandu Valley” which was completed in 1977 presented a broad approach to conserving not only the
cultural heritage, but also the natural heritage of the Kathmandu Valley. Nepal ratified the World Heritage Convention in 1978 and inscribed the Kathmandu Valley on the World Heritage List. It wasn’t the entire valley that was inscribed but a selection of 7 monument zones that should represent the cultural heritage of the entire valley. These seven include the three Durbar Squares of Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktpur, the two Buddhist Mahachaitya complexes of Swayambhu and Baudhanath along with the Hindu temple complexes of Pashupati and Changu Narayan. The World Heritage inscription also included maps which clearly defined the monument zones such as that of Pashupati.
Pashupati Area Development Trust (PADT) was established in 1987 though their own act of parliament, which in the meantime has been amended four times. The objective of the trust is to maintain the Pashupati area as a “centre of reverence and a holy place for Hindu pilgrims”. The area is to be planned keeping in mind the need for safeguarding the immovable and movable cultural heritage as well as the natural heritage of the site. The Trust is also responsible to ensure support for the festivals, rituals and worship of “temples of all Gods and Goddesses, including Lord Pashupatinath”. Already beginning in 1992 the World Heritage Committee raised concerns about uncontrolled development and loss of historic urban fabric, which led to the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage site to be inscribed on the Danger List in 2003. During the decade-long wrangling about how best to protect and manage the heritage sites various steps were taken in Pashupati. In 1996 work on a Master Plan began which went through a rollercoaster ride of political and personal clashes. The outcome was the definition of a Protected Monument Zone as per the Ancient Monument Preservation Act 1956 and the gazetting of a boundary in 1998. From the various drafts a Master Plan was compiled and adopted in 1999 which was a ten year plan terminating in 2009. An new plan has not been prepared. After the Kathmandu Valley was inscribed on the Danger List in
2003 the boundaries and buffer zone of Pashupati Monument Zone were redefined and adopted in 2006. Furthermore an Integrated Management Framework was adopted along with a Management Handbook which provided guidelines for conservation, development and rectification along with the building bylaws. Kathmandu Valley was removed from the danger list in 2007. Further draft amendments have been made to the Integrated Management Framework though due to the earthquake this has been shelved. The Gorkha Earthquake caused severe damage to the monument zones. In Pashupati damage was extensive and the total number of monuments that were listed in a preliminary assessment was 95. The process of post earthquake rehabilitation should have been based on a coordination plan while following the provisions of the rehabilitation guidelines.
SOME CRITICAL MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING ISSUES AT PASHUPATI
The management of Pashupati is a complex affair due to continued conflicts of interest, large sums of money and political interference. There are however some specific issues that have arisen requiring immediate and definite response. Some of these points are mentioned here, but this is not at all an exhaustive list of issues. Demolitions of settlement area: An early activity of PADT that caused protest was the demolition of the historic settlement along the western entrance route to the temple. Many of these houses were newer structures but the settlement character was replaced by little gardens and many functions linked to the temple were displaced. The sanitization of the area was carried out to provide better access to the main temple, particular for VIPs and during large festivals.
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Road construction and infrastructure development: The construction of the road through the Sleshmantak forest from Tilganga to the Guyeshwori area was a major disaster for the legendary forest. The road that was bulldozed in 2007 has till date not been shut down. Furthermore other development works are being carried out within the monument zone using heavy equipment and digging in highly sensitive archaeological areas. Changing landscape: The landscape around Pashupati is being altered from a distinct local character to sponsored designer gardens which are alien to the Kathmandu Valley. Encroachment management: While ancient settlements have been demolished a great amount of encroachment has taken place which the management is trying to rectify. This has particularly been the case towards the southern side along the Ring Road. One section west of the Bagmati River has been totally cleared while on the east side the process has not been carried out. Approach to important engineering projects: Some projects must be considered high priority particularly those that support the ongoing activities and rituals. Some of these would be for example the electrical crematorium, water management in the Bagmati, slope stabilization throughout the site as well as appropriate infrastructure and services for pilgrims. Access to minority groups: The main clash would possibly
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be between those following the Brahmanical verses Tantric beliefs. This is particularly in respect to rituals such as animal sacrifices and consumption of alcohol within the premises. Over the centuries an understanding was maintained between these communities. Similar situations developed with other groups claiming space for rituals.
WORKING TOWARDS A NEW PASHUPATI MASTER PLAN
The Pashupati Master Plan was valid from 1999 to 2009. Work has continued to be carried out referring to the Master Plan and drawing justification from it despite the fact that is expired practically a decade ago. It is high time that a concerted effort is made to prepare a new Master Plan for Pashupati that is agreeable to everyone and that
ensures important attributes are safeguarded while only appropriate development is carried out for a cultural heritage site of international prominence. The previous Master Plan divided up the Pashupati area into Core, Consonant and Continuum Zones. The Master Plan focused on conserving cultural and natural heritage while developing the site as for pilgrimage and the major festivals. Any new Master Plan would surely need to begin planning taking into account these provisions and possibly going back to the original concept and philosophy. For an initial review and collection of ideas from prominent experts a series of workshops were carried out in March 2017 and a publication was in preparation. Based on these discussions an outline was prepared
on proceeding with the preparation of the New Master Plan bringing together the best local experts to work on it together. The proposed process for preparing the groundwork of the new Master Plan consisted of seventeen activities. The following activities need to be carried out in the process of establishing the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Pashupatikshetra Comprehensive Master Planâ&#x20AC;?. 1. Review status as heritage site based on requirements for listing as Protected Monument Zone and World Heritage; 2. Preparation of inventories and database of important cultural and natural attributes of the property; 3. Establish comprehensive issues list for all sectors within Protected Monument Zone and the Continuum Zone (list of problems to be resolved); 4. Establish ownership clarification and land-use mapping using cadastre plans and land registration within the Protected Monument Zone and the Continuum Zone; 5. Determine community profiles under the possibly overlapping categories of cultural communities, resident communities and visiting communities; 6. Prepare framework to carry out surveys and research to improve the understanding of the history and culture of Pashupatikshetra ; 7. Environmental safeguarding measures and procedures which includes forested areas and the river;
8. A Conservation Plan for monuments and historic buildings to be prepared linked to inventories, documentation and post-earthquake rehabilitation; 9. Conservation strategies along with detailed implementation procedures for cultural objects such as statues, cultural objects and inventories to be established; 10. Overall planning and sustainable development strategy for the Continuum Zone which includes urban areas as well as dealing with airport and army facilities; 11. Visitor Management within the Protected Monument Zone taking into account regular pilgrimage as well as the crowd management at large festivals; 12. Detailed physical planning of areas of habitation within the Protected Monument Zone to be prepared; 13. Detailed plan for flora which includes the protection of existing trees and policies for appropriate new plantations; 14. Detailed plan for fauna which would focus on developing policies for managing the
monkey population along with other forms of fauna; 15. Establishing an Disaster Risk Management Plan for Protected Monument Zone of Pashupati for both natural as well as humaninduced disasters; 16. Infrastructure and services development within the Protected Monument Zone of Pashupati to cater to the various stakeholder communities; 17. Prepare the Pashupatikshetra Comprehensive Master Plan document; Along with this list of seventeen activities draft guidelines were prepared that would guide any activity undertaken within the Pashupatiksetra. The draft guidelines consisted of 46 points and would have touched upon sustainable development and heritage conservation, visitor management, rituals and festivals, while dealing with the legal provisions within the Core, Consonant and Continuum Zones. This would be a wonderful basis for the new Master Plan which has been elusive for practically a decade now. n
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Baha and Bahi of Patan Text : Shweta Shakhya
Â© Rohit Ranjitkar
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CONSERVATION THE OPEN SPACES OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY INCLUDING BAHA, BAHI,CHUKA, NANI ARE THE ESSENTIAL PART OF MEDIEVAL TOWN DEVELOPMENT. THESE ARE THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE THREE CITIES, KATHMANDU, PATAN AND BHAKTAPUR. THE BAHA AND BAHI ARE THE RELIGIOUS COURTYARDS OF THE NEWAR BUDDHISTS WHERE THEY PRACTICE THEIR MONASTIC LIFESTYLE. THE BAHA AND BAHI CAN BE DISTINGUISHED WITH ITS
he community of Newar Buddhists forms a social organization called Guthi, which is responsible for the maintenance and sustainability of the baha and bahi. The members also worship the main shrine cyclically, generally for a week. This has not only helped to sustain the centuries-old tradition but also have aided in the maintenance of the vihara premises.
ARCHITECTURE, SHRINES AND ITS PRACTICES. THESE MONASTERIES ARE COLLECTIVELY TERMED AS ‘VIHARA’ IN SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. TO THIS DAY, THE SHRINES AND CHAITYAS AROUND THESE COURTS ARE WORSHIPPED ALONG WITH THE CONTINUITY OF DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS PRACTICES. THE MEMBERS OF THESE VIHARAS ARE SHAKYAS AND BAJRACHARYAS, WHO FORM A PRIESTLY STRATUM AS THE HEAD OF NEWAR BUDDHIST SOCIETY.
Nhyakanbahi and Kwa Baha are most active viharas in Patan. The funds for the renovation and maintenance of Nhyankabahi was raised by Guthi members voluntarily and have replaced the jhingati tiles (traditional nepali roof tiles), damaged wooden columns, and rafters. They have recently added an idol of ‘Namsangati’ inside, since the recitation of ‘Namsangati’ has been a part of their weekly liturgy. Along with the Guthi, there has recently been active participation from groups of women known as ‘Misa Pucha’ representing particular baha or bahi. Their participation is seen in various activities of the vihara and other religious and political events too. These groups have helped empower women through different workshops, training, and exposure to the socio-political scenario of the state. Most importantly women have started coming out of their houses to participate in these activities and also having their voices heard. These baha and bahi have become a platform for these events. Similarly, the intangible aspects of the heritage are also preserved with the teaching of traditional musical instruments and dances to the younger generation in the vihara complex.
Kwabaha Section, Drawing by B. Basukala
Monthly hymns on the first day of the month (lunar calendar) are rigorously recited. Different Buddhist events around the year are followed with much dedication. For instance, Paancha Daan, is a great event, where the members of the Guthi ask for alms around the vihara regardless
Lichhavi Chaitya, Drawing by Robert Powell
of their socio-economic status reminisce the first alms of Buddha and the significance of charity and donation. Also, in the month of Gunla (August-September), these viharas are full of life with Newar Buddhists reciting scriptures accompanied with traditional instruments. It is observed JUNE 2018 SPACES / 27
ÂŠ Rohit Ranjitkar
that despite the drastic change in the lifestyle and profession, the devotion is unwavering. Though the interest has been dwindling among the younger generation, efforts are being made to include them in different events. It is so that, in order to become a member of a baha or bahi, one must be the son of a previous member by a Shakya or Bajracharya parents. The boy goes through an initiation ritual in which he becomes a monk for four days, wears monastic robes, receives alms from relatives and friends, and then on the fourth day, returns his robe to the priest and is initiated into the path of the Buddhist householder. But many times there has been a culture of ousting the member in the name of defilement if he marries a woman of a different caste. Intra caste marriage may have been the
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ÂŠ Shweta Shakya
best way to sustain the suppressed and dying religion under the Hindu autocracy at that time. But today, with the nation declared as secular and the right to choose any religion, the issue of inter-caste marriage should have been out of the question. Still, this is the practice in many of the baha and bahi of Kathmandu valley. Nevertheless, there has been a major change in the past few decades with the allowance of other castes in Kwa baha to perform the rituals of becoming a monk in the premises. Kwa baha, famously known as the Golden Temple is one of the most visited sites by locals and tourists alike. It is the largest organization with close to 5000 members and also one of the rarest vihara where the centuries old traditions are reiterated meticulously. Unlike in other viharas, the priests are appointed for a month
and have to adhere to the regulations of the monastery. Here, the Holy Scripture, Pragya-Paramita, the Perfection of Wisdom in eight thousand lines, has been preserved here since ancient times and is frequently recited by Bajracharya priests. It is a common practice of local people to commission such a recitation, either when a member of the family is ill or on an auspicious occasion, such as a wedding. The main bahas, with fairly large number of members takes turns for organizing and managing big events like Buddha Jayanti, Mataya and other processions. It is clear that with the active participation and inclusion of all the members in various events, the significance of these viharas is preserved. But most viharas in the valley are in the dilapidated state since the original inhabitants have deserted the place and moved to places with
better facilities and lifestyle. For instance, Mikha baha near Nakabahil, the houses around the viharas are either in dilapidated state or are rented by people who have no affiliation with the vihara. There are hundreds of baha and bahi in Patan itself, all these come alive during the festival of Mataya mostly in August, where people walk around more than thousand chaityas in Patan. People who belong to the viharas stand beside the chaityas as the representative of the viharas and receive the offerings by the pilgrims. As the city continues to grow, it is a challenge to create a balance between space, resources, and development. But it is encouraging to see that the social organizations have been dedicating themselves to the conservation of the heritage, both tangible and intangible. n
ÂŠ Shweta Shakya
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n the late aftermath of the massive Earthquake of 2015, middle-class households victimized by the earthquake still look for someone to blame for the destruction of their property. Nepalese mentality of not following through on infrastructure development might be at fault. Ignorance of curing, which gives the concrete its strength, a process that was never a major agenda for construction workers in Nepal, may be at fault for the mass destruction the people faced. Further, it is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during hydration process after placed in position and left after the initial setting time of the cement itself. In laymanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s terms, curing is maintaining moisture inside the concrete to develop the desired properties in strength and durability. How curing can greatly improve the life of concrete and make it more strong and durable. Curing of concrete holds a lot of misconceptions. Improper curing can be the most significant reason for concrete failure in columns, beams, slabs, pavements, etc., clearly evident through cracks seen by the naked eye. With our civilization structured to revolve around money, contractors do not pay attention to the proper process of curing concrete which leads to the reduction in the durability of the structure. Curing is one of the important part of the construction process. Not only does it help the concrete to achieve its required strength but improves the strength of the infrastructure, but when it comes to vital structures such as columns, it determines the possibility
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IMPERATIVE BUT NEGLECTED Text : Prabin Bajracharya
of the infrastructures survival in natural disasters such as Earthquakes. The purpose of curing is to keep the water in the concrete from evaporating until such time that the concrete has sufficiently hardened so that the chemical reactions in the concrete can be completed. There are two major types of curing; impermeable-membrane curing and water curing. These methods are carried out through various materials or processes which further diversifies the process and makes it available in nearly all environments. The duration of curing of concrete depends on the grade and type of cement, mix proportion, desired concrete strength, shape and size of concrete member and environmental and exposure conditions. Exposed surface of concrete shall be kept continuously damp or in a wet condition by ponding or by covering with sacks, canvas, hessian or other
similar material and kept continuously wet for at least 7 days from the date of placing, in case of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and at least 10 days when mineral admixtures or blended cements are used. In case of concrete where mineral admixtures or blended cements are used, it is recommended that the above minimum periods may be extended to 14 days, for assisting the secondary reaction. The effect of curing on the strength of concrete is illustrated in above figure. It has been verified by the test results that maximum strength is achieved if the concrete has been left continuously wet, e.g. cubes that we prepare for the compressive strength test. Similarly, if the concrete is properly cured for at least 28 days, then the final compressive strength shall be around 95% of the designed strength which ultimately decreases to 82% of the strength if the finished concrete is cured for 14 days only, which is the normal engineered practices.
The general concept is that curing is secondary matter rather than primary. As per I.S.456-2000, Clause 13.5.1 Moist Curing, “Exposed surface of concrete shall be kept continuously in a damp or wet condition by ponding or by covering with a layer of sacking, canvas, hessian or similar materials and kept constantly wet for at least seven days from the date of placing concrete in case of ordinary Portland Cement and at least 10 days where mineral admixtures or blended cements are used. The period of curing shall not be less than 10 days for concrete exposed to dry and hot weather conditions. In the case of concrete where mineral admixtures or blended cements are used, it is recommended that above minimum periods may be extended to 14 days.” Ultimately, curing essential for the durability of an its inhabitants.
is a major process proper safety and infrastructure and Therefore, raising
awareness on the importance of curing is quintessential. People are impatient which in turn leads to their loss. So, we must not neglect this important part of infrastructural development as it can in fact make a very huge difference. What poses a much larger threat to human security is the tendency of contractors to sacrifice quality for money, by adding plasticizers and admixtures frequently and ignoring the minimal 3 day curing period of concrete. The chemical composition of concrete and how having patience on such matters can make the difference between life and death. Strictly adopting good curing practices at site will help concrete to achieve the properties of designed strength, enhanced durability, improved microstructure and a long lasting serviceability.Slow setting is always better and proper curing is ultimate requirement, not a secondary. Strength gained by concrete via curing cannot be compromised and gained by any other alternative means. n
Reference: - “Cement, Concrete & Aggregates Australia” (CCAA), Data Sheet, April 2006 - “National Ready Mixed Concrete Association” (NRMCA), Data Sheet, CIP 11 – Curing In Place Concrete - Kosmatka Steven H, KerkhoffBeatrixa&Panarese William C, “Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures”, EB001, 14th edition, Portland Cement Association. - Vincent T. H. Chu, “A Closer Look at Prevailing Civil engineering Practice – What, Why and How?” - Builder 3 & 2 Volume 01 – “Construction Manual for Building Structures” - D.M.Roy, G.M. Idron, “Concrete Microstructure” Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC – 1993. - IS 456:2000, Indian Standard – “Plain & Reinforced Concrete – Code of Practice”. - S.B. Kulkarni, “Significance of Curing of Concrete for Ductility of Structures”.
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long time in the past, at a cave about 40 km away from today’s Kathmandu, a prince had compassionately offered his body to a starving tigress. He was believed to be an early incarnation of Buddha. Praying to him, local people travelled through the dense forest full of tigers by chanting ‘Namo Buddha (Homage to the Buddha),’ hoping it would protect them. Today, the area is still known by that name, except that the tigers have become a fable in the concrete jungle that is gradually rising. Traditional customs and lush forest both have been compromised to make space for expanding local population and influx of tourists. Midst of this, Ingrid Schneider, owner of the Namo Buddha resort, is passionately trying
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to preserve what is left of the nature and culture of the region. A typical hilly village in Nepal has a peculiar experience. Houses those are sparsely located from each other. Birdsand flowers stay busy gossiping while one wanders through narrow alley ways. Thatched or slate sloped roofs, playing hide and seek with surrounding large trees. At night, blinking small lamps guide your way in. The Namo Buddha resort has managed to come very close to this idea of a hilly village experience. Spread in more than 10 Hectare, it is an example of how the economy and ecology can survive together. It was the effort of late Rudi Holscher, who together with an American architect developed a vision for this site. He hired
‘WHEN MY HUSBAND, RUDI HOLSCHER, BOUGHT THIS LAND 30 YEARS AGO, THE AREA WAS A DRY LANDSCAPE WITH A FEW FARMLANDS. TODAY, YOU ARE SITTING HERE WITHIN A BEAUTIFUL FOREST. WE PLANTED THESE TREES. CAN YOU IMAGINE, WE HAVE TO PROTECT OUR FARMS FROM DEER NOW? ISN’T IT AMAZING? WE ARE CONTINUOUSLY MAKING EFFORTS TO CONSERVE THE ENVIRONMENT OF THIS AREA. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO US.’ INGRID NOSTALGICALLY EXPLAINS TO THE SPACES TEAM.
THE NAMO BUDDHA
A SUSTAINABLE INITIATIVE
Text : Bansri Pandey Photo : A. Rajbansh
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traditional Newari carpenters and masons from Kirtipur to create beautifully built cozy cottages, adorned with the characteristic doors and small windows. In todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s construction, the art of these craftsmen is fast disappearing. And it is an absolute delight at the Namo Buddha resort, to see how well this art of woodwork has been preserved and can be experienced by the visitors first hand. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;We have painted our cottages just like we paint our homes in the village. It gives the guests a true experience of our culture. We make our own paint here from natural materials. For red paint, we use rato mato (red mud) mixed with lime and paneer. For white, we use the mixture of paneer, lime and lemon grass. Paneer is our secret ingredient. It adds to the stability of the
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paint and also gives a nice smooth finish.’ says Vikram Magar, the painter at the Namo Buddha resort. By definition, sustainability is about ensuring that the present generation maintains and enhances the health, diversity and productivity of the environment for the benefit of future generations. But is sustainability, a far-fetched idea? For example, in today’s context, many of the rivers that flow through Nepalese cities are not clean, wells are drying up, the groundwater table is dropping and the water distribution system is poor and inefficient. The question here is whether ecologically sustainable development really possible in today’s time and that too by individual contribution? Ingrid patiently explains, ‘This entire area faces a severe water shortage problem. But now, we hardly bring water tankers and that too occasionally during dry season, only if the guest demand is high. But for normal operations, we are self-sufficient. This is the fruit of our conservation efforts and continuous monitoring.’ As the resort is designed to provide the guests with an experience of village life in Nepal, initially the water was
stored in the large earthen and copper traditional pots, like the villagers do. This would have reduced the consumption by making the guests more conscious of their water use. Similarly, traditional oil lamps were used throughout the resort to give an authentic feeling of a village and also reduce the energy consumption. But, the visitors usually arrive to a resort with certain expectations, which drive their perceptions about the place. They are more willing to experience the culture and the nature of the region provided they are given basic facilities with home levels of comfort. Over the period, running water in the taps and electricity was introduced in the resort to fulfill the expectations of the guests. However, to control the water usage, the resort measures the water consumption daily and tries to optimize it wherever possible. What cannot be reduced must be either reused or recycled. The waste water from the common shower rooms are treated and used for irrigating the organic farm at the resort. The treatment facility does not use electrical energy. Instead, a multi stage natural filtration process is used. Water passes through multiple chambers where the presence of microorganisms breaks down the organic solids. Water is then oxygenated and purified by aeration
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methods. In the final stage, plants, microbes, sunlight and gravity transform wastewater into beautiful gardens and reusable water. To reduce the strain on septic tanks that are used for collecting sewage from toilets, effective microorganisms (EM) are introduced into the tanks. They increase the microbial diversity of soil ecosystem which in return, enhances the quality of soil. Going a step further from ‘reduce, recycle and reuse’ principle, is the 4th R of sustainability - Replace. Infiltration basins, also known as water recharge pools are constructed at the base of the resort’s site. These basins are used to recharge ground water as well as to manage storm water runoff, prevent downstream erosion and improve water quality in adjacent water sources. But how do you ensure that water is recharged to those water sources which are used by the resort? Ingrid laughs and explains, ‘I am not sure whether the water recharge pools are directly recharging the stream that is in our plot. It is going maybe to our stream or the neighboring ones. That is the nature. I cannot control it. But it does not matter. At the end, it is going to improve the communities’ access to
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water, which is good for the environment of this area. We have to play our part.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; One of the biggest challenges for a sustainable development is its waste management approach. Excessive or improper use, storage and disposal of various wastes in a resort can result in contamination of local environmental resources. At Namo Buddha resort, a significant effort is made to use cleaning agents that are made from natural materials and are free from toxic chemicals. This is important to conserve the quality of the water and soil. The bio-waste from the kitchen is used for making compost
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for the farm. Organic methods for pest control are used instead of toxic pesticides. Efforts are made to source organic seeds for the farm, in order to maintain the health of the ecosystem. Use of plastic is minimized and guests are encouraged not to bring any plastic water bottles with them. Instead, the glass wine bottles are cleaned and reused to serve drinking water at the restaurant and in the rooms. Apart from environmental concerns, the resort also respects the need of tourism to support the local population. Almost 80% of the staff at the resort is from neighboring villages. The resort extends its support to the
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Association for Craft Producers (ACP) by buying the hand woven cushion covers and bed linens which are designed according to the traditional patterns. The crockery is bought from a local producer in Bhaktapur, where they use non toxic glazing materials. The resort also tries to grow as much of its own food as possible - vegetables, grains, flowers and many fruits as well as collecting milk from its own buffaloes daily. To supplement what cannot be produced on-site, fresh fruit and vegetables are purchased from local farmers supporting the economy of surrounding villages.
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In practice, a sustainable tourism development, is a result of trade-offs between economic, environmental, social and cultural characteristics, since one may only be achieved at a slight compromise of the other. So, such ‘partial sustainability’ still justified as sustainability and whether is it still relevant in today’s time? ‘There is a reason why people travel miles away from their homes and go to resorts like this which are environmentfriendly places because it brings them closer to nature. And living so close to the nature is like living in the warm arms of our creator. To me, sustainability extends beyond saving the environment. It is our physical, emotional and
spiritual need of survival.’ says Kiran Gandhi, an architect and a guest at the Namo Buddha resort.
The Namo Buddha resort has set an example that a sustainable development is not a onetime effort. Its scope extends from the construction phase to a continuous effort during the project’s operations phase. Between the two extremes, Buddha had prescribed the middle path of moderation for life. As shown by the resort’s two decades of efforts, conserving the existing resources and minimizing the impact on social, cultural and ecological environment, seems to be the middle path of sustainability. n
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Today is new interpretation of Yesterday A reflection with Raj Rewal Text: Bansri Pandey
ARCHITECT RAJ REWAL IS RECOGNIZED INTERNATIONALLY FOR BUILDINGS THAT RESPOND WITH SENSITIVITY TO THE COMPLEX DEMANDS OF RAPID URBANIZATION, CLIMATE AND CULTURE. ‘GOOD DESIGN IS A RESULT OF CAREFUL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT, CULTURE, HISTORIC REFERENCES OF THE REGION, BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES, LOCAL SITE AND ITS CONTEXT’. THIS WAS THE MAIN IDEA THAT THE LEGENDARY ARCHITECT AND THE KEYNOTE SPEAKER, RAJ REWAL, SHARED AT THE EVENT ‘DESIGN PERSPECTIVE’ HELD ON 5TH APRIL, 2018 AT HOTEL YAK & YETI, KATHMANDU.
I was sort of led into it. My mother thought I was able to draw well. So, she got me an art teacher. I had a cousin who was studying architecture at the time and he said I should do that. I studied engineering for a year but later I shifted to architecture as I thought it would be more interesting for me. After 3 years in Delhi, I went to England and studied and worked there. But for me, the best part of my education was visiting buildings. And also, when I became a professor, good thing was that you learn more when you have to teach. So, that’s how I got into architecture,” as shared with SPACES Magazine team. Not only his architecture, but the man himself has inspired many. At the age of 84, he is still active in the field and in his own words ‘still learning’. His latest addition to contemporary masterpiece is the “Visual Arts Institutional campus” at Rohtak in India, which was completed in 2014. Rohtak is 70 km away from Delhi, envisaged to be an educational hub for the state of Haryana. And the campus designed by Rewal is part of this vision. Spread in about 22 acres, the design of the campus is based on a series of four distinct quadrangles, each making space for the disciplines of fine arts, architecture, fashion, film and television. Where these quadrangles
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interact geometrically with each other, spaces are designed for intellectual, educational and social interactions. What is uniquely different about Rewal’s architecture is the way he mixes the historic references and contemporary interpretations of them. For example, the roof of campus library is covered with a slanting solar disc with photovoltaic panels to generate maximum solar energy. The solar disc is a modern or rather abstract reminder of the wheel at Konark sun templeor the dharma chakra from the Buddhists Stupas. The ascending staircase around the common activity cylinder has echoes of the Sanchi Stupa, which relates to Buddhist scriptures. The campus
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is built with the traditional material of sandstone recalling the great mogul monuments and Rajasthan’s forts. The spatial configuration of courtyards which keep the heat and dust away creates micro-climate, another important lesson from Indian precedents. What Rewal has shown from his works throughout his career, can it be replicated in our fast growing cities, in everyday architecture? Rewal explains to the SPACES team, “Anyone who was building in Nepal let’s say in Bhaktapur around 400 years ago, followed a tradition of craft. Now, the craft gave certain type of discipline and beauty. The ruling people knew about it and everyone
else followed them. So, good architecture came naturally to the people of that time. Today, only money speaks. Buildings are made by people’s own whims and ideas. Modern architecture has its own ethos and values. In western world, they had to fight for it. They had to earn it. But here, in our countries, people just copy them without understanding. Designs which are thoughtful and sensitive about the environment, the historic evolution of the region, materials and building techniques, they become naturally good.” Some of Rewal’s major projects include: Hall of Nations situated in Delhi, Nehru Pavilion, Lisbon
Ismaili Centre situated in Portugal, Asian Games Village in Delhi, Indian Embassy in Beijing, Library for the Indian Parliament, Visual Art University in Rohtak and Jang-EAzadi Memorial museum in Punjab. Rewal has received numerous awards and honors for his works. He was awarded with the gold medal for the Indian Institute of Architects,
The Robert Mathew award from the Commonwealth Association of Architects and Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres award from the French Government. Rewalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s timeless footprints on Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contemporary architecture will be echoed over many generations to come. His ideas, experiments and
vision have given a new perspective on how we can build our sprawling cities without losing our values. He and his architecture continue to inspire us. His works have been exhibited at the National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi and the Pompidou Museum, Paris. n
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KINGSPAN RHINO TANKS
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AZUD WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM
JUNE 2018 SPACES / 47
An interview with the architect
KIRAN MATHEMA Text: Bansri Pandey
I see myself as a different sort of an architect. In fact, if you don’t call me an architect, I would be happy. Because I want to change the image of an architect from a person who is taken for granted by everyone to a person who is seen as a visionary, a person who has the power to influence.” Says a man with almost two decades of experience in architecture and working on projects all around the world. A graduate of SPA and MIT, a founding partner of Mathema and Partners and a passionate architect, Kiran Mathema, sits across SPACES team and explains further about his aspirations, “…I would like to be seen as a person who comes with new ideas. We, in our company, never take anything for granted that something innovative cannot happen in Nepal. If we put our minds to it, anything is possible. I love our historic buildings in Nepal. But I am not a traditionalist. I know that I can never build another Patan
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Durbar Square and I would not even try it. Buildings made in the past used a lot of wood and mud. They are beautiful because they exploit these materials to their fullest capacity. Each component in the building is structural. If you remove one, the structure will not be the same. Each element is serving its purpose. It was a pure and honest expression. Today’s buildings use concrete as their base. We have new issues to address. We cannot blindly copy our historic references. I think that is very dangerous. So, we have to learn the principles from our historic buildings and then use them to meet our new needs. What is more important is that we remain honest with our materials and our approach.”
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Kiran Mathema has award-winning projects that span the globe, including major cities in the US, Germany, Singapore, China, India, South Korea, and Nepal. A Nepalese architect, living in the US and working internationally, how does he stay updated with information in so many different regions? He laughs and remarks, “… Well, it’s easier when you are working in multiple regions. Because we are collaborating a lot with the local partners and they educate us with the required regional information. In any architectural project, there are many specialists. And you have to keep your eyes, ears and senses open to learn from all of them. In our company, we inspire the culture of sharing. We conduct regular talk programs, discussions and try to create an environment where people are sharing with each other. That is how we must continually learn.” The common thread that ties Kiran’s wide range of work is his environment-sensitive approach, and the rigour with which he designs to the smallest details. He passionately talks about his approach, “…Nature is the only element, besides wine, that becomes better with age. Everything that humans create has to be maintained. A tree in a building works as a dust barrier, a wind barrier, supports in retaining ground water and on top of that makes the environment very pleasant. It would be so much more expensive to do the same with man-made elements. We are trying in our designs to integrate nature as much as possible. We also have to make a great effort to educate our clients and show them the value in our design principles. I think we have been so far successful in that. 50 / SPACES JUNE 2018
We have seen that now, more and more clients are also appreciating these values and are willing to spend money for the same.” In his opinion, one of the challenging projects in Nepal for him, has been the resort in Nagarkot named as “the Leaf”. It is located on one of the highest hills of the Valley with a magnificent view of the Himalayan range. Concealed within a dense forest, the arrangements of buildings are placed strategically to reduce environmental impacts while maximising the views, privacy and sunlight. “… It was a very steep site. And in a resort, a group of guests usually wants to stay on the same floor. But what happens in a steeply sloped site, we either have to put a lot of retaining walls or raise the building on stilts, both of which would increase the project cost. So we came up with a vertical cottage design, just like the homes we have in the villages around Nagarkot. In this way, the group can live together in one house and we do not have to build the cottage with a large footprint. This design saved a lot of money. In this project, we have adopted forms from nature. The roof reflects the shape of the mountains and is oriented to open up the view towards mountains instead of blocking it like the traditional roofs do. So,
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each idea that we put on paper, has a function and reason for being the way it is. So, the idea is to stay rooted in the location. Our design does not look anything like the villages in Nagarkot but it does have the roots in them. Necessity should drive the aesthetics and not the other way around. This will generate unique architecture that is rooted in the place.” Before establishing Mathema and Partners (MAP), Kiran worked for several years in American architectural firms and led key projects in the US and overseas. He reflects on his journey and says nostalgically, “…One important
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lesson I learnt during my international experience is that while the drawings are a way to communicate your ideas, oral communication is extremely important for architects. When I graduated from MIT, I remember being a very challenged public speaker. One day, I had to go to a city hall with my professor and explain my design to a group of very senior people. I got so nervous at the time that I could not say anything and almost collapsed. My professor took over and gave the presentation that day. But later, he brought me aside and asked me to make a decision for myself to work on my oratory skills. I learned that day, how important verbal communications are for architects and I trained hard to develop that skill. I encourage my students today to do the same.” In addition to his professional practice, Kiran continues to be involved in academics by teaching and working with the younger generation. What is his opinion about the young generation’s level of dedication and aspirations for architecture? He excitedly begins to explain, “I am incredibly impressed by the younger generation today who come with so much enthusiasm, spirit and dedication to learn,” but suddenly he pauses, thinks for a while and says with a sigh, “…But it is the more senior architects who fail them by overworking, underpaying and not appreciating the talent they have. There are always two types of leaders - a manager and a coach. A manager comes to you and tells you what to do. The coach investigates your skills and assigns you those tasks where your strengths
are most used. I strongly believe that it is the responsibility of us, the senior architects to lead the young generation, coach them and open up doors of opportunities for them.” Mathema and Partners is a fast growing company. Kiran Mathema serves as a lead designer as well as a business strategist. He tries to innovate on both fronts. He explains his approach, “…We want to be the magnet in the industry for architectural works. And one way we can do that is by sharing our knowledge. There is no point in hiding or charging for information. On the other hand, when we share our knowledge, people would see the value in our work and would be attracted to work with us. This will be good for our company. So, we
invest a lot in public relations. I think it is very important to an architect’s business. We want to be the leaders. I know that in a competitive environment, someday, some other company would overtake us. But, I think that would be our fault that we were not able to stay on our cutting edge. We don’t want to make an exit strategy for our business. For me, design is my passion.However, we have to make the business side of architecture successful so that we can create an unparalleled work environment where we are able to attract most talented, energetic architects. This will not only help us in delivering highest quality of architecture but also put us in the position to address significant issues facing our society.” He concludes with a firm handshake. n
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COLORS in ARCHITECTURE
TEXT : Ar. CHHAVI VASHIST COLOR IS AN EXPRESSIVE ELEMENT IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND CAN BE USED TO EMPHASIZE THE CHARACTER OF A BUILDING AND CREATE HARMONY AND UNITY, OR IT CAN BE DELIBERATELY CONTRASTING TO ENLIVEN OR EMPHASIZE. IT MAY AFFECT THE WAY IN WHICH PEOPLE RESPOND TO THEIR SURROUNDINGS AND CAN ENHANCE A MOOD OF CALM OR ELATION. COLORS AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR A SERIES OF CONSCIOUS AND SUBCONSCIOUS STIMULI IN OUR PSYCHO-SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP. DESPITE ITS PRESENCE AND ITS VARIATIONS, IT IS PRESENT IN ALL PLACES. HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED WHAT IMPORTANCE COLORS POSSES IN ARCHITECTURE?
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olor is one of the vital elements that are important in Interior decoration. Your decoration process will not be complete without putting into consideration the use of appropriate colors and color combination. The beautiful world around us is filled with colors. Without color all things around us would have been pale and lifeless. Color is one of the most important elements of a composition, be it painting, photography, film or 3D rendering. Color plays a critical role in our everyday life. Color can sway thinking, change actions, and cause reactions. Color can attract any individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention or change their mood. It can cause irritation or soothe your eyes.
Color can be likened to the moon in the night that shine light everywhere, as it gives meaning to an environment. Color is an integral element of our world, not just in the natural environment but also in the man-made architectural environment. Color always played a role in the human evolutionary process. The environment and its colors are perceived, and the brain processes and judges what it perceives on an objective and subjective basis. Hence, the goals of color design in an architectural space are not relegated to decoration alone.
Blue connotes honesty, loyalty, and trust.
Many attributes of color-like saturation (color purity) and value (range of light to dark) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are known to evoke emotions in an individual and create moods. Lighter colors have positive impact whereas darker colors are known to impact adversely.
It is important to note that color for decorating in a church is different from that of an office or a home setting. Every designer or decorator should take note of all these in order to achieve better and meaningful result.
Purple represents awareness, creativity, and imagination. Orange associated with motivation and optimism. Yellow shows enthusiasm and knowledge; it also evokes feelings of fun, happiness, and hope. Green represents energy and emotion; it also serves to balance and to create stability.
The ability to select the best colors gives you an edge in interior decoration. Finally, color help to communicate the mood of a place, room or event. Whether it is celebration mood or sad mood; color helps to evoke emotions. Especially in the last eleven decades, empirical observations and scientific studies have proven that human-environment-reaction in the architectural environment is to a large percentage based on the sensory perception of colors. In short, it confirms that human response to color influences us psychologically and physiologically. There are four major aspects in any color â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Hue, Saturation, Value and Temperature.
Color therapy in architecture defines the character of a structure, as agreed widely by architects today. It is also agreed that in many cases colors expressed the character of the materials in the building. If a building has a red tile roof, gray stone walls, and brown wood trim, the essential character of each material is clearly stated. If these have the same color, the building looks like a clay model. Red is usually associated with ambition, determination, and leadership, also connotes physical desires. Pink shows compassion, intimacy, and unconditional love.
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Hue is an important property of color that describes the actual color in the color wheel. Saturation defines how intense or pure the color is in the color wheel. The presence of saturated hue/ color in the composition gives a vivid and pure look to an image, thereby making the image more dynamic. However, excessive usage of high saturated colors in any composition may be confusing as each saturated color would compete with the other for dominance. This may case fatigue to the eyes of a viewer. An image with the dominance of less saturated color looks white washed. The Value of color determines how light or dark the color is in its shade. This aspect of color is used extensively to depict the spatial form of an object. Closer color values can make an image look flat, whereas contrasting color values enhance the form of the object in an image and provide a sense of depth. Color is a very powerful mean in architecture. Color is a sensory perception, and as any sensory perception, it has effects that are symbolic, associative, synesthetic, and emotional. The color specifier/ designer has the task of knowing how the reception of visual stimulation, its processing and evoked responses in conjunction with the hormonal system, produces the best possibilities for the welfare of human beings. This is of utmost importance in varied environments, such as medical and psychiatric facilities, offices, industrial and production plants, educational facilities, homes for the elderly, correctional facilities, and so forth. Each within themselves having different task and function areas.
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Color has not always been so detached from architectural design. Historically, the artist’s profession encompassed all, but not exclusively: painting, sculpture, and architecture. Colors are used lavishly in architecture, because of the desire to celebrate the marvel of the building itself.
This monument is able to relate: landscape, color, architecture and users. The surrounding landscape, it’s interior and exterior meets the criteria of being modest and conscious architecture with what surrounds it. Interiors and exteriors in marble with a green pigmentation of vegetation, surrounding it frames and gives a visual treat.
The architect must consider the color effect of every element of a building’s construction, from the earthy colors of primary construction materials like wood, stone, brick, and marble, to the expansive variety of colors available for paint, doors, windows, siding, and trim. Materials, textures and color are intermingled generating a space with its own identity. External colored façades creates a sense of importance and a strong visual impact.
Even in public places like streets, food courts, etc. colorful street patterns, street art and installations have been admired by the public and noticeably, have pulled a larger crowd out on the streets and have given the reason to festively celebrate the streetscape. Such art practices involving colors help develop the culture and identity of a city. The sudden randomness and elements of surprise are always a welcoming and a warm gesture, and thus, this makes up for the daily routine life of a passenger.
Usage of colors in a building has evolved over the years. From the cities culturally depending on the materials available locally like stones, limestone, etc. While architecture influences our lives in more ways than we can think, the use of color with the type of architecture makes a built form way more influential. Colors help in developing perspective and understanding the nature of a building. Therapeutically, architecture and color go hand in hand. Colors like whites and greys have always been favored by the architects and designers, but many architects have been bold enough to realize that the effect of these colors can be graving, and feel isolated. The choice of finishes is very much limited by the choice of material. Modern techniques such as PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) allow the coloring of Stainless Steel materials to suit a wide selection of finishes ranging from vibrant pinks and blues, to traditional Bronze, Brass and Coppers. Unlike powder coating or painting, the process of PVD enhances the surface material allowing the texture of the original surface to remain, whilst also providing an abrasion-resistant layer that will not lose color over time. This offers an attractive benefit to architects for its longevity and lowmaintenance qualities alike.
create distressed and antique effects to even the newest of products.
Anodizing is a popular finish for Aluminum, for similarly to PVD on Stainless Steel, it provides additional strengthening and protective qualities to its application without masking its natural surface grain. More traditional coloring techniques are still in abundance, such as painting and powder coating, with the ability to
The combination of intense blue and beige colors, in matt and glossy finishes, define the surfaces of this structure. A pleasant juxtaposition of colors that contrast with the views of landscape that surrounds it. Heavy detailing, volumetric pattern and color invade this building that enhances creativity.
The places and spaces above, are a clear indication of the evolution of our interaction with the spaces through the times and eras. It is an important and needed approach to accept architecture, just for the fact that our daily lives are affected by all the places and their way of existence, it becomes necessary that the use of colors in appropriate and subtle ways is understood and implemented. It enhances the ability to intercept better with the surrounding and triggers our mood. Every space can be distinguished with its approach towards the human and non-human interaction. Architecture plays an important role in promoting it, and color in architecture helps understand that interaction better.
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Up until recently color was the most neglected aspect in architectural design which concentrated more on spatial dimensions and technical aspects of design schematics. Color theory maintains and reinforces spatial relations with the effective use of contrasting color and light. The scale of a drawing is difficult to recognize if it is one uniform color. Color theory integrates certain pigments to convey a building dimensions and proportions. A well-crafted color palette can do wonders for a room. The use of color and graphic images can elicit emotions and unique perceptions of space. It has an ability to calm or excite, can make a room appear smaller or more grandiose, or even trigger subconscious reactions. Color is the most vital, impactful and expressive design element in a designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s toolbox. n
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The ultra thin TVs today are OLED TVs that use an organic substance that glows when an electric current is introduced. Throughout your screen, depending upon what scene is being displayed, the electric current in different areas might be different allowing individual pixels to switch off while the others are on, permitting true blacks and giving a superior contrast.
RIGHT MOVES SMART CHOICE FOR
TV&Projector THE BIG BLACK BOX OF ENTERTAINMENT HAS BEEN HIGHLIGHTING LIVING ROOMS SINCE THE 80S. AND THE COUCH POTATO IN ALL OF US NODDED IN AGREEMENT WHEN JOEY FROM FRIENDS QUESTIONED, “WHAT’S ALL YOUR FURNITURE POINTED AT?”
SIZE Your choice in the market ranges from around 32 to 65 inch TVs offered by various brands. Another way to choose a size is to consider where your TV will be placed from your viewing arrangement. But while thin TVs are in and create a sleeker look, they might not have the best audio output. If you don’t have or plan on having an external sound system, it is advisable prioritize sound quality across brands you’re choosing from.
SMART TV/ ANDROID TV Most TVs you’ll find in stores today can be connected to the internet via wifi. This gives you access to international streaming services like Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hulu, HBO, and more along with Social Media Streaming sites like YouTube. The Smart TV will have capacity to join wifi network and connect to many streaming sites, they will not have the ability to install a new application. Android TVs run on operating system especially tailored for TVs (SONY partnered with GOOGLE) to have better and easy user experience. They are moderately expensive but also are more customizable as one can install or remove new and old applications, increase the storage capacity and wireless keyboards and trackpads can also be connected. Behaving more or less like smartphones.
nterests for a new TV takes a steep rise- up to 7 times during the World Cup Season. And with brands offering discounts and online stores offering free deliveries for television, it might also be the smartest time to buy one. At Right Moves Smart Choice, we take care of all mumble jumble for you to make the smartest decision.
SCREEN OPTIONS LCD TVs brought a style revolution in the TV market over a decade ago by bringing slimmer TVs into trend. They used cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) to provide backlighting. The LED TVs use an array of smaller, more efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) to create the same liquid crystal display.
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HD offers 1,280 x 720 pixels (1 Megapixel), a full HD is 1,920 x 1,080 pixels(2 Megapixels) and 4K is 3,840 x 2,160 pixels (8 Megapixels) resolution. The higher the resolution, the better is the image quality. While you’ll get a good deal on HDTVs too, considering you might not want to have to replace yours within 5 years, go for at least full HD definition. 4K TVs might be a great investment as newer content for TV with content production is on the rise. Streaming giants like Netflix’s most content is available on 4K too.
You’ll find at least 25 different brands of TV available in the Nepali market today. While some are big established names, others are emerging brands that have made a mark in other countries. Choose a brand as per your
Good technical innovations are must, if you live for safety, quality and comfort. Budget as the newer Indian and Chinese brands give you a better deal if you’re running tight on your wallet, but not for long run or for better quality. Features on product like an included wall mount, warranty, home installation provided by the brand. Renowned brands usually give you a better set of services. Resale value- If you end up selling your TV in the near future or you know you might move soon, something with a history of better resale value might be a good investment.
Also know, • Most TVs today are energy efficient. • Even for continuous viewing, the TVs today have a better viewing angle. • Curved TVs might look stylish, but they cannot serve whole family or large group of viewers. These are best suited for a couple with highest technological advancements not found on other TVs. • Look for stores that give you the best deal on extended warranties. • Look if your TV has enough HDMI and audio ports. • The World Cup season is seeing a lot of offers from different brands from discounts to cash back offers to freebies. Find what interests you the most.
GO BIG OR GO HOME- PROJECTORS And since it is world cup season when friends and family get together to watch and support their favorite teams’ together, if you wanted a truly cinematic experience, go for a projector! While projectors are mostly popular in academic, professional setting, and for screenings in restaurants and bars, personal uses can go from movies to match screenings for a big family and friends gathering. You will be able to use it for a garden or terrace screening with an easy installation and go way beyond 65 inches.
LIGHTING While traditional projectors needed you to pull in curtains and create a dark ambience, projectors today can work at moderate lighting as well depending on what lumen or contrast ratio device you have. A 3000 lumens device can also be viewed in sunlight. So outdoor screenings are effective and work wonders today!
QUALITY SVGA, SGA, HSGA, HD are resolutions you will find that are in increasing order of both quality and price. SVGA is not ideally recommended if you have a significant distance between your screen and projector. It is important in case of distance, to also calculate the throw ratio. Dividing the distance between wall and the projector by the throw ratio of the projector. If your projector is placed 10 feet away from the screen and has a throw ratio of 1.8-2.22, then you can get an image size that ranges between 54 – 66 inches. There are many projectors available with ‘Short Throw’ ability, these can be placed 3-4 feet from screen but can yield picture larger than 100 inch.
time as well as 3D capabilities. LCD projectors use liquid crystal displays and are generally less expensive. The LED projectors deliver better colors, have lower power consumption, are lighter and give a longer life to the lamp. But they have limited brightness.
A projector lamp lasts for 2000-3000 hours on average but they can be replaced. Newer models to enter Nepali market will have as much as 15000 hours of life. Projectors are delicate and because unless mounted, they are usually transported from one place to another, they need Contrast Ratio can also determine basic being taken care of. Some ways to increase its color quality of your output. If your watch life are: at normal to dimly lit room with very high contrast ratio, your eyes will definitely suffer. • Let it cool for 2 mins by switching the screen off and letting the fan run before directly switching it off. Do not pack your TECHNOLOGY projector in while it’s still hot. There are three main technologies available • Even if it has a permanent mounting, make – DLP, LCD and LED in the market. DLP sure the mounting doesn’t block the air flow. (Digital Light Processing), the latest one, uses a chip made of tiny microscopic mirrors • Check your air filters every few weeks and keep it clean. and a spinning color wheel to create an • If your project runs continuously, make sure image. They deliver sharp images, don’t it rests at last 2 hours every 24 hours. n need any filters, have a better response
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Work by Shyam Lal Shrestha
WHERE MODERN EYES MEET THE ANCIENT Text: Suprasanna Aryalâ&#x20AC;&#x192; Photo: Bijaya Maharjan
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would not be an exaggeration to say that Sirjana Contemporary Art Gallery is synonymous to a hub for pioneers of Nepali modern art. Established in the year 1986 by artist Birendra Pratap Singh as ‘Sirjana Art Gallery’ at Jamal, the gallery brought together modern art enthusiasts under one roof, along with some exemplary artists of that time. In 1990, more prominent artists signed up to help run the gallery and it was renamed ‘Sirjana Contemporary Art Gallery’. Despite many successful art exhibitions and involvement of several art lovers, the gallery had to go through several financial difficulties and was shifted to numerous locations, and was even in the verge of shutting down. The artists then decided to establish Sirjana College of Fine Arts (which was christened in 2001 at Kamaladi) and ran the gallery alongside. The gallery stands tall and proud today at the college’s new location in Uttar Dhoka, displaying commendable artworks that are treasures of Nepal’s contemporary art world. Senior artists like Shashi Bikram Shah, Batsa Gopal Vaidya, Madan Chitrakar, Krishna Manandhar, K.K Karmacharya and Shyam Lal Shrestha have taken the gallery and the college to new heights. What they have been inheriting to the newer generation of artists in the college’s classrooms was represented at ‘Sirjana- 2018’, a weeklong collective art exhibition held at Nepal Art Council, Baber Mahal in May, alongside the artworks by present-day artists and the younger generation. All these art pieces have a common ground; the artists’ attachment and belongingness to Nepal and its rich
Shashi Bikram Shah
Shyam Lal Shrestha
Batsa Gopal Vaidya
culture and lifestyle. Many being abstract artworks, the artists have given audience the liberty to interpret those art pieces in multiple ways.
LOOKING CLOSER INTO THE FRAMES
When you come across the word ‘horses’, what is the first thing that comes to your mind? Is it scenes of tall, slender creatures grazing peacefully in a picturesque landscape? Or domesticated animals galloping swiftly
across a field with riders on them? Well, for artist Sashi Bikram Shah, horses mean something beyond all that. In his artworks, he has been using horses to symbolize the changing times. Have a glance at one of his paintings, ‘The Paranoid World’, and you will be left with numerous interpretations of the image. Each of these horses has different expressions; anger, frustration, concern, confusion or happiness. Affected by these horses are people at the bottom of the painting who are at different phases of their lives. There
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Work by Krishna Manandhar
Work by Madan Chitrakar
Work by KK Karmacharya
are crawling babies, adolescents, adults and elderly people. All of them seem to share a common trait, fear and paranoia perhaps, and hence the title ‘The Paranoid World’. Along with this artwork displayed at the exhibition was Krishna Manandhar’s abstract work ‘Rock Series’. This series will give you views of rocks in different geographical contexts; rocks in river banks, rocks in the dry Himalayas, rocks in the vast ocean, rocks in dark valleys. Use of vivid colors is the specialty of the series and this probably tries to imply how precious rocks are for human beings in spiritual ways and others, adding
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Work by Shashi Bikram Shah
colors to our lives. The series compels you to contemplate life with regards to organic form of nature and by observing nature, to gain inspirations for your philosophies. Where do we come from and where are we going? The answer is deeply rooted in the earth so Manandhar’s paintings remind and inspire the audience to remain humble, no matter how far and high they reach in their lives. While ‘Das Avatar’, painted by Batsa Gopal Vaidhya, illustrates ten avatars of Lord Bishnu, namely Matsya (fish), Kachhya (tortoise), Baraha (boar), Baamana (dwarf Brahmin), Nrishimha (a creature that is half
human and half lion) and Lords Ram, Parshuram, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki (who is yet to come to this world). All ten avatars have been represented with relevant symbols. For instance, the artist has used peacock’s feather, flute and a cow’s face to symbolize Lord Krishna. Below these ten avatars, is a round blue-black structure, maybe representing the earth, surrounded by red flames. But these flames that look threatening haven’t affected the earth yet because it has been protected by the ten avatars above and there is a myth that after Kalki’s appearance on earth, the world will come to an end. The flames embody the factors that will cause destruction of the world.
Work by Batsa Gopal Vaidhya
Another attraction of the exhibition, ‘PrajnaThe Transcendental Knowledge’ is a series of abstract paintings by Madan Chitrakar and it incorporates patterns that look like half-circumferences and alphabets but unrecognizable. These artworks represent the artist’s moods, situations and thoughts present in his mind while painting. The bright colored pieces must have been painted when he was in a good mood and with positive outlooks of the world. Whereas, the darker shades must have been painted in his darker days- when there was a lot of sadness and chaos going on around him. The differently shaped patterns in the brighter paintings are more focused and elongated in a relaxed manner while the paintings representing chaos have patterns dispersed in an irregular and tensed manner, with additional new kinds of patterns, too, possibly embodying negativity. Some even have two shades in the background of the same painting, representing mixed emotions
that the artist and having when he held his brushes. Likewise, ‘Five Headed Maha Binayak’ by Shyam Lal Shrestha is a portrait of Lord Ganesh standing on a lotus flower. In the background are lowlands as well as the Himalayas, the sun as well as the moon, depicting that Lord Ganesh is omnipresent. The other four heads and four pairs of hands are those of Lord Bishnu, Surya (Sun), Goddess Bhagawati and Lord Shiva. Their hands are holding objects special to them, for example Ganesh is holding sweets (laddus), and Lord Shiva is holding Trishul and Damaru. Heads of the five Gods attached to the same body symbolizes that there is just one divine being, appearing in different avatars. The bountiful use of colors and elements in his painting reflects how Shrestha’s artwork has been influenced by his rich Newar culture and traditions that he has been accustomed to (and holds a special place in his heart) since his childhood.
A very eye-catching and vibrant piece was K.K. Karmacharya’s ‘Motion’. His painting is an amalgam of contrast colors that coexist perfectly with each other and is a feast to your eyes. Everything we do, everything we are and everything that happens around us is set in motion by a mysterious force. Whether we explain it through science or philosophies of a divine power, the energy is forever present and Karmacharya illustrates these energies in his abstract arts. When I looked at ‘Motion’, I could interpret it as a view of the sky. The weather is changing, brighter side of the sky illustrates sunrays and dark clouds are taking up the space ready to pour down to earth in the form of rain, a fearful bird is flying across to reach its nest, there is thunder and lightning. Looking at it physically, it explains how weathers keep changing because of the energy and are always in “motion” while spiritual inclination of the art is how we are always exposed to the impacts of these energies in our lives. n
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FROM THE SHELF
THE ARCHAEOLOGIST’S TOOLKIT How can you ensure that you are learning everything your artifacts have to teach you? Archaeology doesn’t just happen. Using the right media, archeologists can and must educate and excite the people who need their information. With large numbers of people involved, the complex logistics of fieldwork, funding needed for projects of any size, and a bewildering set of legal regulations and ethical norms to follow, a well-run archaeological project requires careful and detailed planning. The Archaeologist’s Toolkit is an integrated set of seven volumes designed to teach novice archaeologists and students the basics of doing archaeology. Students are led through the process of designing a study, doing survey work, excavating, properly working with artifacts and biological remains, curating their materials, and presenting findings to various audiences. The volumeswritten by experienced field archaeologists-are full of practical advice, tips, case studies, and illustrations to help the reader. The Toolkit is an essential resource for anyone working in the field and ideal for training archaeology students in classrooms and field schools.
Volume 1: Archaeology By Design By Stephen L. Black and Kevin Jolly (both at University of Texas) Volume 2: Archaeological Survey By James L. Collins (Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa) and Brian Leigh Molyneaux (University of South Dakota) Volume 3: Excavation By David L. Carmichael (University of Texas, El Paso), Robert Lafferty III (MidContinental Research Associates), and Brian Leigh Molyneaux (University of South Dakota) Volume 4: Artifacts By Charles R. Ewen (East Carolina University) Volume 5: Archaeobiology By Kristin D. Sobolik (University of Maine) Volume 6: Curating Archaeological Collections By Lynne P. Sullivan (University of Tennessee, Knoxville) and Terry S. Childs (National Park Service) Volume 7: Presenting the Past By Larry J. Zimmerman (Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis). n
This is not a Book Review; this is just an effort to conveying information to the readers on rare and valuable books on art and architecture. This column aims to give a helicopter view on such books and thus presents the excerpts and illustrations either from the preface, introduction, jacket or main contents of the book from the shelf. This book was kindly provided by Mandala Book Point, Kantipath, Kathmandu. (Tel. 4227711).
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PANCHA TATTVA In the painting illustrated here, the artist–Navindra Man Rajbhandari, has sought to depict ‘Pancha Tattva – the five elements’- that constitute the universe, in cube-like five floating forms in five colors. And each color is meant to represent an element. This painting is from his recent series and are all based on geometric forms. His choice of thick and primary colors suggests his confidence in expressing his inner feelings. n
Born in Kathmandu (1960), Navindra Man Rajbhandari is best known for his bold modern forms and also, as an active arteducator. He earned his Bachelor’s Degree in Fine Arts (BFA) from Lalit Kala Campus, Kathmandu. He is the author of ‘Paaschaatya Kalaa: Sanchhipta Itihaas’ – A Short History of Western Art - highly informative book to the Art students and the Art-lovers alike. He has had remained a Goodwill Ambassador of Ehime Prefecture, Japan to Nepal 2002-2007. He remains a recipient of prestigious awards like: Rastriya Siksha Puraskaar, Ministry of Education 1983, First Prize, National Art Exhibition, Nepal Association of Fine Arts in 2002. He remains one of the founder members of Sirjana College of Fine Arts and also an Executive member of Sirjana Contemporary Art Gallery. Presently, he is associated with the Basic and Primary Education Programme at Sanothimi, besides being a Faculty member of Sirjana College of Fine Arts. NAVINDRA MAN RAJBHANDARI
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19 The Carpenter Hardware Center Gyaneshwor, Kathmandu Ph: 977-1-4420234, 4420522, 9841897027 email@example.com
71 Nepa Top Organization Samakushi, Kathmandu Ph: 977-1-4354117, 4363548, 4387901 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.nepatop.com.np
10 Worldlink Communication Pvt. Ltd. Jawalakhel, Lalitpur Ph: 977-1-5523050 E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.worldlink.com.np
69 New Lotus Hardware Maitidevi, Kathmandu Ph: 977-1-4437162, 4438370 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 9 Parth International Pvt. Ltd.(Featherlite) Central Business Park, 4th Floor Thapathali, Kathmandu Ph: 977-1- 424 5342 / 410 1504 E-mail: email@example.com Website: http://www.parthinternational.org
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