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Insights South Asia

Nepal survey 2011 results


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Table of contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 3 Main findings ................................................................................................................................. 5 1. Vital issues for the Nepalese .................................................................................................... 7 2. Connections with other South Asian countries ...................................................................... 8 2.1. Friends or relatives in another South Asian country ................................................................... 8 2.2. Visits to other South Asian countries ........................................................................................... 8 3. Opinions about other countries............................................................................................... 9 3.1. Opinions about neighbouring countries ...................................................................................... 9 3.2. Opinions about other countries or group of countries .............................................................. 10 4. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) ..................................... 12 4.1. Awareness of SAARC .................................................................................................................. 12 4.2. Nepalese being aware of SAARC more often had a positive view of other South Asian countries ........................................................................................................................................... 13 5. Obstacles to - and advantages of - regional cooperation .................................................. 13 5.1. Perceived obstacles to establishing closer regional ties ............................................................ 13 5.2. Importance of potential benefits of closer regional cooperation ............................................. 15 5.3 Differences between respondents who had heard of SAARC and those who had not when evaluating potential hurdles and advantages of regional cooperation ............................................ 15 6. Threats to the security of the South Asian region ............................................................... 17 6.1. Type of threats ........................................................................................................................... 17 6.2. Countries posing a major threat to security .............................................................................. 17 7. Economy and living standards ............................................................................................... 18 7.1. Economic conditions today and major factors preventing better economic conditions .......... 18 7.2. Current development of economic conditions .......................................................................... 19 7.3. Changing standards of living ...................................................................................................... 19 7.4. Other countries’ impact on the Nepalese economy .................................................................. 20 8. Migration ................................................................................................................................. 22 9. Domestic issues ....................................................................................................................... 23 9.1. Preferred role of religion in the political system ....................................................................... 23 9.2. Acceptance of violence as a means to resolving conflicts ......................................................... 23 9.3. Fight against corruption ............................................................................................................. 24 Conclusions .................................................................................................................................. 24 Focus on youth ............................................................................................................................ 26 Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 28 About SADF.................................................................................................................................. 31 About Gallup Europe .................................................................................................................. 32 Annex tables ................................................................................................................................ 33 Questionnaire .............................................................................................................................. 95

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Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Introduction South Asia is of great strategic interest for Europe, both from a security perspective as well as from an economic point of view. Tensions between India and Pakistan recently prompted pundits to declare the countries‟ shared border to be the most dangerous in the world. At the same time, terrorist groups operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan continue to be a direct threat to regional and global security, despite the NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan that started in 2001. The EU has a major interest in improving its trade relations with India, with which it is trying to negotiate a new Free Trade Agreement since 2007. However, it should not be overlooked that South Asia not only hosts booming India, but also four of the least developed countries in the world: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal. Such uneven economic development as well as security problems within the region can only be adequately addressed by closer regional cooperation. It is self-evident that this can only be initiated by the South Asian countries themselves. However, the EU as well as other global players should be prepared to assist them in this process. Against this background, I felt that a dialogue platform, bringing together South Asian and European thinkers and decision makers was needed to exchange views of best practices and to offer concrete solutions to push the South Asian integration process forward and this became the driving force behind the creation of the South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF) in the beginning of 2011. I was convinced that as a first step SADF needed to provide European and South Asian leaders with solid information about public opinion in South Asian countries on the prospects of enhancing regional cooperation. Are people in favour or against closer cooperation with their neighbours? What do they consider as the major obstacles to forging closer ties? And which potential benefits would they find most important? In order to find an answer to these questions, SADF decided to cooperate with The Gallup Organization, the leading company for measuring global public opinion that can look back on a longstanding record of polling in South Asia. It is the ambition of SADF to continue the Insights South Asia project by conducting similar surveys in all eight South Asian nations forming the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka about issues ranging from economic development, democracy, conflict prevention to economic and political cooperation. The findings will serve to inform the debate among policymakers and stakeholders and provide solid and much-needed evidence and indicators to monitor progress and transformations in these areas. This report presents the latest results from Nepal, the first country surveyed. The fieldwork was carried out in Nepal between 16 July and 7 August 2011. 1,000 randomly selected citizens aged 15 and older were interviewed. The interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey results clearly show that the Nepalese would embrace more regional integration in South Asia. SADF believes that it is crucial to know whether this wish for stronger cooperation is shared in the region. Reading this report you will realise that public opinion and attitudes in this region might in many instances be at odds with the situation usually portrayed in the media. I am therefore convinced that if we really want to support South Asian politicians in finding new ways and areas of cooperation – a process that will bring more prosperity and stability to this war-torn region and ultimately make the world a safer place – we need to gather more reliable data on the ground on what the region‟s citizens 3


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey really think. In order to make this happen, SADF would be delighted to welcome more partners to join and support its Insights South Asia survey project, and this is what we invite you to consider after having read the following pages.

Brussels, 21 September 2011

Paulo Casaca Executive Director of the South Asia Democratic Forum

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Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Main findings Vital issues for the Nepalese When asked to choose two items (from a list of eight) that were the most important in their personal lives, a majority (58%) of Nepalese chose education. Family was selected as one of the most important issues by 44% of respondents, while health and work were mentioned by, respectively, 37% and 31% of respondents. Connections with other South Asian countries A third (33%) of Nepalese surveyed had friends or relatives living in another South Asian country (i.e. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives, Sri Lanka or Afghanistan). Almost all of these respondents with friends or relatives in another country answered that these friends or relatives lived in India (95%). Nearly half (48%) of Nepalese surveyed had at least once visited another South Asian country; virtually all of these respondents said they had visited India (97%). Opinions about other countries India was clearly the most popular country among the South Asian countries. More than 8 in 10 (84%) respondents said they had a rather positive opinion about their big neighbour. About 4 in 10 respondents held a positive view about Bangladesh (44%), Sri Lanka (43%), Bhutan (40%) and the Maldives (39%). Pakistan and Afghanistan had the least positive ratings among South Asian countries, 33% and 26%, respectively. When asked to voice their opinion about countries from other parts of the world, almost three-quarters held a favourable attitude towards China and the US (74% and 73%, respectively). Japan was the third most popular country among the foreign powers listed in the survey (65% viewed it positively). The results for the three European countries – Germany, France or the UK – showed that 44%-46% had a positive opinion about them. Large shares of respondents did not know enough about the various countries listed in the survey to formulate an opinion. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Following a short description of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), a majority of 57% confirmed having heard about the association. Strikingly, almost all (98%) respondents who were aware of SAARC thought that Nepal‟s membership of the association was a good thing. Perceived obstacles to establishing closer regional ties In the eyes of Nepalese, the two biggest obstacles to establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia were the arms race between India and Pakistan (60% saw this as an obstacle) and historic animosities (58%). Importance of potential benefits of closer regional cooperation Respondents appeared to accept all benefits of regional cooperation (as listed in the survey) as being important: the proportion of “important” responses ranged from 75% for “better transport connections to neighbouring countries” and “more respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries” to 86% for “more job opportunities in this country”.by at least three-quarters 5


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey of respondents to 82% “cheaper imports” and 86% for “more job opportunities in this country”. Threats to the security of the South Asian region Terrorism was seen as the greatest threat to security in the South Asian region – 4 in 10 (40%) respondents ranked it number one from a list of six potential threats. Crime was the second most frequently mentioned security threat (20%). When asked which South Asian country posed the greatest danger to security in the region, Pakistan ranked number one (selected by 28%). Economy The largest proportion of respondents (41%) rated economic conditions in their country as poor, and a further 30% as only fair. Just a handful of respondents said that economic conditions were excellent (3%) and roughly a fifth (19%) considered them as good. A lack of political leadership and corruption were by far the most frequently mentioned factors preventing economic growth in Nepal. Nepalese were more optimistic when answering the question about future economic developments; 45% of respondents felt that the economy in their country was getting better, compared to 35% who said it was getting worse. India was perceived as having the biggest impact on the Nepalese economy. Living standards About three-quarters (77%) of Nepalese had seen an improvement in their standard of living in the past five years. About 1 in 10 (9%) reported that their family‟s standard of living had deteriorated and 14% felt it had stayed the same in the time frame. Furthermore, about 8 in 10 (79%) Nepalese said that their family‟s standard of living was getting better at the time of the survey, compared to 11% who said that it was getting worse. Migration More than two-thirds (69%) of Nepalese wanted to continue living in their country, while 31% would like to move temporarily or permanently to another country. The United States was the most preferred destination (11% of all respondents), followed by India (6% of all respondents). Preferred role of religion in the political system If Nepalese would be given a choice between a secular democracy or a Hindu democracy, the majority (63%) would prefer the latter, while a third (34%) would favour the former. Acceptance of violence as a means to resolving conflicts A vast majority (81%) of Nepalese disagreed that the use of violence was an accepted means of resolving conflicts in their country nowadays, compared to 10% of respondents who held an opposite view – i.e. that the use of violence was still accepted – and 9% who did not answer. Fight against corruption A slim majority (54%) of Nepalese thought that their government was not doing enough to fight corruption, while 30% were satisfied with their government‟s efforts in this regard. A share of 16% did not answer this question.

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Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

1. Vital issues for the Nepalese Respondents were asked to choose two

Vital issues for the Nepalese

items – from a list of eight items – that

first response

were the most important in their personal lives. A majority (58%) of Nepalese

Education

chose education as one of the most im-

Family

portant issues (out of the eight issues

Health

13

listed). Family was selected as one of the

Work

13

most important issues by 44% of re-

Religion and spirituality

5

spondents, while health and work were

Living conditions

5

mentioned by, respectively, 37% and 31% of respondents. All other topics were selected as being the most important by considerably smaller shares: 11%

second response

36

22

26

6 5

18 25 18

in total 58

44 37

31

11 10

Environment 2 3 5 Law and order 1 2 3 Q1. Which TWO of the following are most important to you? Base: all respondents

for religion and spirituality, 10% for living conditions, 5% for the environment and 3% for law and order. Socio-demographic patterns Looking at differences across socio-demographic groups, some interesting patterns emerged. The older the respondents were, the more likely they were to value family and religion/spirituality. For example, 26% of over 54 year-olds chose religion and spirituality as one of the most important aspects of their lives, compared to just 6% of 15-24 year-olds. The opposite pattern was observed when looking at the proportions selecting education; the younger the respondents were, the more inclined they were to find this important. As expected, the likelihood to select education also increased with respondents‟ level of education. For example, 74% of those with a university education selected this item from the list, compared to 27% of illiterate respondents. Those with higher levels of education also placed more emphasis on health, but respondents with low levels of education were twice as likely as those with high levels of education to mention work. The least educated were also more likely to choose family as an important aspect of their lives. Among the various occupational groups, students put special emphasis on living conditions (16% vs. 2%-9% across all other occupational groups) and education (85% vs. 48%-58%), while they were the least likely to mention family (26% vs. 37%-57%). Similarly, the biggest difference between men and women was that the latter were more likely to name family (49% vs. 38%).

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Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

2. Connections with other South Asian countries 2.1. Friends or relatives in another South Asian country A third (33%) of Nepalese surveyed had friends or relatives living in another South Asian country (i.e. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives, Sri Lanka or Afghanistan). Almost all of these respondents with friends or relatives in another country answered that these friends or relatives lived in India (95%). Other South Asian countries mentioned in this context were Bangladesh (2.1%), Afghanistan (1.5%), Pakistan (0.8%) and Sri Lanka (0.5%). Friends and relatives living in another South Asian country Do you have any?

Where? 1

India

Yes

No

IF YES

33 66

95

Bangladesh

2.1

Afghanistan

1.5

Pakistan

0.8

Sri Lanka

0.5

DK/NA

Q2. Do you have any friends or relatives living in another South Asian country – that is, in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, or Afghanistan? Base: all respondents

Q3. In which South Asian country or countries do they live? Base: those who have friends or relatives living in another South Asian country

Respondents living in large cities more frequently had friends or relatives who lived abroad: 46% of large city dwellers said they had friends or relatives who lived in another South Asian country, compared to 23%-33% of those living in suburbs, rural areas, small villages or towns.

2.2. Visits to other South Asian countries Nearly half (48%) of Nepalese surveyed had at least once visited another South Asian country; virtually all of these respondents said they had visited India (97%). A handful of respondents had been to Bhutan, Bangladesh or Pakistan (all 1%). This result, as well as the one discussed in the previous section, underlines India‟s exceptional position in Nepal, built on India and Nepal‟s strong cultural, religious, historical, economic and political ties. Men and respondents who lived in large cities or suburbs were more likely than women and rural dwellers to have visited another South Asian country. Similarly, the higher respondents‟ standard of 1

living , the more likely they were to have visited other countries in the region.

1

The survey asked Nepalese respondents the following question to determine a family’s standard of living: “Using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family, how would you rate your family’s standard of living right now?” About 6 in 10 (61%) positioned themselves between 1-3 and therefore can be considered as relatively poor. 8


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Having visited another South Asian country Have you visited?

Which one?

India

IF YES

52

48

Yes

97

Bhutan

1.2

Bangladesh

1.0

Pakistan

0.6

No

Q4. Have you ever visited another South Asian country – that is, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, or Afghanistan? Base: all respondents

Q5. Which South Asian country or countries have you visited? Base: those who visited another South Asian country

3. Opinions about other countries 3.1. Opinions about neighbouring countries The Nepalese have a great affection for In-

Opinions about various South Asian countries

dia; more than 8 in 10 (84%) respondents

Rather positive

said they had a rather positive opinion about their big neighbour, while just 9% held an opposite view and 7% said they “did not

Rather negative

DK/NA

84

India

9

Bangladesh

44

8

48

Respondents who had visited India were

Sri Lanka

43

8

49

overall the most likely to see the country in

Bhutan

40

positive light (90%); having friends or rela-

Maldives

39

know” (or preferred not to give an answer).

tives in India, however, had hardly any effect on

respondents‟

image

of

their

big

neighbour. The remaining South Asian countries appeared to be far less popular, which can

Pakistan Afghanistan

16 8

33 26

43 53

34 29

7

33 45

Q6. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? Base: all respondents

partially be explained by the fact that many respondents did not know enough about these countries to formulate an opinion; the shares of “don‟t know” responses ranged from 33% for Pakistan to 53% for the Maldives. About 4 in 10 respondents held a positive view about Bangladesh (44%), Sri Lanka (43%), Bhutan (40%) and the Maldives (39%). Nonetheless, among these four countries, Bhutan received the highest rate of “rather negative” responses (16% vs. 8% across the other three countries). A potential explanation for these negative perceptions are the difficult negotiations between Nepal and Bhutan to resettle ten thousands of Lhotshampa refugees who fled from interethnic conflicts in Bhutan in the 1990s and are

9


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey currently living in Nepalese refugee camps.

2

Pakistan and Afghanistan had the least positive ratings in the survey; almost equal proportions of respondents either had a rather positive or rather negative opinion about these countries (Pakistan: 34% “rather negative” vs. 33% “rather positive”; Afghanistan: 29% “rather negative” and 26% “rather positive”). Socio-demographic observations 3

The most noticeable differences between the various socio-demographic groups were that women , respondents from rural areas and villages, older respondents and those with lower levels of education more frequently did not answer the questions about Nepal‟s neighbouring countries. This can probably be explained by the fact that in Nepal the literacy rates among women, older respondents and rural residents are considerably lower than among other groups. For example, the survey found that 23% of the interviewed women were illiterate (vs. 8% of men) and 11% (vs. 8% of men) had no formal educa4

tion . The youngest respondents (15-24 year-olds), large city dwellers and those with secondary/higher secondary and university education were more liable to express a positive opinion about Pakistan and Afghanistan. For example, respondents living in large cities were more than twice as likely as respondents from rural areas to see Pakistan in positive light (62% vs. 28%). More than half (55%) of those who had been to university and slightly more than 4 in 10 (42%) respondents with a secondary/higher secondary education took a favourable stance on Pakistan, compared to 18% of illiterate respondents and 22% of respondents with no formal education but who reported to be literate.

3.2. Opinions about other countries or group of countries The survey also asked respondents about their opinions towards China, the United States, Japan, the European Union, France, Germany and the UK. Although many respondents found it difficult to answer questions about these countries (or group of countries), among Nepalese who voiced an opinion, those who held a rather positive opinion about the country outnumbered those voicing a negative opinion.

2 As of July 2011, the governments of Bhutan and Nepal had held at least 15 rounds bilateral talks, no practical solution was reached. For information on this topic, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhutanese_refugees 3 The same was true for respondents working in the household. Since almost all of them were women (98%), they are not mentioned separately in the report. 4 Among respondents older than 54 years the 41% were illiterate (vs. 6% of 15-24 year-olds). Among those from rural areas and villages or suburbs between 16%-21% said they were illiterate, compared to 2% of large city dwellers. According to UNICEF statistics dating back to 2005-2008, the total adult literacy rate in Nepal was 58%. For every literate Nepalese man, there were 0.64 literate women. For more information, please see: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/nepal_nepal_statistics.html#77 10


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey Nepalese found it easiest to formulate an opinion about the United States and China; about a fifth of respondents gave a “don‟t know” response when asked about the US (19%) or China (20%); these figures were relatively low when compared to those for most of the South Asian countries (see above). Similar shares of respondents held a favourable attitude towards China and the US (74% and 73%, respectively); the proportions expressing a rather negative opinion towards these world powers were also of roughly the same size

Opinions about various countries from other parts of the world Rather positive

(6% for China and 8% for the US).

Rather negative

DK/NA

China

74

6

21

among the foreign powers listed in the

United States

73

8

19

survey. About 7 in 10 Nepalese formulated

Japan

an opinion about this East Asian country;

France

46

4

50

among these respondents, 65% said they

Germany

46

5

50

viewed Japan rather positively and 4%

United Kingdom

44

viewed it rather negatively. The relatively

European Union

32

5

Russia

31

9

Japan was the third most popular country

high popularity of Japan might be explained by the fact that Japan is one of the top donors to Nepal and involved in every impor5

tant sector of the economy .

65

4

5

31

51 63

60

Q7. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world – do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? Base: all respondents

The results for the three European countries – Germany, France or the UK – were fairly similar: roughly half of respondents were able to answer the question and most of these respondents said they had a rather positive opinion about these countries: Germany, France (both 46%) and the UK (44%). When asked about the EU overall, fewer respondents answered (63% said they did not know) and, as such, also fewer respondents selected the “rather positive” response (32% vs. 5% of “rather negative” responses). Finally, less than half of respondents were able to give their opinion about Russia, with 31% viewing the country rather positively and 9% rather negatively. Differences between socio-demographic groups As in the case of the previous question on opinions about neighbouring countries, socio-demographic groups with lower literacy rates - women, respondents from rural areas and older respondents – more frequently gave a “don‟t know” response when asked about countries from other parts of the world. Men, 15-24 year-olds and those with higher levels of education were the most likely to have a positive image of China. For instance, 79% of 15-24 year-olds viewed their northern neighbour positively, compared to 65%-66% of those older than 39 years; the shares of those selecting the “rather negative” response were similar for both groups (7% for the 15-24 year-olds and 6% for those older than 39). Men and respondents with secondary and tertiary education more often had a positive image of the United States. However, due to the high shares of “don‟t know” responses for women, men were also more inclined than women to say that they had a negative opinion of the US. For example, 77% of men

5

For more information, see the website of Japan’s embassy in Nepal: http://www.np.emb-japan.go.jp/oda/general.html 11


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey liked the US and 11% disliked it, compared to 69% and 6%, respectively, of women. The likeliness to approve of the US decreased with age; for instance, while 78% of 15-24 year-olds had a favourable view of the US, this share dropped to 59% among those older than 54 years. In case of the EU, large differences were seen between groups who were able to voice an opinion and those who were not. For example, 89% of illiterate respondents did not have an opinion about the EU, compared to just 21% of respondents who had been to university. Furthermore, 58% of 15-24 year-olds did not know how to judge the EU, compared to 72% of respondents older than 54. Men, 15-24 year-olds, those with higher levels of education and large city dwellers were more inclined to have a positive opinion about the EU.

4. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 4.1. Awareness of SAARC The survey also investigated whether Nepalese were aware of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). To this end, respondents were presented with a short description of the basic features of the association and a list of its members: “Your country, together with other South Asian countries, has decided to establish closer political, economic, technological, social, and cultural exchanges in the framework of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The members of the SAARC are Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan.” Following this definition, respondents were asked whether they had heard of SAARC; a majority of 57% confirmed having heard about the association. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Have you heard of SAARC?

Is Nepal’s SAARC membership a …? 1

12

1

IF YES

31

57

98 Yes

No

DK/NA

Q8. Have you ever heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? Base: all respondents

Good thing Neither good nor bad thing

Bad thing DK/NA

Q9. Do you think Nepal’s SAARC membership is a good thing or a bad thing? Base: those who aware of SAARC

Men, 15-24 year-olds, students and those with the highest levels of education were the most knowledgeable about SAARC. More precisely, 68% of men (vs. 47% of women) had heard of SAARC. Fur-

12


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey thermore, 72% of 15-24 year-olds (vs. 39%-49% of other age groups) and 89% of students (vs. 29%-66% of other occupational groups) said they had heard of SAARC. While just 10% of illiterate respondents answered that they had heard about SAARC, this proportion increase to 97% for respondents with the highest level of education. Strikingly, almost all (98%) respondents who were aware of SAARC thought that Nepal‟s membership of the association was a good thing. All socio-demographic groups overwhelmingly welcomed Nepal‟s SAARC membership.

4.2. Nepalese being aware of SAARC more often had a positive view of other South Asian countries Nepalese who have heard of SAARC had a more positive opinion about other South Asian countries Heard of SAARC

Interestingly, those respondents

who

had

heard

of

SAARC (57% of all respon-

Have not heard of SAARC

6

dents ) were more likely to

86 85

take a positive stance on any 57

57

of the other South Asian

52

51

countries, with the exception

39 27

30

29

24

33

26

18

of India. In the case of India, those who

India

Bangladesh

Sri Lanka

Bhutan

Maldives

Pakistan

Afghanistan

were not aware of SAARC were basically as likely to view

Q6. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? & Q8. Have you ever heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? Base: all respondents

the country positively as those who had heard of the regional association (85% vs. 86%). Those aware of SAARC, how-

ever, were twice as likely to think positively of Bangladesh and the Maldives. However, it should be noted that those who had heard of SAARC were also more likely to hold a negative view on other South Asian countries, simply because higher shares of them answered the question.

5. Obstacles to - and advantages of - regional cooperation 5.1. Perceived obstacles to establishing closer regional ties Next, respondents were presented with seven issues and were asked, for each, whether or not they considered it to be an obstacle to a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia. Once again, many respondents found it difficult to evaluate whether certain matters were an obstacle to interregional cooperation; the proportion of “don‟t know” responses ranged from 16% for “religious differences” to 31% for “existing trade regulations”.

6

As has been shown in the previous section, almost all respondents who had heard of SAARC thought that Nepal’s membership was a good thing (98%). 13


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey In the eyes of Nepalese, the two biggest obstacles to establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia were the arms race between India and Pakistan (60% saw this as an obstacle, while 10% said the opposite) and historic animosities (58% “obstacle” vs. 19% “no obstacle”). About half of Nepalese regarded uneven economic development across

Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia

the region (53%) as an obstacle to establishing a more intensive re-

Obstacle

Not an obstacle

DK/NA

Arms race between India and Pakistan

60

differences

Historic animosities

58

were also seen as obstacles by about

Uneven economic development across the region

53

Language differences

52

32

17

third of respondents thought that

Religious differences

50

34

16

the two last-named issues did not

Existing trade regulations

form an obstacle to regional coop-

Cultural differences

gional cooperation. Languages differences

and

religions

half of respondents (52% and 50%, respectively). However, while about a

eration (32% and 34%, respectively), this view was shared by only half as many respondents when asked about

45

10 19 18

24

42

40

30 23 29

31 18

Q10. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Base: all respondents

regionally uneven economic development (18% “no obstacle”). A share of 45% of respondents thought that existing trade regulations would hamper closer regional cooperation in South Asia, compared to 24% who believed the opposite. Finally, respondents were not only the least likely to say that cultural differences were a barrier to regional cooperation (42%), they were also the most likely to answer that such differences constituted no obstacle (40%). Socio-demographic patterns Once again, looking at differences among socio-demographic segments, the clearest pattern found was that women, respondents from rural areas and villages, those with lower levels of education and older respondents more frequently said they did not know whether a certain issue constituted an obstacle to a stronger regional cooperation in South Asia. Looking at the differences concerning the issue that was most frequently seen as an obstacle to further regional integration – i.e. the arms race between India and Pakistan, it was noted that men, respondents living in large cities or suburbs, those with high levels of education and the youngest respondents (15-24 years) were more inclined to say that this issue was an obstacle.

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Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

5.2. Importance of potential benefits of closer regional cooperation In the next question,

Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation Important More job opportunities in this country Cheaper imports Better opportunities to export products More job opportunities in neighbouring countries More respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries Better transport connections to neighbouring countries

Not important

DK/NA

respondents were pre-

8 6

potential benefits of re-

8 10

gional cooperation and

86 82 78

11 11

77

15

8

75

10 15

75

11

14

Q11. Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? Base: all respondents

sented with a list of six

they whether

were they

asked consid-

ered them important (or not) for their own life. Respondents appeared to accept all benefits listed in the survey as being

important:

the

proportion of “important” responses ranged from 75% for “better transport connections to neighbouring countries” and “more respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries” to 86% for “more job opportunities in this country”. For each of the potential benefits listed in the survey, the proportion of respondents who did not consider it important for themselves remained below a fifth (between 8% and 15%). A similar observation could be made for the proportions of “don‟t know” responses. Results for socio-demographic groups As in the case of previous questions, the same socio-demographic groups, i.e. those with low literacy rates, more frequently had problems answering the questions about potential benefits of regional cooperation. Focusing on the potential advantage of further regional integration that was most often named as being important – i.e. more job opportunities in this country, it was noted that those with low levels of education less frequently said that this would be important for them. For example, 79% of illiterate respondents found more job opportunities in Nepal important, compared to 91% of those with secondary/higher secondary education and 98% of those who had been to university.

5.3 Differences between respondents who had heard of SAARC and those who had not when evaluating potential hurdles and advantages of regional cooperation Respondents who had heard of SAARC were considerably more inclined to see obstacles to South Asian regional cooperation. The difference in the proportions seeing obstacles between respondents who were aware of SAARC and those who were not ranged from 17 percentage points for “language differences” to 37 points for “the arms race between India and Pakistan”. So in the latter case, 78% of respondents who said they had heard of SAARC regarded this arms race as an obstacle to stronger regional cooperation, compared to 41% of respondents being unaware of SAARC.

15


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey It should be noted, however, that those respon-

Respondents who had heard of SAARC more likely to see obstacles to cooperation

dents who said they had

Obstacle - those who heard of SAARC Obstacle - those who had not heard of SAARC

78

heard of SAARC were also

68

more inclined to say that each of the six issues was

65

59

47

41

58 42

39

58 38

not an obstacle to further

52 31

28

regional integration, simply

because

very

high

shares among those un-

Arms race between India and Pakistan

aware of SAARC could not judge whether an item constituted an obstacle or

Historic animosities

Uneven Language economic differences development across the region

Religious Existing trade Cultural differences regulations differences

Q10. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? & Q8. Have you ever heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? Base: all respondents

not. For example, 12% of those who had heard of SAARC said that the arms

race between India and Pakistan was not an obstacle vs. 8% of those who were unaware of SAARC. Another important finding of this Insights South Asia survey is that Nepalese who were aware of SAARC (and therefore in most cases supported Nepal‟s SAARC membership, as shown in chapter 4.1.) were also more apt to find potential advantages of increased regional cooperation to be important; this was true for all six possible benefits. The biggest differences were observed for “better opportunities to export products” (86% of those being aware of SAARC found it important vs. 67% of those being unaware of the association), “more respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries” (84% vs. 67%) and “better transport connections to neighbouring countries” (84% vs. 66%). People unaware of SAARC, however, were not necessarily more likely to say that these potential benefits were unimportant

Nepalese aware of SAARC were more inclined to find potential benefits of regional cooperation important Important - people who had heard of SAARC

90

82

87

86

Important - people who had not heard of SAARC

84

83

77 67

for them, since many of

70

84 67

them did not know how to answer the question. For example, 23% of

66

those

unaware

of

SAARC did not answer the question, compared to 5% of those who had heard of SAARC; across More job Cheaper imports Better More job More respect for Better transport opportunities in opportunities to opportunities in ethnic and connections to this country export products neighbouring cultural diversity neighbouring countries when visiting countries neighbouring countries Q11. Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? & Q8. Have you ever heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? Base: all respondents

both groups, 11% said that more respect for ethnic and cultural diversity

when

visiting

neighbouring countries was not an important benefit for them.

16


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

6. Threats to the security of the South Asian region 6.1. Type of threats Terrorism was seen as the greatest

Issues that pose the greatest security threat to the South Asian region Terrorism

threat to security in the South

40

Crime

Asian region – 4 in 10 (40%) respondents ranked it number one

20

Nuclear weapons

8

from a list of six potential threats.

Rivalry between India and Pakistan

8

Crime was the second most often

Religious fundamentalism Rivalry between India and China

tioned by 20% of respondents).

4

There is no major threat to the region's security

1

Other

0

DK/NA

mentioned security threat (men-

6

Less than a tenth (8%) of respondents

14

Q19. Which of the following issues poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Afghanistan)? Base: all respondents

thought

that

nuclear

weapons posed the greatest security threat to the South Asian region and an equal number (8%)

said the same about rivalry between India and Pakistan. Finally, minorities mentioned religious fundamentalism (6%) and rivalry between India and China (4%). Virtually none (1%) of the respondents spontaneously said that there was no major threat to security. A share of 14% said they did not know what constituted the greatest threat to the region‟s security. Across all socio-demographic groups, terrorism was seen as the number one threat to security in the South Asian region. Furthermore, across almost all groups, crime followed in second place. Men, those living in suburbs and those with average and high levels of education were overall the most likely to mention terrorism. For example, 42%-49% of those with average and high levels of education named terrorism, compared to 27%-35% of respondents without formal education or with primary education. The latter groups, as well as those who spent 5-9 years in school, were more apt to mention crime as a threat to security (20%-27% vs. 16% of those with a secondary/higher secondary or university education).

6.2. Countries posing a major threat to security

South Asian countries that pose the greatest security threat to the South Asian region

When asked which South Asian country posed the

Pakistan

greatest security threat to the South Asian region,

Afghanistan

12

Pakistan ranked number one (selected by 28%). India

India

and Afghanistan were each mentioned by 12% of re-

12

Bhutan

spondents and 10% of Nepalese thought that Bhutan constituted the greatest threat to the region. About a third (34%) of respondents could not name the South Asian country they considered as being the prime menace to peace and security in the region. Across all socio-demographic segments, Pakistan was seen as the South Asian country that posed the greatest security threat to the region.

28

10

Nepal

2

Bangladesh

2

Sri Lanka

1

Maldives

0

None

0

DK/NA

34

Q20. Which of the following South Asian countries poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region? Base: all respondents

17


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

7. Economy and living standards 7.1. Economic conditions today and major factors preventing better economic conditions A majority of Nepalese painted a bleak picture of their country‟s economic conditions: the largest proportion of respondents (41%) rated economic conditions in their country as poor, and a further 30% as “only fair”. Just a handful of respondents said that economic conditions were excellent (3%) and roughly a fifth (19%) considered them as good. Almost a tenth (8%) of respondents did not know how to answer this question (or preferred not to answer). Respondents who rated their country‟s economic conditions as “only fair” or “poor” were presented with a list of potential problems and were asked which of these were the two main problems preventing better economic conditions in Nepal. A lack of political leadership and corruption were by far the most frequently mentioned factors preventing economic growth in Nepal. Almost two-thirds (64%) of respondents who were dissatisfied with the current economic conditions in Nepal said that a lack of political leadership was one of the two most important factors that prevented economic conditions to become better. Similarly, slightly less than 6 in 10 (58%) of these respondents held corruption responsible for the current bad economic situation. Economic conditions in Nepal Which are the two main factors preventing better economic conditions?

How would you rate them? Excellent

Good

Only fair

Poor

first response Lack of political leadership

DK/NA

47

Corruption Large population

30 IF ONLY FAIR OR POOR

19

Crime / Lack of security

3 8 41

Q12. How would you rate the economic conditions in this country today? Base: all respondents

second response

22 14 4 11

15

Bad economic policies 3 12

15

Poorly qualified population

17 36

7

in total 64 58

21

6 5 11

Lack of infrastructure 1 5 6 Environmental problems 13 4 Trade restrictions in South Asia

0

Other

1

DK/NA

1

Q13. Which of the following are the two main factors preventing better economic conditions in this country? Base: those who considered economic conditions in Nepal to be “only fair” or “poor”

About one in five (21%) respondents thought that Nepal‟s large population was one of the main factors negatively affecting economic conditions, followed by about one in seven (15%) respondents who mentioned crime and a lack of security and the same proportion who selected bad economic policies. About a tenth (11%) of respondents identified Nepal‟s poorly qualified population as one of two major problems; a lack of infrastructure and environmental problems were each selected by approximately 1 in 20 respondents (6% and 4%, respectively). Virtually nobody regarded trade restrictions as a major brake on economic progress. 18


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey Respondents from rural areas, villages and suburbs, those with low and average living standards and respondents with low levels of education were more likely than their counterparts to rate the current economic conditions in their country as “excellent” or “good”. The gap was most pronounced across the various educational groups: while 29%-33% of those without formal education considered the present state of their economy as ”excellent” or “good”, 13% of those with secondary/higher secondary education and 5% of those who had been to university shared this view.

7.2. Current development of economic conditions Although a majority of Nepalese evaluated their country‟s current economic conditions negatively,

Current development of economic conditions in Nepal

they were more optimistic when answering a

8

question about future economic developments. Almost half (45%) of respondents felt that the

Getting better

economy in their country was getting better, compared to 35% who said it was getting worse and 12% who spontaneously

answered that the

45 35

The same Getting worse

economic situation would remain the same. Fi-

DK/NA

nally, 8% did not answer this question. 12

Respondents living in rural areas and villages not only more frequently rated economic conditions

Q14. Right now, do you think that economic conditions in this country, as a whole, are getting better or getting worse? Base: all respondents

in their country as positive, they were also more

likely to view the current development of Nepal‟s economy positively. Large city dwellers gave a very negative estimate of Nepal‟s current economic development: 48% said that economic conditions were deteriorating (vs. 33%-40% of respondents from villages, rural and suburban areas). About one in two women (48% vs. 42% of men) said that economic conditions were getting better and 28% stated the opposite (vs. 43% of men). The youngest respondents‟ (15-24 year-olds) assessment was very positive: 52% said that the economic situation was currently improving and just 28% disagreed. In comparison, just 36% of the oldest respondents (over 54) thought that economic conditions were changing for the better and 45% believed that they changed for the worse.

7.3. Changing standards of living In order to get an idea of how Nepal‟s economic

development

affects

living

standards in the country, the survey asked

Development of family’s standard of living over the past 5 years 9 1 14

Improved

whether respondents felt that that their

Stayed the same

family‟s standard of living had improved or

Deteriorated

deteriorated over the past five years. About three-quarters (77%) of Nepalese

77

DK/NA

had seen an improvement in their standard of living in the past five years. About 1 in 10 (9%) reported that their family‟s

D4 Over the past five years, has your family’s standard of living improved, declined, or stayed about the same? Base: all respondents

19


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey standard of living had deteriorated in

Current development of family’s standard of living 1 11 9

the time frame and 14% felt it had stayed the same. Getting better

As a next step, respondents were asked

Staying about the same Getting worse

about the current development of their

DK/NA

ily‟s standard of living was getting bet-

79

family‟s standard of living. About 8 in 10 (79%) Nepalese said that their famter, compared to 11% who said that it was getting worse. A similar proportion

D5 Right now, do you think that your family’s standard of living is getting better or getting worse? Base: all respondents

(9%) said that their standard of living was staying the same.

The younger the respondents, the more positive they were about the past and current development of their family‟s standard of living. For example, at the time of the interview, 83% of the 15-24 year-olds felt that their family‟s living standards were changing for the better, compared to 70% of over 54 year-olds. The various educational groups differed mostly concerning their evaluations of the development of their family‟s standard of living over the past five years. Respondents without formal education and those with primary education were less likely than those with secondary or tertiary education to have seen an improvement in their standard of living in the past five years (66%-70% vs. 79%-87%). Respondents with a low level of education more frequently stated that their family‟s standard of living had declined (13%-15% vs. 4%-6% of the latter group). Respondents were also asked to rate their family‟s current living standards on a scale from 1-7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family. Those who ranked their standard of living to be between 4-7 were considerably more likely to say that their family‟s living standards had improved over the past five years (82% vs. 71%-75% of those who rated their living standards to lie between 1-3). In addition, those already comparatively well-off more frequently said that their current situation was improving (88% vs. 71%-76%).

7.4. Other countries’ impact on the Nepalese economy

South Asian countries having the biggest impact on Nepal’s economy

A slim majority (53%) of Nepalese thought that, of all

India

the South Asian countries, India had the biggest im-

Pakistan

pact on their country‟s economy. Pakistan was men-

Afghanistan

2

tioned by 6% of respondents and Afghanistan by 2%;

Bangladesh

1

the other five South Asian countries were named by a

Bhutan

1

mere handful of respondents. These results perfectly

Maldives

0.3

mirror the actual economic realities: Nepal pegs its

Sri Lanka

0.2

currency to the Indian rupee and India is Nepal‟s big-

DK/NA

53 6

37

gest trading partner and source of foreign investment. It should be noted again that many respondents found it difficult to answer this question (37% of “don‟t know”

Q16. Which of the following South Asian countries has the biggest impact on your country's economy? Base: all respondents

20


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey responses). When asked whether there was another country that had an even bigger impact on Nepal‟s economy, about 4 in 10 of those interviewees who had named a South Asian state that they regarded as having the biggest impact on Nepal‟s economy mentioned another country (39% of 629 respondents; n= 243). Out of these, 39% named China (9% of all respondents). Readers should bear in mind, however, that Nepalese respondents were more than five times as likely to mention India as having the biggest impact on their economy than they were to mention China. The United States was regarded as having the largest economic impact on Nepal by 21% of respondents (5% of the total), this country was followed by Japan (11%, 3% of the total). Other countries that have an even bigger impact on Nepal’s economy Is there such country?

Which one?

19

IF YES

39

42

Yes

No

DK/NA

Q17A. Do you think there is another country in the world, other than (response in Q16), that has an even bigger impact on your country’s economy? Base: those who mentioned a South Asian country which has the biggest impact on your Nepal's economy

China United States Japan Pakistan Bangladesh India Afghanistan Bhutan Sri Lanka Germany Iraq United Arab Emirates Maldives United Kingdom

39 21 11 10 7 4 2 2 1 1 1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Q17B. Which one? If there is more than one country, please name the one that you think has the biggest impact overall. Base: those who thought there was another country in the world that has an even bigger impact on Nepal’s economy

Women, respondents with low levels of education, those living in rural areas, villages or suburbs and older respondents more frequently found it difficult to assess which country had the biggest impact on their country‟s economy. Nonetheless, across all socio-demographic groups (among those answering the question), the largest proportion of respondents thought that, of all the South Asian countries, India had the biggest impact on their country‟s economy.

21


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

8. Migration More than two-thirds (69%) of Nepalese wanted to continue living in their country, while 31% would like to move temporarily or permanently to another country. Despite cultural, historical and economic ties with India, the United States was the most preferred destination – a third (33%) of Nepalese who would like to resettle somewhere else, named the United States as their destination of choice (11% of all respondents). India was the second most popular destination, with 20% of would-be migrants naming this country (6% of all respondents). A tenth of would-be migrants would like to move temporarily or permanently to Japan. Other destinations named in this context were the United Arab Emirates (named by 5% of respondents who would like to move), Malaysia, the United Kingdom and Australia (all mentioned by 3% of would-be migrants). Migration Would you like to move?

To which country?

1

31

IF YES

69

Yes, would move No, would not move DK/NA Q18A. Ideally, if you had the opportunity, would you like to move temporarily or permanently to another country, or would you prefer to continue living in this country? Base: all respondents

United States India Japan United Arab Emirates Malaysia United Kingdom Australia Qatar Canada China Saudi Arabia North Korea Hong Kong Maldives Sri Lanka DK/NA

33 20 10 5 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 5

Note: only countries mentioned by at least 1% of respondents are shown Q18B. To which country would you ideally go? Base: those who would move to another country if they had the opportunity

Looking at the socio-demographics of potential migrants, the survey found that the typical would-be migrant was male, young, lives in a large city and has enjoyed at least basic education. In Nepal, 38% of men (vs. 24% of women), 39% of large city dwellers (vs. 28%-31% or respondents from rural areas, villages or suburbs), 35% of the 15-24 year-olds (vs. 30% of 25-39 year-olds, 26% of 40-54 year-olds and 18% of those older than 54) and 40% of respondents with a university education (vs. 13%-21% of those without formal education and 33%-36% of those with primary or secondary/ higher secondary education) said they would like to move temporarily or permanently to another country. The United States was the most preferred destination for most socio-demographic groups, with the exception of those with low levels of education who favoured India over the US.

22


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

9. Domestic issues 9.1. Preferred role of religion in the political system In the summer of 2011, Nepalese politicians

Preferred type of democracy

were still trying to reach a compromise in 03

drafting a new constitution. However, after three years of discussion, such a compromise 34

63

Secular democracy

still seemed out of reach at the time of the

Hindu democracy

survey‟s fieldwork.

No preference

If Nepalese would be given a choice between

DK/NA

a secular democracy or a Hindu democracy, the majority (63%) would prefer the latter, while a third (34%) would favour the former.

Q14B. If you were given a choice between a secular democracy or a Hindu democracy in your country, which one would you prefer? Base: all respondents

Given that, until a few years ago, Nepal was the world‟s last constitutionally declared Hindu state (the Nepali Parliament amended

the constitution in 2006), this result might not come as a surprise. According to the 2001 census , 81% of Nepalese were Hindu, 11% were Buddhist, 4% were Muslim, and 4% were Kirat (an indigenous religion with Hindu influence) and 1% were Christian. A comparison across the various socio-demographic groups revealed large differences in the answers to this question. While most groups were in favour of a Hindu democracy, large city dwellers, those living in suburbs and those with a university education said they would prefer a secular democracy. For example, while 54% of those with the highest level of education would chose a secular democracy, this share was 20%-25% among those without formal education. Interestingly, even among the youngest respondents (15-24 years), a majority was in favour of a Hindu democracy (58% vs. 40% who preferred a secular democracy).

9.2. Acceptance of violence as a means to resolving conflicts A vast majority (81%) of Nepalese disagreed that the use of violence was an accepted means of resolving

Is the use of violence an accepted means of resolving conflicts in Nepal?

conflicts in their country nowadays, compared to 10% of respondents who held an opposite view – i.e. that the use of violence was still accepted – and 9% who

1

9

10

did not answer. This finding is of major importance in

Yes

a country that was plagued by a civil war that lasted

No

from 1996 to 2006 and where violent protests and

Depends

bomb attacks still pose threats to security.

DK/NA

Vast majorities among all socio-demographic segments disagreed that the use of violence was still an accepted means of resolving conflicts within Nepal. The oldest respondents (over 54) were clearly less in-

81 Q15. Is the use of violence an accepted means of resolving conflicts within your country nowadays? Base: all respondents

clined to disagree with the statement (69% vs. 23


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 79%-85%). Furthermore, those without formal education and those with primary education were less likely to say that the use of violence was unacceptable (64%-78% vs. 86%-87% of those with average and high levels of education).

9.3. Fight against corruption Is the national government doing enough to fight corruption?

A slim majority (54%) of Nepalese thought that their government was not doing enough to fight corruption, while 3 in 10 (30%) were satisfied with their government‟s efforts in this regard. A share of

16 30

Yes, doing enough No, not doing enough DK/NA

54

16% was not able to evaluate their government‟s fight against corruption (or preferred not to answer). Across most socio-demographic segments, a majority of respondents said that the national government was not doing enough to fight corruption. Men, large city dwellers, employees and the

Q22. Do you think the government of your country is doing enough to fight corruption, or not? Base: all respondents

most educated were especially dissatisfied with the government‟s efforts. For instance, 8 in 10 (80%) respondents who had been to university – as op-

posed to a third (33%) of illiterate respondents – were critical about their government‟s fight against corruption. The youngest respondents (15-24 year-olds) more frequently than their older counterparts said that the government was doing enough to fight corruption (36% vs. 20%-25%).

Conclusions Insights South Asia’s Nepal survey revealed three major things. First, some results yield hopes that Nepal is heading for a more prosperous and peaceful future. Secondly, India has a huge impact on the country. Thirdly, Nepalese are ready for stronger regional cooperation. Despite being rather negative about the current economic conditions for which respondents mostly blamed the lack of political leadership and corruption, respondents‟ economic outlook as well as their assessment of the current development of their family‟s living standards were rather optimistic. Moreover, the low level of acceptance of violence as a means to resolve conflicts is of major importance for a country that suffered so much hardship during the long civil war that rocked the country in the recent past. The latest handover of weapons by former Maoist rebels underlines this dominant view that violence is not acceptable to settle conflicts and is one of many necessary steps towards a brighter future for the Nepalese people. The enormous importance of India for Nepal surfaced at several stages of the survey.

Nepalese were

by far more likely to have friends or relatives in India than anywhere else in South Asia and if they travelled in South Asia they most likely had visited their neighbouring country in the South. A majority of interviewees also thought that India had the biggest economic impact on their country. Some respondents felt that China played an even bigger role in this respect, mirroring the latest Chinese in-

24


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey terests to invest in hydropower projects and telecoms. Nevertheless, Nepalese respondents were more than five times as likely to mention India as having the biggest impact on their economy than they were to mention China. Interestingly, despite the fact that India was the most popular and most visited South Asian country, as well as being regarded as the most economically influential country, it was not the top destination for Nepalese if they were free to choose where to move temporarily or permanently –the appeal of the United States was considerably larger. Nepalese were enthusiastic about the prospects of forging closer regional ties in South Asia. Almost every survey participants who had heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) felt that Nepal‟s membership of this association was a good thing. Vast majorities believed that potential advantages of regional cooperation such as more jobs, cheaper imports and better possibilities to export products will be important for them. Yet, most Nepalese realised that achieving SAARC‟s goals will be anything but easy. The arms race between India and Pakistan as well as historic animosities were most often seen as constituting obstacles to establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia. In addition, Pakistan was most often viewed as posing the greatest security threat to the South Asian region. It is clear that South Asian leaders, especially those from New Delhi and Islamabad, will have to step up efforts to deal with these problems, as well as to reduce the threat to security posed by terrorism and crime, which were perceived as the major dangers to the region‟s security. Help and assistance to tackle difficult issues from other parts of the world such as China, the United States, Japan and Europe would probably be welcomed by the Nepalese people. As the survey has shown, these foreign powers were mostly seen in a positive light by respondents offering their views. Finally, one of the most important findings that calls for further evidence-based research in the South Asian region was that public opinion on India was overwhelmingly positive, with 84% of Nepalese having a favourable view of their giant southern neighbour. India was by far the most popular country among Nepalese with Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and the Maldives being viewed positively by only half as many respondents. This finding is in stark contrast to a leading article in The Economist, which claimed that “India‟s relations with the countries that ring it are abysmal”. Nepalese would resent India for having “meddled 7

madly in Nepal‟s internal affairs” in the past . The importance of a positive image of neighbouring countries cannot be overstated when investigating the prospects for increased cooperation in the region. Therefore, getting the right picture of the actual situation is paramount. This is exactly what Insights South Asia’s aims to do - providing more reliable data from this fascinating and diverse region that is needed in order to be able to assess the chances of more regional integration and to highlight people‟s hopes and worries in this regard.

7

The Economist, July 30th 2011, from the print edition: “India and its near-abroad. New humility for the hegemon. Too slowly, India is realising that poor relations with its South Asian neighbours hold back its global ambitions”, http://www.economist.com/node/21524872 25


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Focus on youth For most questions of this survey, the youngest respondents (15-24 year-olds) found it easier to give an answer; the reason for this seems obvious. Literacy rates among the Nepalese youth were much 8

higher than among older respondents . As the Insights South Asia survey found, 6% of 15-24 year-old Nepalese reported to be illiterate (vs. 16% of 25-39 year-olds, 29% of 40-54 year-olds and 41% of respondents older than 54) and 4% said they were literate but had not enjoyed formal education (vs. 14% of both 25-39 year-olds and 40-54 year-olds and 18% of those older than 54). The survey found that the Nepalese youth was more optimistic than older generations about their country‟s future as well as their personal futures. While slightly more than half (52%) of 15-24 year-olds said that the economic situation in Nepal was currently improving, just 36% of the oldest respondents (over 54) felt this way. Furthermore, more than 8 in 10 (83%) of 15-24 year-olds felt that their family‟s living standards were changing for the better at the time of the interview, compared to 70% of over 54 year-olds. Despite this optimism, 15-24 year-olds were twice as likely as over 54 year-olds to say that they would like to move abroad (35% vs. 18%) Young Nepalese more often had a positive opinion about other South Asian countries and countries from other parts of the world. For example, 51% of 15-24 year-olds viewed the United Kingdom positively, compared to 32%-40% across other age groups. In addition, young people were considerably more likely to have heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) (72% vs. 38%-49% across other age groups). Young people were, however, also more likely to see obstacles to regional cooperation – this was the case for all six issues listed in the survey. For instance, 58% of 15-24 year-olds considered language differences as an obstacle to closer regional ties, compared to 35%-49% across other age groups. Young Nepalese regarded terrorism as the number one threat to South Asian security, followed by crime. Respondents aged 15-24 were more inclined to see India as posing a security threat to the South Asian region (17% vs. 7%-9% of other age groups). Yet, as all other age groups, young people considered Pakistan to be overall the biggest danger for the region‟s security. A clear majority (58%) among the 15-24 year-olds would prefer Hindu democracy over a secular democracy (40%) if they were given the choice. Compared to older respondents, however, they were the least likely to want a Hindu democracy and the most inclined to call for a secular democracy. The survey clearly showed that the older the respondent, the more apt he or she was to favour a type of democracy based on Hindu principles: 58% among the 15-34 year-olds, 65% among 25-39 year-olds, 69% among 40-54 year-olds and 73% among those older than 54 years. The youngest respondents were not more liable than older respondents to reject the use of violence to resolve conflicts. Only between the oldest respondents and all other age groups a meaningful difference was seen in that 69% of those older than 54 years said that violence was an unacceptable means to resolve conflicts compared to 79%-86% of other age groups. 8

According to UNICEF statistics dating back to 2004-2008, the youth literacy rate (15-24 years) for Nepalese males was 86%; and 75% for females, for more information see: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/nepal_nepal_statistics.html#77 26


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey Interestingly, the youngest respondents (15-24 year-olds) were more often satisfied with the governmentâ€&#x;s fight against corruption than older respondents (36% vs. 20%-26%). Finally, when comparing different issues that were important to respondentsâ€&#x; personal lives, the youngest respondents placed most importance on education (67% vs. 35%-57% of other age groups). The youngest were comparatively less inclined to mention work and religion/spirituality when compared with older respondents.

27


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Methodology For this Insights South Asia survey Gallup conducted 1,000 face-to-face interviews, in the respondents‟ homes in all parts of Nepal. On average, the face-to-face interviews lasted 23 minutes. Gallup was entirely responsible for the management, design, and control of the survey. For over 75 years, Gallup has been providing information in an objective, reliable, and scientifically-grounded manner. Gallup is not associated with any political orientation, party, or advocacy group and does not accept partisan entities as clients. The identities of all surveyed respondents will remain confidential. Question design The questions of the survey have been developed in close cooperation with the South Asia Democratic Forum, SADF. Translation The questionnaire was developed in English and then translated into Nepalese by a person proficient in both the original and target language. An independent review by a professional translation company confirmed that the questionnaire was translated correctly. Interviewers Gallup selects its interviewers based on experience in survey research studies and conducts in-depth training sessions with local field staff prior to the start of data collection. A training manual is also provided to assist the fieldwork team and to ensure consistency and a structured approach. Sampling and data collection methodology Population estimates are based on data from the latest censuses, key statistics and migration data, as well as on local institutions‟ population and household estimates. All samples are probability-based and nationally representative of the resident population aged 15 and above. The coverage area is the entire country including rural areas and the sampling frame represents the entire civilian population of the abovementioned age group. The sample type used is a stratified three-staged probability sample, with 125 primary sampling units, randomly selected in a proportional manner– with post-stratification weighting to reflect true population proportions. The three stages are the following: First, polling station areas are selected randomly (with a methodology called „probabilities proportional to size‟, PPS), being approximately the size of 200 households, serving as Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) for the national samples. The sample is allocated in fixed-size clusters (typically 8 interviews per PSU) across the sampled polling station areas. Second, households are selected with the help of a standard random route technique starting from a randomly selected landmark within the polling station area. Unless an outright refusal occurs, interviewers make up to three attempts to survey the sampled household. To increase the probability of contact and completion, attempts to contact the household or the eligible respondent are made at 28


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey different times of the day, and where possible on different days. If an interview cannot be obtained at the initially targeted household, a simple substitution method is used. As a last step, respondents are randomly selected within the selected households. If someone answers the door, the selection is performed based on the so-called Kish-grid. Thus, interviewers select the respondents with equal probability within households. The person interviewed must be: 

Aged 15 or older

A permanent resident of the household (he/she only has to live there, we do not care whether he/she is administratively registered as living elsewhere)

The only household member interviewed

Interviewed individually without disturbances or suggestions from anyone else.

There may be cases of severe physical handicap, mental disorder, or senility, which will prevent the respondent from being able to take part in the interview. Detailed sample allocation

Eastern Region

234

Central Region

346

Western Region

198

Mid-Western Region

128

Far-Western Region

94

NEPAL Total

1000

Data weighting Data weighting is used to ensure a nationally-representative sample for each country. First, design weights are constructed to account for disproportional sampling across regions and for the unequal sampling probabilities of individuals as a function of the household size, as residents in large households will have a lower probability of being selected for the sample. Second, post-stratification weights are constructed. Population statistics and reliable consensual estimates are used to weight the data (by region, gender, age, education, economic activity or socioeconomic status). Quality control In 40% of the interviews, the interviewer was accompanied by a supervisor. Quality control back-checks (in person, by telephone or by post) were carried out and documented in a pre-specified form covering

29


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 12% of respondents. Quality control back-checks of respondents involved a short interview with the respondent (whether by telephone or in person). Margin of error The design effect adjusted margin of error is calculated around reported proportions for each country-level data set, assuming a 95% confidence level. The survey results are only valid between the limits of a statistical margin caused by the sampling process. This margin varies based on three factors: 

The sample size (or the size of the analysed part in the sample): the greater the number of respondents, then the smaller the statistical margin will be;

The result in itself: the closer the result approaches 50%, the wider the statistical margin will be;

The desired degree of confidence: the more “strict” we are, the wider the statistical margin will be.

The following example illustrates the principle: 

One question has been answered by 1,000 people;

The analysed result is around 50%;

We choose a significance level of 95 % (this is the level most often used by statisticians).

In this illustrative case, the design effect adjusted margin of error is: (+/- 3.9%) around the observed 50%. As a conclusion: the result for the whole population lies between 46.1% and 53.9%. With sample sizes of 1,000 respondents, the design effect adjusted margin of error for the Insights South Asia survey is +/- 3.9%. Fieldwork period 16 July 2011 – 7 August 2011

30


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

About SADF

31


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

About Gallup Europe THE PREMIER TRUSTED SOURCE IN UNDERSTANDING HOW EUROPEANS THINK AND FEEL Gallup is a global research-based consultancy in applied behavioural economics that helps leaders at every level of business, government and society improve organisational performance by understanding the voice of their constituencies. Gallup has been operating in Europe since 1937. By exploring the opinions and attitudes of citizens, Gallup facilitates the understanding of complex European and world issues and helps decision-makers shape their agendas. Gallup believes that collecting and sharing information is a vital part of policy-making and a key step in empowering citizens. GALLUP IN ACTION IN THE EU & BEYOND With over 75 years of experience, Gallup provides opinion polling, policy-related measurement and consultancy services for both public and private organisations. It can address the general public as well as specific target groups: decision-makers, youth, minorities, etc. Gallup leads in the field of global in-depth surveys, relying on a worldwide network with a proven track record of efficiency and a high level of professionalism. MAKING SENSE OF OPINIONS & FEELINGS As a pioneer in applied social research, Gallup measures citizens‟ awareness and attitudes towards social, political and economic matters. Gallup has also become a champion at assessing the impact of policies, services and media campaigns in all areas. CUTTING-EDGE TECHNIQUES & COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTIONS Offering all standard survey techniques, Gallup‟s tailor-made solutions can be complemented by in-depth statistical analysis and cutting-edge data visualisation tools. A FAST & QUALITY SERVICE With unprecedented speed of delivery, Gallup serves all stakeholder groups ranging from national governments and European institutions to business, media, civil society organisations and academia. Gallup strictly complies with ISO norms, ESOMAR and WAPOR standards, and takes pride in a reputation for reliability, accountability and transparency at all levels. CONTACT: GALLUP EUROPE Avenue Michel-Ange 70 1000 Brussels Belgium Tel: +32.2.734.54.18

contact@gallup-europe.be www.gallup.com/europe www.gallup.com

32


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Annex tables TABLE 1: Most important factors to Nepalese– First response ................................................................................................ 35 TABLE 2: Most important factors to Nepalese – Second response .......................................................................................... 36 TABLE 3: Friends and relatives living in another South Asian country................................................................................. 37 TABLE 4: Where do friends and relatives live? ................................................................................................................................ 38 TABLE 5: Having visited another South Asian country ................................................................................................................ 39 TABLE 6: Visited South Asian countries .............................................................................................................................................. 40 TABLE 7: Opinions about India ............................................................................................................................................................... 41 TABLE 8: Opinions about Pakistan ........................................................................................................................................................ 42 TABLE 9: Opinions about Afghanistan ................................................................................................................................................. 43 TABLE 10: Opinions about Bhutan ........................................................................................................................................................ 44 TABLE 11: Opinions about the Maldives ............................................................................................................................................. 45 TABLE 12: Opinions about Bangladesh ............................................................................................................................................... 46 TABLE 13: Opinions about Sri Lanka .................................................................................................................................................... 47 TABLE 14: Opinions about China ........................................................................................................................................................... 48 TABLE 15: Opinions about the United States .................................................................................................................................... 49 TABLE 16: Opinions about Russia .......................................................................................................................................................... 50 TABLE 17: Opinions about Japan............................................................................................................................................................ 51 TABLE 18: Opinions about the European Union ............................................................................................................................. 52 TABLE 19: Opinions about the United Kingdom ............................................................................................................................. 53 TABLE 20: Opinions about Germany .................................................................................................................................................... 54 TABLE 21: Opinions about France ......................................................................................................................................................... 55 TABLE 22: Awareness of the

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) .................................... 56

TABLE 23: Evaluation of Nepal's SAARC membership ................................................................................................................. 57 TABLE 24: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Historic animosities ..................................................................................................................................... 58 TABLE 25: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Cultural differences...................................................................................................................................... 59 TABLE 26: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Religious differences ................................................................................................................................... 60 TABLE 27: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Language differences .................................................................................................................................. 61 TABLE 28: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Existing trade regulations ......................................................................................................................... 62 TABLE 29: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Uneven economic development across the region ........................................................................ 63 TABLE 30: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Arms race between India and Pakistan .............................................................................................. 64 TABLE 31: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - More job opportunities in neighbouring countries .......................................................................................................................... 65 TABLE 32: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - More job opportunities in this country ................................................................................................................................................. 66 TABLE 33: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - Better opportunities to export products ....................................................................................................................................................................... 67

33


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 34: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - Cheaper imports ............................ 68 TABLE 35: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - Better transport connections to neighbouring countries ............................................................................................................................. 69 TABLE 36: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - More respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries .................................................................... 70 TABLE 37: Rating of

current economic conditions in Nepal ................................................................................................. 71

TABLE 38: Two main factors preventing better economic conditions – first response ................................................. 72 TABLE 39: Two main factors preventing better economic conditions - second response ............................................ 73 TABLE 40: Current development of economic conditions in Nepal ........................................................................................ 74 TABLE 41: Preferred type of democracy ............................................................................................................................................. 75 TABLE 42: Acceptance of the use of violence to resolve conflicts ........................................................................................... 76 TABLE 43: South Asian countries having the biggest impact on Nepal’s economy ......................................................... 77 TABLE 44: Is there another country in the world that has an even bigger impact on Nepal’s economy?......................................................................................................................................................................................... 78 TABLE 45: Other countries in the world that have an even bigger impact on Nepal’s economy ............................... 79 TABLE 46: Plans to migrate ...................................................................................................................................................................... 80 TABLE 47: Preferred destinations – part 1 ........................................................................................................................................ 81 TABLE 48: Preferred destinations – part 2 ........................................................................................................................................ 82 TABLE 49: Issues that pose the greatest security threat to the South Asian region ........................................................ 83 TABLE 50: South Asian country that poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region ........................ 85 TABLE 51: Is there any other country in the world that poses a greater security threat to the South Asian region? .................................................................................................................................................................... 87 TABLE 52: Other countries in the world that pose a greater security threat to the South Asian region – part 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 88 TABLE 53: Other countries in the world that pose a greater security threat to the South Asian region – part 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 90 TABLE 54: The national government’s fights against corruption ............................................................................................ 91 TABLE 55: Family’s standard of living ................................................................................................................................................. 92 TABLE 56: Development of family’s standard of living over the past five years ............................................................... 93 TABLE 57: Current development of family’s standard of living ................................................................................................ 94

34


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 1: Most important factors to Nepalese– First response

Total N

% Living conditions

% Family

% Education

% Work

% Health

% Law and order

% Religion and spirituality

% Environment

% DK/NA

QUESTION: Q1. Which TWO of the following are most important to you? -First response

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

4.8

25.7

35.9

12.9

12.8

1.1

4.9

1.8

0

487 513

6 3.7

22.7 28.6

36.4 35.4

13.2 12.6

13.3 12.3

1.2 1.1

6.2 3.7

1.1 2.4

0 0.1

15-24

445

3.7

25.4

44.3

8.2

12.6

0.6

3

2.3

0

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

7 4 3.3

25 29.4 24.1

33.6 26.1 16.9

15.4 18.4 18.5

12.1 12 17.9

1.6 0.9 2.8

4 6.8 15.6

1.2 2.4 0.6

0 0 0.5

Illiterate - no formal education

155

5.6

35.6

12.6

28.5

10.2

1.1

5.3

0.7

0.3

Literate - no formal education

99

4.4

34.3

22.6

17.6

9.3

0.4

9.1

2.2

0

School up to 4 years

86

3.9

34.3

33.6

14.6

7.5

0.4

5.7

0

0

School up to 5-9 years

377

3.8

21.7

41.2

8.6

15

2.2

5.2

2.3

0

Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY

227

5.8

21.1

46

9.4

11.5

0.3

3.4

2.5

0

56

7.2

15.5

50.1

1.9

24.5

0

0

0.7

0

Self-employed

371

3.4

25.8

32.4

16.2

15.1

1.4

3.9

1.9

0

Employed

106

7.3

26.5

26.4

22.4

9.9

0.7

5.7

1

0

Student

216

6.8

10.4

61.8

1.3

11.6

1.2

5

1.9

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

4.6 0.7

36.5 26.5

23.7 40.3

14.6 13

12.1 11.3

1.1 0

4.9 8.2

2.3 0

0.2 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

6.1 1.4 0.4 0.9

26.6 21.5 22.5 27.2

36.3 30.7 37.5 37.2

14.1 10.1 12.2 2.2

10.8 21.7 20.1 11.6

1 4 0 0

3.8 6.1 4.1 20.9

1.4 4.5 3.1 0

0.1 0 0 0

271

5.2

28.7

32.2

20.2

7.9

1.5

3.8

0.4

0.2

3

335

6.4

24.9

35.4

13

13.8

0.2

4.3

1.9

0

4

278

3.9

23

37.6

8.7

15.5

2.2

5.8

3.4

0

5-7

115

1.3

27.8

41.9

5.8

14.3

0.7

7.3

0.9

0

URBANISATION

35


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 2: Most important factors to Nepalese – Second response

Total N

% Living conditions

% Family

% Education

% Work

% Health

% Law and order

% Religion and spirituality

% Environment

% DK/NA

QUESTION: Q1. Which TWO of the following are most important to you? -Second response

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

4.8

18

22.4

18.4

24.6

2.2

6.4

2.9

0.4

487 513

5.1 4.5

15.1 20.8

22.1 22.6

19.7 17.1

26.4 22.9

2.3 2.2

6 6.7

3.4 2.4

0 0.8

15-24

445

6.4

15.4

22.8

18.2

28.2

2.2

3.2

3.6

0

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

3.2 3.1 5.2

19.5 18.3 25.9

23.1 21.6 18.3

19.2 17.5 17.6

23.4 18.3 20.6

1.2 5 1.4

7.1 12.2 10.6

2.4 3.6 0

1 0.3 0.3

Illiterate - no formal education

155

8

23.4

14.1

24.4

18

0

9.5

0.3

2.3

Literate - no formal education

99

2.7

17.9

18.1

26.3

28.1

2.3

4.2

0.3

0

School up to 4 years

86

1.4

13

17.4

35.9

19.1

2.6

9.1

0.9

0.6

School up to 5-9 years

377

5.8

16.6

27.2

15.2

22.8

1.8

6.7

3.8

0

Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY

227

2.5

19.2

23.4

9.4

33.4

4.1

2.9

5.1

0

56

6.6

15.6

23.7

18.8

20.6

2.7

9.1

3

0

Self-employed

371

4.3

17.3

20.2

22.6

20.3

2.8

7.9

3.9

0.7

Employed

106

1.2

19

24.5

25.2

18.2

2.8

7.7

0.5

1

Student

216

8.8

15.1

23.3

8

38.4

0.3

1.3

4.7

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

4 2.9

20.6 19.3

24 17.3

17.9 19.3

19.8 39.2

3 1.4

9.1 0.7

1.5 0

0.1 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

4.4 3.4 8.4 6.1

17.8 21.7 13.4 22.3

20.6 29.3 28.7 22.7

20 11.4 17.1 10

25.7 19.6 21.6 22.9

1.3 3.8 4.1 8.9

6.9 6.4 3.8 3.7

2.7 4.3 3 2.5

0.5 0 0 0.9

270

3.8

16.8

19

19.6

30.2

0.2

5.7

4

0.8

3

335

5

18.8

20.7

19.2

23.9

3.3

6.2

2.7

0.2

4

278

5.9

16

25.8

16.4

24.2

2

8

1.2

0.4

5-7

115

3.6

23.7

26.3

17.9

14.5

4.5

4.4

5

0

URBANISATION

36


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 3: Friends and relatives living in another South Asian country QUESTION: Q2. Do you have any friends or relatives living in another South Asian country - that is, in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, or Afghanistan? Total N

% Yes

% No

% DK/NA

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

32.9

66.3

0.8

487 513

34.6 31.3

65.3 67.2

0.1 1.5

15-24

445

30.5

68.2

1.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

34.9 33.9 36.3

64.8 65.6 62.9

0.3 0.6 0.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

24

75.7

0.3

Literate - no formal education

99

31

67.9

1.1

School up to 4 years

86

34.9

65.1

0

School up to 5-9 years

377

35.5

63.9

0.7

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

33

65.3

1.8

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

40.6

59.4

0

Self-employed

371

34.1

65.9

0.1

Employed

106

42.7

57.3

0

Student

216

27.3

71.8

0.9

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

31 46.6

67 53.4

2 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

33.3 22.8 46 24.8

65.8 76.9 53 75.2

0.9 0.3 1 0

271

36.3

62.6

1.1

3

335

30.7

68.4

0.9

4

278

37.4

61.8

0.8

5-7

115

20.4

79.6

0

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

37


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 4: Where do friends and relatives live? QUESTION: Q3. In which South Asian country or countries do they live? Base: those who have friends or relatives living in another South Asian country % of ’Mentions’ shown Total N

India

Pakistan

Bangladesh

Sri Lanka

Afghanistan

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

329

97.8

0.7

2.2

0.5

1.5

169 161

97.9 97.8

1 0.4

2.8 1.5

0.7 0.4

1.7 1.3

15-24

136

100

0

0

0

0

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

114 49 31

96.2 96.3 96.7

2.1 0 0

2.2 0.6 2.4

0.3 0.6 3.7

2.8 3.7 0

Illiterate - no formal education

37

99.1

0

0

0

0.9

Literate - no formal education

31

94.2

2.3

6.5

2.1

1.4

School up to 4 years

30

90.3

0

0

0

9.7

School up to 5-9 years

134

99

0

0.4

0.6

1

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

75

99

2.2

2.3

0

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

23

100

0

13.4

1.3

0

Self-employed

126

95.5

1.3

1

0.3

3.6

Employed

45

100

0

0.6

0.6

0

Student

59

100

0

6.4

0

0

Working in the household Other non-working

79 19

98.2 100

0.9 0

2.5 0

0.4 4.5

0.6 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

252 24 41 13

98 98.8 98.9 89.1

0.3 0 4 0

1.7 0 7.4 0

0.5 1.2 0.7 0

1.3 0 1.1 10.9

98

98.6

0

0

0

1.4

3

103

96.1

1.6

1.4

0.3

3.6

4

104

99.3

0.7

0.3

1.1

0

5-7

24

95.7

0

23.3

1.2

0

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

38


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 5: Having visited another South Asian country QUESTION: Q4. Have you ever visited another South Asian country - that is, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, or Afghanistan? Total N

% Yes

% No

% DK/NA

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

48.1

51.9

0

487 513

62 34.8

38 65.1

0 0.1

15-24

445

33.2

66.8

0

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

59 59.2 65

40.9 40.8 35

0.1 0 0

Illiterate - no formal education

155

36.2

63.5

0.3

Literate - no formal education

99

48.7

51.3

0

School up to 4 years

86

47.8

52.2

0

School up to 5-9 years

377

50.9

49.1

0

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

49.6

50.4

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

54.5

45.5

0

Self-employed

371

56.2

43.7

0.1

Employed

106

70.2

29.8

0

Student

216

29

71

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

40.8 61.3

59.2 38.7

0 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

45.8 41.6 61.9 70.2

54.2 58.4 38.1 28.9

0 0 0 0.9

271

43.4

56.4

0.2

3

335

46.7

53.3

0

4

278

51.4

48.6

0

5-7

115

54.4

45.6

0

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

39


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 6: Visited South Asian countries QUESTION: Q5. Which South Asian country or countries have you visited? Base: those who visited another South Asian country % of ’Mentions’ shown, note that shares can sum up to more than 100%, because certain respondents have visited more than one South Asian country Total N

India

Pakistan

Bangladesh

Bhutan

Sri Lanka

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

481

99.9

0.5

1.1

1.3

0.1

302 179

99.8 100

0.8 0

1.6 0.3

2 0.2

0.1 0

15-24

148

100

0

0

0

0

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

192 85 55

100 100 99.2

0.9 0 1.4

0.5 3.4 2.8

0.7 1 7.3

0 0 0.5

Illiterate - no formal education

56

100

0

0

0.5

0

Literate - no formal education

48

99.1

0

2.2

2.2

0

School up to 4 years

41

100

0

0

0

0

School up to 5-9 years

192

100

0

0.6

1.9

0

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

113

100

1.5

2.2

0

0.3

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

31

100

2.5

2.2

3.7

0

Self-employed

208

99.8

1.2

1.3

1.9

0

Employed

74

100

0

3.3

0.6

0

Student

63

100

0

0

0

0

Working in the household Other non-working

103 25

100 100

0 0

0 0

0.3 3.3

0 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

346 43 56 36

99.9 100 100 100

0 1.8 2.9 0

0.7 2.9 3.4 0

1.5 2.7 0 0

0 0.7 0 0

118

100

0

1.3

2

0.2

3

157

99.7

1.5

0.2

1.2

0

4

143

100

0

1.3

0.4

0

5-7

63

100

0

2.6

2.2

0

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

40


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 7: Opinions about India QUESTION: Q6A. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? - India

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 84

% Rather negative 8.9

% DK/NA 7.2

487 513

85.7 82.4

11 6.8

3.3 10.8

15-24

445

84.8

10.8

4.4

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

85.7 80.8 78.4

6.7 8.4 7.8

7.6 10.8 13.9

Illiterate - no formal education

155

67.4

6.9

25.7

Literate - no formal education

99

84.3

1.8

13.9

School up to 4 years

86

90.1

5

4.9

School up to 5-9 years

377

88.5

9.2

2.3

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

84.7

13.1

2.2

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

86.4

13.6

0

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY Self-employed

371

85

7.8

7.1

Employed

106

85.8

11.4

2.7

Student

216

84

13.1

2.9

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

82.5 88.2

6.3 5.2

11.2 6.5

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

84.5 81.2 83.3 83

7.7 15.6 12.5 6.6

7.8 3.3 4.2 10.4

271

82.3

6.2

11.5

3

335

81.4

11.4

7.2

4

278

86.2

8

5.8

5-7

115

90.4

9.2

0.4

URBANISATION

41


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 8: Opinions about Pakistan QUESTION: Q6B. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? - Pakistan

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 33.1

% Rather negative 34.4

% DK/NA 32.5

487 513

33.1 33.1

42.7 26.5

24.2 40.4

15-24

445

39.9

35.8

24.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

27.4 30.8 23.4

34.5 30.3 33.7

38.1 38.9 42.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

17.8

14.9

67.3

Literate - no formal education

99

21.5

25.3

53.3

School up to 4 years

86

30.5

27.1

42.4

School up to 5-9 years

377

34.3

39.3

26.4

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

42

45.8

12.2

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

55.3

37

7.7

Self-employed

371

30.1

37

33

Employed

106

40.8

42.6

16.6

Student

216

42.3

40.6

17.1

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

27.7 33.7

23.5 32.5

48.9 33.9

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

28.2 43.1 62.1 34.7

37.7 18.5 18.2 46.3

34.1 38.4 19.7 19

271

23.6

28.7

47.8

3

335

33.3

34.1

32.5

4

278

38.5

34.1

27.4

5-7

115

41.3

49.7

9.1

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

42


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 9: Opinions about Afghanistan QUESTION: Q6C. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? - Afghanistan

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 26

% Rather negative 28.9

% DK/NA 45.1

487 513

27.1 25.1

35.5 22.7

37.5 52.3

15-24

445

33.2

28.7

38.1

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

21.2 20.7 16.1

30.7 25.8 27.8

48.1 53.5 56.1

Illiterate - no formal education

155

10.8

13

76.2

Literate - no formal education

99

13.9

23.3

62.9

School up to 4 years

86

15.5

20.1

64.3

School up to 5-9 years

377

26.9

31.8

41.4

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

36.7

39.1

24.2

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

56.9

35.4

7.7

Self-employed

371

25.3

31.6

43.2

Employed

106

36.2

34.3

29.6

Student

216

32.5

33.6

33.9

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

19.5 20.1

20.8 21.1

59.8 58.8

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

22 22.2 62 30.1

29.8 25 21.8 36.4

48.2 52.8 16.3 33.5

271

15.7

22.7

61.6

3

335

25.7

26.9

47.4

4

278

33.2

30.1

36.7

5-7

115

33.7

46.4

19.9

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

43


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 10: Opinions about Bhutan QUESTION: Q6D. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? - Bhutan

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 40.2

% Rather negative 16.4

% DK/NA 43.3

487 513

47.1 33.6

17.2 15.7

35.6 50.6

15-24

445

45.4

17.2

37.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

39.2 33.8 27.9

12.9 17.2 25.1

47.9 49 46.9

Illiterate - no formal education

155

17

11

72

Literate - no formal education

99

24.2

14.6

61.2

School up to 4 years

86

26

9.5

64.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

38.1

20.8

41

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

61.7

16.7

21.7

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

81.6

14.8

3.6

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY Self-employed

371

38

18.8

43.2

Employed

106

55.8

17.9

26.3

Student

216

48.8

18.4

32.7

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

31.8 33.6

10.5 18.1

57.7 48.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

37.1 37.7 64.6 49

15.9 15.9 16.6 25.2

47 46.4 18.8 25.8

271

28.1

11.1

60.8

3

335

39.3

14.8

46

4

278

43.8

20.5

35.7

5-7

115

62.9

23.5

13.7

URBANISATION

44


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 11: Opinions about the Maldives QUESTION: Q6E. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? – the Maldives

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 39.1

% Rather negative 7.7

% DK/NA 53.2

487 513

44.8 33.8

9.1 6.4

46.1 59.9

15-24

445

47.3

7.4

45.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

34.5 31.1 27.8

9.2 3.6 10.6

56.3 65.3 61.6

Illiterate - no formal education

155

14.7

5.8

79.5

Literate - no formal education

99

16.9

8.8

74.3

School up to 4 years

86

23

8.3

68.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

39.3

7.6

53.1

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

60.4

8.9

30.7

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

82.8

6.5

10.7

Self-employed

371

34.5

10.3

55.2

Employed

106

54.7

7.1

38.2

Student

216

53.8

7.7

38.5

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

29.7 29.5

4.7 4.9

65.5 65.5

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

34.8 41.8 65.2 52.2

7.9 6.6 5 11.6

57.3 51.6 29.8 36.3

271

21.8

3.4

74.7

3

335

39.6

7.4

53

4

278

46.9

8.1

45

5-7

115

59.1

18

22.8

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

45


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 12: Opinions about Bangladesh QUESTION: Q6F. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? - Bangladesh

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 43.5

% Rather negative 8.2

% DK/NA 48.3

487 513

50.7 36.7

8.4 8.1

41 55.3

15-24

445

49.9

8

42.1

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

38.2 39.5 37

9.4 4.9 10

52.4 55.6 53

Illiterate - no formal education

155

17

7

76.1

Literate - no formal education

99

23.7

11.2

65.2

School up to 4 years

86

23.9

6.7

69.4

School up to 5-9 years

377

43.8

8.1

48.1

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

65.3

10.2

24.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

90.9

1.4

7.7

Self-employed

371

42.3

8.7

49

Employed

106

60.6

7.5

31.8

Student

216

52.3

10.4

37.3

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

32 41.9

6.7 3.4

61.2 54.7

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

38.7 45.7 71.4 60.5

8.3 8.5 3.2 14.2

52.9 45.8 25.3 25.3

271

27.3

2.3

70.4

3

335

42.1

10.7

47.2

4

278

48.2

9.3

42.5

5-7

115

73.9

12.1

14

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

46


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 13: Opinions about Sri Lanka QUESTION: Q6G. Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? - Sri Lanka

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 43.3

% Rather negative 7.9

% DK/NA 48.8

487 513

50.7 36.3

9 6.9

40.3 56.8

15-24

445

48

8.7

43.4

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

40.1 41.4 34

7.8 4.6 10.4

52.1 54 55.5

Illiterate - no formal education

155

16.8

6.9

76.2

Literate - no formal education

99

25.3

11.3

63.5

School up to 4 years

86

27.6

3.3

69.1

School up to 5-9 years

377

41.9

8.5

49.6

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

65.8

9.6

24.6

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

90.3

1.4

8.3

Self-employed

371

42.8

8.2

49

Employed

106

65.7

5

29.3

Student

216

47.8

11.2

41

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

33.4 38.2

6.2 6.3

60.4 55.5

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

39.1 49.2 66.5 53.1

7.6 7 8.3 14.7

53.4 43.8 25.2 32.1

271

26.7

2.7

70.5

3

335

45.3

7.7

47

4

278

48.6

8.4

43

5-7

115

63.1

19.7

17.2

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

47


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 14: Opinions about China QUESTION: Q7A. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - China

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 73.6

% Rather negative 5.9

% DK/NA 20.5

487 513

78.8 68.7

6.8 5

14.4 26.2

15-24

445

79.1

7.1

13.9

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

72 65.5 64.9

3.9 6.4 6.5

24.1 28.1 28.7

Illiterate - no formal education

155

33.9

7.4

58.6

Literate - no formal education

99

53.8

8.2

38

School up to 4 years

86

69.3

2.2

28.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

83.5

7.3

9.3

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

90.1

4.2

5.7

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

91.6

1.2

7.2

Self-employed

371

73.1

4.6

22.3

Employed

106

85.7

3.8

10.5

Student

216

85

7.2

7.8

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

62.3 67.6

5.9 13.8

31.7 18.6

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

70.2 85.4 87.2 76.1

6 5.2 3.5 10.6

23.8 9.3 9.2 13.3

271

65.9

2.6

31.5

3

335

69.4

9.8

20.8

4

278

80.1

5

15

5-7

115

88.3

4.3

7.4

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

48


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 15: Opinions about the United States QUESTION: Q7B. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - United States

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 73

% Rather negative 8.2

% DK/NA 18.8

487 513

77.2 69

10.6 5.8

12.2 25.2

15-24

445

77.5

12.3

10.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

75.2 62.4 58.7

2.8 7.7 8.1

21.9 29.9 33.2

Illiterate - no formal education

155

41.2

4.1

54.7

Literate - no formal education

99

58.7

2.1

39.2

School up to 4 years

86

78

5.5

16.6

School up to 5-9 years

377

78.2

11.1

10.7

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

87.2

8.3

4.5

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

85.7

14.3

0

Self-employed

371

73.5

6

20.6

Employed

106

77.9

10.9

11.1

Student

216

83.2

12.1

4.8

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

64.2 67.9

6.6 10.8

29.2 21.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

71.4 77.5 80.2 74.2

6.6 11.9 16.1 9.6

22 10.7 3.7 16.1

271

66

5.7

28.3

3

335

72.3

10

17.7

4

278

75.1

8

16.8

5-7

115

85.8

9.1

5.1

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

49


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 16: Opinions about Russia QUESTION: Q7C. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - Russia

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 31.2

% Rather negative 9

% DK/NA 59.8

487 513

37.9 24.8

11.1 7

50.9 68.2

15-24

445

34.4

10.6

55

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

29.9 28.1 24.7

6.8 8.3 10.5

63.3 63.6 64.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

8.1

5.9

85.9

Literate - no formal education

99

15.7

7.5

76.8

School up to 4 years

86

23.6

5.8

70.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

26.3

12.2

61.5

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

54.3

8.1

37.6

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

73.6

7

19.4

Self-employed

371

27.9

8

64

Employed

106

46.8

10

43.3

Student

216

37.8

13.7

48.5

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

23.3 42.6

6.7 4.3

70 53.1

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

27.2 30.1 57.8 46

8.3 10.5 15.9 4.8

64.5 59.4 26.3 49.2

271

15.8

7.8

76.4

3

335

28.6

10.8

60.6

4

278

37.9

7.3

54.8

5-7

115

58.3

10.9

30.7

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

50


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 17: Opinions about Japan QUESTION: Q7D. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - Japan

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 65

% Rather negative 4

% DK/NA 30.9

487 513

73.7 56.7

3.8 4.3

22.6 39

15-24

445

70.1

5.3

24.6

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

63.8 61.1 49.2

3 1.1 6.4

33.2 37.9 44.4

Illiterate - no formal education

155

24.1

5.1

70.7

Literate - no formal education

99

46.6

2.2

51.2

School up to 4 years

86

70.1

1

28.8

School up to 5-9 years

377

67.7

5.7

26.6

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

87.3

3

9.7

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

93.9

2

4.1

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY Self-employed

371

62

4.2

33.8

Employed

106

85.1

0.4

14.5

Student

216

77.3

6.5

16.2

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

53.2 59.8

2.9 5

43.9 35.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

61.3 70.6 84.5 74.3

4.3 4.4 1.7 2.8

34.4 25 13.7 22.9

271

51.7

1.7

46.6

3

335

65.1

4.3

30.6

4

278

69

4.9

26.2

5-7

115

85.9

6.6

7.5

URBANISATION

51


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 18: Opinions about the European Union QUESTION: Q7E. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - European Union

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 32

% Rather negative 4.8

% DK/NA 63.3

487 513

37.9 26.4

4.7 4.8

57.4 68.8

15-24

445

38.2

4.3

57.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

28.1 28.9 19.9

5 3.4 8.3

66.9 67.7 71.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

5.4

5.6

89.1

Literate - no formal education

99

16.5

6.3

77.2

School up to 4 years

86

12.7

4.3

82.9

School up to 5-9 years

377

31.4

4.9

63.7

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

55.9

2.4

41.7

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

69.6

9

21.4

Self-employed

371

27.8

5.5

66.6

Employed

106

37.8

7.3

54.9

Student

216

47.8

3.5

48.7

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

22.8 36.1

3.6 3.5

73.5 60.4

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

28.2 32.6 55.9 44.9

3.9 6.4 11 2.8

67.9 61 33.1 52.3

271

13.7

2

84.3

3

335

29.8

5.4

64.8

4

278

38.1

6.5

55.3

5-7

115

66.4

5

28.7

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

52


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 19: Opinions about the United Kingdom QUESTION: Q7F. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - United Kingdom

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 43.5

% Rather negative 5.1

% DK/NA 51.4

487 513

51.4 35.9

3.5 6.6

45.1 57.5

15-24

445

50.5

6.1

43.4

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

39.8 37.2 31.5

3.8 5.1 5.1

56.4 57.7 63.4

Illiterate - no formal education

155

13.7

4.4

82

Literate - no formal education

99

24.4

4.8

70.8

School up to 4 years

86

28.4

5.2

66.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

41

6

53

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

74.6

2

23.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

73.1

13.9

13

Self-employed

371

42.1

4.4

53.5

Employed

106

53.6

7.3

39

Student

216

59.8

4.7

35.5

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

27.6 48.9

5.9 3.5

66.6 47.6

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

40.7 51.6 57.9 43.1

3.7 4 13.2 13.3

55.6 44.5 28.9 43.6

271

30

1.3

68.7

3

335

41.3

4.2

54.4

4

278

49.3

9.1

41.6

5-7

115

66.8

7.1

26.1

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

53


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 20: Opinions about Germany QUESTION: Q7G. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - Germany

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 45.7

% Rather negative 4.6

% DK/NA 49.7

487 513

51 40.6

5.5 3.8

43.4 55.6

15-24

445

53.5

4.8

41.6

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

41.7 39 31.2

3.8 4.6 6.6

54.4 56.4 62.2

Illiterate - no formal education

155

12.5

4.5

83

Literate - no formal education

99

23.1

4.9

72

School up to 4 years

86

35.3

4.5

60.3

School up to 5-9 years

377

46.1

5.5

48.5

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

70.9

4.2

24.8

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

88.4

0.7

10.9

Self-employed

371

39.8

5.5

54.7

Employed

106

59.9

4.6

35.5

Student

216

63.4

5

31.6

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

33.5 51.9

2.9 5.5

63.6 42.6

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

41.5 47.6 66 68.4

4.5 4.8 3.9 7.6

54 47.6 30.2 24

271

31.9

2

66.1

3

335

44.8

3

52.2

4

278

52.7

5.6

41.8

5-7

115

63.5

13.2

23.3

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

54


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 21: Opinions about France QUESTION: Q7H. And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world - do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? - France

Total N 1000

% Rather positive 46.1

% Rather negative 4.2

% DK/NA 49.7

487 513

54.5 38.2

3.4 5

42.1 56.8

15-24

445

56.3

4

39.7

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

39.6 39.7 29

4.9 2.2 6

55.5 58 65.1

Illiterate - no formal education

155

11.4

4.2

84.5

Literate - no formal education

99

23.9

4.8

71.2

School up to 4 years

86

36.1

5.4

58.6

School up to 5-9 years

377

43.8

4.2

52

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

76.5

4.1

19.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

89.8

1.6

8.6

Self-employed

371

38.3

4.9

56.8

Employed

106

59.1

8.2

32.7

Student

216

68.3

3

28.7

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

33.3 54.2

2.6 3.5

64.1 42.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

42 49.3 65.2 67.3

3.7 5.5 7.7 2.8

54.2 45.2 27.2 29.8

271

28.6

2.6

68.8

3

335

44.6

4.1

51.4

4

278

56.1

3.7

40.1

5-7

115

67.5

9.6

22.9

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

55


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 22: Awareness of the

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

QUESTION: Q8 Have you ever heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? Total N

% Yes

% No

% DK/NA

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

57.1

30.6

12.3

487 513

68 46.8

24.4 36.6

7.7 16.7

15-24

445

71.7

21.9

6.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

45.6 48.9 38.4

38.2 32.9 43.5

16.1 18.2 18.1

Illiterate - no formal education

155

9.9

57.7

32.5

Literate - no formal education

99

21.9

55.6

22.6

School up to 4 years

86

26.6

48.6

24.8

School up to 5-9 years

377

66.3

27

6.7

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

91

8

1

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

97

0

3

Self-employed

371

56.1

30.8

13.1

Employed

106

65.8

27.7

6.5

Student

216

88.8

7.4

3.8

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

29.4 59.8

50.3 31.8

20.3 8.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

53.4 69 73.2 59.2

33.8 21.1 21.5 19.3

12.8 9.9 5.3 21.5

271

43.8

37.6

18.5

3

335

59.9

28.8

11.3

4

278

61.8

29.5

8.7

5-7

115

68.2

22.5

9.3

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

56


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 23: Evaluation of Nepal's SAARC membership QUESTION: Q9 Do you think Nepal's SAARC membership is a good thing or a bad thing? Base: those who were aware of SAARC

Total N 571

% Good thing 98.2

% Bad thing 1

% Neither good nor bad thing 0.1

% DK/NA 0.7

331 240

99.1 97

0 2.4

0.1 0

0.8 0.6

15-24

319

97

1.8

0

1.2

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

149 70 33

100 99.1 100

0 0 0

0 0.4 0

0 0.5 0

Illiterate - no formal education

15

100

0

0

0

Literate - no formal education

22

100

0

0

0

School up to 4 years

23

97.2

0

1.3

1.5

School up to 5-9 years

250

96.2

2.3

0

1.5

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

207

100

0

0

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

55

100

0

0

0

208

97.2

1.4

0.1

1.3

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY Self-employed Employed

70

100

0

0

0

Student

191

98.5

1.5

0

0

Working in the household Other non-working

74 25

98 100

0 0

0 0

2 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

404 71 66 30

97.5 100 100 100

1.4 0 0 0

0.1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

119

99

0

0

1

3

201

98.4

0

0.1

1.5

4

172

96.6

3.4

0

0

5-7

79

100

0

0

0

URBANISATION

57


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 24: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Historic animosities QUESTION: Q10A. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Historic animosities Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

57.9

% Not an obstacle 19.3

487 513

60.5 55.3

24.2 14.6

15.2 30.1

15-24

445

63.9

21.9

14.2

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

54.6 53.6 45.8

15.8 17.2 22.6

29.6 29.2 31.6

Illiterate - no formal education

155

37.1

9.9

53

Literate - no formal education

99

32.5

17.8

49.7

School up to 4 years

86

44.8

23.5

31.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

67.1

18.3

14.6

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

72.2

22.7

5.1

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

59.4

33.7

6.9

Self-employed

371

57.5

17.3

25.2

Employed

106

57.5

30.8

11.7

Student

216

71.7

24.2

4.1

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

47.5 56

13.9 15.6

38.6 28.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

55.9 65.3 65.7 57.9

19.8 13.2 18 26.5

24.3 21.5 16.3 15.6

271

50

17.4

32.6

3

335

60

17.7

22.3

4

278

64.1

19.5

16.4

5-7

115

54.9

27.6

17.5

% DK/NA 22.9

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

58


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 25: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Cultural differences QUESTION: Q10B. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Cultural differences Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

41.9

% Not an obstacle 40.3

487 513

43.9 40.1

44 36.9

12.1 23

15-24

445

48

40.3

11.8

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

37.8 42.4 25.2

40.4 36.1 47.7

21.8 21.5 27.1

Illiterate - no formal education

155

23.3

25.5

51.2

Literate - no formal education

99

34.8

30.4

34.8

School up to 4 years

86

37.3

40.6

22.1

School up to 5-9 years

377

47.9

42

10.2

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

52.5

45.2

2.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

30.5

68.1

1.4

Self-employed

371

40.2

42.4

17.4

Employed

106

34.5

56.5

9

Student

216

58

37.7

4.4

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

35.4 37

33.6 37

31 25.9

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

42.1 39.4 44.5 40

37.6 51 48.6 45.3

20.3 9.6 6.9 14.8

271

38.5

32.9

28.7

3

335

47.8

36.9

15.3

4

278

38.4

47.4

14.2

5-7

115

40.9

51.1

7.9

% DK/NA 17.7

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

59


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 26: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Religious differences QUESTION: Q10C. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Religious differences Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

49.6

% Not an obstacle 34.2

487 513

54 45.4

34.6 33.8

11.4 20.7

15-24

445

54.3

33.8

11.8

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

46.6 49.8 36.2

33.3 32.8 41.9

20.1 17.4 21.9

Illiterate - no formal education

155

28

24.5

47.5

Literate - no formal education

99

45.6

23.7

30.7

School up to 4 years

86

46.7

30.7

22.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

56.8

33.8

9.3

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

58.3

40.5

1.2

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

37.3

61.2

1.4

Self-employed

371

48.9

34

17

Employed

106

47.4

46

6.6

Student

216

60.3

35.4

4.3

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

44.4 42.9

27.9 36.6

27.8 20.5

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

51.4 46.2 46.6 36

30.2 42.8 47.3 52.5

18.4 11 6.2 11.5

271

46.1

28.1

25.8

3

335

54.1

32

13.9

4

278

44.3

42

13.8

5-7

115

57.4

36.2

6.4

% DK/NA 16.2

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

60


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 27: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Language differences QUESTION: Q10D. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Language differences Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

51.7

% Not an obstacle 31.6

487 513

56.1 47.6

32.3 31

11.6 21.5

15-24

445

58.2

29.1

12.7

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

48.7 48.1 35

32.3 33.4 39.7

19 18.5 25.3

Illiterate - no formal education

155

30.8

21.2

47.9

Literate - no formal education

99

46.5

19.7

33.8

School up to 4 years

86

50

27.3

22.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

58

32.4

9.6

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

56.9

42

1

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

57.8

40.8

1.4

Self-employed

371

49.5

33.3

17.3

Employed

106

56.7

36.7

6.6

Student

216

60.5

35.2

4.3

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

47.9 44.1

23.3 34.6

28.8 21.2

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

52.7 42.9 58.9 41.6

28.5 40.5 37.6 49.9

18.8 16.5 3.5 8.5

271

49.2

25.2

25.5

3

335

55.1

29.4

15.5

4

278

52.8

34.2

13

5-7

115

45.4

46.5

8.2

% DK/NA 16.6

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

61


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 28: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Existing trade regulations QUESTION: Q10E. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Existing trade regulations Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

45.2

% Not an obstacle 24

487 513

53 37.8

28.4 19.9

18.6 42.3

15-24

445

51.1

24.5

24.4

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

39.6 42.5 40.8

24.9 21.4 22.9

35.5 36.1 36.3

Illiterate - no formal education

155

21.7

9.6

68.7

Literate - no formal education

99

34.1

12.6

53.3

School up to 4 years

86

26

27.9

46.1

School up to 5-9 years

377

50

24.8

25.2

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

61.6

33.5

4.9

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

60.4

35

4.5

Self-employed

371

40.4

26.3

33.2

Employed

106

56.4

35.2

8.4

Student

216

58.5

26.4

15.2

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

33.9 61.4

16.4 12.1

49.6 26.5

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

44.2 39.2 63.4 40.5

22.8 29.7 22.3 34.2

33 31.1 14.3 25.3

271

41.3

17.4

41.3

3

335

44.5

23.1

32.4

4

278

49.8

27.3

22.8

5-7

115

45.7

33.9

20.4

% DK/NA 30.7

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

62


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 29: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Uneven economic development across the region QUESTION: Q10F. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Uneven economic development across the region Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

52.9

% Not an obstacle 18.1

487 513

62.4 44

20.5 15.9

17.1 40.2

15-24

445

58.4

19.6

22

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

52.3 47.6 35.8

15.2 17.2 22.7

32.5 35.2 41.5

Illiterate - no formal education

155

26.9

7.3

65.8

Literate - no formal education

99

41.4

8.4

50.2

School up to 4 years

86

43.7

9.4

46.9

School up to 5-9 years

377

57.9

21.1

21

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

66.4

26.3

7.3

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

71.1

25.2

3.6

Self-employed

371

49.8

17.8

32.4

Employed

106

64.4

24.4

11.2

Student

216

63.7

25

11.3

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

43.5 57.2

11.1 13.5

45.4 29.3

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

52.7 41.8 67 54.5

17.1 22.7 17.7 24.1

30.2 35.5 15.3 21.4

271

47.1

14.3

38.6

3

335

53.1

16

30.9

4

278

54.7

22

23.3

5-7

115

62.1

23.2

14.7

% DK/NA 29

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

63


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 30: Obstacles in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia - Arms race between India and Pakistan QUESTION: Q10G. Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? Arms race between India and Pakistan Total N

% Obstacle

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

60.4

% Not an obstacle 9.8

487 513

70.3 51

10.8 8.9

18.9 40.1

15-24

445

67.5

11.1

21.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

56.7 54.6 47.4

9.4 7.3 9.5

33.9 38.2 43.2

Illiterate - no formal education

155

24.5

4.7

70.7

Literate - no formal education

99

40.3

4.7

55.1

School up to 4 years

86

52.1

8.5

39.4

School up to 5-9 years

377

67.5

12

20.5

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

80.3

12.1

7.6

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

79.3

11.7

9

Self-employed

371

57.4

9

33.7

Employed

106

72.7

15.3

12

Student

216

78.8

11.7

9.5

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

45.6 49.6

7.8 10

46.7 40.4

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

57.6 58.9 77.9 74

10.1 11.9 5.3 10.3

32.3 29.2 16.8 15.7

271

57.2

3.9

38.9

3

335

58.7

10.7

30.6

4

278

60.1

15.2

24.7

5-7

115

73.2

8.2

18.6

% DK/NA 29.7

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

64


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 31: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - More job opportunities in neighbouring countries QUESTION: Q11A Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? - More job opportunities in neighbouring countries Total N

% Important

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

77.2

% Not important 15

487 513

78.6 75.9

16.5 13.6

4.9 10.5

15-24

445

77.6

16.3

6.1

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

79 75.1 71.9

13.2 17.2 11.3

7.8 7.7 16.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

63.6

14

22.3

Literate - no formal education

99

80.2

7.4

12.4

School up to 4 years

86

76.1

12.5

11.4

School up to 5-9 years

377

78.1

16.8

5.1

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

83.6

15.5

0.8

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

79.4

20.6

0

Self-employed

371

79.8

14.6

5.6

Employed

106

80.4

15.4

4.2

Student

216

81.2

17

1.8

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

68.6 83.8

13.9 11.8

17.5 4.4

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

75.5 83.3 85.1 76.4

15.9 10.4 11.8 16.7

8.6 6.3 3.1 6.9

271

76.2

13.1

10.7

3

335

73.5

18

8.4

4

278

76.6

17.1

6.3

5-7

115

91.7

5.7

2.6

% DK/NA 7.8

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

65


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 32: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - More job opportunities in this country QUESTION: Q11B Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? - More job opportunities in this country Total N

% Important

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

85.9

% Not important 8

487 513

86.8 84.9

8.1 8

5.1 7.1

15-24

445

89.2

7.7

3.1

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

82.9 85.7 79.7

10.2 6.9 3.4

6.8 7.4 16.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

78.6

4.2

17.2

Literate - no formal education

99

86.1

2.1

11.8

School up to 4 years

86

81.3

6

12.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

84.7

12.6

2.7

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

91.3

7.8

0.8

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

97.7

2.3

0

Self-employed

371

87.1

6.9

6

Employed

106

89.8

7

3.2

Student

216

88.1

11.4

0.5

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

79.7 92

8.3 4.6

12 3.4

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

83.3 93.6 94.1 93.9

9.7 4.6 2.8 0

7 1.8 3.1 6.1

271

82.8

7.4

9.8

3

335

86.3

7

6.7

4

278

86.6

10.1

3.2

5-7

115

89.8

7.6

2.6

% DK/NA 6.1

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

66


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 33: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - Better opportunities to export products QUESTION: Q11C Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? - Better opportunities to export products Total N

% Important

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

78

% Not important 11.1

487 513

80.7 75.5

11.3 10.9

15-24

445

82.4

10.1

7.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

73.9 78.6 69.7

14 7.5 11.4

12.1 13.9 18.9

Illiterate - no formal education

155

62.7

11.9

25.3

Literate - no formal education

99

71.8

8.8

19.4

School up to 4 years

86

68.4

12.5

19.1

School up to 5-9 years

377

79.1

13

7.9

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

89.3

9.3

1.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

93.3

4.7

2

Self-employed

371

75.6

12.1

12.4

Employed

106

88.6

9

2.4

Student

216

85.6

11.9

2.6

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

70 90.8

10.6 2.5

19.4 6.7

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

75.5 84.2 90.3 80.4

12.2 8.2 5.4 11.3

12.3 7.7 4.3 8.2

271

69.3

13.4

17.3

3

335

79.9

6.9

13.1

4

278

79.9

14.6

5.5

5-7

115

88.3

9.4

2.4

% DK/NA 10.9 8 13.6

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

67


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 34: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - Cheaper imports QUESTION: Q11D Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? - Cheaper imports Total N

% Important

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

82.4

% Not important 7.8

487 513

84.1 80.7

9.3 6.4

15-24

445

82.7

9.8

7.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

83.3 81 79.5

5.9 8.8 3.7

10.9 10.2 16.8

Illiterate - no formal education

155

68.6

6.1

25.3

Literate - no formal education

99

81.1

2.6

16.3

School up to 4 years

86

68.6

9

22.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

86.5

8.4

5

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

89.3

9.3

1.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

87.9

10.2

2

% DK/NA 9.8 6.5 12.9

ACTIVITY Self-employed

371

81

7.9

11.1

Employed

106

89.9

8.2

2

Student

216

86.1

11.9

2

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

76.9 93.3

5.7 0

17.4 6.7

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

80.4 87.9 86.6 92.5

8.8 3.8 8.8 0

10.8 8.3 4.6 7.5

271

80.5

3.9

15.6

3

335

83.3

6.4

10.4

4

278

83.6

10

6.4

5-7

115

81.3

16.1

2.6

URBANISATION

68


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 35: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - Better transport connections to neighbouring countries QUESTION: Q11E Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? - Better transport connections to neighbouring countries Total N

% Important

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

75

% Not important 11

487 513

79.5 70.8

12.2 9.9

8.3 19.3

15-24

445

77

11.4

11.6

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

74.3 71.3 73.7

11.3 12.2 6.3

14.4 16.5 20

Illiterate - no formal education

155

57.1

7.5

35.3

Literate - no formal education

99

70.1

8.9

21

School up to 4 years

86

62.9

12.4

24.7

School up to 5-9 years

377

76.3

13.7

10

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

87.6

10.3

2.2

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

92.6

7.4

0

Self-employed

371

71.5

12.9

15.6

Employed

106

84.8

11.1

4.1

Student

216

82.6

11.3

6.1

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

68.4 83.8

8.8 9.5

22.9 6.7

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

71.7 83.9 84.8 89.4

11.9 8.9 12.1 0

16.4 7.1 3.1 10.6

271

69.2

9

21.8

3

335

74

10.7

15.3

4

278

77.8

12.9

9.3

5-7

115

84.7

12.3

3

% DK/NA 13.9

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

69


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 36: Importance of various potential benefits of regional cooperation - More respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries QUESTION: Q11F Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? - More respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries Total N

% Important

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

75.4

% Not important 10

487 513

79.8 71.2

10.3 9.7

9.9 19.1

15-24

445

78.1

11.1

10.8

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

74.4 71.5 71.6

10.2 7 8.1

15.4 21.4 20.2

Illiterate - no formal education

155

56.6

7.6

35.9

Literate - no formal education

99

70

7

23

School up to 4 years

86

61.9

8.7

29.4

School up to 5-9 years

377

80.4

8.8

10.9

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

83.3

16

0.8

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

91.9

8.1

0

Self-employed

371

71.6

9.2

19.2

Employed

106

87.3

6.2

6.6

Student

216

82.3

14.7

3

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

69.3 83.8

9.3 7

21.3 9.2

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

72.9 79.8 87.6 81

11.2 5.3 8.1 5.5

15.9 14.8 4.3 13.5

271

73.6

7.3

19.1

3

335

73.1

10.2

16.7

4

278

75.9

12.5

11.6

5-7

115

84.7

9.8

5.5

% DK/NA 14.6

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

70


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 37: Rating of

current economic conditions in Nepal

QUESTION: Q12. How would you rate the economic conditions in this country today?

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

% Excellent 3.1

487 513

3.3 3

17.4 20.4

30.7 28.3

44.8 36.5

3.7 11.9

15-24

445

2.8

19.8

33.1

37

7.2

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

4.5 1.3 2.6

18.9 18.7 15.2

26.2 29.8 22.5

42.9 43.2 45.4

7.4 7.1 14.3

Illiterate - no formal education

155

4.6

24.2

17.3

32.9

21

Literate - no formal education

99

8.9

23.8

17.9

34.1

15.3

School up to 4 years

86

2

28.4

20.9

38.1

10.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

2.8

20.1

33.7

38.1

5.3

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

1.4

11.2

38.5

48

0.9

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

0

5.1

31.8

63.1

0

Self-employed

371

4.8

18.8

26.2

44.8

5.3

Employed

106

3.1

13.5

27.3

52.1

4

Student

216

1.1

14.9

42.7

37.7

3.5

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

2.8 2.5

24.7 21.4

25.8 20.7

30.4 49

16.3 6.4

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

3.3 4.8 1.3 0

21 17 5.9 15.3

27.5 34.6 42.6 25.3

38.9 40.3 49.9 48.2

9.2 3.2 0.3 11.1

271

3.6

25.1

23.4

34.8

13.1

3

335

3

15.7

32.5

42.7

6.1

4

278

3.7

20.3

30.2

39.9

5.8

5-7

115

1.1

10.8

33.6

48.8

5.7

Total N

% Good 19

% Only fair

% Poor

29.5

40.5

% DK/NA 7.8

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

71


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 38: Two main factors preventing better economic conditions – first response QUESTION: Q13. Which of the following are the two main factors preventing better economic conditions in this country? - First response

Total N

% Large population

% Lack of political leadership

% Poorly qualified population

% Bad economic policies

% Crime / Lack of security

% Environmental problems

% Lack of infrastructure

% Corruption

% Trade restrictions in South Asia

% Other

% DK/NA

Base: those who considered economic conditions in Nepal as only fair or poor

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE 15-24

700

14

46.7

6.4

2.6

4.1

1.3

1.1

22.2

0

0.5

1.3

368 333

10 18.3

51.5 41.4

9.5 2.9

2.7 2.5

2.5 5.8

2.2 0.2

1.6 0.6

19.1 25.6

0 0

0.9 0

0.1 2.7

312

19.2

32.2

10.6

2.3

2.9

0.9

1.4

29.2

0

0

1.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education Literate - no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY Self-employed Employed

226 105 58

8.7 14.2 6

61 53.2 57.1

3.3 3.1 1.3

3.6 0.8 3.6

4.4 5.9 5.2

1.3 2 1.6

1.4 0 1

15 17.1 21.4

0 0 0

0 2.2 1.5

1.3 1.5 1.2

78

25.8

39.3

2

1.8

10.8

1

1.3

10.4

0

0.8

6.9

52 51 270 196

5.5 2.7 19 9.4

46 73.5 37.2 55.2

5.8 4.9 7.4 7.9

9.4 0 0.7 3.1

13.8 4.9 3.3 0.5

5.6 1.2 1.7 0

0 0 1.2 1.8

11.9 5.6 28.9 22.1

0 0 0 0

0 1.7 0.6 0

2 5.6 0 0

53

7.2

48.9

4

7.5

0.7

0

0

31.6

0

0

0

264 84

10.5 8

52 49.2

4.9 2.2

2.8 9

3.7 6

2.1 3.4

1.2 0.5

20.2 21.7

0 0

1.2 0

1.4 0

Student Working in the household Other non-working URBANISATION Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2 3 4 5-7

173 142 29

21.5 14.9 11.1

33.1 50.5 49.9

13.2 2.3 13

0.2 2.2 0

0 8 4.8

0 0.2 0

2.2 0 2

29.8 18.2 19.2

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 3.8 0

502 77 83 37

16.1 9.2 9.7 5.3

45 54.6 43.3 60.4

6.5 8.1 1.4 11.9

2.5 1.9 4.8 0

4.6 3.5 0 7.3

0.9 0 5.4 0

1.6 0 0 0

20.7 21.6 35.4 13.9

0 0 0 0

0.6 0 0 0

1.6 1.1 0 1.2

157 252 195 95

10.9 16.3 16.4 8.1

50.5 43.1 42.1 59.2

3.7 8.8 4.3 8.7

3.1 0.8 5.1 1.7

6.4 5.4 2.3 0.3

3.3 1.1 0.3 0

0.9 1.5 1.3 0

20 20.4 26.3 21.4

0 0 0 0

0.4 0.7 0.4 0

0.8 1.9 1.4 0.5

72


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 39: Two main factors preventing better economic conditions - second response QUESTION: Q13. Which of the following are the two main factors preventing better economic conditions in this country? - Second response

Total N

% Large population

% Lack of political leadership

% Poorly qualified population

% Bad economic policies

% Crime / Lack of security

% Environmental problems

% Lack of infrastructure

% Corruption

% Trade restrictions in South Asia

% Other

% DK/NA

Base: those who considered economic conditions in Nepal as only fair or poor and mentioned a factor as a first response

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE 15-24 25-39

691

7.3

17.4

4.8

12.3

11.4

2.9

5.3

36.6

0.3

0.1

1.5

367 324

5.7 9.1

18 16.7

3.4 6.4

13.2 11.3

9.2 13.8

1.9 4.1

5.9 4.7

42.1 30.4

0.1 0.5

0 0.3

0.4 2.7

308 223

9.1 8

19.5 11.7

6.1 4.6

10.2 14.1

11.7 12.3

3.6 2.8

5.6 4.6

31.7 41.4

0 0

0.3 0

2.3 0.5

40-54 55+ EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education Literate - no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY Self-employed Employed Student

103 57

3.1 2.7

22.8 18.3

2 3.5

12.9 16

8.6 11.4

1.6 2.5

8.9 0

36.9 44.5

2 0

0 0

1.3 1.1

72

15.7

10.4

11.2

5.9

14

2.4

6.1

26.2

0

0

8.2

51 48 270 196

9 4.8 7 5.4

19 5.8 21.6 13.5

1.3 3.7 3.9 5.6

12.5 8.2 11.5 17.4

9.7 9.3 14.4 5.2

6.1 2.5 3.8 2

2.9 9.8 4 7.7

39.5 53.3 32.3 42.5

0 1.2 0.4 0.2

0 0 0 0.5

0 1.4 1.3 0

53

5.1

28.8

2.4

10.3

19.1

0

0.7

33.7

0

0

0

260 84 173

3.7 5.6 9.5

18.7 25.1 18.6

4 1.8 4.3

13.4 13 12.4

10.1 2 14.7

2.2 0 5.3

5.2 10.1 3.6

39.9 42.4 29.7

0.2 0 0

0 0 0.6

2.6 0 1.3

Working in the household Other non-working URBANISATION Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2 3 4 5-7

137 29

13.9 0

8.1 17.2

9.7 1

9.6 14.6

16.2 8.1

3.4 2

6.1 0

31.2 55.6

1.1 0

0 0

0.5 1.4

494 76 83 37

9.5 2.2 0.9 3.4

17.3 18.5 20.5 9.4

4.4 5.5 7.8 1.7

11.6 9 15.9 20.4

10.2 10.4 16.7 16.9

3.3 4.8 0 0

5.7 2.3 7.9 0

35.9 47.3 30.3 39.3

0.2 0 0 2.7

0.2 0 0 0

1.6 0 0 6.2

156 248 192 95

8.1 6.9 8.1 5.3

14.5 15.7 22.8 14.9

2.6 4.4 6.4 6.4

11.1 11.6 18.1 4.6

11.5 14.1 9.2 8.6

1.2 3.8 2.3 4.8

13.2 2.9 4.1 1.1

36.5 37.5 28.3 51.8

0 0.8 0 0

0 0.4 0 0

1.4 1.8 0.6 2.4

73


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 40: Current development of economic conditions in Nepal QUESTION: Q14. Right now, do you think that economic conditions in this country, as a whole, are getting better or getting worse?

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

Total N 1000

% Getting better 45

% The same 12

% Getting worse 35.1

% DK/NA 8

487 513

41.9 48

13 11

42.7 27.9

2.5 13.1

15-24

445

52

12.1

28.1

7.7

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

38.6 43.1 36

13 12.1 6.9

40.1 39.1 45.4

8.3 5.7 11.6

Illiterate - no formal education

155

45.3

6.1

23.5

25.1

Literate - no formal education

99

40.8

9.5

34.8

14.8

School up to 4 years

86

33.3

13.8

44.4

8.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

48.4

15.5

32.4

3.8

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

48

9.7

41.4

0.9

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

34.8

15.4

46.1

3.7

Self-employed

371

40.3

8.6

44.6

6.5

Employed

106

28.4

20.8

49.5

1.3

Student

216

54.7

12.2

29.1

4.1

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

50 53.5

13.5 9.3

21.3 27.3

15.1 9.8

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

46.2 50.7 32.8 37.8

11.4 6.4 17.7 22.2

33 39.6 47.7 35.1

9.5 3.2 1.8 4.9

271

47

9.9

30

13.2

3

335

40.8

15.4

37

6.9

4

278

47.3

11.3

35.8

5.6

5-7

115

47.6

8.7

39.6

4.2

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

74


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 41: Preferred type of democracy QUESTION: Q14B. If you were given a choice between a secular democracy or a Hindu democracy in your country, which one would you prefer?

Total N 1000

% Secular democracy 33.7

% Hindu democracy 63

% No preference - Both are good 0.1

487 513

34.9 32.5

62.7 63.4

0.2 0

15-24

445

39.6

57.7

0

0

2.7

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

32 27.5 19.8

65.1 68.7 73.2

0 0.3 0.7

0.4 0.2 0

2.5 3.3 6.3

Illiterate - no formal education

155

24.8

70

0.3

0.2

4.7

Literate - no formal education

99

22

72.7

0.6

0

4.7

School up to 4 years

86

31.1

60.1

0

1.6

7.1

School up to 5-9 years

377

31.8

65

0

0

3.2

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

43.8

56.2

0

0

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

54.4

45.6

0

0

0

Self-employed

371

27.4

68.4

0.3

0.5

3.6

Employed

106

31.9

68.1

0

0

0

Student

216

47.8

51.6

0

0

0.6

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

29.7 44.5

65.1 53.1

0 0

0 0

5.2 2.4

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

29.5 34 52.3 62.2

66.9 61 47.7 37

0.1 0 0 0

0.2 0 0 0

3.2 5 0 0.8

271

33.1

61.9

0.4

0.5

4.1

3

335

33.8

63

0

0.1

3.1

4

278

34.1

63.8

0

0

2.1

5-7

115

33.4

64.3

0

0

2.3

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

% No preference - Both are bad 0.2

% DK/NA 3

0.3 0.1

1.9 4

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

75


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 42: Acceptance of the use of violence to resolve conflicts QUESTION: Q15. Is the use of violence an accepted means of resolving conflicts within your country nowadays? Total N

% Yes

% No

% Depends

% DK/NA

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

10

80.6

0.5

8.9

487 513

11.7 8.3

83 78.4

0.1 0.9

5.2 12.4

15-24

445

10.4

82.3

1

6.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

8.8 8.1 15.3

79.2 85.5 68.9

0 0 0.7

12 6.4 15

Illiterate - no formal education

155

11.9

64.3

0

23.9

Literate - no formal education

99

9

72.9

3.5

14.6

School up to 4 years

86

7.1

78.1

0

14.8

School up to 5-9 years

377

8.2

85.7

0

6

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

13.2

85.9

0

0.9

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

9.6

87.4

3

0

Self-employed

371

8.7

79.4

0

11.8

Employed

106

12.3

82.1

0

5.6

Student

216

10

86.6

0.8

2.6

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

10.4 14.2

77.7 75.3

1.1 0

10.7 10.6

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

9.4 14.5 7.9 12.9

80.7 75.8 87.5 76.6

0.1 1.6 0 5.7

9.8 8.1 4.6 4.8

271

8.6

77.3

0

14.1

3

335

10.5

80.7

0.9

7.9

4

278

8.4

83.8

0.2

7.7

5-7

115

15.5

80.4

1.4

2.6

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

76


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 43: South Asian countries having the biggest impact on Nepal’s economy

Total N

% India

% Pakistan

% Bangladesh

% Bhutan

% Maldives

% Sri Lanka

% Afghanistan

% DK/NA

QUESTION: Q16 .Which of the following South Asian countries has the biggest impact on your country's economy?

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

1000

53

6

1

0.6

0.3

0.2

1.8

37

487 513

63.8 42.8

8.1 4.1

1.2 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.5 0

0 0.3

1.2 2.4

24.7 48.9

15-24

445

58

6.2

1.9

1

0.6

0.3

1.3

30.8

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

49.7 50.6 44.2

6.1 4.6 7.3

0.5 0 0.3

0.1 0.3 0.7

0 0 0

0.1 0 0

3.1 1.3 0

40.3 43.2 47.6

Illiterate - no formal education

155

16.6

5.7

0.2

0.2

0

0

1.3

76

Literate - no formal education

99

48.7

7

0.7

0

0

0

0

43.6

School up to 4 years

86

46.6

2.2

0

0

0

1.4

0.8

49

School up to 5-9 years

377

56

5.3

2.5

0.6

0.7

0.1

1.7

33.1

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

67.8

9.9

0

1.5

0

0

3.5

17.4

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

90.6

0.6

0

0

0

0

2

6.9

Self-employed

371

50.9

7.5

0.7

0.5

0

0

2.2

38.3

Employed

106

64.1

7.4

0

0.4

0

0

1.4

26.8

Student

216

66.9

4.1

2.7

1.2

1.2

0.6

1.5

21.8

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

40.6 59.3

4.3 10.5

0.7 0.7

0.3 0

0 0

0.2 0

2.1 0

51.9 29.5

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

52.2 49.4 66.5 49

6.7 3.4 1.4 10.1

1.3 0.3 0 0

0.7 0.3 0.4 0

0 2.6 0 0

0 1.6 0 0

1.2 3.4 5.7 0

37.9 39.1 25.9 40.8

271

43.3

7.2

0

0.4

1

0

1.9

46.2

3

335

49.4

7.4

0.3

0.7

0

0

1.3

40.9

4

278

58.2

3.4

1.9

0.2

0

0.6

2.8

32.8

5-7

115

73.6

5.6

3.4

1.6

0

0

0.7

15.1

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

77


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 44: Is there another country in the world that has an even bigger impact on Nepal’s economy? QUESTION: Q17A. Do you think there is another country in the world, other than (response in Q16), that has an even bigger impact on your country's economy? Base: those who mentioned a South Asian country that was supposed to have the biggest impact on Nepal's economy Total N

% Yes

% No

% DK/NA

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

629

38.6

42.2

19.2

367 262

44.9 29.9

41.5 43.1

13.6 27

15-24

308

42.4

39.9

17.8

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

195 82 45

34.6 37.1 33

43.1 42.8 53.3

22.3 20.1 13.6

Illiterate - no formal education

37

22.3

48.5

29.2

Literate - no formal education

56

28.2

40.8

31.1

School up to 4 years

44

35.8

47.2

17

School up to 5-9 years

252

33.9

41.4

24.8

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

188

48.4

40.4

11.2

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

52

51.5

45.3

3.2

Self-employed

229

34.1

45.7

20.2

Employed

78

45.6

43.4

10.9

Student

169

52

33.8

14.2

Working in the household Other non-working

122 29

21.2 47.3

44.9 49.6

33.9 3.1

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

469 63 67 30

38 28.6 54.5 33.1

42.7 50.4 33.3 36.6

19.3 21 12.2 30.3

146

33.9

39.4

26.7

3

198

35.4

47.8

16.8

4

187

43.1

40.2

16.7

5-7

98

43.9

38.3

17.8

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

78


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 45: Other countries in the world that have an even bigger impact on Nepal’s economy QUESTION: Q17B. Which one? If there is more than one country, please name the one that you think has the biggest impact overall.

GENDER Male Female AGE 15-24 25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education Literate - no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY Self-employed Employed Student Working in the household Other non-working URBANISATION Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2 3 4 5-7

% United States

% Pakistan

% Bangladesh

% United Kingdom

% Germany

% Japan

% China

% India

% Sri Lanka

% Afghanistan

% Bhutan

% Iraq

% Maldives

% United Arab Emirates

NEPAL

Total N

Base: those who mentioned a South Asian country that was supposed to have the biggest impact on Nepal's economy

243

21

10.2

7.3

0.1

1.2

11.1

38.8

4.1

1.5

2

1.9

0.6

0.1

0.2

165 17.9 78 27.4

11 8.6

8.2 5.4

0.2 0

1.8 0

9.8 13.8

40.4 35.4

5.3 1.5

1.7 0.9

1.9 2.1

0.7 4.5

0.9 0

0 0.4

0.2 0

130 67 30 15

13.4 23.6 37.3 41.9

11.1 11.7 5.6 5.3

10.6 4.6 2.6 0

0 0 0 2

2.2 0 0 0

10.3 11.6 10 18.3

44.5 32.7 32.9 27.6

3.7 6.3 1.4 2

1.9 0 3.4 0

0 5.6 2.1 2.9

2.1 1.6 2.4 0

0 2.2 0 0

0 0 1.1 0

0 0 1.3 0

8

39.7

8.7

0

0

0

3.5

22.4

8.1

0

0

0

17.7

0

0

16

36.3

0

0

1.8

0

0

50.3

4.4

4.4

2.7

0

0

0

0

16 85

23 23.8

18.5 8.6

0 13.6

0 0

0 3.4

22.1 8.5

36.3 39.9

0 1.1

0 0

0 1.1

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

91

14.9

14.2

5.1

0

0

11.8

35.1

8.3

2.8

3.5

3.5

0

0.4

0.4

27

16.4

3.5

5.4

0

0

19.6

47.1

0

1.3

1.3

5.5

0

0

0

78 35 88 26 14

25.1 11.3 10.6 55 25.4

9.6 20.3 9.8 3 5.7

1 16.8 12.5 0 0

0 0 0 0 2.1

0 0 3.3 0 0

11 6.3 15.3 5.4 10.3

41.3 37.7 42.2 23.8 35.4

1.9 5.7 2.3 4.4 21.1

0 1 2.9 2.7 0

4.1 1 0 1.6 0

3.7 0 1.2 2.9 0

1.9 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1.3 0

0.5 0 0 0 0

179 18 36 10

20.1 31.8 14.4 40.8

8.3 26.6 14.3 0

9.9 0 0 0

0.2 0 0 0

1.6 0 0 0

11.7 2 15.6 0

38.8 29.5 47 25.5

4.6 4.2 0 8.2

0.2 3.8 0 25.5

1.8 0 4.6 0

1.6 2 4.1 0

0.8 0 0 0

0.2 0 0 0

0.2 0 0 0

49 70 80

14.2 13.9 31.4

12 10.5 7.9

12.7 2.5 3.6

0.6 0 0

0 0 3.6

7.3 25.2 5.4

39.4 35.3 41.6

2.9 9.1 2

0 0.5 3.1

1.4 2 0

5.8 0.5 1.3

3 0 0

0 0.5 0

0.8 0 0

43

20.7

12

15.7

0

0

3.1

38.4

1.1

1.6

6.5

0.9

0

0

0

79


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 46: Plans to migrate QUESTION: Q18A. Ideally, if you had the opportunity, would you like to move temporarily or permanently to another country, or would you prefer to continue living in this country?

Total N 1000

% Yes, would move 30.6

% No, would not move 68.8

% DK/NA 0.6

487 513

37.9 23.7

62.1 75.3

0 1

15-24

445

34.8

64.3

0.9

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

30.4 25.7 18.2

69.3 74.3 81.4

0.3 0 0.5

Illiterate - no formal education

155

12.6

87

0.4

Literate - no formal education

99

21.1

75.2

3.6

School up to 4 years

86

33.2

65.9

0.9

School up to 5-9 years

377

36.2

63.8

0

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

34.6

65.4

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

39.8

60.2

0

Self-employed

371

35.2

64.3

0.5

Employed

106

43.3

56.7

0

Student

216

30.4

69.6

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

19.2 35.8

79.5 64.2

1.3 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

29.7 31.1 39.4 28

70.1 67.8 60.6 66.2

0.1 1.2 0 5.7

271

31

68.6

0.4

3

335

27.3

71.6

1.1

4

278

31.3

68.7

0

5-7

115

38.3

61.3

0.4

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

80


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 47: Preferred destinations – part 1 QUESTION: Q18B. To which country would you ideally go?

0 1.3 1.1 0

2.4 4.1

155 99 37

28.5 0 36 0.4 44.7 0

3.7 0 0

0.9 1.6 0 0 0 0

4.1 2 0.9

55+ EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education Literate - no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY Self-employed Employed Student Working in the household

15

Other non-working URBANISATION Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2 3 4 5-7

30

0

19

20.5 1.8

21 28 137 79

30.5 29.7 32.5 36.9

0 0 0 0

22

39.3

0

131 46 66 49

35.9 0.3 22.7 0 29 0 43 0

15

19.3

225 32 35 14

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

84 91 87 44

26.3 0 25.5 0 41.7 0.4 43.6 0

% India

3.1 0

% China

29.7 0 37.9 0.3

% Japan

185 122

% Hong Kong

3.1

% Belgium

0.5 0.8

% Germany

1.9

0.8 0.4

0.1

1.2

9.7

2

19.6

0.2 0

0.8 1.8

11 7.8

1.5 18.5 2.7 21.3

0 0.4 0

1.4 0 0

12 9 4.8

3.7 14.3 0 29.1 0 19.2

% France

32.9 0.1

% United Kingdom

% Pakistan

306

% Bangladesh

% Saudi Arabia

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE 15-24 25-39 40-54

Total N

% Lebanon

% United States

Base: those who would move to another country if they had the opportunity

0 2

0 1

0.8 0.8 1.2 0 0 0

0

0

0

4.1

0

0

0

9.3

3.9

2.8 12.9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5.3

2.2 33.6

0 0 0 10.2 0 0 2.1 0 1.8 0 1.8 0

2.1 0 0.2 7.3

0 0 0 0 0.9 0.9 0 0

0

0

2.2 0 4.4 0

0 3 0 0

0 0 3.7 0

1.1 8.9 4.8 0.9

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

32.2

0

5.9

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0.2

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0.1

0.1 0 0.1 0

0 0 0 0

0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2

0 0 1.5 0 0 0 0 5.5

2.5 4.7 3.4 0

0

1 0.9 0 0 0 0 2.4 0

0 0 0 0 1.4 1.4 2.6 0

1.8

0 4.9 0 34.8 0 4.5 0 40.9 1.1 9.2 2.1 20.9 2.8 16.2 3.6 7.8

0

3.4 0 3.3 0

12.6 5.2

0 0 0 0

0.3 0 0 0

0 0.4 0 0

0

4.9

0

0

2.8 2.4 0.3 17.2 0 9.8 6.2 31.6 0 23.8 4.4 9.4 0 3.8 0 32.8

0 4.1 6.8 27.7 1.6 16.1 0.5 16.9 2.5 6.2 0 17.2 0 14 0 14.7

81


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 48: Preferred destinations – part 2 QUESTION: Q18B. To which country would you ideally go?

% United Arab Emirates

% DK/NA

2 0

2.4 0.4

1.3 3 0 0 1.6 0.5

4 5.9

5 5

1.9 1.7 0 0 2.6 0 0 0.6 2.1 4.1 0.8 0 0 0 3.9 0 0 0 0 0

0 3.2 1.1 0

2.8 0.5 0 0

0 2.7 0 4.9 3.4 0 1.9 0 2.7 5.8 6.5 3.9 0 6.7 6.3 0 0 4.2 11.3 12.9

7.5

0

0

0

2.3

0

9.6

17.2

0

2

0

0

6

3.1

2.1

4.3

6.6 1

0 0

0 0

0 7.1

3.6 7.4

1

Male Female AGE 15-24 25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education Literate - no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY

185 122

3 1.5

3.6 1.2

155 99 37 15

3.6 0.8 1.2 3.7

4.7 0 0 5.1

19

0

0

0

0

0

0

21

2.1

8.2

0

0

0

0

28 137

2 0

0 1

0 2.1

0 0

0 0

79

3.5

1.2

0

22

16.6 18.3 1.3

0

Self-employed Employed Student Working in the household Other non-working URBANISATION Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2 3 4 5-7

131 46 66 49 15

1.1 9.2 2.1 0.9 0

1.8 0 7.7 0 5.3

0 0.6 4.4 0 0

0 0 4 0 0

225 32 35 14

0 0 0.1 0

0 0 0.2 0

0 0 0 0

0 0.1 0 0

84 91 87 44

0 4.1 4.3 0

3.2 0 1.6 9.3

3.3 0.8 0

% Kuwait

2.6

% Zimbabwe

2.4

0 0 1.5 3.2 0

4.7

0

6.1

0

0.9

0

3.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 1.9 4.4 0.5 0 0 0 0 2.3 0 0 0 0.9 0 3.5 0 19.7 0 0 0

6.7 7.2 0 5.1 0

9.1 0.8 0 6.7 0

0 0 0 0

0 0.1 0 0

0 0 0 0.2

0 0 0.1 0

0.1 0.1 0 0

1.6 1 0 3

0 4.8 0.5 0

0 5.5 0 4.4 2.6 2.4 0 10.9 0 0.8 0 0.9 0 0 1.4 0

9.2 4.3 4.4 0

0.5 1.6 7.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 2.6 1.8 3.2

% Switzerland

1.7 1.4 0 1.1 3 0 0 0.5 0 3.3

306

% Qatar

% North Korea

5.1

NEPAL GENDER

% Norway

% Maldives

4.7

% Afghanistan

0.8 2.4 0.2

% Sri Lanka

1.6

% Australia

1.2

% Canada

0.8 0.2 0.7 3.1

Total N

% Malaysia

Base: those who would move to another country if they had the opportunity

0 0.1 0 0

0 0 0 0

3.4 0 0 0 1.7 0.3 0 0 2.3 0 0 0 0.7 0 9.2 0 5.9 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 15.6

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

82


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 49: Issues that pose the greatest security threat to the South Asian region

% Crime

% Rivalry between India and Pakistan

% Rivalry between India and China

% There is no major threat to the region's security

% Other

% DK/NA

20

7.7

3.7

0.6

0.3

13.5

10. 9

14. 6 25. 2

10. 5

5

0.5

0.6

8.1

5.1

2.4

0.7

0

18.7

9.7

3.9

0.6

0.7

9

6.7

2.7

0.4

0

15.3

1000

6.4

Male

487

7.6

Female

513

5.2

15-24

445

5.7

25-39

326

6.1

40-54

144

9.8

55+

85

4.7

Illiterate - no formal education

155

3.5

Literate - no formal education

99

6.6

School up to 4 years

86

5.3

School up to 5-9 years

377

5.4

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

10.1

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

6.9

43

Self-employed

371

6.3

42

Employed

106

7.8

Student

216

7.7

Working in the household

253

3.3

38

6.9

Other non-working

41

14.4

35. 3

7.2

Rural area or farm

756

5.4

Small town or village

103

9

Large city

90

12.7

Suburb of a large city

51

4.6

NEPAL

% Terrorism

% Religious fundamentalism

8.3

Total N

% Nuclear weapons

QUESTION: Q19. Which of the following issues poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Afghanistan)?

39. 5

GENDER 42. 4 36. 8

6

AGE 40. 1 39. 5 40. 5 35. 1

9.1 7.8

21. 3 21. 5

7.5

14

5

4.8

0.9

0

17.5

8.1

18. 4

5.9

4.9

0

0

22.8

1.2

0.8

0.8

0

41

3.8

1.9

0

0

17.9

7.2

4.4

0

0

17

10. 7

5.2

1.1

0

8.9

9.2

3.7

0

0

2.3

7.2

3.7

0

5.2

0

7.7

5.2

0.7

0

14.8

9.7

1.5

0

2.7

3.4

12. 2

5.4

0

0

4.2

3

1.2

1.1

0

22.7

9.9

2.2

0

0

17

8.4

3.7

0.7

0

14.9

3.3

5.8

0

0

10.6

4.4

3.6

0

3.2

4.6

12. 1

0

0

0

13.7

EDUCATION 26. 9 34. 9 31. 9 41. 8 48. 4

5.3 7.5 8.7

20. 5 27. 5 25. 5

6.9

20

10. 6 18. 5

15. 6 15. 5

ACTIVITY

47. 7 34. 7

7.6 9.8 10. 7

15. 7 17. 4 25. 2 23. 7 14

URBANISATION 38. 4 43. 4 38. 4 50. 1

7.4 13. 6 10. 5 7.6

21. 1 14. 4 22. 6 11. 9

FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING

83


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

– using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

271

6.1

3

335

6.6

4

278

7

5-7

115

4.7

28. 4 41. 8 45. 5 44. 9

10. 8 5.2 6.7 15. 8

24. 1 20. 7 18. 9 11. 3

3.9

3.4

1

0

22.3

12. 2

1.9

0

0

11.6

7

2.3

1

1

10.6

5.5

12. 4

0

0

5.3

84


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 50: South Asian country that poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region

% Nepal

% Maldives

% Sri Lanka

1.6

1.8

0.3

1.1

Male

487

14.1

33.2

1.5

1.4

0.7

0.1

Female

513

9.5

22.6

1.6

2.1

0

2

15-24

445

16.6

28.5

2.9

3.3

0.7

1.6

25-39

326

7

28.8

0.3

0.9

0

0.5

40-54

144

9.2

27.1

0.9

0

0

0.7

55+

85

9.1

21.1

0

0.9

0.6

Illiterate - no formal education

155

5.9

10.5

0.5

0.7

Literate - no formal education

99

9.8

20.4

0

School up to 4 years

86

3.1

34.5

School up to 5-9 years

377

15.6

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

12. 1

% DK/NA

% Bangladesh

27.8

% None

% Pakistan

11.8

% Bhutan

% India

1000

NEPAL

% Afghanistan

Total N

QUESTION: Q20. Which of the following South Asian countries poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region?

9.7

0. 4

33.6

GENDER 13. 5 10. 9

13. 1

11. 5 13. 9 10. 9

10. 9

1

11

7.6

0

0.6

1.9

3.5

0.3

0

2.4

7.5

7.4

0

0

0

1.4

5.3

27

3.5

1.9

0

1.2

12.7

36.5

0.5

3.1

1.5

0.8

56

15.1

48.6

1.1

4.3

0

0

Self-employed

371

12.4

26.6

1.5

0.8

0

0.5

Employed

106

7.6

43.3

1.1

2.7

0

0

Student

216

18.7

29

2.7

3.8

1.4

2.7

Working in the household

253

7.8

21.5

1.1

1.3

0

1.2

Other non-working

41

5.9

37.5

0

2.5

1.2

0

Rural area or farm

756

11.3

29

2.1

1.8

0.3

0.6

Small town or village

103

14.3

17.7

0

1.7

1.4

5.4

Large city

90

10.5

34.1

0

3.2

0

0.5

Suburb of a large city

51

15.1

19.1

0

0

0

0

6.4

0. 5 0. 2

21.8 44.6

AGE

9.2 8.1

0. 1 0. 3 0. 8 1. 5

24 39 42.3 47.3

EDUCATION

12. 4 21. 5 19. 2

0. 3 0. 7

11. 4 11. 2 11. 7

0. 3 0. 6

9.6

0

0

76.2 51.6 44.4 26.9 11.1 2.1

ACTIVITY 14. 2 14. 6 11. 1 7.7 20. 3

8.6 9.2 14. 1 8.3 4.4

0. 9 0. 4

34.6 21.1

0

16.6

0

51.1

0

28.1

URBANISATION 8.9 25. 1 21. 5 16. 8

9.7 9.3 7.3 13. 9

0. 3 0. 8 0. 3

24.2

0

35.1

36

22.6

FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means

85


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

a rich family 1-2

271

8.4

21.2

1.3

2.2

0

1.1

3

335

11.3

27

1

2.1

0.9

0.3

4

278

15.1

30.5

1.1

1.3

0.2

2.2

5-7

115

12.9

39

4.7

1.2

0

0.5

8.9

9.1

10. 5 13. 4

10. 6 10. 1

0. 9 0. 3 0. 1

21

7.2

0

46.8 35.9 26 13.4

86


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 51: Is there any other country in the world that poses a greater security threat to the South Asian region? QUESTION: Q21A. Do you think there is any other country in the world, other than (response in Q20), that poses a greater security threat to the South Asian region? Base: those who mentioned a South Asian country that poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region Total N

% Yes

% No

% DK/NA

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

661

40.8

34.8

24.4

378 283

48 31.1

33.9 36

18 32.9

15-24

338

40

34.7

25.3

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

198 82 44

42.8 42 35.4

32.4 35.5 45.5

24.8 22.5 19

Illiterate - no formal education

36

15.7

57.8

26.5

Literate - no formal education

47

32.4

23.2

44.4

School up to 4 years

48

30.4

42.6

26.9

School up to 5-9 years

274

37

35.5

27.5

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

201

48.1

35.4

16.5

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

55

65.5

17.6

17

Self-employed

239

34.7

41.6

23.7

Employed

83

61

26.2

12.8

Student

180

45.5

28.3

26.2

Working in the household Other non-working

124 30

29.4 51.5

37.4 35.6

33.2 12.9

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

481 77 69 33

39.4 27.7 58.3 54.2

36.6 41.6 22.8 18.6

24 30.7 18.9 27.2

141

43.2

32.1

24.7

3

214

38.7

36

25.2

4

205

37.2

36.6

26.2

5-7

100

49.2

32.2

18.6

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

87


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 52: Other countries in the world that pose a greater security threat to the South Asian region – part 1 QUESTION: Q21B Which one? If there is more than one country, please name the one that you think poses the greatest overall security threat to the region.

8.1

0.8

1.6

Female

88

4.3

0

0

15-24

13 5

6.6

1.1

2.1

25-39

85

2.6

0

0

40-54

34

0

0

55+

15

0

0

% Sri Lanka

18 1

% South Africa

Male

22. 1

% India

1.1

% China

% Saudi Arabia

0.5

% Japan

% Lebanon

6.9

% Bangladesh

% United States

26 9

NEPAL

% Pakistan

Total N

Base: those who thought that there was another country in the world that poses a greater security threat to the South Asian region

0.1

3.5

2.5

5.3

0.2

1.9

0

3.4

1.2

6.1

0

1.7

0.5

3.7

5.3

3.7

0.5

2.4

0

5.5

1.6

6

0

2.4

0.5

0.8

3.1

2.7

0

0

0

4

4.5

9.6

0

3.9

0

0

3.3

4.2

2.6

3.8

0

6.3

0

0

0

0

0

0

10. 3

3

0

2.1

0

0

0

0

2.8

0

0

4.6

2.6

3.8

0

1.6

0.4

4.7

2.7

5.4

0

3.4

0

0

0

13. 3

0

0

0

7.5

4.4

2.3

0

3.2

0

5.7

1.7

5.6

0

2

0

0

0

9.9

0

1.8

1.1

1

1.4

2.4

1.1

0

0

0

5.4

3.8

0

0

GENDER 19. 9 26. 5

AGE

15. 4 13. 4

16. 3 34. 5 15. 7 18. 3

EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education

6

22. 6

0

0

Literate - no formal education

15

8.8

0

0

School up to 4 years

15

2.4

0

0

School up to 5-9 years

10 1

7.6

0

2.9

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

96

5.9

1.5

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

36

6.1

0

0

Self-employed

83

5.8

0

0

Employed

51

4.3

0

0

Student

82

10. 9

1.8

3.5

Working in the household

36

3.2

0

0

Other non-working

15

5.4

0

0

Rural area or farm

19 0

5.7

0

1.5

20. 7

0

2.1

2.8

4.6

0.2

1.6

Small town or village

21

21. 4

6.9

0

31

0

0

0

5.3

0

9.7

Large city

40

7.7

0

0

1

13. 4

3.6

9.9

0

0

Suburb of a large city

18

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.9

0

0

0 21. 6 17. 1 19. 1 28. 6 18. 7

ACTIVITY 26. 8 22. 7 16. 1 22. 1 28. 9

URBANISATION

17. 6 35. 9

88


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

61

7.8

0

0

3

83

8.5

1.8

0

4

76

7.8

0

3.8

5-7

49

1.5

0

0

17. 8 24. 6 26. 8 15. 6

0.7

0

2.4

3.7

0

2.9

0

3.9

1.7

5

0

2.2

0

8.2

4.4

3.5

0.5

1.3

0

0

1

10. 5

0

1.2

89


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 53: Other countries in the world that pose a greater security threat to the South Asian region – part 2 QUESTION: Q21B Which one? If there is more than one country, please name the one that you think poses the greatest overall security threat to the region.

% Afghanistan

% Russia

% Bhutan

% Finland

% Iraq

% Libya

% Maldives

% Nepal

% North Korea

% DK/NA

AGE 15-24 25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION Illiterate - no formal education Literate - no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

% South Korea

NEPAL GENDER Male Female

Total N

Base: those who thought that there was another country in the world that poses a greater security threat to the South Asian region

269

0.3

31.2

0.1

3.3

0.4

8

0.6

0.7

9.4

1.1

0.8

181 88

0.5 0

33.4 26.6

0.2 0

3.8 2.1

0.6 0

8.5 6.9

0 1.9

1.1 0

7.1 14.1

0.8 1.6

1.2 0

135 85 34 15

0 1 0 0

31.8 31.8 27.1 32.2

0 0 0.8 0

3.7 0 7.8 7.6

0 1.4 0 0

5.8 14 4.1 1.9

0.7 0 0 4.1

1.5 0 0 0

13.9 5.1 4.8 3.9

1 0.8 2.2 0

0 1.7 0 4.7

6 15 15 101 96 36

0 0 0 0 0.8 0

12.6 35.4 52.3 31.9 27.7 31.2

5 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 2.9 5.5 2.9 0

0 0 0 0 1.2 0

25.5 7.8 19.3 6.4 4 15.7

0 4.2 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 2.1 0

28 0 3.2 13.6 5 12.9

0 0 0 0.7 1.4 2.1

0 6.7 0 0 1.2 0

ACTIVITY Self-employed Employed Student Working in the household Other non-working URBANISATION Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city

83 51 82 36 15

0 1.6 0 0 0

30.3 35.8 29 32.4 32.2

0.3 0 0 0 0

1.4 4.1 3.5 5.2 5.2

1.4 0 0 0 0

11.4 2.9 10.8 4.7 0

0.8 0 1.2 0 0

0 0 2.4 0 0

2.5 10 7.3 25.5 19

0.8 1.5 1.7 0 0

0.9 2 0 0 0

190 21 40

0.4 0 0

36.5 7.8 19.7

0.2 0 0

0.6 0 0

6.8 13.5 14

0.9 0 0

1 0 0

8.7 2.8 10.5

1.4 0 0.7

1.1 0 0

Suburb of a large city

18

0

29.4

0

3 1.7 1.9 10. 6

0

0

0

0

22.2

0

0

FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2 3 4 5-7

61 83 76 49

0 1 0 0

45 21.6 19.9 47.6

0.5 0 0 0

8.1 0.5 1.5 4.6

0 1.4 0 0

5.8 14.1 4.5 5.6

0 0 1.3 1.3

0 0 0 4

3.4 11.7 14.1 5.6

1.9 0 2.2 0

0 1.7 0 1.5

90


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 54: The national government’s fights against corruption QUESTION: Q22. Do you think the government of your country is doing enough to fight corruption, or not?

Total N 1000

% Yes, doing enough 29.5

% No, not doing enough 54.1

% DK/NA 16.4

487 513

27.9 31

61.8 46.7

10.3 22.3

15-24

445

35.7

49.6

14.7

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

25.4 24.9 20.3

57.7 59.4 54.2

16.8 15.7 25.6

Illiterate - no formal education

155

21

32.6

46.4

Literate - no formal education

99

20.6

51.2

28.2

School up to 4 years

86

28.2

46.5

25.4

School up to 5-9 years

377

36.2

53.6

10.2

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

30.9

67.2

1.8

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

19.8

80.2

0

Self-employed

371

25.8

58

16.2

Employed

106

20.4

69.9

9.6

Student

216

41.9

51.8

6.2

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

28.7 29.8

43.2 56.3

28.2 13.9

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

29.6 34.5 23.7 28.2

51.8 54.5 73 54.1

18.7 11 3.2 17.7

271

28.8

48.8

22.4

3

335

31.6

51

17.4

4

278

29.5

58.1

12.4

5-7

115

25.3

65.3

9.4

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

91


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 55: Family’s standard of living QUESTION: D3. Using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family, how would you rate your family’s standard of living right now?

Total N 1000

% Poor family 6.1

%6 1.3

% Rich family 0.5

%2 20.9

%3 33.5

%4 27.8

%5 9.8

% DK/NA 0.1

487 513

7.7 4.7

21.8 20.1

34 33.1

23.6 31.8

11.4 8.3

1 1.5

0.5 0.5

0.1 0

15-24

445

5.3

18.1

37

27.5

9.9

1.5

0.8

0

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

6.3 7.3 7.9

23.9 18.8 28.4

29.2 37.1 26.1

29.3 24.3 29.4

10.6 9.9 6.2

0.8 1.7 1.4

0 0.4 0.7

0 0.5 0

Illiterate - no formal education

155

8.5

36.4

30.4

21.3

2.4

0.6

0.3

0

Literate - no formal education

99

10.2

28.6

29.2

21.8

8.7

1

0.3

0

School up to 4 years

86

6

26.4

39.7

21.1

6.4

0

0.3

0

School up to 5-9 years

377

5.8

18.6

36.5

28.5

7.9

2.2

0.4

0.2

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

3.9

12.8

30.8

36.9

15.3

0.4

0

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

4

5.4

31.6

24.7

28.2

2.6

3.5

0

Self-employed

371

6.2

21.7

30.7

32.8

8.4

0.2

0.1

0

Employed

106

4.6

22.8

34.7

19.7

13.9

3.6

0

0.7

Student

216

6.7

15

37.9

24.1

13.5

1.9

0.9

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

5.7 5.3

22.7 30.9

32.2 40.6

28.9 16.7

8.4 3.5

1.1 3

0.9 0

0 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

7 3.9 1.3 5.9

23.5 15.5 13.6 7.1

31.6 36.5 35.5 53.3

28.3 28.6 25.2 22.7

8.2 13 19.3 11

1.4 1.3 0.9 0

0 0.5 4.3 0

0 0.7 0 0

271

22.6

77.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

335

0

0

100

0

0

0

0

0

4

278

0

0

0

100

0

0

0

0

5-7

115

0

0

0

0

85.1

10.9

4

0

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

92


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 56: Development of family’s standard of living over the past five years QUESTION: D4. Over the past five years, has your family's standard of living improved, declined, or stayed about the same?

Total N 1000

% Improved 76.9

% Declined 8.6

% Stayed about the same 13.6

487 513

75.5 78.2

10.1 7.1

13.5 13.6

1 1

15-24

445

83.3

5.5

10.7

0.5

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

73.9 70.8 65

10.5 8.8 17.1

14.4 19.2 15.7

1.2 1.2 2.1

Illiterate - no formal education

155

67.5

15.1

16.7

0.7

Literate - no formal education

99

66.1

13.3

18.2

2.5

School up to 4 years

86

69.7

12.7

16.8

0.8

School up to 5-9 years

377

78.7

6.6

13.3

1.3

Secondary/ Higher Secondary Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate ACTIVITY

227

87.1

4.3

8.2

0.4

56

78.9

6.2

14.9

0

Self-employed

371

76.1

10.6

11.4

1.9

Employed

106

82.7

5.8

11.3

0.3

Student

216

82.5

5.6

11.8

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

72.7 63.3

8.1 18.6

18.7 15.2

0.5 2.9

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

78.2 73.4 79.1 60.1

8.3 11.3 6.5 10

12.2 14.4 14.3 30

1.2 0.9 0 0

271

71.3

11.9

15.3

1.5

3

335

75.2

6.1

17.9

0.8

4

278

82

8.9

7.9

1.2

5-7

115

82.2

7.2

10.7

0

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

% DK/NA 1

URBANISATION

93


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

TABLE 57: Current development of family’s standard of living QUESTION: D5. Right now, do you think that your family’s standard of living is getting better or getting worse?

Total N 1000

% Getting better 79.1

% Getting worse 8.6

% Staying about the same 11.5

% DK/NA 0.9

487 513

76.3 81.7

11.3 6

11.5 11.5

0.9 0.8

15-24

445

83.1

8

7.8

1.2

25-39 40-54 55+ EDUCATION

326 144 85

78.3 73.6 70.1

8.9 7.5 12.6

12.4 18.7 15.2

0.3 0.2 2.1

Illiterate - no formal education

155

68.5

12.7

18.1

0.7

Literate - no formal education

99

68.8

10.8

16.9

3.6

School up to 4 years

86

73.3

11.5

15.1

0

School up to 5-9 years

377

83.1

7.7

8.2

1

Secondary/ Higher Secondary

227

86.8

5.4

7.9

0

Some college/ Graduate/ Post graduate

56

76.7

8.4

14.9

0

Self-employed

371

74.2

11.9

11.9

2.1

Employed

106

80.8

8.3

10.9

0

Student

216

86.3

7

6.7

0

Working in the household Other non-working

253 41

80.7 69.1

4.6 15.7

14.4 15.2

0.3 0

Rural area or farm Small town or village Large city Suburb of a large city FAMILY'S STANDARD OF LIVING – using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family 1-2

756 103 90 51

80.4 75.1 78.5 67.4

8.9 11 5.9 4.3

9.7 13.9 15.6 25.5

0.9 0 0 2.8

271

70.5

13.5

15.8

0.3

3

335

75.9

7

16.4

0.6

4

278

87.5

7.3

3.2

2

5-7

115

87.8

5

7.2

0

NEPAL GENDER Male Female AGE

ACTIVITY

URBANISATION

94


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey

Questionnaire 1.

Which TWO of the following are most important to you? 01 Living conditions 02 Family 03 Education 04 Work 05 Health 06 Law and order 07 Religion and spirituality 08 Environment 96 Other 97 (None) 98 (DK) 99 (Refused)

2.

Do you have any friends or relatives living in another South Asian country – that is, in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, or Afghanistan? 1 2 3 4

3.

(Continue) (Skip to Q4) (Skip to Q4) (Skip to Q4)

In which South Asian country or countries do they live? (Do not read response options – Open ended and code) (Allow multiple responses) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 98 99

4.

Yes No (DK) (Refused)

India Pakistan Bangladesh Bhutan Maldives Sri Lanka Afghanistan (DK) (Refused)

Have you ever visited another South Asian country – that is, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, or Afghanistan? 1 2 3 4

Yes No (DK) (Refused)

(Continue) (Skip to Q6) (Skip to Q6) (Skip to Q6)

95


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 5.

Which South Asian country or countries have you visited? (Do not read response options – Open ended and code) (Allow multiple responses) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 98 99

6.

Do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following South Asian countries? (Read and rotate A-G)

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

India Pakistan Afghanistan Bhutan Maldives Bangladesh Sri Lanka

7.

Rather positive

Rather negative

(DK)

(Refused)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

And how about countries (or groups of countries) from other parts of the world – do you have a rather positive or a rather negative opinion about the following countries or groups? (Read and rotate A-H)

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

8.

India Pakistan Bangladesh Bhutan Maldives Sri Lanka Afghanistan (DK) (Refused)

China United States Russia Japan European Union United Kingdom Germany France

Rather positive

Rather negative

(DK)

(Refused)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Your country, together with other South Asian countries, has decided to establish closer political, economic, technological, social, and cultural exchanges in the framework of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The members of the SAARC are Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan. Have you ever heard of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? 1 2 3 4

Yes No (DK) (Refused)

(Continue) (Skip to Q10) (Skip to Q10) (Skip to Q10) 96


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 9.

Do you think Nepalâ€&#x;s SAARC membership is a good thing or a bad thing? 1 2 3 4 5

10.

Good thing Bad thing DO NOT READ (Neither good nor bad thing) (DK) (Refused)

Would you say each of the following IS or IS NOT an obstacle in establishing a more intensive regional cooperation among the countries in South Asia (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan)? (Read A-G)

A. Historic animosities

1

Not an obstacle 2

B. Cultural differences

1

2

3

4

C. Religious differences

1

2

3

4

D. Language differences

1

2

3

4

E. Existing trade regulations

Obstacle

(DK)

(Refused)

3

4

1

2

3

4

Uneven economic development across the region

1

2

3

4

G. Arms race between India and Pakistan

1

2

3

4

F.

11.

A. B. C.

Is each of the following potential benefits of regional cooperation important or not important to you? (Read A-F)

Cheaper imports

E.

Better transport connections to neighbouring countries More respect for ethnic and cultural diversity when visiting neighbouring countries

12.

Not important

(DK)

(Refused)

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

More job opportunities in neighbouring countries More job opportunities in this country Better opportunities to export products

D.

F.

Important

How would you rate the economic conditions in this country today? (Read 1-4) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Excellent Good Only fair Poor (DK) (Refused)

(Skip to Q14) (Skip to Q14) (Continue) (Continue) (Skip to Q14) (Skip to Q14)

97


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 13.

Which of the following are the two main factors preventing better economic conditions in this country? (Read 01-09) (Allow TWO responses) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 96 97 98 99

14.

Right now, do you think that economic conditions in this country, as a whole, are getting better or getting worse? 1 2 3 4 5

14a.

Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied (DK) (Refused)

If you were given a choice between a secular democracy or a Hindu democracy in your country, which one would you prefer? 1 2 3 4 5 6

15.

Getting better DO NOT READ (Staying the same) Getting worse (DK) (Refused)

How much are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the current financial situation in Nepal? Would you say you are (read 1-4)? 1 2 3 4 5 6

14b.

Large population Lack of political leadership Poorly qualified population Bad economic policies Crime / Lack of security Environmental problems Lack of infrastructure Corruption Trade restrictions in South Asia Other (Do not list) (None) (DK) (Refused)

Secular democracy Hindu democracy DO NOT READ (No preference – Both are good) DO NOT READ (No preference – Both are bad) (DK) (Refused)

Is the use of violence an accepted means of resolving conflicts within your country nowadays? 1 2 3

Yes No DO NOT READ (Depends) 98


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 4 5 16.

Which of the following South Asian countries has the biggest impact on your country‟s economy? (Read 1-7) (Allow ONE response) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

17a..

(DK) (Refused)

India Pakistan Bangladesh Bhutan Maldives Sri Lanka Afghanistan (DK) (Refused)

Do you think there is another country in the world, other than (response in Q16), that has an even bigger impact on your country‟s economy? 1 2 3 4

Yes No (DK) (Refused)

(Continue) (Skip to Q18a) (Skip to Q18a) (Skip to Q18a)

17b.

Which one? If there is more than one country, please name the one that you think has the biggest impact overall. (Open ended and code) (Allow one response)

18a.

Ideally, if you had the opportunity, would you like to move temporarily or permanently to another country, or would you prefer to continue living in this country? 1 2 3 4

Yes, would move No, would not move (DK) (Refused)

(Continue) (Skip to Q19) (Skip to Q19) (Skip to Q19)

18b.

To which country would you ideally go? (Open ended and code) (Allow one response)

19.

Which of the following issues poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Afghanistan)? (Read and rotate 01-06) (Allow ONE response) 01 02 03 04 05 06 96 97 98 99

Religious fundamentalism Terrorism Nuclear weapons Crime Rivalry between India and Pakistan Rivalry between India and China (There is no major threat to the region‟s security) Other (Do not list) (DK) (Refused) 99


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 20.

Which of the following South Asian countries poses the greatest security threat to the South Asian region? (Read and rotate 01-08) (Allow ONE response) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 97 98 99

21a.

India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Maldives Sri Lanka Afghanistan Bhutan (None) (DK) (Refused)

Do you think there is any other country in the world, other than (response in Q20), that poses a greater security threat to the South Asian region? 1 2 3 4

Yes No (DK) (Refused)

(Continue) (Skip to Q22) (Skip to Q22) (Skip to Q22)

21b.

Which one? If there is more than one country, please name the one that you think poses the greatest overall security threat to the region. (Open ended and code) (Allow one response)

22.

Do you think the government of your country is doing enough to fight corruption, or not? 1 2 3 4

Yes, doing enough No, not doing enough (DK) (Refused)

DEMOGRAPHICS D1.

Please tell me your age. (Open ended and code actual age)

D2.

What is your highest completed level of education? (Open ended and code) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 98 99

(No formal education) Literate – no formal education School up to 4 years School up to 5-9 years SLC/PCL (Secondary/Higher Secondary) Some college, but did not graduate Graduate/Post graduate – General Graduate/Post graduate – Professional (DK) (Refused)

100


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey D3.

Using a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 means a poor family and 7 means a rich family, how would you rate your family‟s standard of living right now? Poor family 1

D4.

4

5

6

(Refused)

7

8

9

Improved Declined Stayed about the same (DK) (Refused)

Right now, do you think that your family‟s standard of living is getting better or getting worse? 1 2 3 4 5

D6.

3

(DK)

Over the past five years, has your family‟s standard of living improved, declined, or stayed about the same? 1 2 3 4 5

D5.

2

Rich family

Getting better Getting worse DO NOT READ (Staying about the same) (DK) (Refused)

What is your current marital status? (Open ended and code) 1 2 3 4 5 8 6 7

Single/Never been married Married Separated Divorced Widowed Domestic partner (DK) (Refused)

D7.

How many children under 15 years of age are now living in your household? (Open ended and code actual number)

D8.

Which of the following best describes your current work situation? Are you (read 01-06)? (Allow ONE response) 01 02 03 04 05 06 97 98 99

Self-employed Employed A student Working in the household Retired Unemployed Other (Do not list) (DK) (Refused) 101


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey (Interviewer:

Self-employed: This means working for yourself, freelancing, or doing contract work, OR working for your own or your family’s business. Self-employment also includes fishing, doing farm work, or raising livestock for either your own or your family’s farm or ranch. Employed: This means employed by an employer – even minimally like for an hour or more – from whom you receive money or goods.)

[D9] D9.

Could you tell me what your religion is? (Open ended and code) 01 02 03 04 05 06 96 97 98 99

Hinduism Buddhism Islam Kirat Mundhum Christianity Jainism Other (Do not list) (None) (DK) (Refused)

(INTERVIEWER, please code the following after the interview is finished:)

D10.

RESPONDENT GENDER: 1 2

D11.

Respondent lives in: 1 2 3 6 4 5

D12.

Male Female

A rural area or on a farm In a small town or village In a large city In the suburb of a large city (DK) (Refused)

Interview took place in: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

Kathmandu Rest of Bagmati Bheri Dhawalagiri Gandaki Janakpur Karnali Kosi Lumbini 102


Insights South Asia – Nepal survey 10 11 12 13 14 15

D13.

Mahakali Mechi Narayani Rapti Sagarmatha Seti

During the interview, the respondent was: 1 2 3

Alone with the interviewer for the entire interview With one adult family member or adult friend in the room With several adult family members or adult friends in the room

103

Insights South Asia - Nepal Survey 2011 Results  

Nepal Survey 2011 Results

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