IMPRESSIONIST & MODERN ART EVENING SALE London 22 june 2010
I N T E R N AT I O N A L I M P R E S S I O N I S T & M O D E R N A RT D E PA RT M E N T MelanieClore Deputy Chairman Sotheby’s Europe Co-Chairman Impressionist & Modern Art Worldwide HelenaNewman Vice Chairman Impressionist & Modern Art Worldwide Director of Evening Sales London PhilipHook Senior Specialist Europe DavidC.Norman Co-Chairman Impressionist & Modern Art Worldwide StephaneCosmanConnery Executive Vice President Worldwide Director of Private Sales Impressionist & Modern Art North America CharlesS.Moffett Vice Chairman Impressionist, Modern & Contemporary Art Worldwide EmmanuelDi-Donna Vice Chairman Impressionist & Modern Art Worldwide Director of Evening Sales New York SimonShaw Senior Vice President Head of Department New York AndrewStrauss Vice President Sotheby’s France ClaudiaDwek Senior Specialist Europe
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IMPRESSIONIST & MODERN ART EVENING SALE AuCTIoNINLoNDoNTuESDAY22JuNE2010 I 7PM
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18 André Derain, Arbres à Collioure 14 Henri Matisse, Odalisques jouant aux dames LOT 9 Edouard Manet, Portrait de Manet par lui-même,
FRONT COVER LOT
INSIDE FRONT COVER LOT FRONTISPIECE
en buste (Manet à la palette) (detail) OPPOSITE LOT 11 Claude Monet, Fleurs àVétheuil (detail) INSIDE BACK COVER LOT 26 Pablo Picasso, Buste de Matador BACK COVER LOT 24 Chaïm Soutine, Le valet de chambre (detail)
Picasso and Dora Maar T h R E E W O R k S f R O M A P R i vAT E E u R O P E A n C O l l E C T i O n
The following three works from a Private European Collection (lots 1-3) are beautiful examples of Pablo Picasso’s renderings of his celebrated mistress and artistic companion, Dora Maar (19071997). Picasso’s love affair with Maar was a partnership of intellectual exchange as well as of intense passion, and Maar’s influence on the artist resulted in some of the most daring and most renowned portraits of his career. Picasso met Maar, the Surrealist photographer, in early 1936, and was immediately enchanted by the young woman’s intellect and beauty and by her commanding presence. Although still involved with Marie-Thérèse Walter and still married to Olga at the time, Picasso became intimately involved with Maar by the end of the year, having spent the summer with her and a group of fellow Surrealists. Dora Maar was an artist in her own right, spoke Picasso’s native Spanish, and shared his intellectual and political concerns. She even assisted with the execution of the monumental Guernica and produced the only photo-documentary of the work in progress. As one of the most influential figures in Picasso’s life during this time, she also became his primary model between 1936 and 1944. All three drawings presented here were executed around 1937, in the early days of their relationship, and
they capture the artist’s fascination with the woman’s beauty and the tenderness of his feelings for her. The gentle character of these works would in the following years be replaced by tougher, more dramatic renderings of Dora Maar; as the couple experienced the horrors of the Second World War, living together in occupied Paris, Maar became for Picasso the embodiment of the conflicting emotions and a sense of anxiety and uncertainty of the times. Although their relationship ended in 1945, Dora Maar kept these three works, as well as a number of others received as a gift from Picasso, until her death in July 1997, at the age of 89. The following year these works were sold at the legendary auction of her estate, held in Paris, which included some of Picasso’s most accomplished paintings and works on paper from this period. The following group of drawings is therefore not only a wonderful example of Picasso’s supreme draughtsmanship, but also a unique document of its time, offering insight into one of the most legendary artistic relationships of the twentieth century.
fig. 1, (opposite) Man Ray, Dora Maar, 1936, photograph (detail) Picasso and Dora Maar at Mougins, 1937. Photograph by Roland Penrose
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1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
PORTRAiT DE DORA MAAR PEnSivE dated 28 Janvier XXXVII (upper left) and stamped with the estate mark DM 1998 (lower right) pencil on paper 31 by 40.2cm. 12¼ by 15¾in. Drawn on 28th January 1937. ‡£350,000-450,000
rovenance P Estate of Dora Maar (sold: Piasa, Paris, Les Picasso de Dora Maar, 27th October 1998, lot 10) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E Arles, Musée Réattu, Picasso, dessins, gouaches, aquarelles, 1898-1957, 1957 Paris, Musée Picasso & Melbourne, national gallery of victoria, Picasso - Dora Maar. Il faisait tellement noir, 2006, no. 144, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso, œuvres de 1937 à 1939, Paris, vol. 9, no. 94, illustrated pl. 42 James lord, Picasso & Dora: A Memoir, 1993, illustrated between pp. 120 and 121 'in Praise of gossip', in Art Review, february 1994, illustrated p. 24 The Picasso Project, Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. Spanish Civil War, 1937-1939, San francisco, 1997, no. 37-016, illustrated p. 8 Mary Ann Caws, Dora Maar with & without Picasso. A Biography, london, 2000, illustrated p. 86
A woman of brilliant intelligence and striking features, Dora Maar captured the imagination of a number of artists and was the subject of numerous photographs by Man Ray and lee Miller. in this depiction of Maar in a pensive pose, Picasso pays homage to both her physical and her inner beauty. As James lord described upon meeting Maar in 1944: 'her gaze possessed remarkable radiance but could also be very hard. i observed that she was beautiful, with a strong, straight nose, perfect scarlet lips, the chin ﬁrm, the jaw a triﬂe heavy and the more forceful for being so, rich chestnut hair drawn smoothly back, and eyelashes like the furred antennae of moths' (J. lord, op. cit., p. 31).
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1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
PORTRAiT DE DORA MAAR EnDORMiE dated le 2 Mars 37. and stamped with the estate mark DM 1998 (lower right) pencil on paper 37.6 by 50.8cm. 14¾ by 20in. Drawn on 2nd March 1937. ‡ £400,000-600,000
rovenance P Estate of Dora Maar (sold: Piasa, Paris, Les Picasso de Dora Maar, 27th October 1998, lot 13) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E Munich, Stiftung haus der kunst, Dora Maar, 2001-02, no. 5 Paris, Musée Picasso & Melbourne, national gallery of victoria, Picasso - Dora Maar. Il faisait tellement noir, 2006, no. 143, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Paul Eluard, A Pablo Picasso, geneva & Paris, 1944, illustrated p. 167 Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso, œuvres de 1937 à 1939, Paris, 1958, vol. 9, no. 95, illustrated pl. 42 Jean leymarie, Picasso Métamorphoses et unité, geneva, 1971, illustrated p. 248 Pierre Cabanne, Le Siècle de Picasso, 1975, vol. ii, p. 790 Pierre Daix, La Vie de peintre de Pablo Picasso, 1977, no. 43, illustrated pl. 6 Pierre Daix, La Victime et l'œuvre de Picasso, Paris, 1985, p. 261 The Picasso Project, Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. Spanish Civil War, 1937-1939, San francisco, 1997, no. 37-052, illustrated p. 23
Throughout the years spent with Dora Maar, Picasso would depict her in a variety of ways: from the gentle, digniﬁed images dating from the early stages of their relationship, to the menacing, almost monstrous character of the weeping women series. in the present work Picasso depicts her in the intimate moment of sleeping, portraying the beauty of his model while she in unaware of being observed. The sense of tranquillity that dominates in this composition suggests none of the drama and emotional upheaval of the years that followed.
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1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
PORTRAiT DE DORA MAAR DE PROfil signed Picasso, dedicated Pour Dora Maar and dated 22.11.50. (lower left) and stamped with the estate mark DM 1998 (lower right) pencil on paper 41 by 30.5cm. 16⅛ by 12in. Drawn circa 1937. ‡ £400,000-600,000
rovenance P Estate of Dora Maar (sold: Piasa, Paris, Les Picasso de Dora Maar, 27th October 1998, lot 27) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E Arles, Musée Réattu, Picasso: dessin, gouache et aquarelle, 1957, no. 64, illustrated in the catalogue Paris, Musée Picasso & Melbourne, national gallery of victoria, Picasso - Dora Maar. Il faisait tellement noir, 2006, no. 30, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Roland Penrose, Portrait of Picasso, london, 1956, no. 166, illustrated p. 64 (as dating from 1944) James lord, Picasso & Dora: A Memoir, 1993, illustrated between pp. 120 and 121 'in Praise of gossip', in Art Review, february 1994, illustrated p. 24
The authenticity of this work has been conﬁrmed by Maya Widmaier Picasso. The authenticity of this work has been conﬁrmed by Claude Picasso.
Although this work was executed around 1937, Picasso signed it and dedicated it to Dora Maar on the day of her forty-third birthday, on 22nd november 1950. her beautiful features that Picasso greatly admired – her ﬂowing chestnut hair, straight nose, strong chin, and above all her penetrating eyes – are combined here with a serene, contemplative mood.
Portrait of Dora Maar, Paris, 1956. Photograph by lee Miller, showing the present work on the wall.
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1841 - 1919
MADEMOiSEllE MARThE lE CœuR signed A. Renoir (lower left) oil on canvas 39 by 27cm. 15⅜ by 10⅝in. Painted in 1873. £800,000-1,000,000 €930,000-1,170,000 uS$1,160,000-1,450,000
rovenance P Charles le Cœur, Paris (father of the sitter) hector Brame, Paris David David-Weill, Paris (acquired from the above in 1924) Madame David David-Weill, Paris (by descent from the above) Private Collection, Paris iterature L Paul Dumas, 'Quinze tableaux inédits de Renoir', in La Renaissance de l'art français, July 1924, illustrated p. 368 henri d'Ardenne de Tizac, 'la Collection David-Weill', in L'Amour de l'Art, Paris, January 1925, pl. Xv, illustrated p. 8 La Collection David-Weill, Paris, 1926, vol. ii, pp. 261-263 Douglas Cooper, 'Renoir, lise and the le Cœur family: A Study of Renoir's Early Development. ii: The le Cœurs', in The Burlington Magazine, london, September-October 1959, ﬁg. 37, illustrated pp. 328-329 françois Daulte, Auguste Renoir. Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, lausanne, 1971, vol. i, no. 90, illustrated Elda fezzi, L'Opera completa di Renoir nel periodo impressionista, 1869-1883, Milan, 1972, no. 111, illustrated p. 94 guy-Patrice & Michel Dauberville, Renoir. Catalogue raisonné des tableaux, pastels, dessins et aquarelles, Paris, 2007, vol. i, no. 492, illustrated p. 489 To be included in the Renoir catalogue critique being prepared by the Wildenstein institute from the françois Daulte, Durand-Ruel, venturi, vollard and Wildenstein archives. Mademoiselle Marthe Le Cœur is a stunning example of Renoir's delicate portraits of children, executed with a remarkable elegance and gracefulness. The sitter Marthe le Cœur, later Mme Paul Dupuy, was born in 1865, and was nine years old when Renoir painted this portrait of her. Marthe was the third of four children of Charles le Cœur, the ﬁrst owner of this work, and Marie Charpentier. The family lived in Paris, and in 1873 Charles le Cœur acquired a country home at fontenay-aux-Roses, a small village just south-west of the capital, and it was here that the present portrait was executed. The sitter's father, Charles le Cœur, was an esteemed architect and had met Renoir through his brother Jules, also a painter and a close friend of the artist. Throughout the early 1870s he commissioned Renoir to paint several portraits of him, one of which is now in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris, as well as portraits of his wife and four children. 16
it was paintings such as the present work that gained Renoir his reputation as the ﬁnest portrait painter of the impressionist circle. he often depicted his own sons, Jean and Coco, as well as children of his friends and patrons. The critic Théodore Duret wrote: 'Renoir excels at portraits. not only does he catch the external features, but through them he pinpoints the model's character and inner self' (T. Duret, reprinted in Histoire des peintres impressionnistes, Paris, 1922, p. 27). Depicting Marthe against a neutral background, Renoir brilliantly focuses the viewer's attention on the girl's hair and costume, and particularly on her delicate, yet expressive face. The reﬁned depiction of her eyes and strong gaze, and the hint of rosy cheeks against her pale complexion, imbue this portrait with a wonderful sense of liveliness and character.
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1 8 4 0 - 1 926
l A B E R g E À l A vA C O u R T, n E i g E signed Cl. Monet (lower right) oil on canvas 55 by 74cm. 21⅝ by 29⅛in. Painted in 1879. £1,500,000-2,000,000 €1,750,000-2,330,000 uS$2,180,000-2,900,000
rovenance P A. Bergaud, Paris (sold: galerie georges Petit, Paris, Vente A. Bergaud, 1st & 2nd March 1920, lot 48) M. A. Savard (purchased at the above sale) gadala (circa 1969) Sale: hôtel des ventes, Enghien, 8th June 1980, lot 79 Sale: nouveau Drouot, Paris, 8th December 1982, lot 55 Sale: Sotheby's, new york, 11th november 1987, lot 7 galerie Schmit, Paris Acquired from the above by the present owner in 1988 xhibited E Paris, galerie Durand-Ruel, Tableaux par Claude Monet, 1928, no. 7 (titled La Seine à Vétheuil and as dating from 1873) Paris, galerie Durand-Ruel, Claude Monet de 1865 à 1888, 1935, no. 29 (as dating from 1878) le Mans, Musée de Tessé, Cent ans de peinture moderne de Claude Monet à Arman, 1975 (titled La Seine sous la neige à Vetheuil) Edinburgh, national galleries of Scotland, Monet: The Seine and The Sea 1878-1883, 2003, no. 9, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet. Biographie et catalogue raisonné, lausanne & Paris, 1974, vol. i, no. 513, illustrated p. 337 Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet. Catalogue rasonné, lausanne, 1991, vol. v, p. 33 Marianne Alphant, Claude Monet, une vie dans le paysage, Paris, 1993, p. 302 Daniel Wildenstein, Monet. Catalogue Raisonné, Cologne, 1996, vol. ii, no. 513, illustrated in colour p. 202
This magniﬁcent winter landscape depicts the banks of the river Seine, with a view of the small village of lavacourt. having left Argenteuil in the summer of 1878, Monet and his family moved to this region and settled in vétheuil, situated some sixty kilometres north of Paris. This area was less developed and less industrialised than Argenteuil, and Monet was delighted by the rich, unspoilt nature offered by his new surroundings. The three years that he spent there proved to be very productive, resulting in a number of paintings of both lavacourt and vétheuil, two picturesque villages situated across the river from each other. The present composition is dominated by the main road leading into the village, covered by the shimmering pale blue and white brushstrokes of snow. The receding diagonal line of the street takes the viewer's eye towards the centre of the composition, to a focal point where the lines of houses, the river, the row of trees and the mountains in the background all meet.
Writing about Monet's landscapes and riverscapes executed around the same time as the present work, katherine Rothkopf observed: 'Monet often painted the small village of lavacourt during this period. located on the banks of the Seine near vétheuil, lavacourt appealed to Monet for its location and rural quaintness. he painted at least sixteen views of the town during the fall and winter of 1878-79, and was particularly drawn to the group of buildings in the village that were located next to the towpath along the river. Throughout this series of river views, Monet painted the town from looking both upstream and downstream, and often included a view of the opposite bank. he investigated this motif in both fair and inclement weather during this period' (k. Rothkopf in Impressionists in Winter: Effets de Neige (exhibition catalogue), The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C., 1998-99, p. 104).
Claude Monet, Entrée du village de Vétheuil, l'hiver, 1879, oil on canvas, Museum of fine Arts, Boston
Monet painted his ﬁrst snow scene in honﬂeur in 1865, and returned to this subject again in early 1867, in a series of winter landscapes inspired by a heavy snowfall that winter. fascinated by snow and by the possibilities it offered him as a painter, and attracted by the unique quality of winter light, Monet executed a number of snow-covered landscapes throughout his career. in 1895 he travelled to norway, and was delighted with the scenery and different quality of northern light, resulting in several outstanding paintings. The winter of 1879 was cold and with heavy snowfalls, particularly throughout the months of november and December, and offered Monet plenty of opportunities to produce a number of winter landscapes. During his painting sessions, he depicted his surroundings from various vantage points, sometimes capturing a wider view of the village, with the mountains looming large in the background (ﬁg. 1), and at other times positioning his easel closer to the village, showing the buildings with their characteristic grey-blue roofs (ﬁg. 2).
Writing about Monet's snow scenes, Eliza E. Rathbone observed: 'The impressionists, and above all Monet, determined to record the complete spectrum: deep snow in brilliant sunshine, creating the bluest of blue shadows; snow under a low, gray winter sky that shrouds nature in a single tonality; landscapes so deep in snow that all details are obscured, evoking a silent world; even snow melting along a country road at sunset; or, perhaps most striking, a sky filled with snow falling. Of all the impressionists, Monet painted the largest number of snowscapes and the greatest variety of site, time of day, quality of light, and quality of snow itself. he was not only interested in a relatively traditional conception of a snowy landscape, but he found beauty in unexpected phenomena of winter. he brought to his snowscapes his desire to experiment both with new technique and with formal invention' (E. E. Rathbone, 'Monet, Japonisme, and Effets de neige', in ibid., p. 25).
Claude Monet, La Route à Vétheuil, l'hiver, 1879, oil on canvas, göteborg konstmuseum, göteborg 21
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1 8 24 - 1 8 9 8
SCÈnE DE PlAgE À TROuvillE signed E. Boudin and dated 64 (lower right) oil on panel 33.5 by 55cm. 13¼ by 21⅝in. Painted in 1864. £700,000-1,000,000 €815,000-1,170,000 uS$1,020,000-1,450,000
rovenance P galerie Cadart et luquet, Paris Borniche, Paris (sold: hôtel Drouot, Paris, 3rd & 4th December 1883, lot 14) Private Collection, france Thence by descent to the present owner xhibited E Paris, galerie Raphaël gérard, Retrospective Eugène Boudin, 1937, no. 19 Paris, galerie Schmit, Eugène Boudin, 1965, no. 11, illustrated in the catalogue iterature L georges Jean-Aubry, Eugène Boudin, neuchâtel, 1968, illustrated p. 197 (titled Réunion sur la plage) Robert Schmit, Eugène Boudin, Paris, 1973, vol. i, no. 297, illustrated p. 100
Scène de plage à Trouville is a beautiful early example of Boudin's favourite subject, that of fashionably dressed ﬁgures on the beach of Trouville. having settled in Paris after his marriage in 1863, throughout the 1860s and 1870s Boudin travelled every summer to Trouville, where he had found the inspiration to paint endless variations on the themes most dear to him. Jean Selz wrote: 'What fascinated Boudin at Trouville and Deauville was not so much the sea and ships but the groups of people sitting on the sand or strolling along the beach: ﬁne ladies in crinolines twirling their parasols, pompous gentlemen in top hats, children and little dogs playing on the sand. in the harmony of the colours of the elegant clothes he found a contrast to the delicacy of the skies' (J. Selz, Eugène Boudin, new york, 1982, p. 57).
By the second half of the nineteenth century Trouville had become a fashionable summer retreat for the french aristocracy, and their colourful costumes provided a subjectmatter to which Boudin returned throughout his career. Captivated by the picturesque dress of these elegant society ﬁgures, Boudin rendered them in quick, impressionistic brushstrokes highlighted by bright blue and red tones. What fascinated the artist was the contrast between these densely grouped men and women and the expanses of the sky against which they are depicted. Boudin's interest in capturing the ﬂeeting effects of sunlight on sumptuous fabrics and the effect of a windy day on the ﬂowing garments, so masterfully explored in the present painting, was to have a profound inﬂuence on impressionist artists.
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1 8 6 3 - 1 94 4
vA M P i R E signed Munch (lower right) pastel and crayon on paper 26.7 by 37.3cm. 10½ by 14¾in. Executed circa 1895. ‡ £500,000-700,000
rovenance P utzon-frank, Denmark (1944) Torleif Mørk, Oslo galerie Beyeler, Basel (acquired from the above in 1965) Private Collection, uSA (acquired from the above in 1967. Sold: Sotheby's, london, 4th february 2004, lot 424) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E Copenhagen, Den Frie Udstilling, 1944, no. 207 Basel, galerie Beyeler, Edvard Munch, 1965, no. 16, illustrated in colour in the catalogue (as dating from circa 1900) iterature L Reinhold heller, Edvard Munch's 'Life Frieze': Its Beginnings and Origins, Ann Arbor, 1969, ﬁg. v.25, illustrated gerd Woll, Edvard Munch, Complete Paintings, Catalogue Raisonné, london, 2009, vol. i, no. 373, illustrated in colour p. 359 The image of a man and a woman resignation. The man there rolls and rolls locked in a fatal embrace ranks among into abysmal depths, without will, one of the most iconic subjects of powerless, and he is happy to be able to Munch's art. in 1892, the artist began to roll on with as little will as a stone, yet he realise a series of pictures illustrating an cannot rid himself of the vampire, emotional sequence. This project, which cannot rid himself of the pain, and the Munch eventually titled The Frieze of woman will always sit there, biting Life, was to incorporate all of his major forever with a thousand adders' tongues, work to date. his ﬁrst sequence of works with a thousand poison fangs"' (D. was exhibited in Berlin in 1893 and Buchhart in Edvard Munch – Theme and included a version of this image, fig. 1, Edvard Munch, Vampire, circa 1895, oil on canvas, Variation (exhibition catalogue), exhibited as Love and Pain, referring to Munch-Museet, Oslo Albertina, vienna, 2003, p. 193). the duality and power struggle inherent in the nature of love. Between 1893 and 1895, Munch executed four versions of Munch's friend, the writer Stanislaw Przybyszewski, gave the Vampire in oil (ﬁg. 1), surrounding his embracing couple with a title Vampire to this composition after seeing the exhibition, shadowy aura that emanates from their intertwined bodies. in and it was soon adopted by Munch himself. the present work, Munch has moved the shadow to the right of Dieter Buchhart wrote: 'The title appears to identify the subject the ﬁgures, indicating a source of light coming from the left, clearly: a woman with long, red hair bending over a man, illuminating the woman's bright hair. While Munch himself later sucking the vital power from her victim's body. like a vampire, said that this image was nothing more than 'just a woman she draws strength from the opposite sex and destroys it at the kissing a man on the neck' (E. Munch to Jens Thiis, circa 1933), same time. We ﬁnd this interpretation in a description written the various versions of Vampire caused a sensation among his by Przybyszewski in 1894: "A broken man, and the face of a contemporaries. This intense and psychologically complex biting vampire on his neck... There is something terribly calm subject is now recognised as one of the most powerful and and passionless in this picture; an immeasurable, fatal quality of important images in Munch's œuvre. 24
1840 - 1917
M É D i TAT i O n , g R A n D M O D È l E , v E R S i O n Av E C B R A S inscribed A. Rodin, numbered No. I/I, stamped with the foundry mark FC and inscribed © by Musée Rodin 1982 bronze height: 154.6cm. 60⅞in. Executed in plaster after 1900 and cast in bronze in an edition of 2 between 1921 and 1927, and an edition of 9 between 1977 and 1982. The present work was cast in 1982 by the Coubertin foundry. Ω £1,250,000-1,800,000
Provenance Musée de l'Athénée, geneva (acquired from the Musée Rodin, Paris) Private Collection, uSA iterature L georges grappe, Catalogue du Musée Rodin, Paris, 1929, no. 104, illustration of the smaller version p. 54 Edouard herriot, Rodin, Paris, 1949, illustration of the smaller version pl. 80 henri Martinie, Auguste Rodin, Paris, 1955, no. 31 Robert Descharnes & Jean-françois Chabrun, Auguste Rodin, lausanne, 1967, illustration of the smaller version p. 77 ionel Jianou & Cécile goldscheider, Rodin, Paris, 1967, edition catalogued p. 90 John l. Tancock, The Sculpture of Auguste Rodin, Philadelphia, 1976, no. 19-1, illustration of another cast p. 197 kirk varnedoe et al., Rodin: A Magniﬁcent Obsession, london, 2001, no. 52, illustration of another cast p. 69 Antoinette le normand-Romain, The Bronzes of Rodin, Catalogue of Works in the Musée Rodin, Paris, 2007, vol. ii, pp. 509-514; the present cast listed p. 512 To be included in the forthcoming Catalogue critique de l'œuvre sculpté d'Auguste Rodin being prepared by the Comité Rodin under archive number 2010-3177B.
Méditation is a magniﬁcent example of Rodin's mastery in depicting the human body and the expressive force with which he treats this subject. As is the case with many of Rodin's sculptures of individual ﬁgures, this image was initially designed as part of his The Gates of Hell, the monumental architectural commission that preoccupied the artist throughout the 1880s. Originally conceived for the tympanum of The Gates of Hell, in this work Rodin detached the standing nude from her architectural setting, transforming her into an autonomous three-dimensional ﬁgure, and modifying her features to achieve a dynamic composition. The pronounced contrapposto and the variety of dramatic angles created by the arms demonstrated the artist's debt to Michelangelo's sculpture (ﬁg. 1), while the woman's grecian proﬁle adds a sense of classical beauty. This is one the rare examples of a full scale female ﬁgure in Rodin's œuvre, and its somewhat exaggerated forms give it a highly charged, expressive character. The sharp angles of this imposing ﬁgure had a strong inﬂuence on artists such as Matisse, who drew heavily on Rodin's powerful and dynamic female forms. When working on a marble related to this work, Rodin paid speciﬁc attention to creating a varied texture, which resulted in a dynamic surface. in the bronze version, he intentionally left the seams of the mould visible throughout the composition, as at this time in his career he favoured the modern, dynamic surface that retained the evidence of its creation, rather than the smooth, seamless ﬁnish that denoted a more academic style. The sinuous line of the woman's body, with her head resting on her shoulder, and her closed eyes, suggest a state of sensual, dream-like abandon as much as of meditation suggested by the title of the work. Discussing Rodin's Méditation, John Tancock wrote: 'The subject of Meditation automatically suggested to the academic sculptor, with his classical training, a standing matronly ﬁgure draped in classical garb. To Rodin, however, such personiﬁcations of abstract notions seemed meaningless. he allowed the form he created to suggest its own title, choosing what seemed to be the most appropriate nomenclature for the work through an intuitive understanding of the forces at play within the ﬁgure' (J. l. Tancock, op. cit., p. 194). The image of Méditation went through several stages of transformation. Writing about the armless version of this sculpture, Rodin wrote: 'in it the study of nature is complete, and i have made every effort to render art as complete as possible. i regard this plaster as one of my best ﬁnished, most accomplished works' (quoted in Antoinette le normand-Romain, op. cit., p. 512). The plaster version of the present work is at the national gallery in Prague. Two bronze examples, which are in the Musée Rodin in Paris and in the national Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, were cast in the 1920s by Alexis Rudier. A further nine casts were executed by the Coubertin foundry between 1977 and 1982, and many of them are now in renowned public collections including the Musée Rodin in Paris, the Cantor Art Center at Stanford university, California, fondation gianadda in Martigny and Ohdori-koen Park in yokohama.
Michelangelo, The Dying Slave 1513-16, marble, Musée du louvre, Paris
Edouard Manet P O R T R A I T D E M A N E T P A R L U I - M Ê M E , E N B U S T E
( M A N E T À L A PA L E T T E )
P RO P E RT Y F RO M A N I M P O RTA N T P R I VAT E CO L L EC T I O N
1 8 3 2 - 1 8 8 3
P O R T R A I T D E M A N E T P A R L U I - M Ê M E , E N B U S T E
( M A N E T À L A PA L E T T E )
iloncanvas o 85.5by71cm.33⅝by28in. Paintedcirca1878-79. ‡ £20,000,000-30,000,000
Provenance SuzanneManet,Paris(theartist'swife;bydescentfromtheartist) HermannPaechter,Berlin(acquiredfromtheabovein1899) AugustePellerin,Paris(acquiredby1902) MarquisedeGanay,Paris(acquiredfromtheabovecirca1910) JakobGoldschmidt,Berlin&NewYork(acquiredby1931. Sold:Sotheby's,London,15thOctober1958,lot1) John&FrancesL.Loeb,NewYork(purchasedattheabovesale. Sold:Christie's,NewYork,12thMay1997,lot107) StephenA.Wynn,LasVegas Acquiredfromtheabovebythepresentowner
xhibited E Berlin,GaleriePaulCassirer,Edouard Manet (aus der Sammlung Pellerin),1910 Paris,Bernheim-Jeune,Manet, trente-cinq tableaux de la Collection Pellerin, 1910,no.16,illustratedonthecoverofthecatalogue Munich,ModerneGalerie,E. Manet (aus der Sammlung Pellerin), 1910,no.23 Paris,Muséedel'Orangerie,Manet, 1932,no.65b NewYork,Wildenstein&Co.,Inc.,Edouard Manet,1937,no.25, illustratedincolourasthecataloguefrontispiece NewYork,Wildenstein&Co.,Inc.,Great Portraits from Impressionism to Modernism, 1938,no.21,illustratedinthecatalogue SanFrancisco,PalaceofFineArts,Golden Gate International Exposition, Masterworks of Five Centuries,1939,no.151,illustratedin thecatalogue NewYork,SchaefferGalleries,Self Portraits, Baroque to Impressionism, 1940,no.31 Detroit,InstituteofFineArts,The Age of Impressionism and Objective Realism, 1940,no.26 NewYork,M.Knoedler&Co.,Inc.,Allied Art for Allied Aid, 1940 (notincatalogue) NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt,Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections,1959,no.63 NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections,1960,no.63 NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections,1961,no.48 NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections,1962,no.41 NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings from Private Collections,1963,no.34 NewYork,M.Knoedler&Co.,Inc.,Impressionist Treasures from Private Collections in New York, 1966,no.16,illustratedinthe catalogue NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt, Summer Loan Exhibition, Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture from Private Collections,1966,no.86 Philadelphia,MuseumofArt,Edouard Manet,1966,no.144, illustratedinthecatalogue NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt, New York Collects: Paintings, Watercolors and Sculpture from Private Collections,1968, no.92 NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt,Portrait of the Artist,1972,no.23 NewYork,Wildenstein&Co.,Inc.,Faces from the World of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, 1972,no.40,illustratedinthe catalogue Washington,D.C.,NationalGalleryofArt,Manet and Modern Paris,1982-83,no.1,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Paris,GaleriesNationalesduGrandPalais&NewYork, MetropolitanMuseumofArt,Manet, 1832-1883,1983,no.164, illustratedincolour inthecatalogue(titledAutoportrait à la palette) NewYork,MetropolitanMuseumofArt,Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting,2003,no.160,illustratedincolour inthecatalogue 34
Literature HenriDumont,Manet, Berlin,n.d.,illustrated,p.16 FlorenceFels,E. Manet,Paris,n.d.,illustrated EtienneMoreau-Nélaton,Catalogue manuscrit de l'œuvre de Manet,Paris,n.d.,no.236 ThéodoreDuret,Histoire d'Edouard Manet et son œuvre, Paris,1902, no.245,p.256,illustratedincolouroppositep.146 CurtGlaser,'VonAusstellungenundSammlungen',inDie Kunst, May1910,p.378 JuliusMeier-Greafe,Edouard Manet,Munich,1912,p.253, illustratedpl.149 AntoninProust,Edouard Manet, Souvenirs,Paris,1913,illustratedpl.17 EmilWaldmann,Edouard Manet,Berlin,1923,p.99,no.43, illustrated AdolpheTabarant,'Unehistoireinconnuedu'Polichinelle',in Bulletin de la Vie Artistique,Paris,15thSeptember1923,p.369, illustrated EtienneMoreau-Nélaton,Manet raconté par lui-même,Paris,1926, vol.II,illustratedﬁg.235 PaulJamot,''LaParisienne'deManet:NinaetCabanerse rencontrentauLouvre',inL'Amour de l'Art,Paris,March1927,p.84, illustrated AnthonyBertram,World's Masters, Manet,Paris,1931,illustratedpl.1 AdolpheTabarant,Manet, Histoire catalographique,Paris,1931, p.349,no.299 L'Amour de l'Art,Paris,May,1932,p.147,illustratedﬁg.3 PaulJamot,GeorgesWildenstein&Marie-LouiseBataille,Manet, Paris,1932,vol.I,no.294,cataloguedpp.156-157;vol.II,no.294,ﬁg. 157,illustratedpl.70 PaulColin,Edouard Manet,Paris,1932,p.180,illustratedpl.LXXI AlfredM.Frankfurter,'Manet,FirstAmericanRetrospective',in Art News,NewYork,20thMarch1937,p.24,illustratedincolour onthecover PaulColin,Manet,Paris,1937,illustratedonthefrontispiece AmbroiseVollard,Souvenirs d'un Marchand de Tableaux, Paris, 1937,p.74 RobertRey,Manet,London&Toronto,1938,illustratedp.34 RobertGoldwater,'Artistspaintedbythemselves:Self-portraits fromBaroquetoImpressionism',inArt News,NewYork,30th March1940,illustratedp.13 JohnS.Newberry,'TheAgeofImpressionismandRealism: Detroit'sAnniversaryExhibit',in Art News,NewYork, 4thMay 1940,p.3,no26,illustratedincolouronthecover GotthardJedlicka,EdouardManet,Zurich,1941,illustrated oppositep.126 AdolpheTabarant,Manet et ses œuvres,Paris,1947,p.355,no.320, illustratedp.613 BennoReifenberg,Manet,Bern,1947,illustratedpl.32 MauriceBex,Manet,Paris,1948,illustratedp.88 AntonioBento,Manet no Brazil,RiodeJaneiro,1949,no.15, illustrated SamsonLaneFaison,Jr.,'Manet'sPortraitofZola',inMagazine of Art, May1949,p.167,illustratedﬁg.10
Literature(continued) Jean-LouisVaudoyer,Edouard Manet,Paris,1955,illustratedpl.4 New York Times,25thSeptember1955,p.92 GeorgesBataille,Manet,Lausanne,1955,p.23,illustratedincolour JohnRichardson,Edouard Manet, Paintings and Drawings,London, 1958,p.129,no.71,illustrated 'TheGoldschmidtpicturesatauction',inArt News,NewYork, September1958,p.60 Life Magazine,10thNovember1958,illustrated 'SevenImpressionistPaintings',inThe Connoisseur,December1958, p.194,no.2,illustrated HeinrichSchwarz,'TwoUnknownPortraitsofManet',inGazette des Beaux-Arts,April1959,p.248,illustratedﬁg.1 LeroyC.Breunig,Chroniques d'Art, 1902-1918, par Guillaume Apollinaire,Paris,1960,p.113 JohnRewald,The History of Impressionism,NewYork,1961, illustratedp.404 PierreCourthion,Edouard Manet,NewYork,1962,illustratedin colouronthefrontispiece HenriPerruchot,Edouard Manet,NewYork,1962,illustratedp.77 TheodoreRousseau, 'LoansAccepted',in Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin,October1964,p.68 GeorgeMauner,Manet, Peintre-Philosophe: A Study of the Painter's Themes,Pennsylvania,1965,pp.149-151,illustratedﬁg.94 TheodoreRousseau,'LoansAccepted',in Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin,October1965,p.58 GeorgeHeardHamilton,'IsManetstillModern?',inArt News Annual,1966,p.104,illustratedincolour JohnRichardson,Manet,London,1967,ﬁg.9,illustrated KurtLiebmann,Edouard Manet,Dresden,1968,pp.97&182, illustratedpl.1 PierreSchneider,The World of Manet, New York,1968,p.12, illustratedincolour DenisRouart&SandraOrienti,Tout l'œuvre peint de Manet,Paris, 1970,p.110,no.274,illustratedincolourpl.XLVIII RenéHuyghe,L'Impressionnisme,Paris,1971,illustratedincolourp.109 GermainBazin,Edouard Manet,Milan,1972,illustratedp.2 GeorgeMauner,Manet, a study of the painter's themes,London, 1975,p.150,illustratedﬁg.94
DenisRouart&DanielWildenstein,Edouard Manet, Catalogue raisonné,Lausanne&Paris,1975,vol.I,no.276,illustratedp.223 PeterGay,Art and Act: On Causes in History – Manet, Gropius, Mondrian, NewYork,1976,p.35,illustratedﬁg.17 TadaoOgura,Manet,Tokyo,1978,illustratedpl.8 H.Shinoda,H.Tsuruta&N.Shimada,Manet,Tokyo,1978,illustratedp.95 Maria&GodfreyBlunden,Impressionists and Impressionism, Geneva,1980,illustratedincolourp.46 ClaudiaLynCahan,Manet,NewYork,1980,p.15,illustratedin colourpl.XLIX The Frances and John L. Loeb Collection,London,1982,no.13, illustratedincolour JohnRichardson,Manet,London,1982,p.26,illustratedﬁg.10 PierreDaix,La Vie de peintre d'Edouard Manet,Ligugé,1983,ﬁg.41, illustrated KahtleenAdler,Manet,Oxford,1986,detailillustratedonthe frontispiece EricDarragon,Manet,Ligugé,1989,illustratedincolouronthecover FrançoiseCachin,Manet,Paris,1990,illustratedincolourpp.25& 133;illustratedincolouronthebackcover EricDarragon,Manet,Paris1991,ﬁg.209,illustratedincolourp.299 VivienPerutz,Edouard Manet,London,1993,illustratedincolourpl.1 JamesH.Rubin,Manet's Silence and the Poetics of Bouquets, Cambridge,1994,p.9,illustratedﬁg.1 FrançoiseCachin,Manet, Painter of Modern Life,London,1995, illustratedincolourp.109 BethArcherBrombert,Edouard Manet:Rebel in a Frock Coat, Boston,1996,illustratedincolouronthecover BarbaraEhrlichWhite,Impressionists Side by Side,NewYork,1996, illustratedincolourp.11 Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860-1890(exhibition catalogue),TheNationalGallery,London,2000-01,no.32, illustratedincolourp.69 NancyLocke,Manet and the Family Romance,Princeton&Oxford, 2001,ﬁg.74,illustratedp.144 CarolArmstrong,Manet Manette,NewHaven&London,2002,no. 169,illustratedincolourp.313 Manet en el Prado(exhibitioncatalogue),MuseoNacionaldelPrado, Madrid,2003-04,illustratedincolourp.56
Thisworkhasbeenrequestedfortheexhibition Manet, Inventor of Modernity,tobeheldatMuséed'Orsay,ParisfromMarchto May2011. ThisworkhasalsobeenrequestedfortheexhibitionManet: from Portrait to Tableau,tobeheldattheToledoMuseumofArt, OhioandRoyalAcademyofArts,LondonfromOctober2012toApril2013.
A master portraitist and key figure in French intellectual circles in the late nineteenth century, Manet executed a numberofoutstandingportraitsofhiscontemporaries:his fellow artists Claude Monet, Eva Gonzalès and Berthe Morisot, writers Emile Zola and Stéphane Mallarmé, politiciansGeorgesClemenceau,AntoninProustandHenri deRochefort,artcollectorsandpatronsJean-BaptisteFaure andErnestHoschedé,authorandcriticThéodoreDuret,his wifeSuzanneManetandmanyothers.However,Manetonly paintedtwoself-portraits,bothexecutedaroundthesame time:thepresentwork,and Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la calotte),nowintheBridgestoneMuseumofArt, Tokyo(fig.2). Aquintessentialimageofapainter,Portrait de Manet par luimême (Manet à la palette) showsthehalf-lengthfigureofthe artist,adornedwithhispainter’sattributes—apaletteand
brushes. Executed during the mature period of Manet’s career,andatthehighpointoftheImpressionistmovement, thisworkiswidelyregardedasoneofthegreatself-portraits in the canon of Western art. Art historians have often compared the present painting with the way Velázquez depictedhimselfinfrontofalargeeaselinthecelebrated masterpiece Las Meniñas (fig. 3). Charles S. Moffett has commented:‘Evidently,Manetsawhimselfasthemodern equivalentoftheelegant,worldlymasteroftheseventeenthcenturySpanishcourt’(C.S.MoffettinManet (exhibition catalogue), op. cit., 1983, p. 405). Whilst the traditional subjectmatterandthefigure’sposeinthisworkpayhomage tothegreatself-portraitsbyartistssuchasRembrandt,Titian andGoya,itsmodern,avant-gardestylepavedthewayfor many artists of the following generations, including Van Gogh,Cézanne,Picasso(fig.4),Freud,Bacon(fig.5)and manyothers.
FIG.2, EdouardManet,Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la calotte), circa 1878-79,oiloncanvas,BridgestoneMuseumofArt,Tokyo FIG.3, DiegoVelázquez, Las Meniñas,1656-57,oiloncanvas,MuseodelPrado,Madrid
There is no more revelatory or intimate subject for an artist than a self-portrait. Portrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la palette) isacomplexcomposition,avisualisationof thepainter’sintrospectionandself-analysisattheheightofhis career,aswellasaconsciousconstructionofaself-imagewith whichtheartistpresentshimselftohiscontemporaries,and indeed to future generations. In this work, Manet depicts himselfasagentleman,wearingajacket,acravatandahat, ratherthanasastrugglingartistcoveredinpaint.‘Self-Portrait with a Palette isasmuchapaintingofasubjectfrommodern life as it is a self-portrait. Indeed, this image of a stylish gentlemanpaintercouldserveasanillustrationofthedandy asdefinedbyBaudelairein“LePeintredelaviemoderne.” DespiteManet’sunabashedadmirationforvaluesrootedin theartificialandthesuperficial,thispictureisacelebrationof characteranddistinctivenessor,inBaudelaire’swords,“ofwhat isfinestinhumanpride,ofthatcompellingneed,…onlytoo raretoday,forcombatinganddestroyingtriviality’(ibid.,p.405).
Throughoutitshistory,themagnificenceofPortrait de Manet par lui-même (Manet à la palette) hasbeenacknowledged bynumerousarthistorians,andhasbeenincludedinmany seminalexhibitionssince1910.Theimportanceofthiswork isattestedbythenumberofillustriouscollectorswhoowned it:intheearlyyearsofthetwentiethcentury,thepaintingwas ownedbyAugustePellerin(1852-1929),oneofthemost voraciousanddiscriminatingcollectorsofhistime.Alongside worksbyRenoir,Pissarro,Sisley,Degas,MonetandCézanne, Pellerinownednofewerthanfiftypaintingsandpastelsby Manet.AmongthemwereLa Serveuse de Bocks of1879,now inthecollectionofMuséed’Orsay,andtheiconicLe Bar aux Folies-Bergères of1881-82,nowintheCourtauldInstitute Galleries,London.Thepresentworkwaslaterownedby othereminentcollectors,includingJakobGoldschmidtand JohnLoeb.Itsrichhistory,itsimportanceasaself-portrait anditsuniqueblendofthetraditionalandthemodernset thispaintingapartasatruemasterpieceofImpressionistart.
FIG.4, PabloPicasso,Portrait de l’artiste,1906,oiloncanvas,PhiladelphiaMuseumofArt,Philadelphia FIG.5, FrancisBacon,Self-Portrait,1971,oiloncanvas,MuséeNationald’ArtModerne,Paris
1 8 39 - 1 9 0 6
A M A N D I E R S E N P R O V E N C E ( A L L É E D U J A S D E B O U F F A N ) watercolourandpencilonpaper 58.5by47.5cm.23by18¾in. Executedcirca1900. ‡ £700,000-1,000,000
Provenance AmbroiseVollard,Paris PaulCassirer,Amsterdam(acquiredfromtheabovein November1938) WalterFeilchenfeldt,Zurich(acquiredfromtheabove) FrankPerls,BeverlyHills(acquiredfromtheabovebefore August1939) BillyWilder,BeverlyHills Mr&MrsWalterBareiss,NewYork&Munich JohnR.Gaines,Lexington,Kentucky E.V.Thaw,NewYork EskenaziCollection,London(acquiredfromtheabovein 1983.Sold:Sotheby's,NewYork,8thMay2007,lot10) Purchasedattheabovesalebypresentowner xhibited E London,PaulCassirer,Ltd.,Paul Cézanne Watercolours, 1939,no.9(titledAllée au Jas de Bouffan) Stuttgart,Staatsgalerie&Munich,Neustaatsgalerie, Sammlung Walter Bareiss,1965,illustratedinthecatalogue
DatingfromthelastdecadeofCézanne'scareer,Amandiers en Provence demonstrateshismasteryofthemediumof watercolourandhisdelightindepictingthesceneryofhis nativeProvence.Havingspentmostofhislifethere,theartist nevertiredofdepictingitssurroundings,whichprovideda lifetimeofmotifstopaint.FollowingthelegacyoftheFrench Impressionistsbeforehim,Cézannedrewaconstantsource of inspiration from observing the effects of light on the landscape.Hefoundthemediumofwatercolourparticularly wellsuitedforrenderingthebright,sunlitatmosphereofthe southernpartofFrance,asitstranslucentqualityallowedhim tocapturethenuancesandeffectsoflightontheProvençal scenery.Withtheireverchangingcolourationacrossseasons, treesheldaparticularinterestfortheartist,whodepicted
NewYork,MuseumofModernArt&Houston,Museumof FineArts,Cézanne: the Late Work,1977-78,no.92, illustratedinthecatalogue Sydney,ArtGalleryofNewSouthWales,Classic Cézanne, 1998,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Vienna,Kunstforum&Zurich,Kunsthaus,Cézanne: Finished - Unfinished,2000,no.141,illustratedincolourinthe catalogue iterature L AmbroiseVollardarchives,photographno.95 LionelloVenturi(revised,asdatingfrom1895-1900) Das Kunstwerk,November-December1965,illustratedp.63 FritzNovotny,'ZurAquarellemalereiCézannes',in Cézanne(exhibitioncatalogue),Tokyo,1974 JohnRewald,Paul Cézanne. The Watercolours: A Catalogue Raisonné,London,1983,no.512,cataloguedp.213;pl.I, illustratedincolourp.18
them frequently either as a subject in their own right, or providingadynamicforegroundforhisrenderingsofthe MontSainte-Victoire. iscussingthepresentwork,JohnRewaldwrote:'Every D elementislightlytracedwithpencilandredrawnwithshort, bluebrushlines.Thecoloursaremainlygreen,pink,and bluewithafewtracesofochre;theyareappliedinfairly large blotches, not yet superimposed or tied together. ThereisanalmostOrientalﬂavourinthiswork,withitsfew, deft"signs"ﬂoatingfreelyonthelargewhitesheet.The recedingrowofalmondtreesprovidesasensationofspace whichisenhancedratherthandiminishedbythesparse touchesinthedistancethatleavetherestofthepaper unencumbered'(J.Rewald,op. cit.,p.231).
1 8 4 0 - 1 926
F L E U R S À V É T H E U I L signedClaude Monetanddated1880(lowerleft) iloncanvas o 60by75cm.23⅝by29½in. Paintedin1881. ‡ £4,000,000-6,000,000
rovenance P CatholinaLambert,Paterson,NewJersey Durand-Ruel,NewYork(1895) ClaudiaE.Haines,NewYork(1948) AcquavellaGalleries,NewYork PrivateCollection,Washington,D.C. Sale:Christie's,NewYork,15thNovember1988,lot21 Sale:Sotheby's,London,25thJune1991,lot17 Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner xhibited E (possibly)NewYork,Durand-RuelGalleries,Monet,1911,no.11 NewYork,Durand-RuelGalleries,Monet,1915,no.15 Boston,BrooksReedGallery,Tableaux Durand-Ruel,1915 NewYork,Durand-RuelGalleries,Paintings by Claude Monet,1940,no.12 SantaBarbara,MuseumofArt,Claude Monet,1941 Baltimore,MuseumofArt,Contrasts in Impressionism. An Exhibition of Paintings,1942,no.4 NewYork,Wildenstein&Co.,From Paris to the Sea down the River Seine,1943,no.49,illustrated inthecatalogue Tokyo,GalerieSeibu;Kyoto,MunicipalMuseum&Fukuoka,CulturalCentre,Claude Monet,1973, no.22,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue NewYork,AcquavellaGalleries,Claude Monet,1976,no.40,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Dallas,MuseumofFineArts,Dallas Collects: Impressionist and Early Modern Masters,1978,no.23, illustratedinthecatalogue Hiroshima,PrefecturalArtMuseum&Tokyo,TheBunkamuraMuseumofArt,Monet and Renoir: Two Great Impressionist Trends,2003-04,no.7,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Brescia,MuseodiSantaGiulia,Monet, La Senna, Le Ninfee. Il grande fiume e il nuovo secolo,2004-05, no.98,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue iterature L DanielWildenstein,Claude Monet. Biographie et catalogue raisonné,Lausanne&Paris,1974,vol.I, no.692,illustratedp.411 BernardDunstan,Painting Methods of the Impressionists,NewYork,1976,illustratedp.179 DanielWildenstein,Monet. Catalogue raisonné,Cologne,1996,vol.II,no.692,illustratedincolourp.260 DavidJoel,Monet at Vétheuil and on the Norman Coast, 1878-1883,Woodbridge,2002,illustratedin colourp.137
Fleurs à Vétheuil is a magniﬁcently rich, lush landscape depictingnatureinthevicinityofVétheuil,whereMonet livedfromthelatesummerof1878untilDecemberof1881. AsDanielWildensteinwrote,'DuringthemonthofAugust ,MonetleftParisforastayinthecountry[...]Weknow wherehewasstayingfromalettertoMurerof1September: 'IhavesetupshoponthebanksoftheSeineatVétheuilina ravishingspot.'Itseemsthatherememberedtheborderof theIledeFrance,knowntohimsincehisstayinBennecourt, andhadsethisheartonthislittletown,which,withits622 inhabitants, one doctor and a post-ofﬁce, offered more facilitiesthanamerevillage'(D.Wildenstein,Monet or the Triumph of Impressionism, Cologne, 1996, vol. I, p. 137). Delightedbytherichvegetation,Manetoftensetuphis easel in his own garden, sometimes looking towards the house,andsometimes,asinthepresentwork,showinga viewacrossthetreesandbushes,andfurtherinthedistance acrosstheriverSeine,towardsLavacourt(ﬁg.1).
uringhisstayinthisarea,Monetexploredavarietyof D alternativestohisclassicImpressioniststyleofthe1870s. Oftenusingthesmallboatthathehadmodiﬁedforuseasa ﬂoatingstudio,heexploredtheareaonbothbanksofthe Seineandthenearbyislandswherehefoundanabundance of interesting views and motifs. Almost immediately he begantovaryfromthestyleandsubjectsofearlierwork. Alwaysacourageouspainter,by1880-81hisbrushworkhad changed noticeably and his compositional formats were evolving.Inthepresentwork,painthandlingandtouchare allimportantincreatingthedominantrhythmsandpatterns ofthepainting.Moreover,headoptsavantagepointand compositionalformatthatallowshimtoﬁllalargeportionof thecanvasinquickdabsofpaintdenotingﬂowers,bushes andtreesthatprovidetheimagewithmuchofitsenergy, with the river and houses on the opposite bank visible throughasmallopeninginthewildlygrowingnature.
ccording to Daniel Wildenstein, the present work was A executedin1881,andMonetsubsequentlysigneditand inscribeditwiththedate1880.Probablypaintedduringthe summermonths,itsbright,livelypaletteofyellow,red,green and blue tones beautifully renders the atmosphere of a brightsunnyday.Withitshighhorizonline,thecomposition isdominatedbythelavishlypaintedtreesandbushesthat occupymorethantwothirdsofthecanvas.Inthedistanceis theplainofLavacourt,asmallvillagesituatedacrossawide stretch of the Seine. During this time, Monet often experimentedwiththehighhorizonline,executinganumber ofpaintingsdominatedbywildvegetation,withonlyasmall portionofthecanvasopeninguptothelandscapeinthe distanceandtheskyaboveit(ﬁg.2).Manyoftheseworks,
includingthepresentoil,werepaintedfromMonet'sgarden, andcompositionallyrepresentadrasticshiftfromtheopen expansesofwaterandskyofthelandscapespaintedfromhis bateau atelier. iscussingMonet'spaintingsexecutedinthisregion,David D Joelwrote:'Lavacourtitselfisaribbonofoldhousesalong theriverbank,whichhasachemin de halage–atowpathfor pulling barges, between the houses and the river. [...] LavacourtlooksveryattractivefromVétheuilandofcourse VétheuillooksquitemagniﬁcentfromLavacourt.InMonet's daytherewasaregularferryserviceofrowingboats,buthe also had his bateau atelier moored at the bottom of his garden,whichgavethepainter[...]completeindependence' (D.Joel,op. cit.,p.57).
ClaudeMonet,Au Bord de la Seine, près de Vétheuil,1880,oiloncanvas,NationalGalleryofArt,Washington,D.C. 45
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L A M É D I T E R R A N É E inscribedwiththemonogram,numbered1/4 andinscribedE.A.andwiththefoundrymark E. Godard Fondeur Paris bronze length:146cm.57½in. height:114cm.44⅞in. Executedcirca1900-02andcastinbronzeatalaterdateinaneditionof6plus4artist'sproofs. Ω £800,000-1,200,000
rovenance P Estateoftheartist PrivateCollection,NewYork(acquiredfromtheabove) Sale:Sotheby's,London,26thJune2001,lot21 Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner iterature L DinaVierny&BertrandLorquin,Maillol: La Méditerranée,LesDossiersduMuséed'Orsay,Paris,1986, no.5,illustrationofanothercastfromtheﬁrststateofthesculpture;ﬁg.2,illustrationoftheplaster BertrandLorquin,AristideMaillol,Paris,2002,illustrationoftheplasterp.46 TheauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbyOlivierLorquin.
aillolachievedgreatfameasasculptorofthefemale M form,employingitbothnaturalisticallyandasasymbolof theseasonsandthewidernaturalworld.La Méditerranée is a beautifully modelled nude, her head gently bowed in quietcontemplation.Thevoluptuousformsofthefigure and the classically-inspired monumentality evoke a wonderfulharmonyofcompositionandserenityofmood, reflectingthecalmnessoftheMediterranean–andthe civilisations surrounding it – which inspired Maillol. Originallyconceived circa 1900-02,thepresentbronze, one of Maillol's most powerful sculptures, was cast posthumouslybytheartist'sestate. ina Vierny, the sculptor's most celebrated model and D muse,andBertrandLorquincommentedontheﬁrstversion ofthisbronzeandtheeffectthatithadonthepublicand critics: 'The ﬁrst large-scale ﬁgure by the artist – which becamethe"lion"oftheSalond'Automneof1905– La Méditerranéeseemed[...]tobethecontrarytowhatRodin wantedtoachieve.ComparedtoaseriesofworksbyRodin
presentedinaprecedingroom,thissculpturesurprisedwith itssimplicity,itsgravity,andthepublicbecameimmediately sensitivetotherenewalthatitheralded:ifcertaincriticssaw initanimitationofancientGreeksculpture,themajority wereconvincedbythesincerityoftheartist'(D.Vierny&B. Lorquin,op. cit.,p.12,translatedfromtheFrench). J ohn Rewald wrote: 'To celebrate the human body, particularlythefemininebody,seemstohavebeenMaillol's onlyaim.Hedidthisinastylefromwhichallgrandiloquence isabsent,astylealmostearthboundandgrave.Theabsence ofmovement,however,iscompensatedbyatendernessand charmdistinctivelyhisown;andwhileallagitationisforeign tohisart,thereisinhiswork,especiallyinhissmallstatuettes, such quiet grace and such warm feeling that they never appear inanimate. He has achieved a peculiar balance betweenaﬁrmnessofformswhichappeareternalanda sensitivityofexpression–evensensuousness–whichseems foreverquiveringandalive'(J.Rewald,Maillol, NewYork, 1958,pp.6-7).
AmarbleversionofLa Méditerranée intheMuséed’Orsay,Paris
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É T U D E P O U R ' N U R O S E ' signedHenri Matisseanddated35(lowerright) c harcoalonpaper 47.8by67.5cm.18⅞by26½in. ExecutedinMay1935. ‡ £1,500,000-2,500,000
rovenance P Familyoftheartist PrivateCollection(acquiredfromtheabove.Sold:Christie's,NewYork,9thMay2000,lot517) Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner xhibited E London,HaywardGallery&NewYork,TheMuseumofModernArt,The Sculpture and Drawings of Henri Matisse,1984-85,no.78,illustratedinthecatalogue Tokyo,IsetanMuseum;Yamaguchi,PrefecturalArtMuseum;Osaka,DaimaruMuseumofArt& Yokohama,SogoMuseumofArt,Henri Matisse,1987-88,no.52,illustratedinthecatalogue(titled Nu couché de dosandwithincorrectmeasurements) iterature L AlfredH.Barr,Jr.,Matisse: His Art and his Public,NewYork,1951,p.247 JohnRussell,The World of Matisse,NewYork,1969,pp.134-135 LydiaDelectorskaya,L'apparente facilité, Henri Matisse: Peintures de 1935-1939,Paris,1986, illustratedp.59 PierreSchneider,Matisse,London,2002,illustratedp.636(titledReclining Nudeandwithincorrect measurements) TheauthentictyofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbyWandadeGuébriant.
theﬁguretomakethemmoregeometricalandbeforehe eliminated foreshortening and ﬂattened the space by suppressingthediagonalofthelimbs.Thepose,inmodiﬁed form,goesbacktosuchearlyworkasthepaintingBlue Nude (1907, Baltimore Museum of Art)' (J. Elderﬁeld, in The Sculpture and Drawings of Henri Matisse (exhibition catalogue), op. cit., p. 270). Furthermore, the sculptural quality of the ﬁgure in this drawing is reminiscent of Matisse'ssculpturefrom1927,Nu couché II.Therelationship ofthepresentdrawingwiththeseearlierworksshowshow Matissedrewfromhisownpersonaliconographyatlater pointsinhiscareer. FIG.1
his stunning drawing of a reclining nude is a study for T Matisse'sfamousoilNu rose(ﬁg.1),nowintheBaltimore MuseumofArt.Between1stMayand30thOctober1935, Matisse made several charcoal sketches of his Russian model,LydiaDelectorskaya,assheposedforthisgrand composition.ThiswasMatisse'sﬁrstsigniﬁcantprojectwith Lydia,whoprovedtobeapatientsitteranddutifulstudio assistantthroughoutthesix-monthprocess.Aphotograph fromaroundthistimeshowsLydiaherselfworkingonthe canvasduringoneofitsmanystagesofcompletion(ﬁg.3). Matissedocumentedhiswork'sprogressfromearlyMay untilendofOctoberintwenty-twophotographs,andhis relateddrawingsalsoallowusaninsightintohiscreative process and show him veering off in different stylistic directionsfromhisevolvingoilcomposition.
InherrecentbiographyonMatisse,HilarySpurlingprovides the following description of Matisse's process while renderingthisimage:'Themodelremainedabsolutelystill throughout.ItwasMatissewhomanipulatedthearmsand legs,pushingelementsofhisrelativelysimplecomposition tothefurthestlimitsofdistortion,butneverlosingcontact withtherealityrepresentedbyLydiaposingforhimona blue-and-whitecheckeredcoverletwithlegsbentandone armfoldedbehindherhead.("Myposedidn'tchange,'she said;'itwascomfortableandalwaysthesame")'(H.Spurling, Matisse the Master,NewYork,2005,p.360).
xecuted in May, the present work shows the model E reclining in a twisted pose, her head turned towards the viewer. The drawing most closely resembles the oil at a relativelyearlystageinMay(ﬁg.2),beforeMatisserelaxed hismodel'sposefortheﬁnalversionsofthepainting.As JohnElderﬁeldwroteaboutthiswork:'Thepresentsheetis oneofthestudiesrelatedtotheﬁrststateofthepainting, donebeforeMatissesimpliﬁedthenaturalisticcontoursof FIG.2
HenriMatisse,Nu rose,1935,oiloncanvas,BaltimoreMuseumofArt,Baltimore FIG.2, AnearlyversionofNu rose,photographedon10thMay1935 FIG.3, (opposite)LydiaDelectorskayaworkingonMatisse'sNu roseinhisstudio,1935
prOperTy frOM a DIsTIngUIsheD eUrOpean cOLLecTIOn
1 8 6 9 - 1 9 5 4
O D a L I s Q U e s J O U a n T a U X D a M e s signedHenri Matisseanddated1928(lowerright) iloncanvas o 50by65cm.19⅝by25⅝in. paintedin1928. ‡ £10,000,000-15,000,000
rovenance P galerieBernheim-Jeune,paris Mr&Mrsralphf.colin,newyork privatecollection,newyork acquiredfromtheabovebythepresentowner xhibited E London,haywardgallery,Matisse,1968,no.99,illustratedinthecatalogue newyork,acquavellagalleries,Inc.,Henri Matisse, 1973,no.41,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue iterature L JacquesLassaigne,Matisse,paris,1959,illustratedincolourp.102 MarioLuzi&Massimocarrà,L'Opera di Matisse dalla rivolta 'fauve' all'intimismo, 1904-1928, Milan,1971,no.454,illustratedp.104 guy-patrice&MichelDauberville,Matisse,paris,1995,vol.I,no.685,illustratedp.1291
'Theodalisqueswerethebountyofahappynostalgia,alovely,vividdream,andthe almostecstatic,enchanteddaysandnightsoftheMoroccanclimate.Ifeltan irresistibleneedtoexpressthatecstasy,thatdivineunconcern,incorresponding coloredrhythms,rhythmsofsunnyandlavishﬁguresandcolor.' h e n r I M aT I s s e
Odalisques jouant aux dames is a powerful and bold rendering of the theme of odalisques, one of the most spectacular and fascinating series of Matisse's œuvre. paintedwhiletheartistwaslivinginniceandduringwhatis consideredhismostaccomplishedperiodasacolourist,the compositioncombinesthemostimportantelementsofhis painting:arich,boldpalettedevelopedduringthefauve years,afascinationwithtextureandpatterns,andtheexotic, orientalistsetting.Odalisques jouant aux damesbelongsto his celebrated series of works executed in the 1920s, showing nudes or female ﬁgures in exotic garments depictedinlushinteriors.In1928Matissepaintedseveral compositionsinwhichtheseﬁguresareshownseatedor recliningaroundacheckerboard,whoseblack-and-white patternstandsincontrastwiththemoreroundedshapesof thefemalesandtheiroverallsetting(ﬁgs.1&2).
henriMatisse,Odalisque assise,1928,oiloncanvas,TheBaltimoreMuseumofart,Baltimore henriMatisse,Deux Odalisques,1928,oiloncanvas,ModernaMuseet,stockholm
Inthepresentwork,Matissedepictedtwofemaleﬁgures: oneseated,dressedincolourfulexoticclothes,seductively turnedtofacetheviewerratherthanhercompanion;the otherisnude,languorouslyrecliningonasofawithanairof abandon.Likemostofhispaintingsfromthisperiod,the exotic costume and lavishly ornamented interior of this work evoke his travels in Morocco in 1912-13, which providedMatissewithalife-longsourceofinspiration.The artist himself once proclaimed about this subject: 'The odalisqueswerethebountyofahappynostalgia,alovely, vividdream,andthealmostecstatic,enchanteddaysand nightsoftheMoroccanclimate.Ifeltanirresistibleneedto express that ecstasy, that divine unconcern, in corresponding colored rhythms, rhythms of sunny and lavishﬁguresandcolor'(h.Matisse,quotedinJackflam (ed.),Matisse: A Retrospective,newyork,1988,p.230).
Odalisques jouant aux damesrevealstheextentofMatisse's enthralmentwithfabricsandpatterns,whichareabundantly present in all parts of the work, including the woman's costume,curtainsandwallpapersandthepaintedlamp. Matisse transformed his studio in nice with paintings, mirrors,curtainsanddecorativescreens,creatingtheatrical settingsinwhichtodepicthismodels.fascinatedbytextile decoration and ornamentation, the artist always chose colourful,ornatemotifstoserveasabackdroptohisﬁgure paintings.sincehisearlyinteriors,suchasthecelebrated Harmonie rougeof1908,Matissedemonstratedadelightin depictingthearabesquesandﬂoralmotifsappearingon curtains,wallpapersandtable-cloths,oftentransformingthe entirepaintingsurfaceintoacontinuouspattern.
urthermore,heownedanumberofcolourfultextilesand f garmentsthathismodelswouldwear.ashilaryspurling wrote:'Matissebuiltupacostumewardrobeintheearly 1920smoreorlessatrandom,startingwithaconsignment of spanish shawls, experimenting with odds and ends collectedinMoroccoorfromaLebanesecarpet-dealerin paris,addinginthecoutureclothesmadeeachseasonfor his wife and daughter [...]. he seems to have begun improvising costumes in much the same way as he constructed settings to suit the requirements of each successivepictureafterafancy-dressballhostedin1921by renoir's son Jean [...]. from now on his textile library expanded to include dressing-up chests ﬁlled with Moroccanjackets,robes,blouses,boleros,capsandscarves,
eugèneDelacroix,LesFemmes d'Alger,1834,oiloncanvas,MuséeduLouvre,paris 57
fromwhichhismodels(oftenﬁlmextras)couldbekitted outinoutﬁtsdistantlydescended–likeBakst'sballet,anda wholeseriesofﬁlmsusingnicelocationsinthe1920sasa substitute for the mysterious east – from the french painterlytraditionoforientalisation'(h.spurlinginMatisse. His Art and His Textiles (exhibition catalogue), royal academyofarts,London,2005,pp.28-29). Indeed,theorientalist-inspiredﬁgureoftheodalisquewas onethathadlongbeencelebratedinthehistoryofart,most famouslyinthe19thcenturybypainterssuchasDelacroix (ﬁg. 3) and gêrome. While picasso's response to this traditionresultedinhisseriesofLes Femmes d'Algerof1955 (ﬁg.4),Matisseappliedhisownhighlypersonalapproachto hisinterpretationofthissubject,surroundingtheﬁgurewith therichtextilesandpersonalaffectsofhisstudio.Writing about this series of Odalisques, elizabeth cowling commented:'Inpaintinghismake-believeharemscenes– nothingcouldbelessauthenticthantheheteroclitemixof fabrics, costumes, furniture and bric-a-brac – Matisse sought to personalise and modernise the hackneyed Orientalistsubjectswhichhadfirstcomeintovogueduring theromanticperiod.Delacroix'ssumptuousWomenof
algierswasofparamountimportancetothisenterpriseand inthesumtotaloftheniceodalisquepaintingsnumerous echoesofitcanbeheard'(e.cowling, Matisse Picasso (exhibitioncatalogue),TateModern,London,2002,p.221). ith its atmosphere of relaxation and abandon, the W compositionasawholebrilliantlyrecreatestheintoxicating atmosphereoftheharemwhichMatisserecreatedwithin theconfinesofhisstudio.asJackcowartobserved:'these striking paintings are the fullest realization of Matisse's thesisonpattern,decorationandtheodalisqueplacedin his "brewing tension." he surely enjoyed the deceptive game he played with this conflict between reality, appearance, and art, and dreaming and waking. These paintingsarefantasiesinthebestsenseoftheword,butfor the sake of denying such an accusation, he said: "I do odalisquesinordertopaintnudes.Buthowdoesonepaint nudeswithouttheirbeingartificial?BecauseIknowthat odalisquesexist,IwasinMorocco.Ihaveseensome"'(J. coward,Henri Matisse, The Early Years in Nice 1916-1930 (exhibition catalogue), The national gallery of art, Washington,D.c.,1986-87,p.37).
pablopicasso,LesFemmes d'Alger,1955,oiloncanvas.sold:sotheby's,newyork,3rdMay2005. fIg.5, (opposite)MatissedrawingthemodelZitaasOdalisque,nice,1928
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f e M M e e n D O r M I e datedBoisgeloup 28 Juin XXXIII(bottom) oiloncanvas 15.8by23.7cm.6¼by9¼in. paintedon28thJune1933. £600,000-900,000 €700,000-1,050,000Us$870,000-1,310,000
rovenance P Marinapicasso,paris(granddaughteroftheartist;bydescent) galerieThomas,Munich acquiredfromtheabovebythepresentownerinthe1980s xhibited E Munich,hausderKunst;cologne,Josef-haubrich-Kunsthalle;frankfurt,städtischegalerieimstädelschen Kunstinstitut&Zurich,Kunsthaus,Pablo Picasso. Eine Ausstellung zum hundertsten Geburtstag. Werke aus der Sammlung Marina Picasso,1981-82,no.157,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Tokyo,ThenationalMuseumofModernart&Kyoto,MunicipalMuseum,Picasso: Masterpieces from the Marina Picasso Collection and from Museums in U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.,1983,no.132,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue iterature L Thepicassoproject,Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. Surrealism, 1930-1936,sanfrancisco, 1997,no.33-063,illustratedp.174
TheauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbyMayaWidmaierpicasso. Theauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbyclaudepicasso. Femme endormie is a portrait of hervoluptuousphysique,picasso's Marie-Thérèse Walter, picasso's renderings of Marie-Thérèse are muse who inspired some of the erotically charged, often showing mostromanticandsensualworksof herinthestateofsleepandcarefree his œuvre. The artist met Marieabandon, as in the present work. ThérèsenolaterthanJanuary1927, Williamrubinobserved:'noneof whenshewasseventeen.Withthe picasso's earlier relationships had words'Iampicasso.youandIare provoked such sustained, lyrical goingtodogreatthingstogether', power, such a sense of psychothe forty-six year old artist logical awareness and erotic introduced himself to the young completeness... picasso proceeds womanwhowouldsoonbecomehis fromhisintensefeelingfor[MariefIg.1, pablopicasso,Nu couché,1932,oiloncanvas,Musée mistressandmuseformorethana picasso,paris Thérèse]... he paints the body decade. Many years later Mariecontemplated, loved and selfThérèse recalled the circumstances of their sudden ﬁrst contemplating'(W.rubin, Picasso in the Collection of the encounter:'Iknewnothing–neitheraboutlifenorabout Museum of Modern Art, new york, 1971, p. 138). This picasso.nothing.IhadbeenshoppingatgaleriesLafayette contemplative quality is beautifully presented in Femme andpicassosawmecomingoutoftheMetro'(quotedinL. endormie,showingMarie-Thérèseinhersleep,opentothe Levy,Picasso, London,1991,p.88). viewer'sgaze.Thesimplelinessuggestingthebedresemblea pedestal,elevatingthenudetoaworkofartinherownright. captivatedbyheryouthful,unpredictablespiritaswellasby 60
p rO p e rT y f rO M a p r I vaT e cO L L ec T I O n
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p O r T r a I T O f e v a f r e U n D ( n é e g a L L U s ) watercolourandblackcrayononpaper 20.3by30.2cm.8by11⅞in. executedcirca1910. £250,000-350,000 €291,000-407,000Us$362,000-510,000
rovenance P eva&Ottofreund,prague(acquiredfromtheartist) Thencebydescenttothepresentowner TobeincludedintherevisededitionofEgon Schiele: The Complete WorksbyJaneKallir.
evafreund(néegallus),thesitterofthepresentwork,wasarenownedopera singerinpragueintheearlytwentiethcentury.herstrikingfacialfeatures certainlyfascinatedtheyoungschiele,whoexecutedanothertwoportraitsof her(ﬁg.1).howeverschiele,whowasaccordingtoJaneKalliranotoriously sloppyspeller,incorrectlyrecordedhernameasagagallus.Inthepresent work,schielebeautifullycombinedhisskillsasadraughtsman,visibleinthe depictionofthewoman'sface,andthoseofacolourist,evidentinthetreatment ofherfashionablewide-brimmedhat.
fIg.1. egonschiele,Bildnis Aga Gallus, Prag,1910, watercolourandblackcrayononpaper, graphischesammlungalbertina,vienna
Intechnicalterms,schiele'sworkin1910marksamajorturningpointinhis artisticdevelopment.JaneKallirnotedabouthiswatercoloursfromthisperiod: 'pigmentisscoredbytheﬂowofwaterandthetugofthebrushinamanner thatismoredirectlyresponsivetothecontoursofthesurroundingdrawingthan tothedictatesofthree-dimensionallikeness.[schiele]juxtapositionsﬂatshapes withbrightlymottledﬂeshtints[andhis]drawingsderivetheirprimarystructure simplyfromthenegativespacearoundtheﬁgure.Itisapparentthatschiele wantstoachieveanunbrokenﬂowofpigmentwithinbroader,conceptuallyselfcontainedareas.Byvaryingthedensityofhiswashesandallowingdifferent colourstoblendoroverlap,heisabletoproduceavarietyofeffects'(J.Kallir, Egon Schiele: The Complete Works,newyork,1998,p.391).
1 87 7 - 1 96 8
L ' a M I e D e M r s e D W a r D s signedVan Dongen(lowerright);titledonthereverse oiloncanvas 100by73cm.39⅜by28¾in. ‡ £2,000,000-3,000,000
rovenance P privatecollection,france privatecollection(acquiredfromtheabovebefore1985) privatecollection(agiftfromtheabove.sold:christie's,London,6thfebruary2007,lot27) purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner obeincludedintheforthcomingVan Dongen Catalogue raisonnébeingpreparedbyJacques T chalomdescordesunderthesponsorshipoftheWildensteinInstitute.
L'Amie de Mrs Edwards is a stunning example of van Dongen'sportraiture,depictingafashionableyoungwoman, whosestrikingﬁgure,clothesandjewellerygiveheranairof vibrancyandboldnesscharacteristicofvanDongen'smost accomplished paintings. Identiﬁed only as a friend of a certainMrsedwards,thesitterappearstobeamemberof thehighsociety,towhichtheartistwasintroducedinthelate 1910s.Unlikefrenchfauvepainters,whodepictedthesunlit coastofsouthernfrance,vanDongenfoundinspirationin thecitylife.Itwastheparisiannight-lifeandtheartiﬁcial lightsofthecircusandconcert-halls,ratherthannatureand openspaces,thatexcitedhim.Thealluringmodelofthe presentworkisdepictedagainstadramaticallycoloured backdrop, possibly indicating a theatre or a night-club. Looking straight at the viewer, the woman's beauty is accentuated by her hair with a fashionable feather, her brightlycolouredlips,wideopeneyes,shinyearringsanda chicblackdress,attributeswhichidentifyherasasociety ladyratherthanaperformer. lthoughhewasknownastheprincipalportraitistamong a thefauveartistsandthroughoutthe1920s,vanDongen's portraits often depict anonymous sitters, as the artist's primaryinterestlayinexploringtheallureofthefeminine ﬁgure. The focus of the present composition is in the woman's face and hair, painted in vibrant colours and dominated by her dark piercing eyes. The low-cut dress exposesthewoman'sslimﬁgureandelongatedneck,while
thegreencolouringofherskindemonstratestheartist's disregard for anatomy and naturalistic representation, in favourofdepictingthephysicalityandsensualpresenceof hissitter.yetatthesametime,byvaryingtheintensityofhis palette and using paler shades of green, the artist emphasisedthesupplenessofherskin,itswhitehighlightsin strongcontrastwiththesumptuous,deepercolourationof thebackground. anDongen'sbolduseofcolourinhisportraitscameasa v response to Matisse's groundbreaking paintings such as Femme au chapeau (ﬁg.1),nowconsideredtobeoneofthe fauves'pivotalworks,whichscandalisedparisiancriticsat theSalon d'Automneof1905.WhilsttheconﬂictinMatisse's workisachievedbytheapparentcontradictionbetweenthe wild,unrestrainedhandlingofpigmentandtheapparently bourgeois subject, in the present work van Dongen celebratestheconcurrentsensualappealofvibrantcolour andfemalesexuality.Theuseofhisfavouredemeraldgreen to achieve three-dimensional form relates to the similar techniqueutilisedbyMatisseinanotherfauvemasterpiece Madame Matisse. La Raie verte(ﬁg.2)which,likethepresent work,rejectsthetraditionofmodellingfeaturesthroughthe use of chiaroscuro in favour of chromatic contrast. The combinationofaboldpaletteandelegantsubjectmatter wastocharacterisevanDongen'sartthroughoutthe1920s, knownasthe'annéesfolles',resultinginsomeofthemost strikingandiconicimagesofhiscareer.
henriMatisse,Femme au chapeau,1905,oiloncanvas,sanfranciscoMuseumofModernart,sanfrancisco henriMatisse,Madame Matisse. La Raie verte,1905,oiloncanvas,statensMuseumforKunst,copenhagen
Treasuresfromthevollardsafe few major paintings executed over a century ago have to this day remainedinthecollectionoftheiroriginalowner,fewerstillcanparallelthe extraordinaryhistoryofandréDerain’sArbres à Collioure (lot18).Thiswork ispartofalong-losttreasuretroveofpaintings,prints,booksanddrawings by key avant-garde artists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries,thatbelongedtothelegendaryparisianartdealerambroise vollard(1866-1939). vollardplayedapivotalroleinthedevelopmentoftheImpressionistand Modernartmarket:theartistswhoseworksheexhibitedandinmanycases pioneeredrangefromrenoir,vangoghandcézannetopicassoandthe fauves.Thesignificanceofhisactivitiesasadealerofearlytwentieth centuryavant-gardeartandtheextentoftheworksthathehandled– manyofthemnowrenownedmasterpiecesbelongingtomajormuseums– were reflected in the internationally acclaimed exhibition Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde, held at the MetropolitanMuseumofartinnewyork,theartInstituteofchicagoand theMuséed’Orsayinparisin2006-07.
fIg.1, paulcézanne,Le Portrait d’Emile Zola,circa 1862-
Theextraordinarytroveoftreasuresfromvollard’scollection, offeredforsalethisJune,wasdiscoveredin1981inabankvaultat thesociétégénéraleinparis. Theworkshadbeendeposited therein1939,afewmonthsaftervollard’suntimelydeath,byerich slomovic, a young yugoslav who knew vollard. soon after depositingtheworks,slomovicfledtoyugoslaviawherehedied asavictimoftheholocaust.asaresult,thecontentsofthevault remaineduntouchedforthenext40years,afterwhichtimethe bankwaspermittedunderfrenchlawtoopenthevaultandtosell anycontentsofvalueinordertorecoversomeoftheunpaid storagefees.Itwasonlyatthispointthatthisremarkablegroupof workswasdiscovered,having beenforgottenfordecades. fIg.2, pierre-augusterenoir,Le Chapeau épinglé, deuxième planche (Delteil 30),1898,lithograph The works are now been offered at auction by the beneficiariesofthevollardestateandwillfinallymaketheirlonganticipatedappearanceonthemarketatsotheby’sauctionsinLondon andparisthisJune. apartfrompaintingsandworksonpaper,vollardhadapassionfor printmaking,andencouragedartiststoproduceprintsaswellaslimited editionartists’books.furtherworksfromthevollardcollection(figs.1, 2&3),tobeofferedatsotheby’sparison29thJune,reflectthebreadth ofhisactivitiesasadealerandhisunparallelvisionaspatronofthearts.
fIg.3, edgarDegas,La Fête de la patronne,circa 1878-80,monotype
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a r B r e s À c O L L I O U r e s ignedA. Derain(lowerright) oiloncanvas 65by81cm.25⅝by31⅞in. paintedin1905. £9,000,000-14,000,000 €10,460,000-16,270,000Us$13,040,000-20,280,000
rovenance P ambroisevollard,paris(inventoryno.1375) Thencebydescenttothepresentowners xhibited E (possibly)paris,grandpalais,Salon d'Automne,1905 iterature L Walterguadagnini,Matisse,Milan,1993,illustratedp.15 pierreschneider,Matisse,London,2002,illustratedp.213 Matisse-Derain, Collioure 1905, un été fauve(exhibitioncatalogue),MuséeDépartementald'art Moderne,céret&MuséeDépartementalMatisse,cateau-cambrésis,2005-06,no.80,illustratedp.152 TheauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbythecomitéandréDerain.
'Thismannerofpainting,subsequentlyknownasthefauvestyle,reached itsﬁrstfruition-andperhapsitsfullestrealization-inthepaintingsMatisse andDerainexecutedincollioureinthesummerof1905.' J a M e s D. h e r B e r T
paintedin1905,Arbres à Collioure representsthepinnacleof Derain'scareeraswellasofthefauvemovement.Itsvibrant paletteandwildlyexpressivecompositionplaceitamongthe artist's greatest achievements. Indeed, it is the unique painterlyqualityoftheworkwhichreﬂectspreciselythepower andimmediacyoftheartist'stechnique;everybrushstrokeis invigoratedbythespiritofthatmostrevolutionarysummerof his career, spent with henri Matisse in collioure (ﬁg. 1). MatissehadinvitedDeraintothesmallcoastaltowninearly July1905andtheyspentthefollowingtwomonthsworkingin closeproximity,oftenpaintingthesamesubject(ﬁgs.2&3). Thesun-drenchedatmospheresotypicalofsouthernfrance hadaprofoundeffectonDerainand,shortlyafterhisarrival, hewrotetoMauricedevlaminckcelebratingthelight:'a blond light, a golden hue that suppresses the shadows'. Derain's preoccupation with the light and colour of the
Mediterraneanfreedhispalette,leadinghimtoexploreanew, puriﬁedformofpainting. henDerainarrivedincollioure,Matissewasworkingupon W the inﬂuence of paul signac and henri edmond cross, paintinginbrillianttonesandemployinganintenseframework ofeffervescentbrushstrokes(ﬁg.3).Thisstylewasquickly reﬂected in Derain's painting, where strongly contrasting areasofcolourcametoachievenewprominence.Duringhis stayinthisregion,Derainexecutedsomethirtyoilpaintings, whichconstitutenotonlyapeakinhisownbodyofwork,but also the height of the fauve movement. The new environmentwasrichinsourcesofinspirationandDerainwas fascinated by the pace of daily life in the busy port. he returned to paris in september 1905, shortly before the openingofthefamousSalon d'Automne,wheretheboldly
coloured canvases exhibited by artists including Braque, Matisse,vlaminckandDerainhimselfprovokedtheartcritic Louisvauxcellestoproclaimthem,famously,the'wildbeasts.' Thesimilaritiesinstyleandsubjectmatteramongthegroup of revolutionary painters are testament to the pace and fervour with which fauvism evolved. at the landmark exhibitionDerainwasprimarilyrepresentedbyhisexuberant viewsofcollioure.Indeed,thepresentworkmaywellhave beenamongthoseexhibited.
displayingacolouristicboldnessandgesturalexuberancethat placesitamonghisgreatestfauveworks.fuelledbythe extraordinaryaudacity,creativityandpassionofhisyouth, Derain'sproductionofthisperiodformsoneofthemost ground-breakingbodiesofworkthatchangedthecourseof modernpainting.
riting about Matisse and Derain's depictions of the W landscapes in the south of france, James D. herbert commented that 'This manner of painting, subsequently known as the fauve style, reached its ﬁrst fruition – and perhapsitsfullestrealization–inthepaintingsMatisseand Derainexecutedincollioureinthesummerof1905'(J.D. herbert,Fauve Painting: The Making of Cultural Politics,new haven & London, 1992, p. 89). In Arbres à Collioure, the hallmarksofthefauvestyleareverymuchinevidence.The quickly applied, spontaneous brushstrokes constitute a remarkable example of Derain's collioure landscapes,
hedazzlingeffectofthelightasitpermeatesthebranches T of the cork oak trees is captured in brushstrokes of pure, primarytones.Theirfreshlyharvestedtrunksarerenderedin visceralredsandblues,whichwouldappeartosuggesta networkofpulsatingveinsand,inturn,theprofusionoflife fromearthtosky.Derainhasrenderedthelandscapewitha vibrantpatternofjuxtaposedcomplementarycoloursandthe scene is imbued with a mood of wild, almost arcadian isolation.Ideologically,theimageofaruralretreatishighly reminiscentofvangogh's'studioofthesouth'inarlesand thewarmththatsocharacterisesthepaintingsheexecuted there. Indeed, van gogh exerted a great inﬂuence upon Derain, who ﬁrst saw his works in 1901 at the artist's ﬁrst retrospectiveexhibitionheldatthegalerieBernheim-Jeune
andréDerain,Les Montagnes à Collioure,July1905,oiloncanvas,nationalgalleryofart,Washington,D.c.(theJohnhayWhitneycollection) fIg.3, henriMatisse,Paysage de Collioure,Etude pour 'Le Bonheur de vivre',1905,oiloncanvas,statensMuseumforKunst,copenhagen 73
inparis.Thiswasanexperiencethatwastodeterminethe artistic direction of Derain and a number of his contemporaries.InArbres à Collioure,thedebtowedtovan goghisevidentbothinthechoiceofvibrantpaletteaswellas ofthesubjectmatter(ﬁg.5).
hetreatmentofasingleobject,suchasatree,inanumberof T contrastingcolours,isafeaturethatcharacterisesDerain's styleofthisperiod,takingtheImpressionistrenderingofthe effectoflighttoitsextreme.hisincreasinglyvividpalette, whichbearslittleresemblancetonaturalisticrepresentation,is justoneaspectofDerain'ssignaturestylethatwassubjectto continualevolution.Justoneyearlater,whilstworkinginthe coastaltownofL'estaque,Derainwastoreturntothesame subject as depicted in the present painting, but took an altogethermorerigidapproachincreasinglyinﬂuencedby paulgauguin'searlypont-avenworks;gonearethefervent, impetuousbrushstrokesthatoneseesinthepresentwork;in theirplace,Derainutilisedmoreuniformareasofsolidcolour thatlackthespontaneityofArbres à Collioure.Thepurehighfauviststyletypiﬁedsobeautifullybythepresentworkwas
heexquisitepaintingswhichDerainexecutedduringthe T summerof1905arepivotalnotonlyinthehistoryofthe fauve movement, but are also a milestone in the development of twentieth century art. Describing the unique pictorial effect created in Derain's works of this period,JacquelineMunckhasremarkedthat'lineandstroke seemedtohavetravelledbackintimetorediscovertheir originsandinventmark,outlineandpulsation,therhythmof life,thenaturalextensionoftheeyethatdraws,aplungeinto instinct,impatientgraphs,ﬂuidorsolid,irrigatingtheobverse andreverseoftheperceptibleandtheluminous'(J.Munck in André Derain (exhibition catalogue), Institut valencià d'artModern,valencià,2003,p.66).Derain'sunbridled paletteandalmostpoeticrenderingofnaturalobjectsin which trees and streams appear to dance through the landscape, played a pivotal role in the development of modernpainting.
andréDerain,Barques au port de Collioure,circa1905,oiloncanvas.sold:sotheby's,newyork,4thnovember2009 fIg.5, vincentvangogh,Vue d'Arles, arbres en fleurs,1889,oiloncanvas,vangoghMuseum,amsterdam (opposite)detail ofthepresentwork
p rO p e rT y f rO M T h e cO L L ec T I O n O f T h e L aT e h e r M a n n L a n g e, K r e f e L D
1 8 87 - 1 9 14
f r a U e n I M p a r K ( M I T W e I s s e M s c h I r M )
( WO M e n I n a pa r K - W I T h a W h I T e pa r a sO L )
titledFrauen im Parkanddated1913onthereverse ilonboard o 45.5by33.7cm.17⅞by13¼in. paintedin1913.Thereisanabstractcompositioninoilonthereverse. £1,600,000-2,500,000 €1,860,000-2,910,000Us$2,320,000-3,620,000
rovenance P DrrichardKoch,frankfurtamMain hermannLange,Krefeld(acquiredby1934) Thencebydescenttothepresentowner xhibited E frankfurt,Kunstverein,Gedächtnis-Ausstellung August Macke,1920,no.40 Wiesbaden,neuesMuseum,nassauischerKunstverein,Gedächtnis-Ausstellung August Macke,1920,no.40 Munich,hausderKunst,München 1869-1958, Aufbruch zur modernen Kunst,1958,no.1064 Munich,galeriestangl,Meisterwerke des deutschen Expressionismus,1967,illustratedinthecatalogue Bonn,städtischesKunstmuseum;Krefeld,Kaiser-Wilhelm-Museum&Wuppertal,vonderheydt-Museum, Die Rheinischen Expressionisten, August Macke und seine Malerfreunde,1979,no.233,illustratedinthe catalogue Münster,LandesmuseumfürKunstundKulturgeschichte;Bonn,städtischesKunstmuseum&Munich, städtischegalerieimLenbachhaus,August Macke, Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen,1986-87,no.105, illustratedincolourinthecatalogue iterature L gustavvriesen,August Macke,stuttgart,1953,no.374 gustavvriesen,August Macke,stuttgart,1957,no.374,illustratedp.328 ernst-gerhardgüse,August Macke: Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen,Munich,1986,no.105,illustratedin colourp.262 Ursulaheiderich,August Macke, Gemälde, Werkverzeichnis,Ostﬁldern,2008,no.477,illustratedp.465
Frauen im Park (mit weissem Schirm) is one of the most strikingoilsdatingfromthepinnacleofMacke'sshortbut intensecareer.Whileheneverembracedapurelyabstract painterly manner, during 1913 – the year this work was executed–hereachedahighpointofexperimentationwith colourandform.Initswild,bolduseofcolourandadramatic composition,Frauen im Park (mit weissem Schirm)isamong hismostbeautifulBlauereiterpaintings.Thecompositionis focusedaroundtheﬁguresoftwowomen,whosestrongly paintedandcontrastinggarmentssetthemapartfromeach other and from the background of rising trees that dominates the painting. The work displays Macke's virtuosity in colour modulations, particularly in the ﬁery, saturatedhuesofgreen,yellowandblue,whicharesetapart byvolume,toneandlightqualitiesratherthanthroughstrict linearseparations. hismagniﬁcentpaintingreﬂectsanarrayofinﬂuencesthat T played a key role in the development of Macke's own, unique style. The use of bright, radiant tones and their application in wide, spontaneous brush strokes show
Macke'sdebttothefauvepainters,whiletheoverlapping, brokendownplanesclearlyreﬂectpaulKlee'sinﬂuence. MackewasoneoftheﬁrstmembersofDerBlauereiter group to recognise the importance of Impressionist and post-Impressionistart,andtoadaptthecolour-theoriesof the french avant-garde artists to his own style. he ﬁrst visitedparisin1907,butitwasnotuntil1909thathesawthe worksofthefauveartists,whosebolduseofvibrantcolours had a strong impact on him. The most immediate and profoundinﬂuence,however,wasthatofrobertDelaunay, whom Macke met during his last trip to paris in 1912. Delaunay's progressive pictorial technique, in which the planesofcolourratherthanobjectsconstitutedthemain structural element of his paintings, became the basis of Macke'sownartisticexperimentations.Inthepresentwork, this inﬂuence is visible mainly in the trees that form a dramatic backdrop to the scene. The steep perspective leadingfromthepathintheforegroundtothetalltrees risingvertiginouslytothetopisreminiscentofDelaunay's dramaticdepictionsoftheeiffelTower(ﬁg.1).
hecentralthemeofMacke'smatureperiodwaspeople T walkingonastreetorinapark(ﬁgs.2&3).Unlikeother expressionists such as ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Macke's representationsofthecityhaveasofttone,andhisﬁgures appeartobeateasewiththeirenvironment.asWieland schmiedcommented:'augustMackewasmuchmoreofa wandererthanernstLudwigKirchnerandhewalkedthrough thestreetsofthecityasifitwereanotherformofnature.at ﬁrstthecitywasnothingmorethananature'tamed'.hewas especiallyinterestedinthevegetation,theparks,thezoowith its zebras, herons and parrots... august Macke always presentsdomesticatednature,thetownispermeatedby nature, reconciled with her, with an abundance of open spacesandborderedbyparks'(W.schmied,German Art in the 20th Century (exhibitioncatalogue),royalacademyof arts,London,1985,p.36). lthoughMacke'spaintingsoftenfocusonthedepictionof a maleandfemaleﬁgures,oftenpromenadingingroups,he showsnointerestintheirindividuality,theirfacialfeaturesor
expressions. Whilst retaining the recognisable, ﬁgurative subject matter, he shows an increasing move towards abstraction.asinthepresentwork,Mackereliedonformand colour to communicate meaning and emotion, the compositionhasitsowninternalstructureofpictorialmeans independentofnaturalisticdevicesanddetails.Inﬂuencedby contemporarytrendstowardsabstraction,Mackekeptthe traditionalthemeofﬁguresinalandscape,butbrokethem downintobasicpictorialelementsofcolourandform.Itwas in1913thatcolourbecamethesinglemostimportantelement ofhispainting,soboldlyandmasterfullyexempliﬁedbythe presentwork.Mackewrotein1913:'Themostimportantthing formeisthedirectobservationofnatureinitslight-ﬁlled existence...WhatImostcherishistheobservationofthe movementofcolours.OnlyinthishaveIfoundthelawsof thosesimultaneousandcomplementarycolourcontraststhat nourishtheactualrhythmofmyvision.InthisIﬁndtheactual essence' (quoted in gustav vriesen, August Macke, stuttgart,1953,p.120,translatedfromgerman).
augustMacke,Sonniger Weg,1913,oiloncard,LandesmuseumfürKunstundKulturgeschichte,WestfälischesLandesmuseum,Münster fIg.3, augustMacke,Promenade,1913,oiloncard,städtischegalerieimLenbachhaus,Munich 79
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T O r s O e I n e s J U n g e n W e I B e s
( TO r s O O f a yO U n g WO M a n )
inscribedLehmbruck c aststone height:118cm.46½in. executedin1910andcastshortlythereafter,mostprobablyduringtheartist'slifetime. Ω £650,000-850,000
rovenance P fritzgreven,cologne KurtBadt,germany(acquiredprobablycirca1920) privatecollection,switzerland(bydescentfromtheabove.sold:christie's,London,25thJune2001,lot25) purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner iterature L carleinstein,Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts,1931,illustrationofanothercastp.318 Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum,Duisburg(ed.),Wilhelm Lehmbruck Sammlung, Plastik - Malerei, recklinghausen,1964,illustrationofanothercastp.39 reinholdheller,The Art of Wilhelm Lehmbruck,Washingon,D.c.,1972,no.11,illustrationofanothercast Dietrichschubert,Die Kunst Lehmbrucks,Worms,1981,no.119,illustrationofanothercastpl.73 christophBrockhaus(ed.),Wilhelm Lehmbruck,gotha,Berlin&Leipzig,1987,illustrationofanothercastp.183 Dietrichschubert,Die Kunst Lehmbrucks,Worms,1990,illustrationofabronzecastoppositep.89 rolandMärzet al.,Kunst in Deutschland 1905-1937 - Sammlung der Nationalgalerie,Berlin,1992,illustrationof anothercastp.97 Martinarudloff&Dietrichschubert(ed.),Wilhelm Lehmbruck(exhibitioncatalogue),Bremen&Mannheim, 2000-01,no.9a,illustrationofanothercastp.71 Dietrichschubert,Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Catalogue raisonné der Skulpturen 1898-1919,Worms,2001,no.52, illustrationsofothercastspp.195-198 Dietrichschubert,‘Inihrerwunderbarengusshaut’,inFrankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 16thJune2001, illustratedp.57 Theauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbyprof.Dr.Dietrichschubert,Universityofheidelberg.
xecutedinparisin1910,Torso eines jungen Weibes belongstoa e pivotalperiodinLehmbruck'sœuvre,markedbyasearchforthe idealformratherthanfornaturalisticrepresentation.Likemostof hissculpturesfromthisperiod,thepresentworkisbasedonthe artist'swifeanita,whomhemarriedin1908.nevertheless,the exact rendering of his model plays a secondary part in Lehmbruck'screativeprocess.hispursuitofclassicalbeautyis visiblenotonlyintheproportionaterenderingofthewoman's body,butalsointhesuggestionofthecontrappostopostureand thesubtleuseofdraperyaroundherhips.Withhergracefuland beautifullyproportionedtorsoandherheadslightlytiltedtoone side, the nude ﬁgure conveys a sense of innocence and pensivenesswhileatthesametimeemanatingasubtlesexual tensionandsensuality. fterstudyingattheDüsseldorfacademyofart,Lehmbruck a movedtoparisin1910.TherehefrequentedthecaféduDôme, where he met sculptors such as Brancusi, archipenko and Modiglianiandwasalsointroducedtotheprocessofstone casting,atechniquealreadypractisedbyBrancusiatthetime. Withitsdiversityofstimulationanditsatmospherepulsatingwith evernewartisticideas,pariswastheidealarenaforLehmbruckto develophisstyle.hewasanadmirerofrodin'sworksince1904 andmetaristideMaillolin1910,andTorso eines jungen Weibesis abeautifulexampleofthekindoftheinﬂuenceoftheirarton Lehmbruck. Dietrich schubert observed about the artist's admiration for Maillol: 'Like Maillol, Lehmbruck became fascinatedwiththeintrovertqualitiesofaﬁgurewherebyhe concentratedonportrayinghismodelsinacomposed,sensual statebeingatonewiththeirspiritualcentre'(D.schubert,op. cit., 1990,p.118,translatedfromgerman). hepresentworkoncebelongedtothedistinguishedgerman T arthistorianKurtBadt(1890-1973),whowroteonarangeof subjects,fromOldMasterandBaroquepaintersandsculptors, tocontemporaryartists,includingLehmbruck.hisessay Die Plastik Wilhelm Lehmbrucks,publishedin1920,wasoneofthe ﬁrstimportantstudiesontheartist.Thereareonlyninerecorded stonecastsofTorso eines jungen Weibes,ﬁveofwhicharenow housedinimportantmuseumcollections:nationalgalerie,Berlin; the Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum, Duisburg; Museum der bildendenKünste,Leipzig;Kunsthmuseum,Baselandtheneue staatsgalerie,Munich.Thisworkiscloselyrelatedtothefulllengthversionofthestandingnude,Grosse Stehende(ﬁg.1). fIg.1
WilhelmLehmbruck,Grosse Stehende,1910,stonecast,Kunsthalle,Mannheim (opposite)thepresentlot 83
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B e g e g n U n g I n D e r n a c h T ( M e e T I n g I n T h e n I g h T ) signedBeckmannanddatedF.28(lowerright) whiteandcolouredchalkonblackpaintedpaper 108.5by50.5cm.42¾by19⅞in. executedinfrankfurtin1928. ‡ £700,000-1,000,000
rovenance P estateoftheartist catherinevivianogallery,newyork stanleyJ.seeger,Usa(acquiredfromtheaboveinOctober1959.sold:sotheby's,newyork,8thMay2001,lot13) purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner xhibited E Basel,Kunsthalle,Max Beckmann,1930,no.120 Zurich,Kunsthaus,Max Beckmann,1930,no.91 hanover,Kestner-gesellschaft,Max Beckmann - Gemälde und Graphik 1906 bis 1930,1931,no.36 Berlin,preussischeakademiederKünste,Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1931,1931,no.37 Munich,galerieJ.B.neumannundgüntherfranke,Fünfundsiebzigste Ausstellung des Graphischen Kabinetts - SommerAusstellung,1931,no.9 Königsberg,städtischeKunsthalle,Deutscher Künstlerbund - Aquarelle, Zeichnungen,1932,no.24 princeton,TheartMuseum,princetonUniversity,The Stanley J. Seeger Jr. Collection,1961,no.26,illustratedinthecatalogue austin,UniversityartMuseum,TheUniversityofTexas,Not So Long Ago. Art of the 1920s in Europe and America,1972, illustratedinthecatalogue Bielefeld,Kunsthalle;Tübingen,Kunsthalle&frankfurt,städtischegalerieimstädelschenKunstinstitut,Max Beckmann, Aquarelle und Zeichnungen,1903-1950,1977-78,no.124,illustratedinthecatalogue frankfurt,städtischegalerieimstädelschenKunstinstitut,Max Beckmann, Frankfurt 1915-1933,1983-84,no.159,illustratedin colourinthecatalogue cologne,JosefhaubrichKunsthalle,Max Beckmann,1984,no.86,illustratedinthecatalogue Düsseldorf,Kunstsammlungnordrhein-Westfalen,Max Beckmann, Die Nacht,1997,no.78,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue paris,Muséenationald'artModerne,Max Beckmann, un peintre dans l'histoire,2002-03,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue frankfurt,schirnKunsthalle,Max Beckmann. Die Aquarelle und Pastelle,2006,no.36,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue iterature L Lothar-güntherBuchheim,Max Beckmann,feldaﬁng,1959,no.99,illustratedinaphotographoftheartist'sstudiop.195 erhard&Barbaragöpel,Max Beckmann, Katalog der Gemälde,Bern,1976,vol.I,p.255,mentionedunderno.369 Stadtnächte - Der Zeichner und Grafiker Max Beckmann(exhibitioncatalogue),hamburgerKunstverein,hamburg,1980,p.143 Jeannotsimmen,Vertigo - Schwindel der modernen Kunst,Munich,1990,no.69,illustrated reinhardspieler,Max Beckmann. Der Weg zum Mythos,cologne,1994,illustratedp.92 Klausgallwitz(ed.),Max Beckmann, Briefe,Munich&Zurich,1994,vol.II,p.416 OrtrudWestheider,Die Farbe Schwarz in der Malerei Max Beckmanns,Berlin,1995,no.38,illustrated siegfriedgohr,Selbstgespräche - Aquarelle und Pastelle von Max Beckmann,essen,2000-01,illustratedincolourp.28 stephanreimertz,Max Beckmann, Biographie,Munich,2003,pp.260&283 Olafpeters,Vom schwarzen Seiltänzer: Max Beckmann zwischen Weimarer Republik und Exil,Berlin,2005,no.30,illustratedp.78 84
One of Beckmann's most powerful and arresting works, Begegnung in der Nachtwasexecutedinfrankfurt,where theartistlivedbetween1915and1933.Duringtheseyears, theartistexploredthemesofstruggleandfrustrationin many of his works, no doubt inﬂuenced by the tension extant during the aftermath of the first World War. an aesthetewithpan-europeansophistication,Beckmanngrew increasinglydissatisﬁedwiththepoliticalsituationprevalent incentraleuropeatthattime.Whilehiscompositionsare oftenenigmatic,ratherthanopenlycritical,asintheworksof hiscontemporariesgeorgegroszandOttoDix,thissense of dissatisfaction is certainly reﬂected in the sarcastic, decadenttonethatsopowerfullydominatesinthiswork. In the present work, Beckmann clearly expresses these themesoffrustrationandinjusticethroughtheiconography ofopposition.Twocentralcharactersarepresentedasdirect contrasts to each other: the dark, upright, tuxedo-clad gentleman,stronglyreminiscentoftheartist'sself-portraits, looksonuntroubledasthesemi-nudewoman,hangedby herankles,isunabletoseehercaptor.Beckmann'smessage and symbolism, although cryptic, can perhaps be deciphered by considering the artist's earlier work, Die Nacht (The Night),paintedin1918-19(ﬁg.1).althoughnot asmarkedlyviolentastheearliercomposition,Begegnung in der Nacht alludes to similar themes of alienation and inequality.Writingaboutthesigniﬁcanceofviolenceand thenightinBeckmann'swork,carlaschulz-hoffmannhas
proposed: 'This is not a parable about a possible redemption,butabouthumancontingencyandthelackof freedom in which the night is a symbol of the hell of humanity.Thereisnoescapefromthisclosedsystem,and neitherperpetratorsnorvictimsarereallyguilty'(c.schulzhoffmann, Max Beckmann, Retrospective (exhibition catalogue),ThesaintLouisartMuseum,1984,p.25).
Begegnung in der Nacht is one of Beckmann's most successfulworksonpaperofthisperiod.Withafluiduse oflineandshadow,theartisthascreatedacomposition thatrelatesdirectlytothepictorialintentionsofhisoilsof thisperiod.Likemanyotherpaintingsanddrawingsofthis era,Beckmannpaysparticularattentiontothedelineation of the figures' hands and the individualisation of the shackledwoman'sface.furthermore,thefiguresinthis drawingarecompactedintoatight,shallowspace,giving little regard to perspective and forcing the viewer to concentrate on the powerful image. This condensed treatment of space lends the two figures a certain monumentality, while at the same time imbuing the compositionwithanatmosphereofanxietyandtension. Theartisthimselfevidentlyheldthisworkinhighesteem, ashekeptitinhisstudio(fig.2).afterBeckmann'sdeath, thecatherinevivianogallery,whohandledhisestate,sold thisworktothecelebratedcollectorstanleyJ.seeger,in whosecollectionitremainedforoverfortyyears,during whichtimeitwasextensivelyexhibited.
fIg.1, MaxBeckmann,Die Nacht,1918-19,oiloncanvas,Kunstsammlungnordrhein-Westfalen,Düsseldorf (opposite)aviewofBeckmann'snewyorkstudio,showingthepresentworkontherightandthe1925paintingGalleria Umbertoontheleft.
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22 Joan Miró
1893 - 1983
F E M M E S E T O I S E AU DA N S L A N U I T signed Miró, titled and dated 28-11-46 on the reverse gouache and sealing wax on unstretched canvas 65 by 50cm. 25⅝ by 19⅝in. (irregular) Executed on 28th November 1946. ‡ £450,000-600,000
rovenance P Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York James Goodman Gallery, New York Perls Galleries, New York russeck Gallery, Palm Beach Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2004 iterature L Jacques Dupin, Joan Miró:LifeandWork, London, 1962, no. 678, illustrated p. 551 (as dating from 1945) Jacques Dupin & Ariane Lelong-Mainaud, JoanMiró,CatalogueRaisonné.Paintings, Paris, 2001, vol. III, no. 804, illustrated in colour p. 113
When Miró painted this canvas in 1946, he was at the height of his international acclaim. The previous year, the New York dealer Pierre Matisse had exhibited the artist's celebrated series of Constellations to enormous praise. The demand for Miró's work in the United States had become so great that in August 1946 Pierre Matisse offered to purchase the artist's entire production of 1942-46 and to ﬁnance him for the next two years. Better yet, Miró was invited to the United States to create what would be his ﬁrst public commission - a mural for the Terrace Plaza Hotel in Cincinnati. What the public, his dealer and his critics recognised in Miró's paintings from this era was a certain zeal and optimism that was in sharp contrast to the sombre mood of post-war Europe. Femmesetoiseaudanslanuit is a composition populated by Miró's recognisable Surrealist characters – two highly stylised human ﬁgures and a bird suspended above them. Jacques Dupin wrote about the artist's production from 1946: 'Although the handwriting will tend to become freer and invention more ﬂexible, nonetheless his works of 1946 follow the lines established in the paintings of the two preceding years. [...] we ﬁnd the conﬁrmation and the 88
continuing development of an art which becomes progressively less capricious, less anxious, and more selfassured. All the paintings of this year are characterized by the abandonment of the purely rhythmic elements and signs that abounded in 1945. The artist concentrates on his ﬁgures and animals, now making them more and more unlike each other, even odder and more humorous in character ... (a) renewed passion for artistic materials produces grounds of great richness and animation' (J. Dupin, op.cit., 1962, p. 382). The present work amply demonstrates the vigour of Miró's experimentation with new materials. His exploration of painting on irregularly shaped pieces of canvas resulted in a number of works executed between 1944 and 1945. They are recognised for their lively animation and humour, populated with a profusion of ﬁgures and signs. Dupin held them in high regard, commenting that 'The artist's imagination roams freely on them, and he improvises with much greater ease and casualness. The absence of the easel seems to have freed him from the usual constraints... The gestures that create them are swift and sure' (ibid., p. 378).
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23 Pablo Picasso
1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
LE PEINTrE ET SON MODÈLE signed Picasso (lower right), dated 4.5.63. on the reverse oil on canvas 65 by 100cm. 25⅝ by 39⅜in. Painted on 4th May 1963. £800,000-1,200,000 €930,000-1,400,000 US$1,160,000-1,740,000
Provenance Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris Alexander Iolas, Paris Acquired from the above by the present owner in 1982 Literature Christian Zervos, PabloPicasso,œuvresde1962et1963, Paris, 1971, vol. 23, no. 253, illustrated pl. 120 The Picasso Project, Picasso'sPaintings,Watercolors,DrawingsandSculpture.TheSixtiesI,19601963, San Francisco, 2002, no. 63-130, illustrated p. 367
The early to mid 1960s marked a period of great synthesis for Picasso, reﬂected in the theme of the artist and his model, which preoccupied him during this time. It proved to be one of his most passionate and energetic projects, inspired by the ﬁnal love of Picasso's life, Jacqueline, whom he married in 1961. The artist ﬁrst explored this subject intensively in the spring of 1963, dividing the pictorial space between the painter and his model. In the present work, as is usually the case, each of them occupies its own domain, separated by the vertical easel between them. It is the large ﬁgure of the painter that dominates in the present composition, his easel lit by the lamp above it, however it is the female model, painted in quick brushstrokes of bright green and pink hues, who stands out against the darkness that envelopes the room. The relationship and synergy between the artist and model was one of profound complexity, 'the more Picasso painted
this theme, the more he pushed the artist-model relationship towards its ultimate conclusion: the artist embraces his model, cancelling out the barrier of the canvas and transforming the artist-model relationship into a manwoman relationship. Painting is an act of love, according to Gert Schiff, and John richardson speaks of 'sex as metaphor for art, and art as a metaphor for sex' (Marie-Laure Bernadac, 'Picasso 1953-1972: Painting as Model', in Late Picasso(exhibition catalogue), Tate Gallery, London, 1988, p. 77). With her voluptuous curves and long black hair, the model represents the object of the artist's desire, the picture's erotic undertone emphasised by the gap between art and reality, between the ageing painter and his young muse. Picasso's waning sexual potency is countered by his power of vision and creativity, by the swift, conﬁdent application of paint, and the remarkably bold free-ﬂowing treatment of colour.
Soutine’s LeValetdechambre BY MAUrICE TUCHMAN AND ESTI DUNOW
The uniformed figures Soutine took to painting serially in the mid-twenties are exquisite examples of painterly nuance and psychological probity. They are painted with finesse and subtlety, befitting Soutine’s maturity and this period in his life of thoughtfulness, rather than unadulterated force. These paintings do not appear to have been made at one go, as were earlier canvases, but perhaps entailed multiple sessions with the model. The power of pure painting as such remains visible but it is now modulated and multi-leveled; it is explicitly tradition-based and yet utterly modern, resonant, insightful. No painting better expresses this muted force and sophistication than LeValetdechambre of 1927-28. A masterpiece of modern portraiture, it fuses explosive, painterly gestural passion with a control of means that Chaïm Soutine always wished for (he told Jacques Lipchitz that his ‘favorite’ painting in the Louvre was by the 15th century Jean Fouquet) and now could achieve. Somehow, Soutine stayed ‘in the brush,’ but now it is modulated and adroit. This painting has had an extraordinary exhibition history: it has been shown publicly 50 times around the world, in as many shows, and has been owned by a dozen prescient art collectors. One can precisely track every month of its journey in private hands and public view for the past seven decades. It attracted special attention virtually every time it was exhibited, in newspaper reviews and art magazines, and is featured in every monograph on the artist, starting with the earliest writings on him in 1928 and 1929 by Waldemar George and Elie Faure. LeValetdechambre: an icon of Chaïm Soutine’s œuvre, a tour-de-force of paint and feeling… This painting commands our attention on multiple levels – as a virtuoso display of painterly craft and power, as a haunting and evocative portrait, and as a historically recognized master work of the artist. The artist’s fluid stroke covers every inch of the surface, a layering of brushstroke over brushstroke – the painterly liquid ‘touch’ of Soutine, a touch that the critic Clement Greenberg said could only be likened to rembrandt’s. red, white and blue – the colors of France – become an increasingly favorite palette for Soutine from the mid-1920s on. The uniform provides an emblematic visual pattern – much like a flag – but impersonal. As the richness of color is explored and extracted from each area of red, blue or black, the uniform itself serves as a foil, a neutral backdrop against which the physicality of flesh – of hands and face – come to life, as well as the particularity of gesture, the turn and clasp of the hands, the gaze of the eyes, the turn of the face. From these fields of red, white, blue grow the hands, the face – the flesh of the figure, which becomes a living organism creating and expressing the individuality of the sitter. The model himself, an anonymous young man further cloaked in the anonymity of his uniform, becomes more than a ‘type’ – a valet, a hotel/restaurant employee; he is a particular person, someone we would recognize should he appear before us in real life. De Kooning aptly said that ‘Soutine distorted the pictures, but not the people.’ ‘You can somehow see the people… You know everything about the bellboy… The painting is the painting but he never destroyed the people.’
Soutine and Zborowski on holiday in vittel, late 1920s
It is unusual in Soutine’s work to be able to trace a painting’s provenance uninterruptedly through the years. The distinguished provenance of this painting begins with Léopold Zborowski, Soutine’s first dealer. It was Modigliani who introduced them, and upon his death, Modigliani’s last words to Zborowski were ‘I leave you Soutine.’ After Zborowski the painting was owned by noted dealers like Pierre Loeb, Paul rosenberg, Knoedler’s, and prestigious private collections such as Mr. and Mrs. Leigh Block, Walter P. Chrysler and Armand Hammer, and as part of the Armand Hammer Collection, LeValetdechambre was exhibited continuously from 1978 until 1987. LeValet dechambre easily takes its place as a masterpiece within Soutine’s art and within the twentieth century. MauriceTuchmanandEstiDunowaretheco-authorsofthe‘ChaïmSoutineCatalogueRaisonné’,volumes IandII,publishedin1993.Thethirdvolumeiscurrentlyinpreparation.
24 Chaïm Soutine
1 8 9 3 - 1 94 3
L E vA L E T D E C H A M B r E signed Soutine (upper right) oil on canvas 109.2 by 63.5cm. 43 by 25in. Painted circa 1927-28. ‡ £7,000,000-9,000,000
Provenance Léopold Zborowski, Paris (acquired by 1928) Pierre Loeb, Paris (acquired by 1932) Marcel Fleischmann, Zurich (acquired in 1939 and until circa 1945-46) Theodore Schempp, New York (acquired circa 1945-46 and until April 1946) Mr & Mrs Leigh B. Block, Chicago (acquired in April 1946; until October 1954) Paul rosenberg & Co., New York (acquired in October 1954; until February 1955) Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., New York (acquired in February 1955; until 1977) M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York The Armand Hammer Collection, Los Angeles (1977-1990) The Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center, Los Angeles (1990-2007) The Armand Hammer Foundation, Los Angeles Acquired from the above by the present owner xhibited E San Francisco, Palace of Fine Arts, GoldenGate InternationalExposition.ContemporaryEuropeanPaintings, 1940, no. 701 Williamstown, Williams College (and travelling), Twenty TwentiethCenturyPaintings, 1940-41 New York, The Museum of Modern Art & Cleveland, Museum of Art, Soutine, 1950-51, illustrated in the catalogue (as dating from 1929) Portland, Art Museum; Seattle, Art Museum; San Francisco, California Palace of the Legion of Honor; Los Angeles, County Museum; Minneapolis, Institute of Arts; St. Louis, City Art Museum; Kansas City, William rockhill Nelson
Gallery of Art; Detroit, Institute of Arts & Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, PaintingsfromtheCollectionofWalterP. Chrysler,Jr., 1956-57, no. 99, illustrated in the catalogue (as dating from 1929) Provincetown, Chrysler Art Museum, InauguralExhibition, 1958, no. 59, illustrated in the catalogue Dayton, Art Institute, FrenchPaintings,1789-1929,fromthe CollectionofWalterP.Chrysler,Jr., 1960, no. 120, illustrated in the catalogue Provincetown, Chrysler Art Museum & Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, TheControversialCentury:1850-1950. PaintingsfromtheCollectionofWalterP.Chrysler,Jr., 1962, illustrated in the catalogue Buffalo, Albright-Knox Art Gallery & Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, TheArmandHammerCollection:Four CenturiesofMasterpieces, 1978, no. 52, illustrated in colour in the catalogue (as dating from 1929) Oslo, National Gallery of Norway, TheArmandHammer Collection:FromRembrandttoPicasso, 1978-79, no. 52, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Stockholm, Nationalmuseum, TheArmandHammer Collection:FromRembrandttoChagall, 1979, no. 52, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Houston, Museum of Fine Arts, TheArmandHammer Collection:FourCenturiesofMasterpieces, 1979-80, no. 55, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Los Angeles, County Museum of Art; Washington, D.C., Corcoran Gallery and School of Art; West Palm Beach, Norton Gallery and School of Art; Cincinnati, Art Museum; Lexington, University of Kentucky Art Museum; Beijing, China Art Gallery; West virginia, Huntington Galleries; Los Angeles, County Museum of Art; Budapest, Fine Arts Museum of Hungary; Soﬁa, National Gallery of Art;
Belgrade, National Museum; Prague, National Gallery of Art; Tulsa, Philbrook Art Center; Los Angeles, County Museum of Art & Jerusalem, Israel Museum, The Armand HammerCollection:FiveCenturiesofMasterpieces, 198085, no. 50, illustrated in the catalogue Albuquerque Museum & Alabama, Birmingham Museum of Art, TheArmandHammerCollection, 1985, no. 50, illustrated in colour in the catalogue West Palm Beach, Norton Gallery and School of Art & Palm Springs, Desert Museum, TheArmandHammer Collection:FiveCenturiesofMasterpieces, 1985-86, no. 123, illustrated in colour in the catalogue St. Petersburg, Hermitage Museum; Moscow, State Art Gallery; Novosibirsk, regional Picture Gallery; Odessa, Fine Art Museum; Kiev, State Museum of Ukrainian Fine Arts & Tbilisi, State Museum of the Georgian S.S.r., TheArmand HammerCollection:FiveCenturiesofMasterpieces, 1986-87, no. 123, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Louisville, J.B. Speed Art Museum, TheArmandHammer Collection, 1987, no. 123, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Holyoke, Heritage State Park, SelectedWorksoftheArmand HammerCollection, 1987, no. 123, illustrated in colour in the catalogue West Palm Beach, The Norton Museum of Art (on loan 2007-09)
Literature Waldemar George, Artistesjuifs: Soutine, Paris, 1928, illustrated Elie Faure, 'Sutin', in Musaion, Prague, 1929-30, illustrated p. 101 Maurice Sachs, 'Soutine', in CreativeArt, vol. 11, no. 4, New York, December 1932, illustrated p. 277 Alfred Werner, 'Chaim Soutine: Self-Liberation Through Art', in Chicago JewishForum, vol. 10, no. 3, Chicago, Spring 1952, illustrated p. 177 'Living with the Great', in Vogue, 1st October 1952, p. 118 'The Chrysler Collection', in Arts, vol. 30, no. 6, March 1956, illustrated p. 35 Marcellin Castaing & Jean Leymarie, Soutine, Paris & Lausanne, 1963, illustrated pl. XvI Metropolitan Museum of Art, FrenchPaintings, New York, 1967, vol. III, p. 244 Pierre Courthion, Soutine.Peintredudéchirant, Lausanne, 1972, ﬁg. B, illustrated p. 267 John Walker (ed.), TheArmandHammerCollection.Five CenturiesofMasterpieces, New York, 1980, no. 53, illustrated in colour Maurice Tuchman, Esti Dunow & Klaus Perls, ChaimSoutine, CatalogueRaisonné, Cologne, 1993, vol. II, no. 104, illustrated in colour p. 667
Chaïm Soutine, Legroom, circa 1925, oil on canvas, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris
Portraying a young boy, only identiﬁed by his valet uniform, LeValetdechambre epitomises Soutine's portraiture of the middle and late 1920s, characterised by a great expressiveness of pose, rhythmically charged brushstrokes and strong colour contrasts. regardless of the age, social status, or the artist's personal involvement with the sitter, Soutine's portraits are imbued with a strong physical presence, as well as with a uniqueness and individuality of his subjects. As the authors of the Catalogue raisonné of Soutine's work have commented: 'While his portraits do convey inner realities and make spiritual statements, they are primarily rooted in concrete perception. Though Soutine may project his inner turbulence and most personal feelings onto his subjects, the viewer never loses sight of a particular physical entity being carefully observed and experienced. Even the distortions and exaggerations of facial features and the shiftings and dislocations of body parts do not destroy the essential recognition in each painting of a certain person and a reality speciﬁc to him or her' (M. Tuchman, E. Dunow & K. Perls, op.cit., p. 509). Whilst Soutine occasionally painted portraits of his friends, fellow artists, patrons and several self-portraits, he usually preferred to depict anonymous sitters. The people, whom
the artist encountered in everyday life, were identiﬁed by their professions and uniforms, such as page boys (ﬁg. 1), valets and pastry chefs (ﬁg. 2). This shift from portraying people from his own social circle towards less known ﬁgures parallels that of his close friend and fellow artist Amedeo Modigliani who, having left Paris and moved to the French riviera, executed a number of portraits of children, peasants, servants and shop girls. Le Valet de chambre bears resemblance, for example, to Modigliani's LePetitpaysan (ﬁg. 3): both are portraits of unidentiﬁed boys, seated frontally in a similar plain interior, with mannerist, elongated facial features. Although both artists sought to emphasise the emotional, inner state of their sitters, Soutine's boy, rendered in quick, sharp brushstrokes, reﬂects a sense of angst and unease, Modigliani's portrait has a dreamy, melancholic atmosphere. 'Soutine generally chose anonymous ﬁgures as models. But as much as his characters may become types, they never give up their identities as particular people. Soutine's insistence on the physical particularity of his subject, together with this move towards more anonymous sitters, demonstrates his resistance to completely losing himself in the subjective aspects of the portrait experience. This
Chaïm Soutine, LePâtissier aumouchoirrouge, circa 1922-23, oil on canvas, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris 97
resistance to a complete union between painter and model is also felt in the way Soutine's ﬁgures "pose" before him and us, open to our penetrating scrutiny, but somehow indifferent to the artist's presence [...]. It is the tension between their seeming detachment, on the one hand, and an awareness of Soutine's personal involvement with them, on the other, that heightens the expressive charge of these ﬁgures' (ibid., pp. 509-510).
any clues as to the surrounding in which the sitter is depicted. This deliberate lack of detail takes the viewer's focus away from the potential narrative of the painting, and centres our attention to the physical and emotional power of the portrait. The energy and expressive force of LeValetde chambre is evocative of the angst-ridden self-portraits of van Gogh, as well as of his depictions of semi-anonymous sitters the artist encountered in everyday life (ﬁg. 4).
Although Soutine painted a wide range of sitters throughout his career, the formal arrangements of these portraits remained consistent: his sitters are usually rendered seated, occasionally standing, in half-length or three-quarter-length pose. These ﬁgures, often facing frontally and clothed in formal dress, create a sense of posing, rather than a spontaneously captured likeness. LeValetdechambreis no exception: the boy is depicted frontally, seated on a stool facing the artist, dressed in his valet's uniform. Another recurring feature is the elongated shape of the head, often with a long nose, large protruding ears and deep, expressive eyes. The background, painted in deep blue tones, is bare and, apart from describing an interior setting, does not offer
eValetdechambre belonged to a number of important L collections, including Soutine’s ﬁrst dealer Zborowski, the Chicago collector Leigh B. Block and Walter P. Chrysler, Jr. For many years the work was in the collection of Armand Hammer, the well known Californian businessman and art collector, as well as a co-owner of the Hammer Galleries in New York. The work remained in Hammer's possession until his death in 1990, during which time it was extensively exhibited as one of the masterpieces of the collection. This and other works from his private collection formed the core of the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Culture Center in California, which opened to the public in November 1990, only weeks before Hammer's death.
Amedeo Modigliani, L ePetitpaysan, circa 1918, oil on canvas, Tate Gallery, London vincent van Gogh, L eFacteurJosephRoulin, 1888, oil on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston FIG. 5, (opposite) Soutine at Le Blanc, 1926
FIG. 3, FIG. 4,
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25 Joan Miró
1893 - 1983
F E M M E E T O I S E A U X D E vA N T L E S O L E I L signed Miró (lower left) oil on cardboard 104.5 by 75cm. 41⅛ by 29½in. Painted in 1963. £500,000-700,000 €585,000-815,000 US$725,000-1,020,000
rovenance P Galerie Maeght, Paris Private Collection, France (acquired from the above) Thence by descent to the present owner iterature L Jacques Dupin & Ariane Lelong-Mainaud, JoanMiró.CatalogueRaisonné,Paintings, Paris, 2002, vol. Iv, no. 1045, illustrated p. 43
By the time he executed Femmeetoiseauxdevantlesoleil, Miró had developed a distinctive iconography, and the present work exempliﬁes the expressive power of his imagery, bordering between representation and abstraction. For Miró, women, birds, stars, the moon, the sun, night and dusk formed a poetic language. He ﬁrst introduced the motif of a woman with a bird, in a realistic manner, in his paintings of 1917, but it was only after his celebrated Constellations series of 1941, in which women, birds and stars feature prominently, that this theme became the primary subject of his art. Commenting on this subject matter, the artist himself pronounced: 'It might be a dog, a woman, or whatever. I don't really care. Of course, while I am painting, I see a woman or a bird in my mind, indeed, very tangibly a woman or a bird. Afterward, it's up to you' (J. Miró & Georges raillard, Ceciestlacouleurdemesrêves, Paris, 1977, p. 128). Whilst taking recognisable objects as his starting point, in the present work Miró builds his composition using a pictorial lexicon of signs and symbols, in a style that
characterised his post-war production. After his trip to New York in 1947, Miró became acquainted with the art of the Abstract Expressionists and was fascinated by their new techniques and their aesthetic agenda. As the artist later recalled, the experience of seeing canvases of the Abstract Expressionists was like 'a blow to the solar plexus.' Several young painters, including Jackson Pollock, were crediting Miró as their inspiration for their wild, paint-splattered canvases. In the years that followed he created works that responded to the enthusiasm of this younger generation of American painters and the spontaneity of their art. It was also under their inﬂuence that he started working on a large scale, such as in the present work. His compositions from this period are a fascinating response to these new artistic trends, while at the same time showing Miró's allegiance to his own artistic pursuits. 'For me a form is never something abstract,' he once said, 'it is always a sign of something. It is always a man, a bird, or something else. For me painting is never form for form's sake' (M. rowell, JoanMiró,SelectedWritingsand Interviews, Boston, 1986, p. 207).
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26 Pablo Picasso
1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
B U S T E D E M ATA D O r dated 27.9.70IVon the reverse oil on canvas 130 by 97cm. 51⅛ by 38⅛in. Painted on 27th September 1970. £5,000,000-7,000,000 €5,810,000-8,140,000 US$7,240,000-10,140,000
rovenance P Marina Picasso, Paris (granddaughter of the artist; by descent) Estate of William H. van Every, Jr. (sold: Sotheby's, New York, 11th November 1988, lot 69) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E Avignon, Palais des Papes, Picasso1970-1972, 1973, no. 7, illustrated in the catalogue (titled Torero) Miami, Center for the Fine Arts, PicassoatWorkatHome:SelectionsfromtheMarinaPicasso Collection, 1985-86, no. 147, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Charlotte, North Carolina, Jerald Melberg Gallery, Inc., Pablo Picasso, 1986 iterature L Christian Zervos, PabloPicasso,œuvresde1970, Paris, 1977, vol. 32, no. 270, illustrated pl. 87 LeDernierPicasso,1953-1973 (exhibition catalogue), Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1988, illustrated in a photograph of the exhibition at Avignon p. 136 The Picasso Project, Picasso'sPaintings,Watercolors,DrawingsandSculpture.TheFinalYears,19701973, San Francisco, 2004, no. 70-301, illustrated p. 87
From late September until 23rd October 1970, when he painted his last matador work following a bullﬁght at Fréjus, Picasso returned to the celebrated theme of the matador for a ﬁnal time (ﬁg. 1). For the elderly artist, the matador was one of a cast of characters that were a means of projecting different aspects of his identity. In Picasso's late paintings the subject 'always plays a part, or wears a disguise: as a painter at work or as a matadormusketeer [...] Picasso's confrontation with the human face, which makes him into the great portrait-painter of the twentieth century, brings him back to a confrontation with himself, the painter, young or old' (M.-L. Bernadac, in LatePicasso(exhibition catalogue), The Tate Gallery, London, 1988, pp. 81-83). These portraits of the various archetypes that populated Picasso's personal mythology were part of a late ﬂowering, a ﬁnal synthesis which merged the artist's personal history with the cultural heritage of the Western artistic tradition, and developed a direct and spontaneous style that celebrated the act of artistic creation. Despite leaving Spain to live in Paris in his youth, Picasso retained a sense of Spanish identity until the very end of his life. He grew up watching bullﬁghts in Malaga, and when he wished to draw attention to his heritage, such as during the Spanish Civil War for his work Guernica, he turned to the imagery of the bullﬁght. The return to the subject in the present work illustrates how the ageing artist dwelt on his earliest memories and the pantheon of Old Master painters for inspiration in his late art, in particular the ﬁgure of rembrandt. Personal memories become intertwined with the art and artists that made up his artistic heritage, and in this ﬁnal series of matador portraits the ghost of Goya is strongly present. Picasso's matadors are dressed in the style of ﬁgures from Goya's time (ﬁg. 2) and represent a ﬁnal tribute to La Corrida, the dance of life and death that symbolised the
The recent exhibition at the National Gallery in London, Picasso: ChallengingthePast, is part of an ongoing reassessment of Picasso's late œuvre, and the works of the last twenty years of Picasso's life are increasingly seen as a ﬁtting culmination to the career of the 20th century's greatest artist. At this stage of his career, Picasso was consciously aligning himself with the great masters of Western art and his numerous interpretations of earlier masterpieces were an attempt to situate his own artistic achievement in relation to those of his predecessors. His late portraits represent a psychological projection of a complex and multifaceted identity, and through numerous symbolic references to previous artists provide a visual illustration of the amalgamation of inﬂuences and personas that made up his iconography. As Simonetta Fraquelli commented in the exhibition catalogue, 'In an era when nonﬁgurative art was prevailing over ﬁgurative art and a linear progression of 'style' was considered more relevant than emotion and subject, it was customary for many younger artists and art critics to think of late Picasso as lesser Picasso. However, the extensive re-evaluation of his late work since his death has highlighted its undiminished power and originality. His capacity for emotional depth and painterly freedom in his late painting, together with his wide ranging engagement with the imagery of the great paintings of the past, was to have a lasting inﬂuence on the development of neoexpressionist art from the early 1980s onwards' (S. Fraquelli, 'Looking at the Past to Defy the Present: Picasso's Painting 19461973' in Picasso:ChallengingthePast (exhibition catalogue), National Gallery, London, 2009, p. 146).
FIG. 1, Pablo Picasso, LeMatadoraucigare, 14th October 1970, oil on canvas, Musée Picasso, Paris Francisco de Goya, TheMatadorPedroRomero, circa1795-97, oil on canvas, The Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas FIG. 3, (opposite) A view of the Picasso exhibition at the Palais des Papes, Avignon, 1973, showing the present work, lower left
extremes of the Spanish temperament, and to the heroic ﬁgure of the matador who embodied Picasso's own Andalusian machismo.
'Hung unframed, in tiers, and arranged in series, an exuberant and colourful procession of cavaliers, couples, nude women and solemn portraits ďŹ lled the bare walls of the chapel like sacrilegious votive plaques: this was Picasso's 'Last Judgement.' ' M A r I E- L A U r E B E r N A DAC
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27 Fernand Léger
1 8 8 1 - 1 9 55
COMPOSITION SUr FOND BLEU signed F.Léger and dated 37 (lower right); signed F.Léger, titled and dated 1937 on the reverse oil on canvas 91 by 66cm. 36¼ by 26in. Painted in 1937. £250,000-350,000 €291,000-407,000 US$362,000-510,000
rovenance P Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris Galerie Benador, Geneva Galerie Motte, Paris Sale: Christie's, London, 19th June 1964, lot 65 Sale: Palais d'Orsay, Paris, 12th December 1979, lot 99 Alexander Iolas, Paris Acquired from the above by the present owner in 1984 iterature L Georges Bauquier, FernandLéger,catalogueraisonnédel'œuvrepeint,1932-1937, Paris, 1996, no. 909, illustrated in colour p. 195
During the late 1930s, Léger's work focused largely on international interior design projects, and his paintings from this period often incorporated the crisp imagery that he devised for these purposes. In 1937, he designed stage sets for the Paris opera house, as well as decorations for the Trade Union Congress at the vélodrome d'Hiver in Paris and the TransportdesForces for the Palais de Découverte in Paris. Léger continued to work in this capacity in 1938, when he was commissioned to decorate the apartment of Nelson rockefeller in New York. These various design projects brought forth a particular decorative ﬂair in many of the artist's formal compositions on canvas, including the present work. Focusing on the pictorial elements of colour and form, Léger's paintings of this period reached an increasingly, although never entirely, abstract manner. In the present work, he isolated a single object, a biomorphic shape that resembles an underwater plant, which appears to be ﬂoating against a ﬂat, monochrome blue background.
Léger himself explained the abstract element of his painting: 'The realistic value of a work of art is completely independent of any imitative character. This truth should be accepted as dogma and made axiomatic in the general understanding of painting [...] Pictorial realism is the simultaneous ordering of three great plastic components: Lines, Forms and Colours [...] the modern concept is not a reaction against the impressionists' idea but is, on the contrary, a further development and expansion of their aims through the use of methods they neglected [...]. Present-day life, more fragmented and faster moving than life in previous eras, has had to accept as its means of expression an art of dynamic divisionism; and the sentimental side, the expression of the subject (in the sense of popular expression), has reached a critical moment [...]. The modern conception is not simply a passing abstraction, valid only for a few initiates; it is the total expression of a new generation whose needs it shares and whose aspirations it answers' (quoted in Dorothy Kosinski (ed.), FernandLéger,1911-1924,TheRhythmofModernLife, Munich & New York, 1994, pp. 66-67).
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28 Alberto Giacometti
1 9 01 - 1 96 6
PETIT BUSTE inscribed AGiacometti and numbered 0/6 bronze height: 22cm. 8⅝in. Executed in 1950 and cast in bronze in an edition of 8. This example was cast in 1951 by Alexis rudier, and is a life-time cast. £800,000-1,200,000 €930,000-1,400,000 US$1,160,000-1,740,000
rovenance P Acquired from the artist by the present owner circa 1960 iterature L Palma Bucarelli, Giacometti, rome, 1962, ﬁg. 47, detail of another cast illustrated AlbertoGiacometti.ZeichnungenundDruckgraphik (exhibition catalogue), Kunsthalle, Tübingen (and travelling), 1981-82, illustration of another cast in a photograph of Giacometti (ﬁg. 1) AlbertoGiacometti (exhibition catalogue), The Museum of Modern Art, New York; Kunsthaus, Zurich, 2001-02, illustration of the plaster p. 201 L’Atelierd’AlbertoGiacometti:CollectiondelaFondationAlbertoetAnnetteGiacometti(exhibition catalogue), Le Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou, Paris, 2007-08, no. 172, illustration of another cast p. 191 Giacometti (exhibition catalogue), Fondation Beyeler, Basel, 2009, illustration of another cast in a photograph of the artist's studio p. 133
One of Giacometti’s main preoccupations throughout his career was the theme of human existence, and he established the images of the man and woman as central to his iconography. The present work depicts an elongated male bust, reminiscent of Giacometti’s numerous representations of his brother Diego. Petit buste was executed in 1950, at the time when he was working on his celebrated sculpture La Cage, which features two ﬁgures. In the ﬁrst version, La Cage contains a male head, dominated by a fulllength standing female, while in the second version, the male ﬁgure became a bust closely related to the present work.
The process by which Giacometti executed his busts was highly tactile, using his hands to make impressions in the clay in what is known as the matièrepétre, or kneaded method. The resulting image is highly expressive and personalised by the FIG. 1,
artist's visible ﬁngerprints in the surface of the sculpture. Discussing the sculptures executed during this period, Yves Bonnefoy wrote: 'These sculpted faces compel one to face them as if one were speaking to the person, meeting his eyes and thereby understanding better the compression, the narrowing that Giacometti imposed on the chin or the nose or the general shape of the skull. This was the period when Giacometti was most strongly conscious of the fact that the inside of the plaster or clay mass which he modelled was something inert, undifferentiated, nocturnal, that it betrays the life he sought to represent, and that he must therefore strive to eliminate this purely spatial dimension by constricting the material to ﬁt the most prominent characteristics of the face' (Y. Bonnefoy, Alberto Giacometti.ABiographyofhisWork, Paris, 1991, p. 432).
Alberto Giacometti in front of another cast of Petitbuste, during an exhibition in Kunsthalle, Bern, 1956. Photograph by Henriette Grindat, Lausanne
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29 Joan Miró
1893 - 1983
L E S D E U X SŒ U r S J U M E L L E S N U E S DA N S L A F O r Ê T À L'HEUrE DU CrÉPUSCULE
signed Miró and dated 5.31. (lower centre); titled on the reverse oil on canvas 60 by 65cm. 23⅝ by 25⅝in. Painted in May 1931. £1,500,000-2,500,000 €1,750,000-2,910,000 US$2,180,000-3,620,000
rovenance P Cahiers d'Art Collection, Paris (sold: Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 12th April 1933, lot 42) André Lefèvre, Paris (sold: Palais Gallièra, Paris, 29th November 1966, lot 106) Private Collection Sale: Sotheby's, New York, 17th May 1979, lot 288 Private Collection (purchased at the above sale) xhibited E Berlin, Berliner Festwochen, WerkefranzösischerMeisterderGegenwart, 1952, no. 51 Paris, Musée National d'Art Moderne, CollectionAndréLefèvre, 1964, no. 198 iterature L Jacques Dupin, Joan Miró,LifeandWork, London, 1962, no. 275, illustrated p. 523 Guy Weelen, Miró, Paris, 1984, no. 126, p. 96 Jacques Dupin & Ariane Lelong-Mainaud, JoanMiró,CatalogueRaisonné.Paintings, Paris, 2000, vol. II, no. 352, illustrated p. 32
Painted in 1931, the present work brilliantly exempliﬁes Miró's move towards his supremely abstract canvases. Unlike Dalí's and Magritte's ﬁgurative version of Surrealism, Miró's artistic development took a different turn. He joined the group in 1924, and participated in their ﬁrst exhibition held at the Galerie Pierre in Paris in 1925. André Breton commented that Miró 'may be looked upon as the most Surrealist among us' (A. Breton, Le Surréalisme et la peinture, quoted in Jacques Dupin, op.cit., 1962, p. 156). Breton's ﬁrst Surrealist manifesto of 1924 proclaimed: 'in the future resolution of the two states, seemingly so contradictory, which are dream and reality, into a kind of absolute reality, a surreality'. This new ideology encouraged Miró to eliminate representation from his canvases. Coinciding with his own pictorial experiments, it encouraged him to abandon realism in favour of the imaginary.
Whilst taking recognisable objects as his starting point, in the present work Miró builds his composition using a pictorial lexicon of signs and symbols, verging on abstraction. The title of the painting helps clarify the action it depicts, adding a narrative that would be otherwise indecipherable based on the images alone. The thin and solid black lines and bold patches of pure colour are combined in such a way to suggest two female forms, identiﬁed by the title as 'twin sisters', seen against the deep green background evoking the 'hour of twilight'. Other works painted around this time bear similarly elucidating titles. Descriptions such as CompositionwithFiguresinthe Burnt Forest (ﬁg. 1) entice the viewer to consider each element of the composition more closely. These lyrical titles assign identities to the highly stylised images, creating a new visual vocabulary from which the viewer is left to piece together the events of the scene.
Joan Miró, Compositionavecpersonnagesdanslaforêtincendiée, 1931, oil on canvas, Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona
In October 1930, several months before the present work was executed, Miró had his ﬁrst one-man show in America, at the Curt valentin Gallery in New York. Despite this international success, he was experiencing a crisis with the medium of oil painting, which the artist himself characterised as 'the murder of painting', and his production throughout 1930 was focused on drawings and three-dimensional constructions. When he took up painting again in 1931, the impact of his work in a three-dimensional medium was visible in the depiction of solid forms and thickly applied impasto, as in the present work. As Jacques Dupin wrote: 'In 1931 he will take up the palette again [...]. A dozen paintings executed between January and June, mostly of small or of medium size, provide the necessary transition, clearing the way for a new, more afﬁrmative, more powerful style which will subject lyrical ﬂights to the rigorous control of the plastic artist. Poetry remains the supreme goal of Miró's art, but his means for attaining it become richer and more complex' (J. Dupin, op.cit., 1962, p. 243).
Executed with a great economy of means and overwhelming gestural exuberance, Lesdeuxsœursjumelles encapsulates the vigour with which Miró went about his work during this period. Tones of crimson, ochre and brilliant white elucidate Miró's whimsical and ambiguous forms that ﬁrst appear abstract, only to take form gradually against the intense green background. Indeed sheer colouristic brilliance is the deﬁning quality of Miró's most successful compositions of this period, which – in Dupin's words – communicate a feeling of plenitude in daring, of freedom in rigour. Their intensity and rightness are such that as they are they do away with the actual dimensions of the ﬁgures and expand them to much grander pictorial dimensions' (ibid., p. 250). Despite its expressive power, the present work also communicates a sense of blithe innocence that is reminiscent of the proto-Surrealist output of Picasso during the late 1920s (ﬁg. 2), and which represented for the artist a lyrical quality to be savoured in the face of the looming Spanish Civil War.
Pablo Picasso, Baigneusesjouantauballon, 1928, oil on canvas, Musée Picasso, Paris 113
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30 Max Beckmann
1884 - 1950
FrAU IM BETT ( WOMAN IN BED) oil on canvas 40 by 80cm. 15¾ by 31½in. Painted in 1932 in Frankfurt or Paris. ‡ £1,200,000-1,800,000
rovenance P Stephan Lackner, Santa Barbara, California (acquired from the artist in 1946. Sold: Sotheby's, New York, 8th May 2002, lot 43) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E New York, Buchholz Gallery (Curt valentin); Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; Los Angeles, County Museum; San Francisco, Museum of Art; St. Louis, City Art Museum; Portland, Art Museum & Seattle, Art Museum, ExhibitionofRecentPaintingsbyMaxBeckmann, 1938, no. 2 (titled NudeComposition) or no. 3 (titled Morning) Santa Barbara, Museum of Art; San Francisco, Museum of Art & Pasadena, Art Institute, Max Beckmann, 1955, no. 2 (titled Morning) Santa Barbara, University Art Gallery, University of California, MaxBeckmann, 1959, no. 14 Boston, Museum of Fine Arts; New York, The Museum of Modern Art; Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago & London, Tate Gallery, MaxBeckmann:Paintings,DrawingsandGraphicWork, 1964-65, no. 37 (no. 38 in London; titled Morning) Frankfurt, Kunstverein, MaxBeckmann,Gemälde,Aquarelle,Zeichnungen, 1965, no. 36, illustrated in the catalogue Bremen, Kunsthalle; Berlin, Akademie der Künste; Karlsruhe, Badischer Kunstverein; Lucerne, Kunstmuseum; Linz, Neue Galerie der Stadt Wolfgang Gurlitt-Museum & vienna, Secession, Max Beckmann,GemäldeundAquarellederSammlungStephanLackner,USA;Gemälde, HandzeichnungenundDruckgraphikausdemBesitzderKunsthalleBremen, 1966-67, no. 8, illustrated in the catalogue (titled Morgen/MädchenimBett) iterature L Stephan Lackner, IcherinneremichgutanMaxBeckmann, Mainz, 1967, mentioned p. 105 Stephan Lackner, MaxBeckmann,MemoriesofaFriendship, Coral Gables, 1969, mentioned p. 94 Erhard & Barbara Göpel, MaxBeckmann,KatalogderGemälde, Bern, 1976, vol. I, no. 368, catalogued p. 255; vol. II, no. 368, illustrated pl. 126
In 1932, around the time when the present work was executed, Beckmann lived in Frankfurt and also had a studio in Paris, where he often retreated to complete his canvases. This period was marked by a mounting political and ﬁnancial crisis for Beckmann and many of his fellow artists, as their work was increasingly coming under attack by the National Socialists. The artist was soon forced to abandon his Paris studio and, as his art was strongly criticised and eventually banned in Germany, Beckmann and his wife ﬁnally left the country in 1937, and settled in Amsterdam. There, the art historian Hans Jaffé, who had already met Beckmann, provided him with an apartment and studio, and organised for his belongings, including his works of art, to be sent to him from Germany. While the present work depicts a seductive subject, it also masterfully captures the sense of anxiety that the artist felt during this time. The unidentiﬁed model, whose nude torso appears from between the white sheets, is tightly positioned within the narrow scope of the composition. In the 1930s and 1940s, Beckmann often used narrow canvases for his oils to suggest a sense of conﬁnement and tension. As is commonly the case with his compositions, the narrative of FrauimBett is quite enigmatic. The woman's wide open eyes, staring directly at the viewer, suggest ﬂirtation as well as fear; the positioning of her hands could indicate a gesture of inviting the invisible painter towards her, as well as of protecting herself from him. The closely cropped
composition strips the scene of any clues that might help the viewer identify the location of the scene, or the identity of the protagonist. This ambiguity imbues the composition with a powerful sense of psychological complexity, characteristic of the artist's most accomplished works. rauimBett was acquired directly from the artist by the F distinguished Beckmann scholar and collector Stephan Lackner, in whose collection it remained until his death in 2000. Stephan Lackner was the pen name of Ernest Gustave Morgenroth, a writer, journalist, violinist and scholar who became arguably Beckmann's most important patron. The two men ﬁrst met towards the end of the 1920s, when Lackner was a student, but it was in 1933 that the deﬁnitive moment of revelation came that would open up a lifetime of friendship, patronage and scholarship. An exhibition of Beckmann's work planned for that year was banned by the National Socialists as they proclaimed his art 'degenerate'. Lackner managed to persuade the museum ofﬁcials to show him the works hidden in the museum's basement, and this experience was to leave a profound impression on him. A great friendship and admiration grew between the two men and spanned more than two decades. During his long life Lackner acquired more than sixty-ﬁve paintings and a number of watercolours by Beckmann. Among these were the celebrated epic triptych Abfahrt(Departure) from 193235, now at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and SelbstbildnismitHorn(Self-PortraitwithHorn) of 1938.
FIG. 1, (opposite) Max Beckmann, Amsterdam, 1938 Max Beckmann, Atelier(Olympia), 1946, oil on canvas, Saint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis
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31 Lovis Corinth
1 8 5 8 - 1 92 5
WA LC H E N S E E, AU F G E H E N D E R M O N D ( WA LC H E N S E E, R I S I N G M O O N )
signed Lovis Corinth and dated 1922 (lower centre) oil on canvas 80 by 100cm. 31½ by 39⅜in. Painted in 1922. ‡ £800,000-1,200,000
rovenance P Dr Arthur Rosin, Berlin & New york (acquired from the artist in the 1920s) Karen Gutmann, New york (daughter of the above) The Leo and Karen Gutmann Foundation (sold: Sotheby's, London, 9th October 2002, lot 7) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner xhibited E Berlin, Nationalgalerie, Lovis Corinth, 1923, no. 95 Berlin, Nationalgalerie, Lovis Corinth, 1926, no. 343 New york, Curt valentin Gallery, 1953, no. 12 (titled Moon Landscape) Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, European Masters of Our Time, 1957, no. 28, illustrated in the catalogue (as dating from 1924) Regensburg, Ostdeutsche Galerie & Bremen, Kunsthalle, Lovis Corinth: Die Bilder vom Walchensee, Vision und Realität, 1986, no. 47, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Howard Devree, 'Boston Challenge; Two Shows Expound Modern Movement', in The New York Times, New york, 20th October 1957, illustrated Charlotte Berend-Corinth, Die Gemälde von Lovis Corinth, Werkkatalog, Munich, 1958, no. 874, illustrated p. 782
Painted in 1922, the present work depicts a view of the Walchensee, where Corinth and his wife had their summer residence. The moonlight highlights the Karwendel mountain range and the Alps beyond that form a backdrop to the lake. The present painting is one of the most powerful works from Corinth's major series of views of the Walchensee that he painted during the early 1920s, shortly before his death, as the last great summation of his artistic vision. The Walchensee is seen here from the Kanzel, a small hill on its shores that formed part of Corinth's property in Urfeld where the house stood and, as Charlotte Berend-Corinth later
recalled, 'from which one enjoyed the most extensive view' (C. Berend-Corinth, op. cit., p. 812, translated from the German). The present composition, with its nocturnal purples and blues above the greens of the Kanzel, centres on a tall larch that rises proudly and symbolically from the meadows below. In the left foreground, nestling close by the shore, can be seen the Hotel Fischer am See. This moonlit scene of harmony and quiet drama is one of the most fully realised and compelling of Corinth's late landscapes, in which his Impressionist brushstroke is combined with a bold expressiveness of colour.
32 Kees van Dongen
1 87 7 - 1 96 8
L A B A L L E R I N E B O RG N E SA LUA N T o r M A D E M O I S E L L E L É DA signed Dongen (lower right); signed Van Dongen and inscribed cette peinture à été peinte par moi vers 1905 on the reverse oil on canvas 81 by 54cm. 31⅞ by 21¼in. Painted circa 1905-06. ‡ £700,000-900,000
rovenance P Galerie de Berri, Paris Louis Chaumeil, Paris Sale: Guy Loudmer, Paris, 11th December 1985, lot 75 Private Collection, France Acquired from the above by the present owner in 2007 xhibited E Paris, Galerie de Berri, Van Dongen, Epoque fauve, 1953 Nice, Galerie des Ponchettes, Van Dongen, 1959, no. 9 iterature L Jean-Paul Crespelle, Les Fauves, Neuchâtel, 1962, illustrated in colour pl. 70 Louis Chaumeil, Van Dongen: L'homme et l'artiste - La vie et l'œuvre, Geneva, 1967, no. vII, illustrated in colour Marcel Giry, Le Fauvisme, ses origines, son évolution, Neuchâtel, 1981, p. 177 The Van Dongen Nobody Knows: Early and Fauvist Drawings 1895-1912 (exhibition catalogue), Museum Boymansvan Beuningen, Rotterdam, 1997, ﬁg. 57, illustrated p. 70 Van Dongen (exhibition catalogue), Nouveau Musée National, Monaco & Musée des Beaux-Arts, Montreal, 2008-09, ﬁg. 19, illustrated in colour p. 131 Kees van Dongen (exhibition catalogue), Museu Picasso, Barcelona, 2009, ﬁg. 19, illustrated in colour p. 33
Painted at the height of van Dongen's Fauve style, the present work is a ﬁrmly modernist, gently humorous take on the tradition of ballet – here, that style of ballet danced in the cabarets and vaudevilles of demi-mondaine early twentiethcentury Paris, rather than that practised at the Opéra. The ballerina Mademoiselle Léda (presumably nicknamed after the production in which she is dancing) winks at the audience and raises her hands up to the level of her face, perhaps having kissed them ﬁrst in gratitude for the applause that she is receiving before extending them out towards her beloved audience. Léda is depicted as a bold diagonal across the picture-plane, and is highlighted by a cloud of brilliant scarlet that hovers behind her. She is a jaunty, conﬁdent presence that dominates the composition and epitomises both van Dongen's pre-eminence at portraying 120
the female form and his recurring interest in motifs drawn from the performing arts. Anita Hopmans discussed the present work in comparison to Matisse's 1906 oil La Liseuse, which uses a similar palette: 'Was it possibly in answer to [La Liseuse] that van Dongen submitted his picture of the ballerina winking at the viewer, Mademoiselle Léda, known under the title La ballerina borgne? It is striking that this canvas is also largely painted in complementary reds and greens – but then the reverse from Matisse's work. van Dongen's picture shows a girl in green against the background of a red 'cloud'. [...] It can certainly be read as a reply to Matisse' (A. Hopmans, in The Van Dongen Nobody Knows: Early and Fauvist Drawings 1895-1912 (exhibition catalogue), op. cit., p. 70).
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33 Emil Nolde
1 8 67 - 1 9 5 6
SO N N E N B LU M E ( S U N F LOW E R) signed Nolde (lower left); signed Nolde and titled on the reverse oil on panel 73 by 88.4cm. 28¾ by 34¾in. Painted in 1928. £800,000-1,200,000 €930,000-1,400,000 US$1,160,000-1,740,000
rovenance P Private Collection (acquired in Germany circa 1930) Private Collection, Berlin & Tel Aviv (by descent from the above. Sold: Sotheby's, London, 7th February 2006, lot 4) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner iterature L Artist's Handlist, 1930: '1928 Sonnenblume' Martin Urban, Emil Nolde, Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil-Paintings 1915-1951, London, 1990, vol. II, no. 1076, catalogued p. 384
Sonnenblume is an atmospheric and highly symbolic example of Nolde's depictions of sunﬂowers, on which he embarked in 1926 and which he continued over the following twenty years of his life. In the present work Nolde captures the looming clouds, the impending storm and a solitary sunﬂower withstanding the rigorous elements. This expressive and highly charged composition is not simply an observation of nature, but also the artist's reﬂection on life and the human condition. He invests his landscape with an undisguised symbolic signiﬁcance, exploiting the clouds and sky as metaphors for the awesome power of nature and the eternal confrontation between man in his natural state and the elements. As Peter vergo pointed out, 'ﬂowers symbolized for Nolde the eternally repeated cycle of birth,
life and death' (P. vergo, 'Flowers and Gardens', in Emil Nolde (exhibition catalogue), Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1996, p. 118). Nolde's engagement with this particular subject matter also reﬂects his interest in the work of van Gogh, particularly in one of his most iconic subject matters – the sunﬂowers. During the 1920s and early 1930s Nolde saw several exhibitions of van Gogh's work, including a major retrospective held at the Galerie Paul Cassirer in Berlin in 1928. In his depictions of sunﬂowers, Nolde adopted not only van Gogh's subject but also a vibrant palette of contrasting colours. In the present work he developed the subject further by placing the sunﬂower in a dramatic surrounding, achieving a stunning and remarkably modern composition.
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34 Edouard Manet
1832 - 1883
BOUQUET DE PIvOINES signed Manet (lower right) oil on canvas 55 by 42cm. 21⅝ by 16½in. Painted in 1882. ‡ £4,000,000-6,000,000
rovenance P Prof. Dr Carl Bernstein, Berlin (acquired in Paris in 1882) Max Liebermann, Berlin (acquired from the above by 1902) Mrs Kurt Riezler, Rome & Munich (née Liebermann, daughter of the above; by descent from the above circa 1943) Maria Riezler-White, New york (by descent from the above in 1953) Private Collection, USA (by descent from the above. Sold: Sotheby's, New york, 13th November 1990, lot 28) Acquired by the present owner in 1996 xhibited E Berlin, Galerie Matthiesen, Edouard Manet, 1928, no. 77, illustrated in the catalogue Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Honderd Jaar Fransche Kunst, 1938, no. 165 New york, Durand-Ruel, Still-Lifes from Manet to Picasso, 1944, no. 9 New york, Paul Rosenberg, Masterpieces by Manet, 1946-47, no. 10 New york, Wildenstein, Manet, 1948, no. 45 Gunma, The Museum of Modern Art, Impressionist and Modern Art, 1994, no. 40 Paris, Musée d'Orsay & Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, Manet, les natures mortes, 2000-01, no. 84, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Tokyo, Fuchu Art Museum & Nara, Prefectural Museum of Art, Edouard Manet, 2001, no. 13, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Théodore Duret, Histoire d'Edouard Manet et de son œuvre, Paris, 1902, no. 323, p. 277 Ferdinand Laban, 'Im zwanzigsten Jahre nach Manets Tode', in Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, 1904, illustrated p. 28 Kunst und Künstler, February 1919, illustrated p. 230 Paul Jamot & Georges Wildenstein, Manet, Paris, 1932, vol. I, no. 542, catalogued pp. 183-184; vol. II, ﬁg. 390, illustrated p. 191 (as dating from 1883) Adolphe Tabarant, Manet et ses œuvres, Paris, 1947, no. 425, illustrated p. 616 Lionello venturi, Impressionists and Symbolists, New york & London, 1950, illustrated ﬁg. 17 Marcello venturi & Sandra Orienti, L'Opera pittorica di Edouard Manet, Milan, 1967, no. 406, illustrated p. 120 Denis Rouart & Sandra Orienti, Tout l'œuvre peint de Manet, Paris, 1970, no. 412 Denis Rouart & Daniel Wildenstein, Edouard Manet, Catalogue raisonné, Lausanne & Paris, 1975, no. 426, illustrated p. 307 Robert Gordon & Andrew Forge, The Last Flowers of Manet, New york, 1986, illustrated in colour p. 27 Max Liebermann - Jahrhundertwende (exhibition catalogue), Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1997, illustrated p. 226
'Still-life is the touchstone of the painter,' Manet concluded in the last years of his life, when his artistic attention was largely focused on the depiction of ﬂoral still-lifes. This resulted in a number of canvases, executed in the early 1880s, of a single vase of ﬂowers on a marble surface, a motif that he used as an element in his grand composition, Le Bar aux Folies-Bergère (ﬁg. 1). Manet's interest in still-lifes is wellnoted throughout his career. He pronounced that 'a painter can say all he wants to with fruit or ﬂowers' after seeing Renaissance examples in venice in the 1860s, and he devoted one-ﬁfth of his production to the genre alone. Even in Manet's most renowned ﬁgure paintings, the symbolic potential and importance of decorative objects was never far from his mind. Flowers, for example, play a powerful role in Olympia and the Woman with the Parrot, alluding to sensuality, pleasure, innocence and corruption. Themes of mortality must have been of central concern in 1882 when Manet painted the present work, which is a poignant and elegant manifestation of the preciousness of life.
Bouquet de pivoines is one of the more exquisite examples from this select group of floral still-lifes from the early 1880s, featuring a lush bouquet of red and pink blossoms in full bloom. George Mauner observed that peonies were presumably Manet's favourite flower because they were the exclusive subject of his first series of floral paintings in the 1860s. The present work, however, is the only example from the 1880s group that depicts peonies, which are arranged here in an Orientalist glass vase. Mauner wrote that 'this vase is decorated with an etched Japanese scene of a bridge and a figure holding a parasol. Another Asian motif, a golden dragon, appears on the six-faceted vase Manet used in several paintings, including his last one. He omitted it, oddly enough, from Vase of Flowers, White Lilacs [fig. 2], a rendering of the same vase filled with white lilacs. Possibly he viewed the vase from the other side in this example' (G. Mauner in Manet, The Still-Life Paintings, New york, 2001, p. 144).
Edouard Manet, Le Bar aux Folies-Bergère, 1882, oil on canvas, Courtauld Institute Galleries, London
Considered the progenitor of the Impressionists and the father of modern painting, Manet astonished his contemporaries with his radical simpliﬁcation of form and application of pure, luminous colour. His approach to still-lifes in particular revolutionised that genre, paving the way for the innovations of Cézanne, Braque, Picasso and Matisse. In the mid-nineteenth century Manet's paintings were considered atypical by those accustomed to the glazed, academic compositions shown at the annual Salon, so many perspicacious critics or friends were prompted to come to his defense. 'One's ﬁrst impression of a picture by Edouard Manet is that it is a triﬂe "hard,"' wrote Emile Zola in 1867. 'One is not accustomed to seeing reproductions of reality so simpliﬁed and so sincere. But as I have said, they possess a certain still but surprising elegance. To begin with one's eye only notices broad patches of colour, but soon objects become more deﬁned and appear in their correct place' (E. Zola, Edouard Manet, Revue du XX Siècle, 1867, reprinted in C. Harrison, P. Wood & J. Gaiger, Art in Theory, 1815-1900,
An Anthology of Changing Ideas, Oxford, 1998, p. 554).
Zola's elementary instruction holds true in the analysis of the present painting, executed in 1882 at the end of Manet's life. During his last years Manet was inﬂicted with a crippling illness, only able to work on small canvases propped on an easel by his bed. The present composition was one of those that occupied him during that fragile time, and it exempliﬁes the elegance and freshness of colour from which the younger Impressionists drew their inspiration. The ﬁrst owner of this work was Carl Bernstein, a Russianborn professor of law who lived in Germany. In 1882 Bernstein acquired this still-life alongside another dozen or works, which were the ﬁrst Impressionist paintings to be seen in Berlin. Around the turn of the twentieth century, he gave this work by Manet to the painter Max Liebermann, in exchange for a portrait of him by Liebermann. This work remained in Liebermann's family for many decades.
Edouard Manet, Lilas blanc dans un vase de verre, 1882-83, oil on canvas, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Nationalgalerie, Berlin FIG. 3, Edouard Manet, Roses, œillets, pensées, 1882-83, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 127
P R O P E R T y F R O M A P R I vAT E F R E N C H C O L L E C T I O N
35 Edgar Degas
1834 - 1917
MADEMOISELLE SALLANDRy or BUSTE DE FEMME signed Degas and dated 1885 (lower right) pastel on paper 63 by 47.5cm. 24¾ by 18¾in. Executed in 1885. £600,000-800,000 €700,000-930,000 US$870,000-1,160,000
rovenance P Levesque Collection, Paris (sold: 10th December 1920) Galerie Barbazanges, Paris Mme Charles Saglio, Paris (acquired from the above in 1924) Thence by descent to the present owner xhibited E Copenhagen, Art Français, 1914, no. 260 Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Degas, 1924, no. 155 Paris, Musée de l'Orangerie, Degas: portraitiste, sculpteur, 1931, no. 143
This beautiful and elegant portrait of a young ballerina treats the artist's favourite subject of dancers, showing Degas as a masterful draughtsman. Rendered with great care and attention to detail, the sitter's head is set against an almost abstract background, the upper section of which is composed of bright, free strokes of pastel.
Literature Paul-André Lemoisne, Degas et son œuvre, Paris, 1946, vol. III, no. 813, illustrated p. 463 (with incorrect measurements) Franco Russoli & Fiorella Minervino, L'Opera completa di Degas, Milan, 1970, no. 632, illustrated p. 115 (with incorrect measurements) Degas (exhibition catalogue), Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada, Ottawa & The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New york, 1988-89, ﬁg. 185, illustrated p. 380 Jill Devonyar & Richard Kendall, Degas and the Dance (exhibition catalogue), The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit & Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 2002-03, no. 248, illustrated p. 221 (titled Bust of a Woman and with incorrect measurements)
study of Degas' depictions of dance and dancers, Jill Devonyar and Richard Kendall have argued that this work in fact depicts Joséphine Chabot, a dancer who would have been just over twenty years old at the time. 'An undated photograph of this ballerina [ﬁg. 1] helps us to deﬁne her distinctive features: curly hair with wavy bangs, high cheekbones, a ﬁnely chiseled nose, shapely mouth, and almond eyes with slender arched The suggestion of the woman's costume and eyebrows. All these characteristics are evident in her poised posture identify her as a ballet the carefully observed portrait and in several dancer, while the background indicating other images to which this picture is related, branches in a landscape appears to represent a including the spectacular pastel Dancer with a 1, Joséphine Chabot, photograph, stage set. The artist's lifelong interest in dance FIG. Bibliothèque Nationale de France Tambourine [...]. Chabot seems to have endeared developed in the 1860s, when as a young man herself to Degas, and if she was as lively as she he regularly attended the ballet and opera. Degas was fascinated appears in these images – and as persistent as suggested in several not only by the public spectacle of ballet performances, but also of Degas' letters – it is little wonder that the artist agreed on no less by the more informal situations around them: the behind-thethan three occasions to persuade Ludovic Halévy to intercede on scenes world of the rehearsal room or the dance class, the dancers' her behalf at the Opéra. [...] In conjunction with Degas' pictures of preparation for and tension before a performance, and the more Chabot, these letters demonstrated the remarkable extent of the relaxed, casual moments that followed afterwards. ﬁfty-year-old artist's support for this young ballerina, for whom he The sitter of this work has traditionally been identiﬁed as the effectively acted as patron or protector' (J. Devonyar & R. young dancer Mademoiselle Sallandry. In their recent extensive Kendall, op. cit., p. 221). 128
36 Camille Pissarro
1831 - 1903
F E R M E À M O N T F O U C A U LT , N E I G E signed C. Pissarro and dated 1874 (lower left) oil on canvas 54 by 65cm. 21⅜ by 25½in. Painted in 1874. ‡ £700,000-1,000,000
rovenance P Bernheim-Jeune (acquired circa January 1920) Eugène Blot, Paris (acquired circa 1930) Etienne Bignou, Paris Dr Brocq, Paris Georges Bernheim, Paris (sold: Galerie Jean Charpentier, Paris, 7th June 1935, lot 72) M Marx, France (purchased at the above sale) Marlborough Fine Art, London Israel Sieff (acquired from the above in 1961 and until at least 1963) Mr & Mrs Josef Rosensaft, New york (acquired circa 1968. Sold: Parke Bernet Galleries, New york, 17th March 1976, lot 32) Cynthia Wood, California (purchased at the above sale) Wood-Claeyssens Foundation, Santa Barbara Private Collection (acquired from the above in 1996. Sold: Sotheby's, New york, 3rd November 2008, lot 12) Purchased at the above sale by present owner xhibited E Paris, Musée de l'Orangerie, Centenaire de la naissance de Camille Pissarro, 1930, no. 27
In 1874, when the present work was painted, Pissarro and his family visited the Piette family in the remote hamlet of Montfoucault, about a two-day journey from Pontoise. Feeling the pressures of the Parisian art world and his ﬁnancial responsibilities to his family, Pissarro believed that the quiet solitude of the farms and enclosed ﬁelds of this culde-sac on the border of Brittany and Normandy would provide a much needed respite. Indeed, the artist's brief escape to this secluded area would prove to be personally and professionally cathartic. It was, in fact, in Montfoucault that Pissarro began studying local peasant life, and this work is a compelling example of 130
London, Marlborough Fine Art, A Great Period of French Painting, 1963, no. 25 New york, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Collects: Paintings, Watercolors and Sculpture from Private Collections, 1968, no. 163 Santa Barbara, Museum of Art, Santa Barbara Collects: Impressions of France, 1998, no. 50, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection; San Francisco, The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco at the Center for the Arts at yerba Buena Gardens & New york, The Brooklyn Museum of Art, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de Neige, 1998-99, no. 39, illustrated in colour in the catalogue iterature L Ludovic-Rodo Pissarro & Lionello venturi, Camille Pissarro: son art - son œuvre, Paris, 1939, vol. I, no. 284, catalogued p. 120; vol. II, no. 284, illustrated pl. 57 (titled Neige à Montfoucault) Joachim Pissarro & Claire Durand-Ruel Snollaerts, Pissarro, Catalogue critique des peintures, Paris, 2005, vol. II, no. 384, illustrated in colour p. 289
the stylistic development engendered by the artist's encounters in the country. In the present work, he depicted a farm scene with grazing animals amidst the tranquil winter landscape. Pissarro executed this scene as if the land has been untouched by any meddling industrial presence. Quite the opposite of the 'grands boulevards' and the towering buildings of Paris from which the artist had temporarily sought refuge, Montfoucault offered a poignant reminder of the overarching beauty of the natural landscape. In the present work, the predominantly silvery grey tones unify the composition and underscore the aﬃnity of the otherwise disparate features of farm, land, sky and animals.
P RO P E RT y F RO M A P R I vAT E F R E N C H CO L L EC T I O N
37 Edgar Degas
1834 - 1917
FEMME ASSISE, ROBE JAUNE
stamped Degas (lower left) pastel on paper 71 by 59cm. 28 by 23¼in. Executed circa 1892-95. £500,000-700,000 €585,000-815,000 US$725,000-1,020,000
rovenance P Estate of the artist (sold: Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 1re Vente, Atelier Edgar Degas, 6th-8th May 1918, lot 181) Mme Charles Saglio, Paris Thence by descent to the present owner iterature L Paul-André Lemoisne, Degas et son œuvre, Paris, 1946, vol. III, no. 1134, illustrated p. 656 Franco Russoli & Fiorella Minervino, L'Opera completa di Degas, Milan, 1970, no. 1170, illustrated p. 138
Starting with his pastels of the 1890s, subject of Femme assise (ﬁg. 1), which Degas' focus moved away from the clearly depicts the same model as the linear, towards a new interest in colour, present work, could be the ballet and Femme assise, robe jaune is a great dancer Joséphine Chabot (see note to example of his new found freedom of lot 35). They wrote: 'Degas' pleasure in expression, exploring a palette of Chabot's company may have found strong, bright tones. The young woman expression in one of his most sensuous is depicted in a lavish yellow dress, pastel portraits, Seated Woman in a somewhat in contrast with her informal Yellow Dress [ﬁg. 1]. The model's pose, while the background is rendered "elegant features, so white against the with a degree of abstraction, in vertical auburn head of hair" – in Jean Boggs' and horizontal strokes of pastel. Jean words – have much in common with Sutherland Boggs and Anne Maheux Chabot's [...]. Though the sitter has wrote the following about the present previously been anonymous [...], the work, and another closely related pastel, technique used in this striking image FIG. 1, Edgar Degas, Femme assise, circa 1892-95, depicting the same model wearing the pastel on paper, Private Collection links it to a group of pastel nudes and yellow dress (ﬁg. 1): 'Degas during his portraits made in the years around career seldom made drawings of women in the décolletage 1890, when Chabot would have been twenty-six. The vivid of evening dress; the two pastels of this unknown woman are mesh of horizontal and vertical pastel strokes, for example, an exception. He obviously enjoyed the stylization of her was often employed by Degas during this period to enrich relaxation as well as of her dress' (J. Sutherland Boggs & A. surfaces or energize forms' (J. Devonyar & R. Kendall, Maheux, Degas Pastels, London, 1992, p. 140). Degas and the Dance (exhibition catalogue), The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit & Philadelphia Museum of Art, Although the sitter of this pastel was previously unidentiﬁed, Philadelphia, 2002-03, pp. 221 & 223). Jill Devonyar and Richard Kendall speculated that the 132
P RO P E RT y F RO M A P R I vAT E F R E N C H CO L L EC T I O N
38 Pierre Bonnard
1 8 67 - 1 94 7
L E P E T I T D É J E U N E R , R A D I AT E U R stamped Bonnard (lower left) oil on canvas 72 by 84cm. 28⅜ by 33in. Painted in Le Cannet circa 1930. £2,500,000-3,500,000 €2,910,000-4,070,000 US$3,620,000-5,070,000
rovenance P Estate of the artist Thence by descent to the present owner xhibited E New york, Acquavella Galleries, Pierre Bonnard, 1965, no. 7, illustrated in colour in the catalogue and on the catalogue cover Marseille, Bonnard, 1967, no. 30, illustrated in colour in the catalogue New york, Acquavella Galleries, Bonnard, 1978, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Lausanne, Fondation de l'Hermitage, Pierre Bonnard, 1991, no. 64, illustrated in colour in the catalogue Nice, Musée Matisse, Matisse, Bonnard, une amitié, 1996 iterature L Jean & Henry Dauberville, Bonnard, catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, Paris, 1973, vol. III, no. 1455, illustrated p. 359
'Bonnard was essentially a colorist. He devoted his main creative energies to wedding his sensations of color from nature to those from paint itself sensations which he said thrilled and even bewildered him.' JAMES ELLIOTT
The sitting room of Bonnard's villa 'Le Bosquet' at Le Cannet. Photographed by Denise Demarziani
Le Petit déjeuner, radiateur is one of the masterpieces of Bonnard's mature period, and indeed Bonnard considered his Fenêtres ouvertes (French windows) series to be amongst his ﬁnest compositions. It is a fascinating example of his domestic settings carefully blended into an exterior scene. The theme of la vie bourgeoise preoccupied Bonnard from the time of his earlier intimiste scenes of the 1890s, right until the end of his career. His interiors are dominated by his wife Marthe, and in the present composition she is depicted drinking her morning coffee at a breakfast table at the couple's home in Le Cannet. Bonnard himself is reﬂected in the mirror behind Marthe, seated at the opposite side of the table. The interior with the characteristic radiator is the Petit Salon on the ﬁrst ﬂoor of Bonnard's villa 'Le Bosquet' in Le Cannet (ﬁg. 1), which he bought in 1925. Situated near Cannes, on the Côte d'Azur, the house was surrounded by lush vegetation that could be seen through the windows. Both the interior and exterior of the villa provided the artist with a constant source of inspiration, resulting in powerful, boldly coloured compositions. As Jörg Zutter wrote: 'By 1931 Le
Bosquet was Bonnard's favourite place to work and in 1939 it became the couple's permanent home. The house and its surroundings provided an ideal work environment for the artist, who continued to paint studies of Marthe, often standing in the bathroom or lying in the tub. He also painted still lifes, selfportraits, interiors and the views onto the countryside from different windows and doors [ﬁgs. 3 & 4]' (J. Zutter in Pierre Bonnard: Observing Nature (exhibition catalogue), National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, 2003, p. 61). In Le Petit déjeuner, radiateur a warm Mediterranean light falls through the open French window, bathing the entire scene in the morning sunshine, and heightening the effect of a jewellike, iridescent surface. The light entering the room creates a link between the interior and the exterior, bringing together a prosaic scene of everyday life with the timeless beauty of nature. Bonnard took joy in depicting both worlds: the quiet domesticity of his wife and muse, and the vibrant blue tones of the sky and the Mediterranean visible through the window. Structurally, the window provides the focal point of the composition, with Marthe and Bonnard occupying the
Pierre Bonnard, Marthe dans le petit salon, circa 1938, pencil on paper, Private Collection FIG. 3, Pierre Bonnard, La Fenêtre, 1925, oil on canvas, Tate Gallery, London
foreground to the right. The interior to the left is more spacious, its almost abstract treatment of pure colour anticipating Rothko's painting. The accentuated verticals of the window, the balcony railings and the radiator to the left add to the airy quality of the interior. Many artists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century found in the Mediterranean light an exciting source of painterly stimulus. Like Monet, Cézanne and the Fauve painters, Bonnard's boldest use of colour was inspired by a particular intensity of light in this region, to which he often returned. A group of interiors painted at 'Le Bosquet' and closely related to the present work (ﬁg. 4) were exhibited at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in 1933. Exhilarated by the exhibition, Paul Signac wrote to Bonnard: 'Prodigious. The unexpectedness, the rarity, the novelty. I assure you, my dear Bonnard, that not since 1880 when I "discovered" Claude Monet, have I experienced such a strong artistic emotion. [...] What a lesson, what encouragement' (quoted in Bonnard at Le Bosquet (exhibition catalogue), Hayward Gallery, London & Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle, 1994, p, 12).
Throughout his career, Bonnard depicted his wife in a domestic setting, occupied by a daily routine such as eating, reading, bathing or drying herself after a bath. Bonnard met Marthe de Méligny (née Maria Boursin) in 1893, when she was a fashionable young Parisian shop girl, and married her in 1925. Discussing Bonnard's portrayals of Marthe, Sarah Whitﬁeld wrote: 'Marthe is almost always seen in her own domestic surroundings, and as an integral part of those surroundings. [...] In a sense many of these works are variations on the theme of the artist and his model as well as on the double portrait. This is the case even when Bonnard is not visible. [...] We are always made acutely aware that whatever the subject of the painting – a nude, a still life, a landscape – what we are being asked to witness (and to participate in) is the process of looking. But it is in the paintings of Marthe above all that we ﬁnd Bonnard portraying himself as the ever-attentive, watchful presence' (S. Whitﬁeld, 'Fragments of Identical World', in Bonnard (exhibition catalogue), Tate Gallery, London, 1998, p. 17). Bonnard himself once procclaimed: 'Ce qu'il y a de mieux dans les musées, ce sont les fenêtres'.
Pierre Bonnard, Intérieur blanc (Le Cannet), 1932, oil on canvas, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble 137
39 Alfred Sisley
1 8 39 - 1 8 9 9
L A B E R G E À S A I N T- M A M M È S signed Sisley and dated 84 (lower right) oil on canvas 42.3 by 59.5cm. 16⅝ by 23⅜in. Painted in 1884. ‡ £700,000-900,000
rovenance P Jean-Baptiste Faure, Paris Charles Guasco, Paris (sold: Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 11th June 1900, lot 71) Galerie Durand-Ruel, Paris (purchased at the above sale) Werner Hérold, Saint-Jean-les-Deux-Jumeaux (acquired from the above on 17th August 1917) Henri Bordaniet, Paris Private Collection, France (acquired from the above on 2nd May 1946) Private Collection, France (by descent from the above. Sold: Christie's, London, 25th June 2002, lot 24) Purchased at the above sale by the present owner
xhibited E Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Alfred Sisley, 1902, no. 33 London, Grafton Galleries, Paintings by Boudin, Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, 1905, no. 315 Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Alfred Sisley, 1914, no. 65 Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Alfred Sisley, 1917, no. 22 Paris, Galerie Beaux-Arts, La Peinture française du XIXe siècle en Suisse, 1937, no. 114
Painted in 1884, the present composition depicts the landscape around Saint-Mammès, a small village situated at the conﬂuence of the rivers Seine and Loing, just north of Moret-sur-Loing. Sisley ﬁrst moved with his family to veneuxNadon near Moret-sur-Loing in 1880, and continued to live in that area for the rest of his life, moving several times between the two villages. The FIG. 1, local scenery offered a constant source of inspiration to the artist, who tried to capture the relationship between land, water and sky as well as the changing effects of light on his surroundings. Having painted numerous views of the bridge, river bank and quayside of Saint-Mammès in 1880-81, Sisley focused his attention to Le Loing and its canal, which joined the Seine at Saint-Mammès, and between 1882 and 1885 executed a series of works depicting this area.
For the present composition, Sisley set his easel at a quiet spot on the river bank, with only a few small ﬁgures going about their daily activities. In her discussion of Sisley's paintings executed in Moret-surLoing, vivienne Couldrey noted: 'It is diﬃcult to over-emphasise the importance of Moret, for Sisley painted most of his life's work in the area [...]. It is an essentially Impressionist place with the gentle light of the Ile de France, the soft colours and the constantly changing skies of northern France. There are green woods and pastures, curving tree-lined banks of rivers, canals and narrow streams, wide stretches of the river where the Loing joins the Seine at Saint-Mammès, old stone houses, churches and bridges' (v. Couldrey, Alfred Sisley, The English Impressionist, Exeter, 1992, p. 68).
iterature L Gotthard Jedlicka, Sisley, Bern, 1949, illustrated pl. 34 François Daulte, Alfred Sisley. Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, Lausanne, 1959, no. 514, illustrated (with incorrect measurements)
A view of the exhibition of Impressionist paintings at Grafton Galleries, London in 1905, showing the present work in the middle of the top row
40 Henry Moore
1898 - 1986
F A M I Ly G R O U P bronze height: 39cm. 15⅜in. Executed in 1947 and cast in bronze in an edition of 7. £1,500,000-2,500,000 €1,750,000-2,910,000 US$2,180,000-3,620,000
Provenance Acquired by the present owner in New york circa 2000 Literature David Sylvester (ed.), Henry Moore, Sculpture and Drawings 1921-1948, London, 1957, vol. I, no. 267, illustration of another cast p. 149 Will Grohmann, The Art of Henry Moore, London, 1960, no. 122, illustration of another cast Ionel Jianou, Henry Moore, Paris, 1968, no. 251, edition catalogued p. 75 John Hedgecoe, Henry Moore, London, 1970, no. 3, illustration of another cast p. 176 Robert Melville, Henry Moore, Sculpture and Drawings 1921-1969, London, 1970, no. 364, illustration of another cast p. 170
One of the key subjects of Henry Moore’s art, the theme of a family group was particularly prominent in his sculpture during the years 1944-48. As the artist explained: ‘The idea of the family group crystallised before the war. Henry Morris, the Director of Education for Cambridgeshire, asked me to do a sculpture for the Impington village College, the first of the modern schools in England. It had been designed by Walter Gropius. As the College was going to be used for adult education as well, the idea of connecting parents and children came into my mind. I think that the first family group drawings and maquettes were done in 1935-6, although I didn’t actually make the full-size sculpture until later’ (quoted in J. Hedgecoe, op. cit., p. 163). Although the project was never realised due to lack of funding, the artist carried on exploring this theme in numerous drawings, most of them made in bomb shelters in London during World War II. The series reflected both Moore’s wish for peace and harmony in the post-war world and his expression of happiness during the birth of his daughter Mary. The artist said of this series: ‘The family group
ideas were all generated by drawings: and that was perhaps because the whole family group idea was so close to one as a person; we were just going to have our first child Mary, and it was an obsession’ (quoted in Julie Summers, Henry Moore, From the Inside Out, Munich, 1996). Discussing this important series in the context of the artist’s œuvre, Will Grohmann wrote: ‘With the Family Group theme Moore regained his freedom since the commissions received were less restricting. He started working on these groups at about the same time as the Madonna. In the years 1944 to 1947 he produced a number of larger and smaller variations in stone, bronze and terracotta, differing considerably from one another, being both naturalistic and non-naturalistic, though never as abstract as the Reclining Figures. The theme does not hem him in, but demands a certain readiness to enter into the meaning of a community such as a family’ (W. Grohmann, op. cit., p. 141). While most of his family groups are depicted frontally, in the present work Moore depicted the figures at an angle, turned towards each other, emphasising the sense of community and closeness.
Henry Moore in front of a larger version of Family Group in the courtyard of the Museum of Modern Art, New york, 1965
P ro P E rT y F ro M A P r I vAT E E U ro P E A N Co L L EC T I o N
1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
F E M M E A U C H A T A S S I S E D A N S U N F A U T E U I L signedPicasso(upperleft);dated4./8. 5. 64.IIonthereverse oiloncanvas 130by89cm.51⅛by35in. Paintedbetween4thand8thMay1964. £4,000,000-6,000,000 €4,650,000-6,980,000US$5,800,000-8,690,000
rovenance P GalerieLouiseLeiris,Paris GalleriaGissi,Turin GalleriaSeno,Milan PrivateCollection,Italy Acquiredfromtheabovebythepresentownerin1980 xhibited E Turin,GalleriaGissi,Picasso, Chagall, De Chirico,1972,no.13 Milan,GalleriaSeno,Pablo Picasso,no.4,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue iterature L ChristianZervos,Pablo Picasso, œuvres de 1964,Paris,1971,vol.24,no.142,illustratedpl.49 HélèneParmelin,Picasso, Notre Dame de Vie,Paris,1966,illustratedincolourp.105 ThePicassoProject,Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. The Sixties II, 1964-1967,SanFrancisco,2002,no.64-137,illustratedp.42
In1964,Picassoexecutedseverallargecanvasesdepictinga femaleﬁgure,eitherseatedinanarmchairorarecliningnude, accompaniedbyacat(ﬁg.1).Amonumentalandboldly paintedexamplefromthisgroup,Femme au chat assise dans un fauteuil bearswitnesstotheextraordinaryenergyand creativeurgethatcharacterisedtheartist'sworkinhislate years.Havinggonethroughmanyphasesofstylisticand technicalexperimentation,bythistimePicassohadacquired a conﬁdence and freedom that enabled him to paint monumental works in quick, spontaneous brush-strokes. ratherthanponderoverthedetailsofhumananatomyand perspective,theartistwasabletoisolatethoseelementsof hissubjectthatfascinatedandpreoccupiedhim. lthough animals appear at various stages of Picasso's A career,thecatbecomesparticularlyprominentinthisseries of paintings. Hélène Parmelin relates the story of how Picassoarrivedatthetheme:theartistandJacquelinewere taking a walk in their garden; during the walk, they encountered a very small black cat. They took it home, admired it and played with it; Jacqueline played. All the canvasesoftheFemme au chat serieswerebornfromthis encounter(H.Parmelin, op. cit.,p.88).In Femme au chat assise dans un fauteuil,asintheotherworksfromhisperiod, thefemaleﬁgureisinspiredbyJacqueline,thelastloveofhis life, whom Picasso married in 1961. Although Jacqueline neverposedasPicasso'smodel,herlongdarkhair,strong noseandaccentuatedeyesareclearlyrecognisableinthis
work. Her highly stylised features, such as angular eyes depicted one on top of the other, recall the technique PicassodevelopedduringhisCubistperiod,aswellasthe sharp, dramatic depictions that characterised his earlier portraitsofDoraMaar(ﬁg.2). he motif of a seated woman in an armchair occurred T repeatedlythroughoutPicasso'scareer.Whilevaryingin style and depicting different women that marked each period of the artist's life, these ﬁgures, seated and fully attentive,generallyservedasavehicleforexpressingthe palpablesexualtensionbetweenthepainterandhismodel. Fromthesoft,voluptuouscurvesofMarie-ThérèseWalter, tothefragmented,near-abstractnudesofhissurrealistwork, andtheexaggeratedrenderingofhislateryears,Picasso's seatedwomenhaveamonumental,sculpturalpresence,and are invariably depicted with a powerful sense of psychologicaldramastemmingfromthetensionbetween theinvisibleartistandhissitter.Althoughtheﬁgureofthe painterisnotportrayedwithinthecomposition,hispersonais verymuchpresentinthiswork.Picasso'sconcernsregarding theactofpaintingandtheroleoftheartist,exploredinthe seriesofworksonthethemeofartistandmodel,carriedonto hisseriesofseatedwomen,includingFemme au chat assise dans un fauteuil.Themonumentalﬁgure,loominglargeon herthrone,isnotisolatedinherownworld.Hersigniﬁcanceis inherrelationshipwithhercreatoratthesametimeaswith theviewer–atantalisinginterplayofattractionandpower.
PabloPicasso,Jacqueline assise avec son chat,1964,oiloncanvas,EstateofJacquelinePicasso PabloPicasso,Dora Maar au chat,1941,oiloncanvas.Sold:Sotheby's,Newyork,3rdMay2006 FIG.3, (opposite)PicassoandJacquelineinPicasso'sstudio,1960s.PhotographbyEdwardQuinn
P ro P E rT y F ro M A P r I vAT E Co L L EC T I o N
1 9 01 - 1 96 6
F I G U r I N E signedAlberto Giacomettianddated1961 laster p height:45cm.17¾in. Executedin1961,thisworkisunique. ‡ £1,000,000-1,500,000
rovenance P JamesThrallSoby,Newyork(agiftfromtheartistcirca1962) Thencebydescenttothepresentowner xhibited E Paris,GalerieMaeght,Giacometti,1961,no.36
Figurine isarichlymodelledplasterexampleofoneofthe mostimportantmotifsofGiacometti'sart–thestanding femaleﬁgure.Thisexquisiteworkwasgivenbytheartistto JamesThrallSoby(ﬁg.2),andhasremainedinthesame collection until now. Soby (1906-1979) was an art connoisseur,author,criticandcollector,andistodaymost famousforvariousrolesheheldattheMuseumofModern ArtinNewyork,includingMuseumTrustee,Directorand ChairmanoftheDepartmentofPaintingandSculpture.In hisearlytwentiesSobytravelledtoParis,wherehestarted collectingcontemporaryart.onhisreturntotheUnited States,heworkedattheWadsworthAtheneuminHartford, andlaterattheMuseumofModernArt,whereheremained invariouscapacitiesuntilhisdeathin1979.Sobywasalsoa talentedandproliﬁcauthor,andwroteanumberofbooks pioneeringmodernart,aswellasmonographsofvarious artists,oftenbasedonpersonalacquaintancewiththem.
to a base and frozen in time. In its many sculptural incarnations,thisimagehighlightsthedramaticcontoursof thebodyandthepowerofasinglegesture.Withitsmultiple andconﬂictingthematicconnotationsofstoicism,resilience, passivity, strength and vulnerability, it embodies the Existentialist concerns of many artists and intellectuals workinginpost-warParis.
Throughout the 1940s and up until his death in 1966, Giacometti created several variations of a solitary nude woman,herlong,leanbodyanchoredwithheavyblockfeet
xecutedin1961attheheightofGiacometti'sinternational E acclaim,thepresentsculpturefollowedfromtheseriesof Giacometti'sFemmes de Venise, whichmadetheirdebutat the venice Biennale in 1956. After his success at the Biennale,Giacometticontinuedtodevelopthethemeof standingfemaleﬁgures,elongatingandaccentuatingthe femininecurvatureofthebodyandchallengingthelimitsof themalleabilityandmanipulationofhisbronzeﬁgures.His exploration of this theme culminated in 1960 with his Grandes femmes,whichwereintendedaspartofaproject for Chase Manhattan Plaza in New york City, followed byFemme debout,whichwastobeoneofhislastworkson thissubject.
AlbertoGiacomettiinhisstudio,modellingaplaster,1965.PhotographbyBrassaï. FIG.2, JamesThrallSoby,photographedinthe1960s
P ro P E rT y o F A N o B L E M A N
1 8 9 1 - 1 976
F o r Ê T E T S o L E I L o r C o U C H E r D E S o L E I L
signedMax Ernst(upperright) oiloncanvas 73by92cm.28¾by36¼in. Paintedin1927. £600,000-800,000 €700,000-930,000US$870,000-1,160,000
rovenance P WalterSchwarzenberg(GalerieLeCentaure),Brussels(sold:GalerieGiroux,Brussels,Vente Schwarzenberg,1st-2ndFebruary1932,lot276) roland,Browse&Delbanco,London AlfredHecht,London(acquiredby1961) Abequestfromtheabovetothepresentownerin1991
xhibited E London,TateGallery,Max Ernst,1961,no.69,illustratedinthecatalogue Edinburgh,NationalGalleriesofScotland,DeanGallery,Surrealist Works,2004 iterature L WernerSpies,Max Ernst, Œuvre-Katalog, Werke 1925-1929,Cologne,1976,no.1180,illustratedp.201
aintedin1927, Forêt et soleil belongstooneofthemost P creativeandgroundbreakingperiodsinMaxErnst'sœuvre, markedbyaconstantstreamoftechnicalexperimentation andinvention.Itwasatthistimethattheartistestablishedhis personal mythology, his visual universe of themes and imagesthatweretobecomecentraltohisentirecareer. Throughout1927,Ernst'sworkwasdominatedbyimagesof thenaturalworld,suchasforests,birdsandseashells,andit wasintheseriesofForêtpaintingsofthe1920sthatErnstfor theﬁrsttimefullyexploredhisnewlydeveloped grattage technique. His experimentations with ways of applying pigment onto the surface resulted in the discovery of frottagein1925.Fascinatedbytherichtextureofwooden ﬂoorboards, he would place sheets of paper onto their surfaceandruboverthemwithgraphite,thusarrivingat fantastic,unexpectedcompositions.Inthepresentworkthe glowing colours of the setting sun penetrate powerfully throughthedenseforest.
daptingthispracticetothemediumofoilpainting,Ernst A wouldcoverthecanvaswithlayersofpaintandplaceitover anunevensurfaceoranobject.Hewouldthenscrapethe pigment off the surface, and complex patterns would emerge.Discussingthisgrattagetechnique,WernerSpies wrote:'MaxErnstlaidhiscanvasovervariousobjectswith raisedtextures–piecesofwoodandstring,grates,textured glasspanes–and,drawingthepaintoverthemwithapalette knife,broughtforththemostvivideffects.Inthecourseof thefollowingyears–yearswhichWilliamrubinhascalled the'heroicepochofSurrealistpainting'–thistechnique, knownasgrattage,ledtoastonishinglyinnovativeimagery. Thepicturesbecamemoreabstractineffect,theirformats larger.Thedramaticforceofthesepaintings,therichnessof their scintillating colour, made them high points of imaginativeSurrealistartinthelate1920s'(W.Spies,Max Ernst. A Retrospective(exhibitioncatalogue),TateGallery, London,1991,p.148).
44 PabloPicasso N A T U r E M o r T E À L A B o U G I E 1 8 8 1 - 1 97 3
signedPicasso(lowerleft);dated4 avl 44onthereverse iloncanvas o 60by92cm.23⅝by36¼in. Paintedon4thApril1944. ‡ £2,500,000-3,500,000
Provenance GalerieLouiseLeiris,Paris PrivateCollection,Sweden Acquiredfromtheabovebythefamilyofthepresentownerintheearly1990s Literature ChristianZervos,Pablo Picasso, œuvres de 1943 et 1944,Paris,1962,vol.13,no.254,illustratedpl.126 F. Léger, L'oggetto e il suo concreto(exhibitioncatalogue),FondazionePalazzoBricherasio,Turin, 1996,no.55,illustratedincolourp.145 ThePicassoProject,Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture. Nazi Occupation, 1940-1944,SanFrancisco,1999,no.44-037,illustratedp.325
InearlyApril1944Picassopaintedseveralstill-lifes,featuring acandleandacafetiereonatable-top(ﬁg.1),executedin hisstudioontheruedesGrands-Augustins.Becauseofthe conﬁningcircumstancesofoccupiedParis,Picassomadea habitofpaintingatnightorbehindheavilyshadedwindows, andthechromaticseverityofhispicturesfromthistime conveys the ambiance under these conditions. In earlier versionsofthissubjectpaintedduringthepreviousmonth, Picassoincludedalargepieceofcheeseasacolourfulfocal point.Howeverforthepresentcomposition,oneoftwooils he painted on 4th April, he focused on the expressive potentialofcandlelightanditseffectonthesurrounding objects.Althoughthecandleseemstobeextinguished,itis surroundedbyahalooflightthatilluminatestheleftsideof thecafetiereandthemirrorhangingonthewall,whilethe rightsideoftheseobjectsappearstobeintheshade.The coffeepotcastsadramaticshadow,whichechoesthesharp tonalcontraststhroughoutthecomposition. Inadditiontothemoreobvioussymbolismofthecandleasa ﬂicker of hope during the war, Picasso must have had particulararthistoricalprecedentsinmindwhencompleting
thispicture.JeanSutherlandBoggsexplained:'Whenhe returnedtotheideaon4April,Picassowasobviouslymore awareofthecandleasasymbol,eithersnuffedoutasithad been in the composition with cheese, presumably as a reminderoftheshortnessoflife,orasthesourceoflightin hisapartmentsinceelectricitywassouncertainduringthe war.Thatthelightwassomethingmorethanpracticalis apparent in the enthusiasm with which he executed the ﬂameandthepatternoflightitshed.Itwassomewhatﬂorid, like the straight-back chair with curlicues, which he put besidethetableineachofthestagesofthepaintingorthe suggestionofornamentintheframeofthemirrorabove. Thepresenceofthemirror,althoughhardlyemphasized, does suggest Picasso could have been thinking of a traditionalvanitastheme'(J.SutherlandBoggs,Picasso & Things(exhibitioncatalogue),TheClevelandMuseumof Art,1992,p.284). hestill-lifewasPicasso'spreferredmotifthroughoutthe T early1940sbecauseitofferedaplacidalternativetothe stressthatcloudeddailylifeduringthistime.Unlikemanyof hiscontemporaries,Picassohadnourgentneedtoleave
FIG.1, PabloPicasso,Nature morte à la cafetière,8thApril1944,oiloncanvas,MuséeNationald'ArtModerne,Paris (opposite)Picasso'sstudioatruedesGrands-Augustins,Paris,27thApril1944,showingseveralcanvasesfromtheNature morte à la bougieseries. PhotographbyBrassaï
Parisduringthewar,andcontinuedtoworkinhisstudioat7, ruedesGrands-Augustins.Bythispointinhiscareer,Picasso wasacelebrityandﬁnanciallysecure.Ashedidnothaveto worryaboutsellinghiswork,thepaintingsfromthisperiod remainedinhisstudio(ﬁg.2),onlytobeexhibitedafterthe war.ratherthanavehiclefordocumentingthedestructive realitythatsurroundedhim,paintingwasforhimaworldof creativityintowhichhecouldescape.Whilesomeofhis contemporaries criticised Picasso for the lack of open politicalengagementinhisart,others,suchasAlfredBarr, deemedhisactivityheroic.Barrwrote:'Hewasnotallowed toexhibitpubliclyandhemadenoovertgesturesbuthis veryexistenceinParisencouragedtheresistanceartists, poetsandintellectualswhogatheredinhisstudioorabout hiscafétable'(A.Barr,quotedinPicasso and the War Years:
1937-1945 (exhibitioncatalogue),CaliforniaPalaceofthe LegionofHonor,SanFrancisco&Solomonr.Guggenheim Museum,Newyork,1998-99,p.118). rancesMorrisanalysedthesymbolismofPicasso'sstill-lifes F oftheearly1940s:'aboveallitwasthestill-lifegenrethat Picassodevelopedintoatoolcapableofevokingthemost complexblendofpathosanddeﬁance,ofdespairtohope, balancingpersonalanduniversalexperienceinanexpression ofextraordinaryemotionalpower.Thehardshipofdailylife, thefragilityofhumanexistenceandthethreatofdeathare themesthathauntPicasso'sstill-lifepaintingsofthewarand Liberation periods' (F. Morris, Paris Post War, Art and Existentialism 1945-1955(exhibitioncatalogue),TateGallery, London,1993,p.155).
P r o P E r T y F r o M T H E M U S E U M o F M o D E r N A r T , N E W yo r k , S o L D To B E N E F I T THE ACQUISITIoNS FUND
1 8 96 - 1 9 87
L E o N A r D o D A v I N C I E T I S A B E L L A D ' E S T E signedAndré Masson anddated 1942(lowerleft) iloncanvas o 101.3by127cm.39⅞by50in. Paintedin1942. ‡ £500,000-700,000
rovenance P TheBuchholzGallery(Curtvalentin),Newyork(1943) TheMuseumofModernArt,Newyork(acquiredfromthe abovein1943) xhibited E Newyork,TheMuseumofModernArt,Recent Acquisitions: European and American Paintings,1943 Toronto,ArtGallery,Canadian National Exhibition,1952 Minneapolis,WalkerArtCenter,Reality and Fantasy,1954, no.106 Boston,MuseumofFineArts,Surrealisme,1964 Berlin,Akademiederkunste,André Masson,1964,no.31 Amsterdam,StedelijkMuseum,André Masson,1964,no.31 Paris,MuséeNationald'ArtModerne,André Masson,1965,no.40 SantaBarbara,UniversityofCalifornia,Surrealism, a State of Mind,1966 Newyork,TheSaidenbergGallery,André Masson, Major Beginnings,1966,no.16 Executed in 1942, the present work belongs to the ﬁnal stage of Masson’s surrealistperiod,shortlybeforehisbreak with André Breton and the ofﬁcial Surrealistgroupin1943.Duringthistime, he increasingly drew inspiration from legend, particularly ancient Greek mythology,aswellasfromhistory,which provided him with rich imagery and metaphorsthatheusedtocommenton theworldwhichsurroundedhim. Thepresentcompositionisdominated bytwoportraitsseeninproﬁle:onthe FIG.1 leftisathree-quarterﬁgureofIsabella d’Este,whowasoneoftheleadingwomenoftheItalian renaissanceandamajorculturalandpoliticalﬁgure.onthe
Marseille,MuséeCantini,André Masson,1968,no.26, illustratedinthecatalogue Paris,GaleriesNationalesduGrandPalais,André Masson, 1977,no.88,illustratedinthecatalogue Brussels,MuséesroyauxdesBeaux-ArtsdeBelgique, Surrealism from the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art,New York,1978,no.43 Marseille,CentredelavieilleCharité,La Planète affolée: surréalisme, dispersion et influences, 1938-1947,1986 iterature L Jean-PaulClébert,Mythologie d'André Masson,Geneva, 1971,no.139,illustrated Williamrubin&CarolynLanchner,André Masson,1976, illustratedp.66 AlfredH.Barr,Jr.,Painting and Sculpture in The Museum of Modern Art, 1929-1967,Newyork,1977,no.88,illustratedp.177
rightisabustofLeonardodavinci,the archetypal renaissance man who was, amongotherthings,anartist,architect, scientist,engineerandinventor.Isabella d’Este, the marchioness of Mantua, collectedartandsupportedsomeofthe leadingpoets,musiciansandartistsofher time,includingLeonardodavinci,Titian andraphael. By all accounts, she was a fascinating woman,andpursuedanumberofartists to paint portraits of her. Leonardo’s famousportraitofIsabella(ﬁg.1),which was certainly an important source of inspirationforMasson,wasprobablydrawnwhenLeonardo visitedMantuain1500.
FIG.1, Leonardodavinci,Portrait of Isabella d’Este,circa 1500,charcoalandchalkonpaper,MuséeduLouvre,Paris
1 8 61 - 1 94 4
T o r S E D E v É N U S inscribedwiththemonogram,numbered2/6 andstampedwiththefoundrymark C. Valsuani Cire Perdue bronze height:115.5cm.45½in.
Executedin1918andcastduringtheartist'slifetime. ‡ £250,000-350,000
rovenance P Dinavierny,Paris PrivateCollection,California(sale:Christie's,Newyork,8thMay2000,lot3) Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowners xhibited E Perpignan,MuséeHyacintherigaud,Maillol,1979,no.41,illustratedinthecatalogue (asdatingfrom1920) iterature L WaldemarGeorge,Aristide Maillol,London,1965,illustrationofanothercastp.190 WaldemarGeorge,Aristide Maillol et l'âme de la sculpture,Neuchâtel,1977, illustrationofalargerversionp.196 BertrandLorquin,Aristide Maillol,Geneva,1994,illustrationoftheplasterp.107 TheauthenticityofthisworkwasconﬁrmedbyDinavierny.
In his endless search for perfection in charm distinctively his own' (J. rewald, in depictingthehumanbody,Maillolexecuted Aristide Maillol (exhibition catalogue), severalversionsofvenus,constantlyrevising rosenbergGallery,Newyork,1958,pp.6&7). andreﬁningtheformsandcontoursofthe Maillol received inspiration from the art of standing female nude. Bertrand Lorquin many cultures, including the sculpture of wrote about Torse de Vénus: 'This torso, ancientEgypt,theHinducarvingsofIndia,and whichdatesfromtheyear1918,isaworkof the white marbles of classical Greece. art in itself. It is perhaps one of the most Accordingtotheartisthimself,'InGreekart, accomplishedpiecesofsculptureinhisentire thereisnothingmorebeautifulthantheVénus œuvre' (B. Lorquin, op. cit., p. 107). In the de Milo'(quotedinAristide Maillol(exhibition presentworktheartistisolatedtheﬁgure's catalogue),Albright-knoxArtGallery,Buffalo, torsoinorderfullytoexplorethispartofthe 1945,p.22).ForMaillol,theVénus de Milo(ﬁg. femaleanatomy,andrendereditwithasense 1)reﬂectedaninherentserenityindependent of classical beauty and sensuality. John FIG.1,Vénus de Milo,circa100B.C., ofemotionalimplicationsorovertnarrative. rewald commented about Maillol's marble,MuséeduLouvre,Paris Although he rejected naturalism in art, he sculpture: 'To celebrate the human body, admiredthereﬁnedcontoursthatrevealedthesensualityand particularlythefemininebody,seemstohavebeenMaillol's quietgraceofpureform.Havingﬁnallyfoundsuccesswithhis onlyaim.Hedidthisinastylefromwhichallgrandiloquenceis ownVénus,Maillolsubsequentlycreatedtwoversionsofthe absent,astylealmostearthboundandgrave...Theabsenceof fullstandingﬁgure,onewithanecklaceandtheotherwithout. movement,however,iscompensatedbyatendernessand 160
1 8 87 - 1 9 8 5
L E G r A N D C I r Q U E signedMarc Chagall(lowerright);signedMarc Chagallonthereverse iloncanvas o 160by170cm.63by67in. Paintedin1968. ‡ £2,400,000-3,200,000
rovenance P PierreMatisseGallery,Newyork(acquiredfromtheartist) PrivateCollection(sold:Sotheby's,Newyork,13thMay 1998,lot51) PrivateCollection,USA(purchasedattheabovesale) EstateofLeonardGreen,USA(sold:Sotheby's,Newyork, 3rdMay2006,lot52) Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner xhibited E Newyork,PierreMatisseGallery,Marc Chagall, Recent Paintings, 1966-1968,1968,no.23 Paris,GaleriesNationalesduGrandPalais,Marc Chagall, 1969-70,no.194,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Newyork,TheSolomonr.GuggenheimMuseum,1975 Newyork,PierreMatisseGallery,Marc Chagall, A Celebration,1977,no.11,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue Sarasota,JohnandMableringlingMuseumofArt,The Circus in Art,1977
hagall's monumental oil Le Grand cirque is a spectacular C meditationonathemethatfascinatedhimthroughouthislife. Thispicture,whichwasthelargesteaselpaintingheexecutedin 1968,isconsideredtobehisgrandestexplorationofthesubject. 'Formeacircusisamagicshow,'Chagallwrotetheyearbefore hecompletedthepresentpicture,'thatappearsanddisappears likeaworld.Acircusisdisturbing.Itisprofound.' n the artist's 85th birthday, Werner Haftmann wrote a o monographonChagallandincludedthepresentpictureas amonghisgreatestlife-timeachievements.Hefurtherstatesin no uncertain terms that it is Chagall's most accomplished compositiononthistheme:'Itisthemostextraordinaryofallthe circuspictures.Thebasiccolortoneisdeterminedbyblackand white.[...]Therhythmicpatternofthearcsandthesurrounding compositionhasastrangelysolemn-onemightsayByzantinequality,suchasweﬁndinChagall'ssacredwindows.Bordering theblack-and-whitezoneoneithersideareabstractlylocated colorplanesofcoolgreen,andontheupperright-handsidethe stripofterrestrialgreenissetoffbyapanelofnocturnalblue. Likecurtains,thesecolorzonesscreenoffthespiritualrealmof 162
Milwaukee,MuseumofArt;Columbus,MuseumofArt; Albany,NewyorkStateMuseum&Washington,D.C., CorcoranGalleryofArt,Center Ring: The Artist. Two Centuries of Circus Art,1981-82,no.29 Saint-Paul-de-vence,FondationMaeght,Marc Chagall, Rétrospective de l'œuvre peint,1984,no.67,illustratedincolour inthecatalogue London,royalAcademyofArts&Philadelphia,Museumof Art,Chagall,1985,no.110,illustratedincolourinthecatalogue
iterature L WernerHaftmann,Marc Chagall,Newyork,1972,no.43, illustratedincolourp.151 FrançoisLeTargat,Marc Chagall,Newyork,1985,no.116, illustratedincolour IngoF.Walther&rainerMetzger,Marc Chagall, Painting as Poetry,Cologne,1993,illustrated heauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbythe T ComitéMarcChagall. thevision.Butthesuggestionsofthesevariedcolors,occurringin abstractlyplacedplaneswithoutregardtoobjectivecoloring,in thecoloristicmethodusedbyChagallatthisperiod,havethe effect of transforming the black and white into color - into glisteninglightanddarkness.Intermsofcolor,thedramais alreadystaged'(W.Haftman, op. cit.,p.150). hagallﬁrstexhibitedthispicturewithhisdealerPierreMatisse C inNewyorkinDecember1968,andleftitwiththegalleryfor several years, exhibiting it at some of the most important retrospectives of the artist's work, including the deﬁnitive exhibitionattheroyalAcademyofArtsin1985.Intheexhibition catalogue,SusanComptonwrotethefollowingaboutLe Grand cirque anditsvisualimpact:'Despitethefactthatthecircus theme mightbe expected toevoke the comedy oflife, the underlying tragedy of this parody of human condition is overpowering.Gonearethetumblersofthebigtop,allsimple gaietyinthesawdustring:here,instead,Chagalldepictssome moreprofounddramainwhichmanisengaged,poisedbetween HeavenandHell,evertornapartbythetwindesiresofhatred andlove,andeverseekingawayofreconciliation'(S.Compton, Chagall (exhibitioncatalogue),op. cit.,1985,p.236).
P ro P E rT y F ro M A P r I vAT E E U ro P E A N Co L L EC T I o N
1 87 9 - 1 94 0
A r C H I T E k T U r I N r o T U G r Ü N
(ArCHITECTUrEINrEDANDGrEEN) signedKlee(lowerright);titledanddated1921/47ontheartist'smount atercolour,penandinkandpencilonjointpaperlaiddownontheartist'smount w imagesize:16.5by26.5cm.6½by10⅜in.mountsize:25by32.8cm.9⅞by12⅞in. Executedin1921. ‡ £180,000-250,000
Provenance AlexejvonJawlensky,Wiesbaden(acquiredfromtheartist circa 1922) GalkaScheyer,Hollywood(acquiredfromtheabove) LeonardHuttonGalleries,Newyork(sold:ParkeBernet, Newyork,9thApril1969,lot29) JeromeL.Greene,Newyork(purchasedattheabovesale) TheJewishMuseum,Newyork(agiftoftheabove.Sold: Sotheby's,Newyork,11thMay2000,lot221) Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner xhibited E Philadelphia,ThePhiladelphiaArtAlliance,Paul Klee. Paintings, Drawings, Prints,1944,no.67
rchitecturewasoneofthemostimportant A elementsthatinﬂuencedklee'sartintheearly 1920s,andisthecentralsubjectofArchitektur in Rot u Grün. Following the architect Walter Gropius'sinvitationtoteachattheBauhausin october1920,kleemovedtoWeimer,andthe subsequent years were to be the most innovativeandproductiveofhiscareer.Inspired by the Bauhaus belief in constructivist art, klee'sworkbecameincreasinglyabstractand geometricised. Thepresentwork isamagniﬁcentexampleof hisnewmethodofbuildinguphiscomposition FIG.1 outofmainlyrectangularforms,combiningtheminawonderfully poeticfashion.Furthermore,thisworkdisplaysklee'sinnovative techniqueofpaintingacompositiononalargersheetofpaper, whichhesubsequentlycutintoseveralpieces,eachframedwith
Literature Wolfgangkersten&osamuokuda,Paul Klee. Im Zeichen der Teilung(exhibitioncatalogue),kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen,Düsseldorf&Staatsgalerie,Stuttgart, 1995,illustratedp.344 JosefHelfenstein,'Diekostbarstenundpersönlichsten Geschenke',inDie Blaue Vier. Feininger, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, Klee in der Neuen Welt (exhibitioncatalogue), kunstmuseum,Bern&kunstsammlungNordrheinWestfalen,Düsseldorf,1997-98,illustratedp.95 PaulkleeStiftung(ed.),Paul Klee, Catalogue Raisonné, Bern,1999,vol.III,no.2638,illustratedp.274 Klee and America(exhibitioncatalogue),NeueGalerie, Newyork;ThePhillipsCollection,Washington,D.C.& TheMenilCollection,Houston,2006-07,illustratedp.96
Initially,thepresentworkformedtheupper section of a larger work, combined with Zimmer Perspektive Rot/Grün, now at the NortonSimonMuseum,Pasadena(ﬁg.1).As osamu okuda explained: 'klee apparently ﬁrstdrewasinglecompositionwithtwopoints of view, producing one perspective in the uppersectionandadifferentoneinthelower one. He then applied watercolour to this drawinginthecomplementarycolorsofred andgreen,andafterwardredrewthenetwork of lines in the lower part [...]. klee then cut the original compositionintwo[...].Signiﬁcantly,kleepresentedtheupper portiontohisartistfriendAlexeiJawlensky,probablyin1922' (osamuokuda,op. cit.,p.96).
FIG.1, reconstructionoftheoriginalworkcombiningArchitektur in Rot u Grün (thepresentwork)with
Zimmer Perspektive Rot/Grün(nowattheNortonSimonMuseum,Pasadena)
P ro P E rT y F ro M A P r I vAT E Co L L EC T I o N
1 8 9 0 - 1 9 1 8
P o r T r A I T o F o T T o F r E U N D charcoalandwatercolouronpaper 20.6by30cm.8⅛by11¾in. Executedcirca1910. £150,000-200,000 €175,000-233,000US$218,000-290,000
rovenance P Eva&ottoFreund,Prague(acquiredfromtheartist) Thencebydescenttothepresentowner TobeincludedintherevisededitionofEgon Schiele: The Complete WorksbyJanekallir.
hesubjectofthisstrikingportraitisottoFreund,whowasadirectorofthe T NationalBankinPrague.Accordingtofamilyhistory,duringatriptovienna hewasapproachedbySchiele,whowasfascinatedbyhisappearanceand askedFreundtositforhim.Alongsidethepresentwork,theartistalso executedtwowatercolourportraitsofFreundin1910(ﬁg.1),howeverthe sitterhadnotpreviouslybeenidentiﬁed.Thepresentworkwasgivenby Schieletothesitter,andhasremainedinhisfamilyuntilnow.Aroundthe sametimeSchieleexecutedseveralwatercolourportraitsofottoFreund's wife,EvaGallus(seelot16).
FIG.1, EgonSchiele,Porträt eines Herren,1910,watercolour
hismagniﬁcentdrawingprobablydatesfrom1910,theyearregardedasa T majorturning-pointforSchiele'sart,whenheexecutedhisﬁrstgroundbreakingExpressionistworks.AfterleavingtheviennaAcademyofFine Artsin1909,hebegantodevelophisowndistinctstyleandgraduallyturned away from the inﬂuence of his mentor, Gustav klimt. Schiele's ﬁne draughtsmanshiphadlongbeenpraisedandadmiredwhilehewasastudent workingwiththeyoungartistsinNeukunstgruppe,butnow,asheemerged asanindividualartistwithsupremecreativetalent,hisdrawingsbecame morepronouncedlydaringintheirsubjectsandtheirexecution.
1 8 87 - 1 9 8 5
L E r Ê v E D U P E I N T r E signedMarc Chagall(lowerright);signedMarc Chagallonthereverse iloncanvas o 100by65cm.39⅜by25⅝in. Paintedcirca1980. ‡ £650,000-850,000
rovenance P Estateoftheartist PrivateCollection,USA Acquiredbythepresentownerin2007 TheauthenticityofthisworkhasbeenconﬁrmedbytheComitéMarcChagall.
Le rêve du peintre is a quintessential example of the fantastic, dream-like quality of Chagall's art, combining some of the key elements of his pictorial iconography. Chagall found a strong afﬁnity between painting and dreaming,whichisexpressedinboththetitleandsubjectof this composition. rather than representing a rational arrangementofdifferentelementswithinthespaceofthe painting,Le rêve du peintre isacompilationoftheartist's favouritesubjects,connectedbyaninternalprinciplerather than by a logical spatial relationship. With its fanciful, dream-like composition, the painting becomes an expressionoftheartist'sinternaluniverseratherthanand objectiveprojectionoftheoutsideworld.
his work is a bold example of the creative energy that T remainedundiminishedinthelastdecadeofChagall'slife.A vividphantasmagoricalcomposition,itisroughlydividedinto twoareas:theupperleftofthecanvasdepictsanopenspace dominatedbytheimageoftheartistinfrontofhiseasel, illuminatedbyboththesunandthemoon.Thelowerright areaisdenselypopulatedwithnumerousﬁgures,representing theworldofthepainter'sdream.Embracingartisticfreedom of expression rather than following the logic of everyday appearances,Chagallrendershisﬁguresonunrelatedscales, andtwobrightlycolouredcouplesloomlargeovertherestof thecrowd.Thisabandontothejoyofcreationreﬂectsthe artist'sconﬁdenceinhisstyleandtechniqueandhisdeeply individualandsubjectiveapproachtopainting.
1 8 8 1 - 1 9 55
P E I N T U r E I M A G I N A I r E signedF. Légeranddated39-52(lowerright);signedF. Léger,titledanddated39-52onthereverse iloncanvas o 60by92cm.23⅝by36¼in.
Paintedbetween1939-52. ‡ £800,000-1,200,000
rovenance P GalerieLouisCarré,Paris Svensk-Franskakonstgalleriet,Stockholm Mr&MrsSoderlund,Geneva&Stockholm(sold:Sotheby's,London,1stJuly1980,lot77) PrivateCollection(purchasedattheabovesale.Sold:Sotheby's,London,1stDecember1992,lot38A) Purchasedattheabovesalebythepresentowner iterature L GeorgesBauquier,Fernand Léger. Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint, 1938-1943,Paris,1998,no.1062, illustratedincolourp.134
'The artist must make something as beautiful as nature,' Légerwrotein1937,andinPeinture imaginairehetranslated thebeautyofalandscapeintoarich,arrestingcomposition. Takingthetraditionallandscapegenreasastartingpoint, Léger depicts an imaginary view, transforming it into a thoroughlymoderncompositionvergingbetweenﬁguration andabstraction.Thecanvasispopulatedbybiomorphicand semi-abstractshapesrepresentingtrees,plantsandcloudsin a deep blue sky. While forming a rich and dynamic composition,thesevariouselementsareexecutedinlarge blocksofsolidpigmentanddelineatedinblack,emphasising theﬂatnessofthepictureplane.ratherthanrepresentinga likenessoftheworldthatsurroundshim,theartist'sprimary interestwasinexperimentingwiththepictorialelementsof
colourandformandcreatingnewspatialrelationshipswithin thetwo-dimensionalformatofthecanvas. éger'scompositionsexecutedinthe1930swerepopulated L withimagesofthenaturalworld,suchasbutterﬂies,ﬂowers andunderwaterplants.InPeinture imaginaire,theplant-like formsintheforegroundarecombinedwiththemoreabstract forms sprouting behind them, painted in unmodulated primarytones.AccordingtoLéger,thesearethecoloursthat expresstherealityofthemediumofpainting.ratherthan imitatingnature,theartistwasinterestedinexploringthe language of painting in its fullest and purest form, thus reducinghisvocabularytotheelementsofcolourandform. Asaresult,Léger'scompositiondeﬁesasenseofgravityand transcendstheearth-boundnatureofatraditionallandscape.
CONTEMPORARY ART London 28 June 2010 EVENING AUCTION
ENQUIRIES +44 (0)20 7293 5401
LUCIO FONTANA CONCETTO SPAZIALE, LA FINE DI DIO, 1963. ESTIMATE £4,500,000 - 5,500,000
CONTEMPORARY ART London 28 June 2010 EVENING AUCTION
ENQUIRIES +44 (0)20 7293 5401
YVES KLEIN RE 49, 1961. ESTIMATE £4,500,000 – 6,500,000
Pierre-Auguste Renoir Paysage à Cagnes ESTIMATE £420,000 - 480,000
I M P R E S S I O N I S T & M O D E R N A R T D AY S A L E AUCTION IN LONDON 23 JUNE 2010
ENQUIRIES +44 (0)20 7293 5087
Giovanni Giacometti Die Maira bei Stampa (Detail) ESTIMATE CHF 1,800,000 - 2,500,000
Swiss Art AUCTION IN ZURICH 14 JUNE 2010 SOTHEBY'S TALSTRASSE 83
ENQUIRIES +41 44 226 22 55
© 2010 SucceSSion H. MatiSSe / artiStS rigHtS Society (arS), new york
Henri Matisse Bouquet de fleurs pour le Quatorze Juillet
Sold for $28.6 million ESTIMATE $18 – 25 MILLION NEW YORK MAY 2010
invitation to conSign
iMpreSSioniSt & Modern art NEXT AUCTIONS IN NEW YORK 2 & 3 NOVEMBER 2010
ENQUIRIES +1 212 606 7360
Old Master & British Paintings Evening Sale AUCTION IN LONDON 7 JULY 2010
ENQUIRIES +44 ( 0 ) 20 7293 5407
jOSEPh MallOrd williaM turnEr, r.a. MODERN ROME – CAMPO VACCINO (dEtail) Oil On canvaS (unlinEd) 35½ By 48 in., 90.2 By 122 cM. ESTIMATE £12,000,000 – 18,000,000
THE SOTHEBY’S DIAMONDS COLLECTION ON VIEW AT SOTHEBY’S LONDON WITH THE IMPRESSIONIST & MODERN ART SALES 16–22 JUNE AND WITH THE CONTEMPORARY ART SALES 25–28 JUNE T +44 ( 0 ) 20 7293 5017
BUYING AT AUCTION The following pages are designed to give you useful information on how to buy at auction. sotheby’s staff as listed at the front of this catalogue will be happy to assist you. However, it is important that you read the following information carefully and note that sotheby’s acts for the seller; you should refer in particular to Conditions 3 and 4 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue. Prospective bidders should also consult www.sothebys.com for the most up to date cataloguing of the property in this catalogue. Buyer’s Premium a buyer’s premium will be added to the hammer price and is payable by the buyer as part of the total purchase price. The buyer’s premium is 25% of the hammer price up to and including £25,000, 20% of any amount in excess of £25,000 up to and including £500,000, and 12% of any amount in excess of £500,000. 1. BefOre The AUCTION
Catalogue Subscriptions if you would like to take out a catalogue subscription, please ring +44 (0)20 7293 5000. Pre-sale estimates Pre-sale estimates are intended as a guide for prospective buyers. any bid between the high and low pre-sale estimates would, in our opinion, offer a chance of success. However, lots can realise prices above or below the pre-sale estimates. it is advisable to consult us nearer the time of sale as estimates can be subject to revision. The estimates printed in the auction catalogue do not include the buyer’s premium or VaT. Pre-sale estimates in US Dollars and euros although the sale is conducted in pounds sterling, the pre-sale estimates in some catalogues are also printed in us dollars and/or euros. The rate of exchange is the rate at the time of production of this catalogue. Therefore, you should treat the estimates in us dollars or euros as a guide only. Condition of Lots Prospective buyers are encouraged to inspect the property at the pre-sale exhibitions. solely as a convenience, sotheby’s may also provide condition reports. The absence of reference to the condition of a lot in the catalogue description does not imply that the lot is free from faults or imperfections. Please refer to Condition 3 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue.
11/09 nbs_buy main
electrical and Mechanical Goods all electrical and mechanical goods are sold on the basis of their artistic and decorative value only, and should not be assumed to be operative. it is essential that prior to any intended use, the electrical system is checked and approved by a qualified electrician. Provenance in certain circumstances, sotheby’s may print in the catalogue the history of ownership of a work of art if such information contributes to scholarship or is otherwise well known and assists in distinguishing the work of art. However, the identity of the seller or previous owners may not be disclosed for a variety of reasons. For example, such information may be excluded to accommodate a seller’s request for confidentiality or because the identity of prior owners is unknown given the age of the work of art.
prospective bidders and buyers. anyone considering bidding in the auction should read them carefully. They may be amended by way of notices posted in the saleroom or by way of announcement made by the auctioneer.
erwise dealing with property belonging to members, residents, nationals or the governments of these countries, organisations or groups.
Bidding at Auction bids may be executed in person by paddle during the auction, in writing prior to the sale or by telephone. auction speeds vary, but average between 50 and 120 lots per hour. The bidding steps are generally in increments of approximately 10% of the previous bid. Please refer to Conditions 5 and 6 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue.
Payment Payment is due immediately after the sale and may be made by the following methods: sterling cash, sterling banker’s draft, sterling travellers cheques, sterling cheque, wire transfer in sterling, uK debit card (Visa Debit, Connect or maestro) or credit card (Visa, masterCard) and non-uK debit cards subject to a 1.75% service charge. Please note that we are unable to accept payment by american Express or Diners Club.
Bidding in Person To bid in person, you will need to register for and collect a numbered paddle before the auction begins. Proof of identity will be required. if you have a sotheby’s Client Card, it will facilitate the registration process. should you be the successful buyer of a lot, please ensure that your paddle can be seen by the auctioneer and that it is your number that is called out. should there be any doubts as to price or buyer, please draw the auctioneer’s attention to it immediately. all lots sold will be invoiced to the name and address in which the paddle has been registered and cannot be transferred to other names and addresses. Please do not mislay your paddle; in the event of loss, inform the sales Clerk immediately. at the end of the sale, please return your paddle to the registration desk. Absentee and Telephone Bids if you cannot attend the auction, we will be happy to execute written bids on your behalf or you can bid on the telephone for lots with a minimum low estimate of £3,000. a bidding form and more information can be found at the back of this catalogue. Consecutive and responsive Bidding The auctioneer may open the bidding on any lot by placing a bid on behalf of the seller. The auctioneer may further bid on behalf of the seller, up to the amount of the reserve, by placing consecutive or responsive bids for a lot. Please refer to Condition 6 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue. Interested Parties Announcement in situations where a person who is allowed to bid on a lot has a direct or indirect interest in such lot, such as the beneficiary or executor of an estate selling the lot, a joint owner of the lot, or a party providing or participating in a guarantee of the lot, sotheby’s will make an announcement in the saleroom that interested parties may bid on the lot. in certain instances, interested parties may have knowledge of the reserves. employee Bidding sotheby’s employees may bid only if the employee does not know the reserve and fully complies with sotheby’s internal rules governing employee bidding. Bidding by Noortman Master Paintings noortman master Paintings, an independently managed subsidiary of sotheby’s in the usa, may bid for and/or purchase any lot. sotheby’s accepts no responsibility to other bidders in connection with permitting noortman to bid and/or purchase any lot.
2. DUrING The AUCTION
Conditions of Business The auction is governed by the Conditions of business and authenticity Guarantee. These apply to all aspects of the relationship between sotheby’s and actual and
US economic Sanctions The united states maintains economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries, groups and organisations. us buyers will please note that us persons are generally prohibited from selling, buying or oth-
3. AfTer The AUCTION
• It is against Sotheby's general policy to accept single or multiple related payments in the form of cash or cash equivalents in excess of the local currency equivalent of US$10,000. • It is Sotheby's policy to request any new clients or buyers preferring to make a cash payment to provide: proof of identity (by providing some form of government issued identification containing a photograph, such as a passport, identity card or driver's licence) and confirmation of permanent address. Thank you for your co-operation. Cheques and drafts should be made payable to Sotheby’s. although personal and company cheques drawn in pounds sterling on uK banks are accepted, you are advised that property will not be released until such cheques have cleared unless you have a pre-arranged Cheque acceptance Facility. Forms to facilitate this are available from cashiers. Bank transfers should be made to: HsbC bank plc, 129 new bond street, London W1a 2Ja. account name: sotheby’s Receipts. account no. 01099833. sort Code: 40-05-01. swift Code: miDLGb22. iban: Gb54miDL40050101099833 Please include your name, sotheby’s account number and invoice number with your instructions to your bank. Please note that we reserve the right to decline payments received from anyone other than the buyer of record and that clearance of such payments will be required. Please contact our Client accounts Department if you have any questions concerning clearance. Payment by Visa, MasterCard or Non-UK Debit Card will be subject to a 1.75% administrative fee. Payments exceeding £20,000 can only be made by the cardholder in person. For absentee payments below £20,000 please contact cashiers on 44 (0)20 7293 5220. We reserve the right to seek identification of the source of funds received. The Conditions of business require buyers to pay immediately for their purchases. However, in limited circumstances and with the seller’s agreement, sotheby’s may offer buyers it deems creditworthy the option of paying for their purchases on an extended payment term basis. Generally credit terms must be arranged prior to the sale. in advance of determining whether to grant the extended payment terms, sotheby’s may require credit references and proof of identity and residence. Collection it is sotheby’s policy to request proof of identity on collection of a lot. Lots will be released to you or your authorised representative
when full and cleared payment has been received by sotheby’s. if you are in doubt about the location of your purchases, please contact the sale administrator prior to arranging collection. Removal, interest, storage and handling charges will be levied on uncollected lots. Please refer to Condition 7 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue. Storage storage and handling charges may apply. For information concerning post sale storage and charges, please see the Warehouse, storage and Collection information at the back of this catalogue. Please refer to Condition 7 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue. all purchases remaining at our new bond steet premises 90 days after the sale will be transferred to sotheby’s Kings House (see Warehouse, storage and Collection information). all such purchases will be subject to further storage and handling charges from this point. Loss or Damage buyers are reminded that sotheby’s accepts liability for loss or damage to lots for a maximum period of five (5) days after the date of the auction. Please refer to Condition 7 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue. Shipping sotheby’s shipping Logistics can advise buyers on exporting and shipping property. Our office is open between the hours of 9 am and 5 pm and you can contact the shipping advisor on the number set out in the front of this catalogue. Purchases will be despatched as soon as possible upon clearance from the Client accounts department and receipt of your written despatch instructions and of any export licence or certificates that may be required. Despatch will be arranged at the buyer’s expense. sotheby’s may receive a fee for its own account from the agent arranging the despatch. Estimates and information on all methods can be provided upon request and enquiries should be marked for the attention of sotheby’s shipping Logistics and faxed to +44 (0)20 7293 5952. additionally, a form to provide shipping instructions is attached to the back of the buyer’s invoice. your shipper will include a quote for transit insurance. all shipments should be unpacked and checked on delivery and any discrepancies notified to the transit insurer or shipper immediately. export The export of any lot from the uK or import into any other country may be subject to one or more export or import licences being granted. it is the buyer’s responsibility to obtain any relevant export or import licence. The denial of any licence required or delay in obtaining such licence cannot justify the cancellation of the sale or any delay in making payment of the total amount due. sotheby’s, upon request and for an administrative fee, may apply for a licence to export your lot(s) outside the uK – an EU Licence is necessary to export cultural goods subject to the Eu Regulation on the export of cultural property (EEC no. 3911/92, Official Journal no. L395 of 31/12/92) from the European Community. – a UK Licence is necessary to move cultural goods valued at or above the relevant uK Licence limits from the uK. For export outside the European Community, an Eu Licence will be required for most items over 50 years of age with a value of over £40,530. The following is a selection of categories of items for which other value limits apply and for which an Eu Licence may be required. it is not exhaustive and there are other restrictions. ���
exPLANATION Of SYMBOLS
The following key explains the symbols you may see inside this catalogue.
Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: ZERO
Elements of artistic, historical or religious monuments Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: ZERO
manuscripts, documents and archives (excluding printed matter) Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: ZERO
architectural, scientific and engineering drawings produced by hand Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £12,160
Photographic positive or negative or any assemblage of such photographs Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £12,160
Textiles (excluding carpets and tapestries) Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £40,530
Paintings in oil or tempera Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £121,590
Watercolours, gouaches and pastels Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £24,320
Prints, Engravings, Drawings and mosaics Eu LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £12,160
There are separate thresholds for exporting within the European Community. a uK Licence will be required for most items over 50 years of age with a value of over £65,000. some exceptions are listed below:UK Licence Thresholds Photographic positive or negative or any assemblage of such photographs uK LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £10,000
Textiles (excluding carpets and tapestries) uK LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £12,000
british Historical Portraits uK LiCEnCE THREsHOLD: £10,000
sotheby’s recommends that you retain all import and export papers, including licences, as in certain countries you may be required to produce them to governmental authorities. endangered Species items made of or incorporating plant or animal material, such as coral, crocodile, ivory, whalebone, tortoiseshell, etc., irrespective of age or value, may require a licence or certificate prior to exportation and require additional licences or certificates upon importation to any country outside the Eu. Please note that the ability to obtain an export licence or certificate does not ensure the ability to obtain an import licence or certificate in another country, and vice versa. For example, it is illegal to import elephant ivory under 100 years old into the united states. sotheby’s suggests that buyers check with their own government regarding wildlife import requirements prior to placing a bid. it is the buyer’s responsibility to obtain any export or import licences and/or certificates as well as any other required documentation (please refer to Condition 10 of the Conditions of business for buyers printed in this catalogue).
○ Guaranteed Property The seller of lots with this symbol has been guaranteed a minimum price from one auction or a series of auctions. This guarantee may be provided by sotheby’s, by a third party or jointly by sotheby’s and a third party. Third parties providing all or part of a guarantee benefit financially if a guaranteed lot is sold successfully and may incur a loss if the sale is not successful. if every lot in a catalogue is guaranteed, the important notices in the sale catalogue will so state and this symbol will not be used for each lot. △ Property in which Sotheby’s has an Ownership Interest Lots with this symbol indicate that sotheby’s owns the lot in whole or in part or has an economic interest in the lot equivalent to an ownership interest. ⋑ Irrevocable Bids Lots with this symbol indicate that a party has provided sotheby’s with an irrevocable bid on the lot that will be executed during the sale. The irrevocable bidder, who may bid in excess of the irrevocable bid, will be compensated based on the final hammer price in the event he or she is not the successful bidder. if the irrevocable bidder is the successful bidder, he or she will be required to pay the full buyer’s Premium and will not be otherwise compensated. if the irrevocable bid is not secured until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that there is an irrevocable bid on the lot. ⊻ Interested Parties Lots with this symbol indicate that parties with a direct or indirect interest in the lot may be bidding on the lot, including (i) the beneficiary of an estate selling the lot, or (ii) the joint owner of a lot. if the interested party is the successful bidder, they will be required to pay the full buyer’s Premium. in certain instances, interested parties may have knowledge of the reserve. in the event the interested party’s possible participation in the sale is not known until after the printing of the auction catalogue, a pre-lot announcement will be made indicating that interested parties may be bidding on the lot. □ No Reserve unless indicated by a box (□), all lots in this catalogue are offered subject to a reserve. a reserve is the confidential hammer price established between sotheby's and the seller and below which a lot will not be sold. The reserve is generally set at a percentage of the low estimate and will not exceed the low estimate for the lot. if any lots in the catalogue are offered without a reserve, these lots are indicated by a box (□). if all lots in the catalogue are offered without a reserve, a special notice will be included to this effect and the box symbol will not be used for each lot. ⊕ Property Subject to the Artist’s Resale Right Purchase of lots marked with this symbol (⊕) will be subject to payment of the artist’s Resale Right, at a percentage of the hammer price calculated as follows: Portion of the hammer price (in €) Royalty Rate From 0 to 50,000 From 50,000.01 to 200,000 From 200,000.01 to 350,000 From 350,000.01 to 500,000 Exceeding 500,000
4% 3% 1% 0.5% 0.25%
The artist’s Resale Right payable will be the aggregate of the amounts payable under the above rate bands, subject to a maximum royalty payable of 12,500 euros for any single work each time it is sold. The maximum royalty payable of 12,500 euros applies to works sold for 2 million euros and above. Calculation of the artist’s resale right will be based on the pound sterling / Euro reference exchange rate quoted on the date of the sale by the European Central bank. W King's House Warehouse, UK Lots marked with a W symbol will be sent to Kings House Warehouse immediately after the auction. Please refer to VAT information for Buyers for VAT symbols used in this catalogue. Value added Tax (VaT) may be payable on the hammer price and/or the buyer’s premium. buyer’s premium may attract a charge in lieu of VaT. Please read carefully the “VaT inFORmaTiOn FOR buyERs” printed in this catalogue.
vAT AND OTher TAx INfOrMATION fOr BUYerS The following paragraphs are intended to give general guidance to buyers on the VAT and certain other potential tax implications of purchasing property at Sotheby’s. The information concerns the most usual circumstances and is not intended to be complete. In all cases the relevant tax legislation takes precedence and the VAT rates in effect on the day of the auction will be the rates charged except for lots sold subject to Temporary Admission for which the applicable rate will be that in force at the time of collection. It should be noted that, for VAT purposes only, Sotheby’s is not usually treated as an agent and most property is sold as if it is the property of Sotheby’s. In the following paragraphs, reference to VAT symbols shall mean those symbols located beside the lot number or the pre-sale estimates in the catalogue (or amending sale room notice).
Please see ‘Exports from the European union’ for the conditions to be fulfilled before the VaT charged on the hammer price may be cancelled or refunded. (VaT-registered buyers from other Eu countries may have the VaT cancelled or refunded if they provide sotheby’s with their VaT registration number and evidence that the property has been removed from the uK within three months of the date of sale. The evidence of removal required is a certificate of shipment or, if the lots were carried by hand, proof of travel and completion of a form available from cashiers. 3. PrOPerTY wITh A α SYMBOL
items sold to buyers whose address is in the Eu will be assumed to be remaining in the Eu. The property will be invoiced as if it had no VaT symbol (see ‘Property with no VaT symbol’ above). However, if the property is to be exported from the Eu, sotheby’s will re-invoice the property under the normal VaT rules (see ‘Property sold with a † symbol’ above) as requested by the seller. items sold to buyers whose address is outside the Eu will be assumed to be exported from the Eu. The property will be invoiced under the normal VaT rules (see ‘Property sold with a † symbol’ above). although the hammer price will be subject to VaT this will be cancelled or refunded upon export - see ‘Exports from the European union’. However, buyers who are not intending to export their property from the Eu should notify our Client accounts Department on the day of the sale and the property will be re-invoiced showing no VaT on the hammer price (see ‘Property sold with no VaT symbol’ above). 4. PrOPerTY SOLD wITh A ‡ Or Ω SYMBOL
These items have been imported from outside the Eu to be sold at auction under Temporary admission. When sotheby’s releases such property to buyers in the uK, the buyer will become the importer and must pay sotheby’s import VaT at the following rates on the hammer price: ‡ - the reduced rate Ω - the standard rate
1. PrOPerTY wITh NO vAT SYMBOL
Where there is no VaT symbol, sotheby’s is able to use the auctioneer’s margin scheme and VaT will not normally be charged on the hammer price. sotheby’s must bear VaT on the buyer’s premium and hence will charge an amount in lieu of VaT at the standard rate on this premium. This amount will form part of the buyer’s premium on our invoice and will not be separately identified. a limited range of goods, including most books, are not liable to VaT and therefore no amount in lieu of VaT will be added to the premium. Please see ‘Exports from the European union’ for the conditions to be fulfilled before the amount in lieu of VaT on the buyer’s premium may be cancelled or refunded. (VaT-registered buyers from within the European union (Eu) should note that the amount in lieu of VaT contained within the buyer’s premium cannot be cancelled or refunded by sotheby’s or Hm Revenue and Customs.) buyers requiring an invoice under the normal VaT rules, instead of a margin scheme invoice, should notify the Cashier’s Office or the Client accounts Department on the day of the auction and an invoice with VaT on the hammer price will be raised. buyers requiring reinvoicing under the normal VaT rules subsequent to a margin scheme invoice having been raised should contact the Client accounts Department for assistance.) 2. PrOPerTY wITh A † SYMBOL
These items will be sold under the normal uK VaT rules and VaT will be charged at the standard rate on both the hammer price and buyer’s premium.
You should also note that the appropriate rate will be that in force on the date of collection of the property from Sotheby’s and not that in force at the date of the sale. These lots will be invoiced under the margin scheme. sotheby’s must bear VaT on the buyer’s premium and hence will charge an amount in lieu of VaT at the standard rate on this premium. This amount will form part of the buyer’s premium on our invoice and will not be separately identified. (VaT-registered buyers from the Eu should note that the import VaT charged on property released in the uK cannot be cancelled or refunded by sotheby’s, however you may be able to seek repayment) by applying to Hm Revenue and Customs - see ‘VaT Refunds from Hm Revenue and Customs’) (VaT-registered buyers from the uK should note that the invoice issued by sotheby’s for these items is not suitable evidence in respect of import VaT. On request, immediately after sale, the Temporary admission Department can either ask Hm Revenue and Customs to generate a C79 certificate (for uK buyers), or obtain a copy of the import C88 (for other Eu VaT registered buyers), which may be used to claim recovery of the VaT. Otherwise sotheby’s may re-invoice the lot as if it had been sold with a † symbol and charge VaT at the standard rate on both the hammer price and premium and provide a tax invoice to the buyer. This may enable a buyer who is VaT registered elsewhere in the Eu to avoid payment of VaT in the united Kingdom. Re-invoicing in this way may
12/09 nbs_VaT main
EU Licence Thresholds
make the lot ineligible to be re-sold using the margin scheme. sotheby’s will transfer all lots sold subject to Temporary admission to its Customs warehouse immediately after sale. 5. exPOrTS frOM The eUrOPeAN UNION
The following amounts of VaT may be cancelled or refunded provided sotheby’s receive the appropriate export documents within the time limits stated: Property with no VAT symbol (see paragraph 1) The amount in lieu of VaT charged on buyers Premium may be refunded provided the purchaser resides outside of the united kingdom and the property is exported from the Eu within 3 months of the sale. sotheby’s must be provided with the appropriate proof of export immediately after export of the goods.
10/06 nbs_COb main
Property with a † symbol The VaT charged upon the hammer price may be refunded provided the purchaser resides outside of the united Kingdom and the property is exported from the Eu within 3 months of the sale. sotheby’s must be provided with the appropriate proof of export immediately after export of the goods. Property with a ‡ or a Ω symbol The Temporary admission VaT charged on the hammer price may be refunded if sotheby’s receives the appropriate export documents within one month of collection of the property from sotheby’s. The buyer must also inform sotheby’s prior to collection if he intends to export the property. The buyer may also ask sotheby’s to transfer the Temporary admission to his own, or his agents Temporary admission or Customs warehouse, once any such transfer has been approved by HmRC the import VaT charged upon the hammer price may be refunded. in each of the above examples, where the appropriate conditions are satisfied, no VaT will be charged if, at or before the time of invoicing, the buyer instructs sotheby’s to export the property from the Eu. if such instruction is received after payment, a refund of the VaT amount will be made. if a buyer later decides not to use sotheby’s shipping services a revised invoice will be raised charging VaT. Where the buyer carries purchases from the Eu personally or uses the services of another shipper, sotheby’s will charge the VaT amount due as a deposit and refund it if the lot has been exported within the time limits stated above and the following conditions are met. in some cases sotheby’s will not permit a client’s shipper to export property under sotheby’s name, in this event no refund of VaT will be possible. sotheby’s shipping Department can advise. • for lots sold under the margin scheme (no VaT symbol) or the normal VaT rules († symbol), sotheby’s is provided with appropriate documentary proof of export from the Eu. buyers carrying their own property should obtain hand-carry papers from the shipping department to facilitate this process. • for lots sold under Temporary admission (‡ or Ω symbols), and subsequently transferred to sotheby’s Customs Warehouse (into bond), sotheby’s is provided with a copy of the correct paperwork duly completed and stamped by Hm Revenue and Customs which shows the property has been exported from the Eu via the united Kingdom. Hm Revenue and Customs insist that the correct Customs procedures are followed and sotheby’s will not be able to issue any refunds where the export documents do not exactly comply with their regulations. Property subject toTemporary admission must be transferred to another
Customs procedure immediately if any restoration or repair work is to be carried out. • buyers carrying their own property must obtain hand-carry papers from the shipping Department for which a small administrative charge will be made. The VaT refund will be processed once the appropriate paperwork has been returned to sotheby’s. • sotheby’s is not able to cancel or refund any VaT charged on sales made to uK or Eu private residents unless the lot is subject to Temporary admission and the property is exported from the Eu and the requisite export papers provided to sotheby’s within one month of collection of the property. • any refund of VaT is subject to a minimum of £50 per shipment and a processing charge of £20. buyers intending to export, repair, restore or alter lots sold under Temporary admission (‡ or Ω symbols) and therefore transferred to Customs Warehouse after sale should notify the shipping Department before collection. Failure to do so may result in the import VaT becoming payable immediately and sotheby’s being unable to refund the VaT charged on deposit. 6. vAT refUNDS frOM hM reveNUe AND CUSTOMS
Where VaT charged cannot be cancelled or refunded by sotheby’s, it may be possible to seek repayment from Hm Revenue and Customs. Repayments in this manner are limited to businesses located outside the uK. Claim forms are available from: HM Revenue and Customs VAT Overseas Repayments Unit PO Box 34, Foyle House Duncreggan Road, Londonderry Northern Ireland, BT48 7AE Tel: +44 (0)2871 305100 Fax: +44 (0)2871 305101 firstname.lastname@example.org 7. SALeS AND USeS TAxeS
buyers from outside the uK should note that local sales taxes or use taxes may become payable upon import of items following purchase (for example, the use Tax payable on import of purchased items to certain states of the usa). buyers should obtain their own advice in this regard.
CONDITIONS Of BUSINeSS fOr BUYerS 1. INTrODUCTION
(a) sotheby’s and sellers’ contractual relationship with prospective buyers is governed by: (i) these Conditions of business; (ii) the Conditions of business for sellers displayed in the saleroom and which are available upon request from sotheby’s uK salerooms or by telephoning +44 (0)20 7293 6152; (iii) sotheby’s authenticity Guarantee as printed in the sale catalogue; and (iv)any additional notices and terms printed in the sale catalogue, including buying at auction, in each case as amended by any saleroom notice or auctioneer's announcement at the auction. (b) as auctioneer, sotheby’s acts as agent for the seller. a sale contract is made directly between the seller and the buyer. However, sotheby’s may own a lot (and in such circumstances acts in a principal capacity as seller) and/or may have a legal, beneficial or financial interest in a lot as a secured creditor or otherwise.
2. COMMON TerMS IN TheSe CONDITIONS Of BUSINeSS:
Bidder is any person considering, making or attempting to make a bid, by whatever means, and includes buyers; Buyer is the person who makes the highest bid or offer accepted by the auctioneer, and includes such person's principal when bidding as agent; Buyer’s Expenses are any costs or expenses due to sotheby's from the buyer and any artist’s Resale Right levy payable in respect of the sale of the Property, including an amount in respect of any applicable VaT thereon; Buyer’s Premium is the commission payable by the buyer on the Hammer Price at the rates set out in buying at auction; Counterfeit is as defined in sotheby's authenticity Guarantee; Hammer Price is the highest bid accepted by the auctioneer by the fall of the hammer (in the case of wine, as apportioned pro-rata by reference to the number of separately identified items in that lot), or in the case of a post-auction sale, the agreed sale price; Noortman is noortman master Paintings bV, an independently managed subsidiary of sotheby’s; Purchase Price is the Hammer Price and applicable buyer's Premium and VaT; Reserve is the (confidential) minimum Hammer Price at which the seller has agreed to sell a lot; Seller is the person offering a lot for sale (including their agent (other than sotheby's), executors or personal representatives); Sotheby's means sotheby's, the unlimited company which has its registered office at 3435 new bond street, London W1a 2aa; Sotheby's Company means both sotheby's in the usa and any of its subsidiaries (including sotheby’s in London) and sotheby’s Diamonds s.a. and its subsidiaries (in each case “subsidiary” having the meaning of section 736 of the Companies act 1985); VAT is Value added Tax at the prevailing rate. Further information is contained in buying at auction. 3. DUTIeS Of BIDDerS AND Of SOTheBY’S IN reSPeCT Of ITeMS fOr SALe
(a) sotheby’s knowledge in relation to each lot is partially dependent on information provided to it by the seller, and sotheby’s is not able to and does not carry out exhaustive due diligence on each lot. bidders acknowledge this fact and accept responsibility for carrying out inspections and investigations to satisfy themselves as to the lots in which they may be interested. (b) Each lot offered for sale at sotheby’s is available for inspection by bidders prior to the sale. sotheby’s accepts bids on lots solely on the basis that bidders (and independent experts on their behalf, to the extent appropriate given the nature and value of the lot and the bidder's own expertise) have fully inspected the lot prior to bidding and have satisfied themselves as to both the condition of the lot and the accuracy of its description. (c) bidders acknowledge that many lots are of an age and type which means that they are not in perfect condition. all lots are offered for sale in the condition they are in at the time of the auction (whether or not bidders are in attendance at the auction). Condition reports may be available to assist when inspecting lots. Catalogue descriptions and condition reports may on occasions make reference to particular imperfections of a lot, but bidders should note that lots may have other faults not expressly referred to in the catalogue or condition report. illustrations are for identification purposes
only and will not convey full information as to the actual condition of lots. (d) information provided to bidders in respect of any lot, including any estimate, whether written or oral and including information in any catalogue, condition or other report, commentary or valuation, is not a representation of fact but rather is a statement of opinion genuinely held by sotheby’s. any estimate may not be relied on as a prediction of the selling price or value of the lot and may be revised from time to time in sotheby's absolute discretion. (e) no representations or warranties are made by sotheby's or the seller as to whether any lot is subject to copyright or whether the buyer acquires copyright in any lot. (f) subject to the matters referred to in Conditions 3(a) to 3(e) above and to the specific exclusions contained at Condition 4 below, sotheby’s shall exercise such reasonable care when making express statements in catalogue descriptions or condition reports as is consistent with its role as auctioneer of lots in the sale to which these Conditions relate, and in the light of (i) the information provided to it by the seller; (ii) scholarship and technical knowledge; and (iii) the generally accepted opinions of relevant experts, in each case at the time any such express statement is made. (g) bidders agree that noortman may bid for and/or purchase any lot. 4. exCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS Of LIABILITY TO BUYerS
(a) sotheby’s shall refund the Purchase Price to the buyer in circumstances where it deems that the lot is a Counterfeit and each of the conditions of the authenticity Guarantee has been satisfied. (b) in the light of the matters in Condition 3 above and subject to Conditions 4(a) and 4(e), neither any sotheby's Company nor the seller: (i) is liable for any errors or omissions in information provided to bidders by sotheby’s (or any sotheby's Company), whether orally or in writing, whether negligent or otherwise, except as set out in Condition 3(f) above; (ii) gives any guarantee or warranty to bidders and any implied warranties and conditions are excluded (save in so far as such obligations cannot be excluded by law) other than the express warranties given by the seller to the buyer in Condition 2 of the sellers' Conditions of business; (iii) accepts responsibility to any bidders in respect of acts or omissions (whether negligent or otherwise) by sotheby’s in connection with the conduct of auctions or for any matter relating to the sale of any lot (including the act of permitting noortman to bid for and/or purchase any lot). (c) unless sotheby’s owns a lot offered for sale, it is not responsible for any breach of these conditions by the seller. (d) Without prejudice to Condition 4(b), any claim against sotheby’s or the seller by a bidder is limited to the Purchase Price with regard to that lot. neither sotheby’s nor the seller shall under any circumstances be liable for any consequential losses. (e) none of this Condition 4 shall exclude or limit sotheby’s liability in respect of any fraudulent misrepresentation made by sotheby’s or the seller, or in respect of death or personal injury caused by the negligent acts or omissions of sotheby’s or the seller. ���
(a) sotheby's has absolute discretion to refuse admission to the auction. bidders must complete a Paddle Registration Form and supply such information and references as required by sotheby's. bidders act as principal unless they have sotheby's prior written consent to bid as agent for another party. bidders are personally liable for their bid and are jointly and severally liable with their principal if bidding as agent. (b) sotheby's advises bidders to attend the auction but will seek to carry out absentee written bids which are in pounds sterling and, in sotheby’s opinion, clear and received sufficiently in advance of the sale of the lot, endeavouring to ensure that the first received of identical written bids has priority. (c) Where available, written and telephone bids are offered as an additional service for no extra charge, at the bidder's risk and shall be undertaken with reasonable care subject to sotheby's other commitments at the time of the auction; sotheby’s therefore cannot accept liability for failure to place such bids save where such failure is unreasonable. Telephone bids may be recorded. 6. CONDUCT Of The AUCTION
(a) unless otherwise specified, all lots are offered subject to a Reserve, which shall be no higher than the low presale estimate at the time of the auction. (b) The auctioneer has discretion at any time to refuse any bid, withdraw any lot, re-offer a lot for sale (including after the fall of the hammer) if he believes there may be error or dispute, and take such other action as he reasonably thinks fit.
out in Condition 6 of the Conditions of business for sellers. (d) For all items stored by a third party and not available for collection from sotheby's premises, the supply of authority to release to the buyer shall constitute collection by the buyer. (e) all packing and handling is at the buyer's risk. sotheby's will not be liable for any acts or omissions of third party packers or shippers. (f) The buyer of any firearm is solely responsible for obtaining all valid firearm or shotgun certificates or certificates of registration as a firearms dealer, as may be required by the regulations in force in England and Wales or scotland (as applicable) relating to firearms or other weapons at the time of the sale, and for complying with all such regulations, whether or not notice of such is published in the sale Catalogue. sotheby’s will not deliver a firearm to a buyer unless the buyer has first supplied evidence to sotheby’s satisfaction of compliance with this Condition. 8. reMeDIeS fOr NON-PAYMeNT
Without prejudice to any rights the seller may have, if the buyer without prior agreement fails to make payment for the lot within five days of the auction, sotheby's may in its sole discretion (having informed the seller) exercise one or more of the following remedies: (a) store the lot at its premises or elsewhere at the buyer’s sole risk and expense; (b) cancel the sale of the lot;
(c) The auctioneer will commence and advance the bidding at levels and in increments he considers appropriate and is entitled to place a bid or series of bids on behalf of the seller up to the Reserve on the lot, without indicating he is doing so and whether or not other bids are placed.
(c) set off any amounts owed to the buyer by a sotheby’s Company against any amounts owed to sotheby's by the buyer in respect of the lot;
(d) subject to Condition 6(b), the contract between the buyer and the seller is concluded on the striking of the auctioneer's hammer, whereupon the buyer becomes liable to pay the Purchase Price.
(e) charge interest at 6% per annum above HsbC bank plc base Rate from the Due Date to the date the Purchase Price and relevant buyer's Expenses are received in cleared funds;
(e) any post-auction sale of lots offered at auction shall incorporate these Conditions as if sold in the auction.
(f) exercise a lien over any of the buyer’s property which is in the possession of a sotheby’s Company. sotheby's shall inform the buyer of the exercise of any such lien and within 14 days of such notice may arrange the sale of such property and apply the proceeds to the amount owed to sotheby’s;
7. PAYMeNT AND COLLeCTION
(a) unless otherwise agreed, payment of the Purchase Price for a lot and any buyer's Expenses are due by the buyer in pounds sterling immediately on conclusion of the auction (the "Due Date") notwithstanding any requirements for export, import or other permits for such lot. (b) Title in a purchased lot will not pass until sotheby's has received the Purchase Price and buyer's Expenses for that lot in cleared funds. sotheby's is not obliged to release a lot to the buyer until title in the lot has passed and appropriate identification has been provided, and any earlier release does not affect the passing of title or the buyer's unconditional obligation to pay the Purchase Price and buyer's Expenses. (c) The buyer is obliged to arrange collection of purchased lots within five days of the auction. Purchased lots are at the buyer's risk (and therefore their sole responsibility for insurance) from the earliest of i) collection or ii) five days after the auction. until risk passes, sotheby’s will compensate the buyer for any loss or damage to the lot up to a maximum of the Purchase Price paid. buyers should note that sotheby's assumption of liability for loss or damage is subject to the exclusions set ���
(d) reject future bids from the buyer or render such bids subject to payment of a deposit;
(g) resell the lot by auction or private sale, with estimates and reserves at sotheby's discretion. in the event such resale is for less than the Purchase Price and buyer's Expenses for that lot, the buyer will remain liable for the shortfall together with all costs incurred in such resale; (h) commence legal proceedings to recover the Purchase Price and buyer's Expenses for that lot, together with interest and the costs of such proceedings on a full indemnity basis; or (i) release the name and address of the buyer to the seller to enable the seller to commence legal proceedings to recover the amounts due and legal costs. sotheby's will take reasonable steps to notify the buyer prior to releasing such details to the seller. 9. fAILUre TO COLLeCT PUrChASeS
(a) if the buyer pays the Purchase Price and buyer's Expenses but fails to collect a purchased lot within fourteen calendar days of the auction, the lot will be stored at the buyer's expense (and risk) at sotheby's or with a third party.
(b) if a purchased lot is paid for but not collected within six months of the auction, the buyer authorises sotheby's, having given notice to the buyer, to arrange a resale of the item by auction or private sale, with estimates and reserves at sotheby's discretion. The proceeds of such sale, less all costs incurred by sotheby's, will be forfeited unless collected by the buyer within two years of the original auction. 10. exPOrT AND PerMITS
it is the buyer's sole responsibility to obtain any necessary export, import, firearm, endangered species or other permit for the lot. Without prejudice to Conditions 3 and 4 above, sotheby's and the seller make no representations or warranties as to whether any lot is subject to export or import restrictions or any embargoes. The denial of any permit or licence shall not justify cancellation or rescission of the sale contract or any delay in payment. 11. GeNerAL
(a) all images and other materials produced for the auction are the copyright of sotheby's, for use at sotheby's discretion. (b) notices to sotheby's should be in writing and addressed to the department in charge of the sale, quoting the reference number specified at the beginning of the sale catalogue. notices to sotheby's clients shall be addressed to the last address formally notified by them to sotheby's. (c) should any provision of these Conditions of business be held unenforceable for any reason, the remaining provisions shall remain in full force and effect. (d) These Conditions of business are not assignable by any buyer without sotheby's prior written consent, but are binding on buyers' successors, assigns and representatives. no act, omission or delay by sotheby's shall be deemed a waiver or release of any of its rights. (e) The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) act 1999 is excluded by these Conditions of business and shall not apply to any contract made pursuant to them. (f) The materials listed in Condition 1(a) above set out the entire agreement and understanding between the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof. it is agreed that, save in respect of liability for fraudulent misrepresentation, no party has entered into any contract pursuant to these terms in reliance on any representation, warranty or undertaking which is not expressly referred to in such materials. 12. DATA PrOTeCTION
in connection with the management and operation of our business and the marketing and supply of sotheby's Companies' services, or as required by law, we may ask clients to provide personal information about themselves or obtain information about clients from third parties (e.g. credit information). if clients provide sotheby's with information that is defined by law as "sensitive", they agree that sotheby's Companies may use it for the above purposes. sotheby's Companies will not use or process sensitive information for any other purpose without the client's express consent. if you would like further information on sotheby's policies on personal data, or to make corrections to your information, please contact us on +44 (0)20 7293 6667. if you would prefer not to receive details of future events please call the above number.
in order to fulfil the services clients have requested, sotheby's may disclose information to third parties (e.g. shippers). some countries do not offer equivalent legal protection of personal information to that offered within the Eu. it is sotheby's policy to require that any such third parties respect the privacy and confidentiality of our clients' information and provide the same level of protection for clients' information as provided within the Eu, whether or not they are located in a country that offers equivalent legal protection of personal information. by agreeing to these Conditions of business, clients agree to such disclosure. Clients will please note that for security purposes, sotheby's premises are subject to video recording. Telephone calls e.g. telephone bidding/voicemail messages may also be recorded. 13. LAw AND JUrISDICTION
Governing Law These Conditions of business and all aspects of all matters, transactions or disputes to which they relate or apply shall be governed by and interpreted in accordance with English law. Jurisdiction For the benefit of sotheby’s, all bidders and sellers agree that the Courts of England are to have exclusive jurisdiction to settle all disputes arising in connection with all aspects of all matters or transactions to which these Conditions of business relate or apply. all parties agree that sotheby’s shall retain the right to bring proceedings in any court other than the Courts of England. Service of Process all bidders and sellers irrevocably consent to service of process or any other documents in connection with proceedings in any court by facsimile transmission, personal service, delivery by mail or in any other manner permitted by English law, the law of the place of service or the law of the jurisdiction where proceedings are instituted, at the last address of the buyer or seller known to sotheby’s or any other usual address.
wArehOUSe, STOrAGe AND COLLeCTION INfOrMATION smaller items can normally be collected from new bond street, however large items may be sent to sotheby’s Kings House Warehouse. if you are in doubt about the location of your purchases please contact the sale administrator (see front of catalogue) prior to collection. COLLeCTION frOM New BOND STreeT
Lots will be released to you or your authorised representative when full and cleared payment has been received by sotheby’s, together with settlement of any removal, interest, handling and storage charges thereon, appropriate identification has been provided and a release note has been produced by our Cashiers at new bond street, who are open monday to Friday 9.00am to 5.00pm. any purchased lots that have not been collected within 30 days from the date of the auction will be subject to handling and storage charges at the rates set out below. in addition all purchased lots that have not been collected from our new bond street premises within 90 days of the auction will be transferred to sotheby’s Kings House Warehouse. Collect your property from: Sotheby’s Property Collection Opening hours: monday to Friday 9.00am to 5.00pm 34–35 new bond street London, W1a 2aa Tel: +44 (0)20 7293 5358 Fax: +44 (0)20 7293 5933
5/09 nbs_KH sTORaGE
5. BIDDING AT AUCTION
COLLeCTION frOM KINGS hOUSe wArehOUSe
Lots will be released to you or your authorised representative when full and cleared payment has been received by sotheby’s, together with settlement of any removal, interest, handling and storage charges thereon, appropriate identification has been provided and a release note has been produced by our Cashiers at new bond street, who are open monday to Friday 9.00am to 5.00pm. Purchasers must ensure that their payment has been cleared prior to collection and that a release note has been forwarded to the Warehouse by our Cashiers at sotheby’s new bond street. buyers who have established credit arrangements with sotheby’s may collect purchases prior to payment, although a release note is still required from our Cashiers as above. any purchased lots that have not been collected within 30 days from the date of the auction will be subject to handling and storage charges at the rates set out below. Collect your property from: Kings House Warehouse Opening hours: monday to Friday 8.30am to 4.30pm Great West Road brentford middlesex, TW8 9au Tel: +44 (0)20 8232 5600 Fax: +44 (0)20 8232 5625 rOUTe GUIDANCe TO KINGS wArehOUSe
From bond street to Hyde Park Corner take the Knightsbridge Road leading into brompton Road then the Cromwell Road. Over the Hammersmith Flyover onto the Great West Road. at the Hogarth Roundabout take the Hogarth Road to Chiswick. Follow the a4 route from slip road round the Chiswick Roundabout and take the second turning on the left. Follow the a4 past Capital interchange on your left and take next left down the ramp signed sotheby’s. STOrAGe ChArGeS
any purchased lots that have not been collected within 30 days from the date of the auction will be subject to handling and storage charges at the following rates: Handling Charge: £40 plus VAT per lot Storage Charge: £4 plus VAT per lot per day (for property in our Jewellery, Watches, books and manuscripts, Ceramics and silver sales) and £8 plus VaT per lot per day (all other sales). Payments for storage charges may be made to sotheby’s at our Cashiers in new bond street or at Kings House Warehouse. storage charges will cease for purchased lots which are shipped through sotheby’s shipping Logistics from the date on which we have received a signed quote acceptance from you.
For these purposes, "counterfeit" means a lot that in sotheby’s reasonable opinion is an imitation created to deceive as to authorship, origin, date, age, period, culture or source, where the correct description of such matters is not reflected by the description in the catalogue (taking into account any Glossary of Terms). no lot shall be considered a counterfeit by reason only of any damage and/or restoration and/or modification work of any kind (including repainting or over-painting). Please note that this Guarantee does not apply if either:(i) the catalogue description was in accordance with the generally accepted opinion(s) of scholar(s) and expert(s) at the date of the sale, or the catalogue description indicated that there was a conflict of such opinions; or (ii) the only method of establishing at the date of the sale that the item was a counterfeit would have been by means of processes not then generally available or accepted, unreasonably expensive or impractical to use; or likely to have caused damage to the lot or likely (in sotheby’s reasonable opinion) to have caused loss of value to the lot; or (iii) there has been no material loss in value of the lot from its value had it been in accordance with its description. This Guarantee is provided for a period of five (5) years after the date of the relevant auction, is solely for the benefit of the buyer and may not be transferred to any third party. To be able to claim under this Guarantee, the buyer must:(i) notify sotheby’s in writing within three (3) months of receiving any information that causes the buyer to question the authenticity or attribution of the item, specifying the lot number, date of the auction at which it was purchased and the reasons why it is thought to be counterfeit; and (ii) return the item to sotheby’s in the same condition as at the date of sale to the buyer and be able to transfer good title in the item, free from any third party claims arising after the date of the sale. sotheby's has discretion to waive any of the above requirements. sotheby's may require the buyer to obtain at the buyer's cost the reports of two independent and recognised experts in the field, mutually acceptable to sotheby's and the buyer. sotheby's shall not be bound by any reports produced by the buyer, and reserves the right to seek additional expert advice at its own expense. in the event sotheby's decides to rescind the sale under this Guarantee, it may refund to the buyer the reasonable costs of up to two mutually approved independent expert reports.
IMPOrTANT NOTICeS LIABILITY fOr LOSS Or DAMAGe
buyers are reminded that sotheby’s accepts liability for loss or damage to lots for a maximum period of five days after the date of the auction. Please refer to Condition 7 of the Conditions of business for buyers.
SOTheBY’S AUTheNTICITY GUArANTee If Sotheby’s sells an item which subsequently is shown to be a "counterfeit", subject to the terms below Sotheby’s will set aside the sale and refund to the Buyer the total amount paid by the Buyer to Sotheby’s for the item, in the currency of the original sale.
eSTIMATeS IN US DOLLArS AND eUrOS
as a guide to potential buyers, estimates for this sale are also shown in us Dollars and Euros. The estimates printed in the catalogue in Pounds sterling have been converted at the following rate, which was current at the time of printing. These estimates may have been rounded: £1 = US$1.448 £1 = €1.1617 by the date of the sale this rate is likely to have changed, and buyers are recommended to check before bidding. During the sale sotheby’s may provide a screen to show currency conversions as bidding progresses. This is intended for guidance only and all bidding will be in Pounds sterling. sotheby’s is
not responsible for any error or omissions in the operation of the currency converter. Payment for purchases is due in Pounds sterling, however the equivalent amount in any other currency will be accepted at the rate prevailing on the day that payment is received in cleared funds. settlement is made to vendors in the currency in which the sale is conducted, or in another currency on request at the rate prevailing on the day that payment is made by sotheby’s. LIABILITY fOr LOSS Or DAMAGe fOr PUrChASeD LOTS
Purchasers are requested to arrange clearance as soon as possible and are reminded that sotheby’s accepts liability for loss or damage to lots for a maximum period of five (5) days following the date of the auction. Please refer to condition 7 of the Conditions of business for buyers.
GLOSSArY Of TerMS The following are examples of the terminology used in this catalogue. Any statement as to authorship, attribution, origin, date, age, provenance and condition is a statement of opinion and is not to be taken as a statement of fact. Please read carefully the terms of the Authenticity Guarantee and the Conditions of Business for Buyers set out in this catalogue, in particular Conditions 3 and 4. 1
in our opinion a work by the artist. (When the artist’s forename(s) is not known, a series of asterisks, followed by the surname of the artist, whether preceded by an initial or not, indicates that in our opinion the work is by the artist named. 2 The term signed and/or dated and/or inscribed
all lots are offered subject to the sotheby’s authenticity Guarantee and Conditions of business for buyers, which are set forth in this catalogue and Conditions of business for sellers, which are available from sotheby’s offices on request. Prospective bidders should review the Conditions of business, authenticity Guarantee and the buying at auction section in the printed catalogue.
means that in our opinion the signature and/or date and/or inscription are from the hand of the artist. 3 The term bears a signature and/or date and/or inscription means that in our opinion the signature and/or date and/or inscription have been added by another hand. 4 Dimensions are given height before width.
For all lots marked with a †, ‡, α or Ω please refer to the VaT information pages at the back of the catalogue.
COPYrIGhT & ACKNOwLeDGeMeNTS
vAT INfOrMATION fOr OverSeAS BUYerS
© man Ray Trust/aDaGP, Paris and DaCs, London 2010.
© Roland Penrose Estate, England 2010. The Roland Penrose Collection. all rights reserved.
VaT is levied at 5% or 17.5 % on the hammer price of any lot marked with the ‡ or Ω respectively. The VaT will not be charged if sotheby’s ship the property to a destination outside the Eu. alternatively the VaT can be reclaimed if the appropriate documentation is obtained from sotheby’s shipping Logistics and their instructions for exporting the property are followed. if you require any further information relating to VaT on lots offered in this sale, please contact nisha amin in the impressionist and modern art department on 020 7293 6048. alternatively please refer to the VaT information For buyers section printed at the back of this catalogue. IMPOrTANT NOTICe TO BUYerS Of LArGe wOrKS Of ArT
Please note that all paintings specified in the catalogue as measuring 5ft x 5ft (152cm x 152cm) or more, excluding frame, will be transferred to our Kings House warehouse on the afternoon of the sale.
Lot 3 © Lee miller archives, England 2009. all rights reserved. www.leemiller.co.uk Lot 7 © munch museum/munch - Ellingsen Group, bOnO, Oslo/DaCs, London 2010. Lot 9 © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 Lot 9 © The Estate of Francis bacon. all rights reserved. DaCs 2010. Lot 13 © succession H matisse/DaCs 2010 Lot 14 © succession H matisse/DaCs 2010 Lot 14 © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 Lot 15 © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 Lot 18 © aDaGP, Paris and DaCs, London 2010. Lot 18 © succession H matisse/DaCs 2010 Lot 19 © L & m sERViCEs b.V. The Hague 20100513 Lot 21 Lot 24 Lot 26 Lot 26 Lot 29
SAfeTY AT SOTheBY’S
sotheby’s is concerned for your safety while you are on our premises and we endeavour to display items safely so far as is reasonably practicable. nevertheless, should you handle any items on view at our premises, you do so at your own risk. some items can be large and/or heavy and can be dangerous if mishandled. should you wish to view or inspect any items more closely please ask for assistance from a member of sotheby’s staff to ensure your safety and the safety of the property on view. some items on view may be labelled “PLEasE DO nOT TOuCH”. should you wish to view these items you must ask for assistance from a member of sotheby’s staff who will be pleased to assist you. Thank you for your co-operation. sotheby’s uK is committed to improving its sustainability, conserving resources and reducing the environmental impact of its various operations. a copy of sotheby’s Environmental Policy is available on request. main Enquiries: +44 (0)20 7293 5000.
Lot 29 Lot 30 Lot 38 Lot 40 Lot 41 Lot 41 Lot 42 Lot 42 Lot 44 Lot 44 Lot 48
© DaCs 2010 © aDaGP, Paris and DaCs, London 2010. © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 © edwardquinn.com © succession miro/aDaGP, Paris and DaCs, London 2010. © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 © DaCs 2010 © aDaGP, Paris and DaCs, London 2010. Reproduced with permission of The Henry moore Foundation © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 © edwardquinn.com © aDaGP/FaaG, Paris and DaCs, London 2010 © The brassaï Estate – Rmn © succession Picasso/DaCs, London 2010 © The brassaï Estate – Rmn © DaCs 2010
The paper used in this catalogue was manufactured at a mill that has been awarded the isO 14001 and the Eco management audit scheme certificates for environmental management.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Michael I. Sovern Chairman
Henry Wyndham Chairman
Dr. Philipp Herzog von Württemberg Vice Chairman
Melanie Clore Deputy Chairman
Tobias Meyer Deputy Chairman
Dr. Stephen Roe
Lord Poltimore Deputy Chairman
Serena Sutcliffe, M.W.
Mario Tavella Deputy Chairman
The Viscount Blakenham
David Bennett George Gordon Helena Newman Heinrich Graf v. Spreti Hubert d’Ursel
Robin Woodhead Chairman, Sotheby’s International
The Duke of Devonshire Deputy Chairman
George Bailey Chairman, Business Development
William F. Ruprecht President and Chief Executive Officer
Patrick van Maris van Dijk Managing Director, Europe
Robin G. Woodhead Chairman, Sotheby’s International
Clive Lord Chief Operating Officer
John M. Angelo
Donald M. Stewart Robert S. Taubman Diana L. Taylor Dennis M. Weibling
UK CHAIRMAN’S OFFICE
The Hon James Stourton Chairman, UK
Oliver Barker Roger Bell-Ogilby Adrian Biddell Grégoire Billault Michael Bing Lucinda Blythe Guenther Boehmisch Monique Brehier Nina Buhne Adrian Burke Guillaume Cerutti Arabella Chandos Richard Charlton-Jones Tom Christopherson Cyrille Cohen Jackie Coulter Philippe Delalande Jeremy Durack Iain Fleming Grant Ford Maxine Fox Constantine Frangos Jean Fritts Edward Gibbs Roger Griffiths Mark Grol Michael Hart Anne Heilbronn Maureen Hooft Graafland Henry House Saul Ingram Peder Isacson Nicolas Joly Andrea Jungmann Alexander Kader Mikhail Kamensky Maria Kelly Caroline Lang Patrick Legant
Lord Dalmeny Deputy Chairman, UK David Moore-Gwyn Deputy Chairman, UK Arabella Bishop Henry Bowring Patrick Dingwall William Lucy Alexander Russell Anthony Weld Forester
ADVISORY BOARD, SOTHEBY’S
Patrick Leperlier Marcus Linell Filippo Lotti William Lucy James Macdonald Daniela Mascetti Jonathan Massey Patrick Masson Kevin McGuire Pablo Melendo Stephen Mould Ursula Niggemann Eveline van Oirschot Pascale Pavageau Wendy Philips Claude Piening Alexander Platon Richard Purchase James Rawlin Alain Renner Alexandra Rhodes Charles Rolandi Cristiana Romalli Gregory Rubinstein Laura Russo Rivka Saker Peter Selley Antonia Serra Hélène Marie Shafran Dr. Claudia Steinfels Andrew Strauss Russell Toone Letizia Treves Jo Vickery Sara Webb Matthew Weighman Justin Weller André Zlattinger
Ambassador Walter J.P. Curley Chairman Alexis Gregory Deputy Chairman Juan Abelló Dr. Alice Y. T. Cheng Henry Cornell Michel A. David-Weill Ulla Dreyfus-Best Frederik J. Duparc Serge de Ganay Charles de Gunzburg Lodewijk J.R. de Vink Tom Ford Ann Getty Pansy Ho Prince Amyn Aga Khan Ömer Koç John L. Marion Dimitri Mavrommatis Carlo Perrone Carroll Petrie Carol Price Donna Patrizia Memmo dei Principi Ruspoli Charles A. Ryskamp Rolf Sachs The Hon. Hilary Weston, C.M., O.Ont.
Index Beckmann, M. 21, 30 Bonnard, P. 38 Boudin, E. 6 Cézanne, P. 10 Chagall, M. 47, 50 Corinth, L. 31 Degas, E. 35, 37 Derain, A. 18 Ernst, M. 43 Giacometti, A. 28, 42
Manet, E. 9, 34 Masson, A. 45 Matisse, H. 13, 14 Miró, J. 22, 25, 29 Monet, C. 5, 11 Moore, H. 40 Munch, E. 7 Nolde, E. 33 Picasso, P. 1-3, 15, 23, 26, 41, 44 Pissarro, C. 36 Renoir, P.-A. 4 Rodin, A. 8
Klee, P. 48 Léger, F. 27, 51 Lehmbruck, W. 20 Macke, A. 19 Maillol, A. 12, 46
Schiele, E. 16, 49 Sisley, A. 39 Soutine, C. 24 Van Dongen, K. 17, 32
£30 at the gallery £34 by mail £39 overseas 44 (0)20 7293 5000 for UK & Europe
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FRONT COVER LOT
18 André Derain Arbres à Collioure 14 Henri matisse Odalisques jouant aux dames
INSIDE FRONT COVER LOT
Index Beckmann, M. 21, 30 Bonnard, P. 38 Boudin, E. 6 Cézanne, P. 10 Chagall, M. 47, 50 Corinth, L. 31 Degas, E. 35, 37 Derain, A. 18 Ernst, M. 43 Giacometti, A. 28, 42
Manet, E. 9, 34 Masson, A. 45 Matisse, H. 13, 14 Miró, J. 22, 25, 29 Monet, C. 5, 11 Moore, H. 40 Munch, E. 7 Nolde, E. 33 Picasso, P. 1-3, 15, 23, 26, 41, 44 Pissarro, C. 36 Renoir, P.-A. 4 Rodin, A. 8
Klee, P. 48 Léger, F. 27, 51 Lehmbruck, W. 20 Macke, A. 19 Maillol, A. 12, 46
Schiele, E. 16, 49 Sisley, A. 39 Soutine, C. 24 Van Dongen, K. 17, 32
BACK COVER LOT
24 Chaïm Soutine Le valet de chambre 26 Pablo Picasso Buste de Matador
INSIDE BACK COVER LOT
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