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African Americans in WWII Tags african american troops, WWII

WHY IS THIS RELEVANT NOW? Spike Lee’s movie, Miracle of St. Anne was about African American soldiers in World War II. It is a subject close to my heart as I remember my grandmother’s brothers who served in the war. A few of my favorite family oral histories swirl around their participation. SCOPE NOTE Over one million African-Americans served in World War II. They served in segregated units. The branches of the military that blacks served in were the Marines and the Army. They were treated very badly during their service years and ill treated even when they returned. PUBLISHED MATERIAL(S) African Americans in the Military by Catherine Reef We Were There : Voices of African American Veterans, from World War II to the War in Ira Yvonne Latty, Ron Tarver REFERENCE MATERIAL(S) African American Almanac. 9th ed Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage, Second Edition

Encyclopedia of American Military History World Almanac & Book of Facts RELEVANT WEBSITES MULTIMEDIA Pictures of American Americans during WWII DOCUMENTARY African Americans in WWII (OnDeck Home Entertainment) The Tuskegee Airmen (HBO Video) POSSIBLE KEYWORD SEARCHES african american + world war II african americans + soldiers american americans + military RELATED POSTS Blacks WACs Women Army Corps

Black Aviators Tags african american troops, soldier, WWII

WHY IS THIS RELEVANT NOW? I’m so pleased that 119 pilots and 211 ground crew of Tuskegee Airmen are invited to the swearing in of the 44th President of the United States. Barack Obama alluded to the men in his book, Audacity of Hope. Because the men are in there 80s and 90s many of them will probably not be in attendance. SCOPE NOTE Black Aviators impacted the history of aviation in this country during World War II. In fact, it was during this tour the all-black force worked hard to garner accolades. Helping them make history by demonstrated their genuine competence was wife of the president, Eleanor Roosevelt. Opposition to their contribution was significant. It was in the 1970s that they were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. PUBLISHED MATERIAL(S) Black Aviator: The Story of William J. Powell by William J. Powell, Von Hardesty Black Flight: Breaking Barriers to Blacks in Aviation by Roger Albert Forsyth Flying free : America’s first Black aviators by Philip S. Hart Into the Tiger’s Jaw: America’s First Black Marine Aviator: The

Autobiography of LT. General Frank E. Petersen by Frank E. Petersen, J. Alfred Phelps The Tuskegee Airmen by Philip Brooks. The Tuskegee Airmen : African-American Pilots Of World War II by Sarah E. DeCapua JOURNAL(S) All blood runs red. (black aviator Gene Bullard) (Legacy: A Supplement to American Heritage) Jamie H. Cockfield American Heritage, FebMarch 1995 v46 n1 pS7(6) Chief Anderson; when the skies were unfriendly, this pioneer aviator opened the blue yonder to blacks. (Charles Alfred Anderson) Pope Brock. People Weekly, Nov 28, 1988 v30 n22 p149(5) REFERENCE African American Almanac. 9th ed. Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage, Second Edition. (Tuskegee Airmen) DOCUMENTARIES Black aviators: flying free / producer, Andrew Rothstein ; produced by CBS News Productions for the History Channel Flyers in search of a dream by Philip Hart; WGBH Educational Foundation.

POSSIBLE KEYWORD SEARCH(ES) black aviators blacks + aviation african american + air pilots tuskegee airmen RELEVANT WEBSITE(S) ORGANIZATION Tuskegee Airmen, Inc. PO Box 9166 Arlington, VA 22219-1166 (703) 286-7653 RELATED POST(S) African American in WWII, Black WACs

Golden irteen Tags african american troops

WHY IS THIS RELEVANT NOW? The increasing discussion of why military recruitment of blacks is down is taking place all over. The discussion stems from the USA Today report back in 2005. If one considers the ill treatment of blacks in the military from Cripus Attucks until now, it’s no real surprise. WWI and WWII veterans including Tuskegee Airmen fought for a country in foreign lands in which their foreign captors treated them better. Shall we talk about Port Chicago. I even remember as a kid black Vietnam veterans seething over discrimination. In spite of those mountainous battles, African Americans have still achieved. I bring to your attention the Golden Thirteen. SCOPE NOTE Men who deeply desired to demonstrate excellence in naval services were relegated to lowly duties until bowing to the pressure from civil rights organizations, Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt affected the course of sixteen men who were chosen for general duty. Having the opportunity to be groomed for ledership, the secretary of the navy moved on the idea to train 12 black officers and a one warrant officer. The men who passed the rigorous training dubbed themselves the Golden Thirteen became the first officers in the US Navy history.

PUBLISHED MATERIAL(S) The Golden Thirteen: recollections of the first Black naval officers/ edited by Paul Stillwell Integration of the Negro into the United States Navy, 1776-1947 REFERENCE African American Almanac POSSIBLE KEYWORD SEARCH(ES) Golden Thirteen blacks + US Navy African-Americans + Steward’s Service african american + sea-going bell hops african americans + sea services MULTIMEDIA African-Americans and the U.S. Navy — The “Golden Thirteen” RELEVANT WEBSITE(S) KEY FIGURE(S) William Sylvester White

Black WACs (Women Army Corps) Tags african american troops, WWII

SCOPE NOTE Although segregated in their military accomodations and limited advancement in ranks, a few thousand black women joined black male counterparts to serve their country and made history in their efforts. Many black WACs served in Europe, Cuba and Northern Africa. PUBLISHED MATERIAL(S) One Woman’s Army by Charity Adams Earley To Serve My Country, To serve My Race by Brenda L. Moore When the Nation was in Need: Blacks in the Women’s Army Corps During World War II by Martha S. Putney REFERENCE MATERIAL(S) African American Almanac, 9th ed RELEVANT WEBSITES POSSIBLE KEYWORD SEARCHES african americans + women army corps african americans + women auxiliary army corps 6888th postal battalion black women + world war II, 1939-1945 KEY FIGURES Charity Adams Earley Sherian G. Cadoria Dovey Mae Roundtree ORGANIZATION(S) US Army Women’s Museum 2100 “A” Avenue Fort Lee, VA 23801 804-734-4327 RELATED POSTS African Americans in WWII

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