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Product innovation though process innovation, utilizing methods of tectonic architecture and challenging existing fabrication parameters to develop new methodological tools used to create modular transitional footwear that guides the consumer into a new era of flat pack footwear.



From technical to cultural, from digital to tactile: Do existing fabrication parameters present the capacity to use transformation as a methodological tool to guide the consumer into the tectonic architecture of transitional footwear? Concept-wise, I have stayed true to my initially proposed aims and furthered my manufacturing knowledge and capabilities of producing professional standard modular flat pack footwear on a sample scale for my 2013 final collection. I have collaborated with a variety of fabricators to implement and ultimately achieve the creation of transformational tectonic footwear. Initially, I proposed a methodological 2-D to 3-D pattern development, digital rendering, developing precise graphic vector file formatted patterns and developing modular configuration for laser. I have come extremely close to materializing the initial conceptual connections highlighted within the original proposal. The aim was to develop a line which consisted of 4 pairs and possible 2 products, which will function as a type of holder or container for the footwear. Additionally, I stated that during the manufacturing process, the collection could evolve into 5 pairs and one product. This was dependent upon the variables regarding the development and manufacturing process. In particular, the industry contact regarding the photonics and working laser bed specifications would alter the vector color mapping points, thus changing the preconceived dimensions or design of the line ups. The evolution of prototypes allowed me to develop a responsive system where physical patterns were developed into numerical data and later manipulated by digital software to create vector profiles, thus transitioning from physical to digital parameters. The display is presented both as packaged flat packs and the footwear's tectonic transformation onto the painted lasts. This is done intentionally to represent their inventive precision as well as visually attract the viewer/consumer to the operational methodology and relationship form completely flat to a three dimensionally functional object. There is an adaptation here, a complete product that could potentially alter behavior through the transformation of simple systems.

A What is the industry context? The industry context was key during the final phases, post the initial proposal. There were a number of key players involved, including digital design and 3-D Scanning services performed by our own LCF Fashion Digital Studio. I will describe each industry contact beginning with company profile, second their professional aims and finally their role within the manufacturing of my final collection. The list of industry players begins with LCF Fashion Digital Studio, Factory LA, GK Photonics, Sophisticated Primitive and New Sole Cobblers. LCF Fashion Digital Studio The Fashion Digital Studio (FDS) is a pioneering centre for technology and innovation in fashion. Through collaborative research and development, skills and knowledge transfer, the FDS is driving innovation in the practical development and creative use of digital technologies. It is recognized as a national and international resource for creative solutions in the fashion, media and technology industries. The FDS assisted me in the 3-D digital consulting and scanning for all of my lasts. They assited in 3-D scanning the parts made from cork, which we were later able to use as models for reproducing the replicas that would be used as the midsoles for the mens shoes. These scans were used to test the vector patterns on the digital last, to ensure the accuracy of the pattern and the precision of the fit.



Factory LA _ FactoryLA is a union of [designers, buyers, makers and consumers] responding to the need for innovative fashion ethically crafted in the USA. Cultivating in their office and retail space, located in the historic garment district, is a community of intentional and forward thinking creators. Through an exclusive ‘Made in LA Showroom’ Brand. Incubator and Retail Experience, they collectively progress how fashion is designed, made and brought to the consumer. Factory LA assisted in sourcing the laser cutting manufacturers, the consultants as well as the cobbler shop. They assisted us on further developing the brand ‘sophisticed primtive’ and helped us source the laser cutting company GK Photonics. Factory LA is currently running work shops with me and have signed a contract to help us procure \ sell on their retail floor as well as their online retail store. Sophisticated Primitive_ Sophisticated Primitive is a consulting design and research studio assisting designers in laying out a foundation for technology based innovative automotive/footwear development. I became a official business parter with SOPR and developed our own unique process that assists clients from design to manufacturing stages, utilizing, Universal Laser Systems machines and providing the client with a functional product that is viable for the commercial market. SOPR consults with companies on innovative footwear and product design strategies, leveraging the power of software for the making of hardware and soft goods. The lead parter of SOPR assisted in the auditing and developing of the 2-D patterns as well as the conversion of these patters into 3-D objects. He assisted in transforming the objects onto the 3-D scanned lasts and ensured functionality, feasibility as well as the fit of the footwear. The lead developer also assisted in the graphic aspects, including the development and procurement of the packaging for the flat pack systems including the ‘chromatec’/shell structure for packaging. GK Photonics_ GK Photonics focuses in the development and precision of laser systems and component manufacturing. The machine they have arranged for the manufacturing of my collection is a epilog machine, specifically, the Epilog EXT. Optimized for raster engraving and precision vector cutting. Gk Photonics focuses on developing state of the art motion control systems using DC servomotors, linear and rotary encoding technology for precise positioning. Their epilog machine’s Maximum workable area is 1246 × 710 mm. Collaborating with GK Photonics resulted in understanding and resolving various technical configurations that were essential to our development methodology. In addition, they assisted in providing the laser cutting and engraving machines which was used to cut a variety of parts and packaging for the entire collection. GK Photonics provided us with majority of the funded lab time. We were able to do a vast amount of testing of a variety of materials to understand the depths that the lasers should penetrate on each potential flat pack. Nu Sole Traditional Cobbler & Repairs_ The Cobbler offers shoe repair for men and women, a ready-to-wear range manufactured in Pasadena, CA and bespoke services for men and women, alongside patina, a natural process of dying that is also a care treatment for the shoes. Station Wagon had a very specific role within the project. They directly assisted in sourcing the leathers from a variety of local and international tanneries. They also assisted in dying leathers to achieve desired colors, hues and tones. Their professional cobbler was the source for procuring leather paints, dyes and hardware for all of the products.

Does your research question promote or change new manufacturing methodologies? Although many of the words within the research question possesses inherent substantial meaning, the word, ‘ transitional’ becomes key within our initiate to promote innovation within the realm of footwear manufacturing. It is a term and concept that provides an alternative to optimisation. Whereas, usually optimisation is directed towards one perimeter of the object the aspect of consumer performance in assembling the finished product allows space for multiple requirements to arise in order to develop an effective or functional technique of making. Inherently, involving the various industry contacts, each whom specialise in a complex network of digital and physical solutions, allowed for the development of a entirely new and innovative approach to manufacture footwear. The new manufacturing process becomes a revolution within the footwear industry and could potentially be a fact in reducing material, toxic waste and intensive labor regarding currently utilised construction methodologies. Absolutely, one of the main objectives intertwined in within the depths of the initial research question was to use this initial concept as a theory that would challenge the existing manufacturing methodologies of footwear design as a whole. Establishing a collaborative dialogue was crucial during the pre manufacturing phase and establishing modes of exchanging knowledge between the 3-D scan to the laser cutting specialists became a crucial part of the manufacturing. Knowledge sharing between professions was a key factor in establishing a process of production interdisciplinary studies. Thus the process is highly complex in nature regarding the software and pre-preparation used to laser cut the numerical vector file. The basic breakdown begins from 3-D scanni ng the lasts and transferring them into a 3-D software such as Alias, while this is being completed, paper patterns are physically created around the lasts to ensure their functional fit. Furthermore the pattern had to be created in such a way where it is consumer friendly and the user has designated open spaces/ pull tabs to ‘tear’ out the shoe from its surrounding packaging material. Making the pattern to an accuracy of 1mm +/_ rate of error in accordance spatial systems in regards to the animated human body was the most challenging part. The pattern is scanned and now transformed into vector data on Adobe Illustrator. This form of developing vector data is never completely accurate, so it is necessary to retrace/ recreate many areas on Illustrator to ensure consistency from 2-D to 3-D, Drawing components at actual size (e.g 1 unit = 1mm). Next the lead consultant of SOPR would access these files and ensure they are accurate and readable by the software CorellDraw. This is the crucial moment where manufacturing professionals must collaborate to understand primarily the accuracy of vector data transfer to the laser machine and the limitations of the laser machines workable cutting area. In general, Raster and vector engraving/cutting is not absolute science in terms of depth specification relation to the material used, thus, achieving a certain depth is a balance in variation between the laser power and speed required several hours of testing. A depth of engraving will always be within a tolerance of +/-0.2mm. The set up for achieving our unique specifications and dimensions on organic materials required the knowledge of the photonics specialist as well as the innovative digital and tactility knowledge formulated specifically by a culmination of all 4 of our input. Maintaining continuous vector geometry is achievable, but the laser has to run slowly, on a low vector power number scale, meaning the concentrated heat build up was making the material appear quite burnt / heat scorched. It is also more expensive to process. It was the initial thesis that sparked the atomisation of using manufacturing turing restriction as guidelines to create and present a product in a format which was previously inconceivable. This new process and method of manufacturing for footwear utilising personally developed, bespoke, fabrication technologies, combined with large numbers of digital/vector blueprints, combined with user-friendly footwear design, hence, resulting in the change of product development and manufacture methodology.

These changes were definitely for the better, because they gave us restrictions to work with, these restrictions into guidelines that standardised the working methodology. After all of the time struggles of testing various depths of penetration, adjusting for kerf and devloping all the other specifications. The initial development change was that 4 of the 8 shoes had to be entirely flat. Meaning the entire shoe had to be cut out in completely flat sheets without any deviation, so the patters had to be completely reworked, thus the template sizes had to be significantly smaller than the ‘working bed’ sizes, as to avoid any errors during the laser cutting process. This change the concept of having multiple strips that from a armour type layer on the forefront, to a toe cap that was cut completely flat, and as an origami, when folded up, it created a concealed structured toe cap. Also, these flat pack items had to be developed so that all of the connection points lined up, meaning the specifications of the meeting points had to be in the precise location and the precise size to fit the diameter of the chicago screw, which was exactly 3.25mm. Due to the leather thickness as well as the amount of times the material would be folded over also influenced the shapes I could design, the shapes that would eventually need to meet and become fastened to form a 3-d shape. A few specific factors that directly influenced the change of the line ups included the limitation of the working bed size 1246 × 710 mm. Which meant our patterns had to be modified and trimmed down so that the machine was able to directly cut out the entire shoe on that size. During the development stage there were various influential factors that also challenged the previously stated methodology. The optimisation of tolerances and surface finish were a dramatic change for the better, the new information acquired during the production process was that new laser cutters have positioning accuracy of 10 micrometers and repeatability of 5 micrometers. The standard roughness Rz increases with the sheet thickness, but decreases with laser power and cutting speed. When cutting low carbon steel with laser power of 800 W, standard roughness Rz is 10 μm for sheet thickness of 1 mm, 20 μm for 3 mm, and 25 μm for 6 mm. , where: steel sheet thickness in mm; laser power in kW (some new laser cutters have laser power of 4 kW.); cutting speed in meters per minute (Radovanovic, Dašić) .

Using text - converting to curves All text used needs to be Outlined / converted to curves.

Embedding images within a drawing Select *File*>*Import* from the top menu Select the image you want to import and place inside your page

Using text - converting to curves All text used needs to be Outlined / converted to curves. Select Arrange > Convert to curves from the top menu

Reducing nodes / simplifying drawing rag over all the lines you want to reduce the nodes using the Shape tool Select Reduce nodes button from the top tool bar to increase the smoothness of lines by automatically deleting nodes within the selection

Configuring units & colour mode Measurements: 1 unit = 1mm Draw components at actual size.

This process is capable of holding quite close tolerances, often to within 0.001 inch (0.025 mm) Part geometry and the mechanical soundness of the machine have much to do with tolerance capabilities. The typical surface finish resulting from laser beam cutting may range from 125 to 250 micro-inches (0.003 mm to 0.006 mm)( Dell K.; Alting, Leo) This information helped up achieve further precession with cutting the chosen materials, as well as primary information regarding the tolerances allowed us to accurately understand how to configure the units and colour modes for laser cutting and engraving. Another manufacturing issue that caused changes was Configuring units & colour mode, Measuring: 1 unit = 1mm, when digitally re-drawing the patterns in 3-d from the paper pattern, developing them to become vector files, with accuracy influenced the shapes we could create on the flat leathers. Thus, we had to develop everything to be commercially reproducible and market consistent.

The factor which influenced the look and design of the flat pack, in its raw form was the arrangement of artwork for laser cutting and engraving. Since this is also a project which was designed for maximum efficiency and minimal waste, ‘process innovation though product innovation’ was the key motivator. Hence, all designed parts had to be arranged in a economically viable format was to conserve as much material, space and give the maximum effect though minimalist pattern design. Project nesting means we’re not producing extra parts that aren’t needed. It’s more efficient and cost effective to create new nests every time now rather than use old ones. Projecting nesting has many advantages, its a more efficient, cost effective way to reproduce more product, using the wasted space from the previously cut product/ material. Configuring project nesting puts the designer totally in control over every aspect of the operation, thus utilizing al l of the space efficiently available, which are within in the off-cuts of certain designs and conserve more material, while delivering more product. The clustering function allows for the parts to be sorted in a fashion that the maximum amount of space becomes used up to cut complete sheet metal parts from the material itself. Another important production factor was that we had to take into account that the laser cuts different materials at varying speeds. As a benchmark it generally takes longer to cut thicker materials than thinner ones. The thicker a material the more power is required at a lower speed. The laser is also faster at cutting straight lines than it is at cutting curves. We had to pre modify and reselect some of the initially proposed material choices and perform test cuts on over 45 different varieties of leather and leather thickness, to understand which would deliver the ideal results regarding comparability with the laser, as well as be commercially appealing.

Laser cutting lines For through & Through cuts draw out your lines in:

Red: RGB: 255,0,0 Line width: 0.01mm Vector engraving / scoring We have established optimized vector / scoring settings for all our materials to achieve a consistant results with the highest level of clarity. The Strokes & Fonts engraving (line weight 0.25pt):

Blue: RGB: 0,0,255 Line width: 0.01mm

Having the production time and cost homogenised different parameters of processing digital design and fabrication tool dimensions, qualities and construction costs, including their reduction in the commercial footwear industry are increasing in importance. Emerging products and materials demand different parameters of processing. The information framework based on these different parameters, regulations and criteria, is able to set up a new generation of digital associative units.


Adjusting Line -Ups

“Simultaneously, the struggle for production time and cost minimisation urges us to search for new ways to reduce human effort, also in fields of footwear, accessories and design.�

The designer is entering the field of digital programming, able to create his/her own tooling based on scripting and geometric applications. Thus, I can go anywhere in the world with my developed digital data and specification and manufacture and materialise the original product, giving me a consistent and identical precision product every time. The early structural optimisation diminishes the rate of error, thus allowing cost reduction and off site duplication, as well as precision to be achieved (Gower, Alexander). These technological advancements are reducing the complexities of repetitive planning routines into a mouse click.

Does your research question engage with your consumer? If so how and why? This research question was ambitious in stating that, in theory a product, in this case, specifically transitional footwear could be created to directly engage with the consumer. Transforming the existing tectonic architecture of how footwear is perceived by the consumer into a visually and physically engaging tactile product. Is esentially, bringing innovative products to the platform it gives the consumer the opportunity personally and physically engage in the process and finalization of the product to a wide range of creative options. Not only does my research question engage the consumer, it was initially developed and conceptualized with the concept of 2 very different consumers in mind from 2 diversely unique socio economic backgrounds. The first consumer is the Somalia Refugee and the second is the western consumer form a mid to high income demographic, depending on the materials used for the footwear. Initially developed for Somalian Refugee women in need of relief in the form of footwear, aiding their treacherous hundred mile journeys though the dry heat, the concept of the flat pack allowed for hundreds of pairs of sandals to be shipped flat within one shipping container, providing relief for thousands of women enduring the walk to refugee camps. This was a project where I wanted to utilize my skill set towards creating a design which could potentially benefit hundreds of thousands of people globally. I had to research the implications of refugees. Next, the secondary research comprised of understanding the refugees consisted of mainly women and children. Henceforth, I had to research the average height of a Somalian woman, thus upon finding this information I had to translate the height measurements into the foot size, which would correlate with the height. The limitations discovered during the research phase developed into the framework or the ‘brief’ for the development of the product. In order to develop the design for the type of ‘shoe’ that was needed for the refugees, I researched the demographic of the victims and discovered they were mostly women and children who were being forced to relocate on foot. Thus, primary ethnographic research was conducted to recover the average height of the somalian refugee. After learning the average height, we researched the average shoe size that would correlate with the previously discovered height. Ultimately, after calculations, the findings ranged from US women's 6 to 7.5. Thus, the dimensions of the shoes, regarding the size, had to be created in a structurally manufacturable method, where they were a functional variable, having to prove they can be size adjustable by the user. Break down the elements into subdivisions of structural parts in smaller, easier to manage units, behaving as two or more units that can be combined and function as a adaptation of a single solid structure/ product.


Method of Manufacture



You must ask yourself and explain what makes your research question and final outcome, methodologies of manufacture or content original? Context to footwear. In asking the question, do existing fabrication parameters present the capacity to use transformation as a methodological tool to guide the consumer into the tectonic architecture of transitional footwear? The final originality of the proposed research question has challenged existing norms of footwear and even sparked the development of innovative original manufacturing methodologies. With properties deliverable from the summation of its parts form digital to tactile, the technical specification which resulted in the inventive product development is explained in the methodologies section. The contextual phenomena of integrating the concept of transitional footwear a structure, configuration, or pattern of physical, biological, or psychological phenomena so integrated as to digitally cut functional tectonic footwear unit with properties not derivable by summation of its parts. The connection between consumer, store, and brand plays out well in the social space where the processes of interaction, functional systems, and behavioral adaptation give new meaning to the existing visual as well as physical representation of footwear to a consumer. The rebirth of newly developed modular manufacturing processes as well as the visual representation of footwear is being challenged with this footwear line and is the ‘New Fabrication Frontier’.


New Fabrication Frontier

Multiple files from same material/ templates parts cut / engraved from the same material should be arranged into multiples of the same templates and draw as many required for production.

Refining drawing / removing overlapping lines When drafting your drawing ensure that there are no duplicate vector strokes stacked up on one another.

MATERIAL_THICKNESS_ PAGEDIMENSIONS_ DRAWINGNAME Reducing nodes / simplifying drawing Drawing digitlly with the least amount of node will increase the smoothness and prevent sacrificing appearance.


Visually Disciplined

The existing context of a consumer set out to purchase footwear is ‘ visually disciplined‘ and restricted to footwear being presented in a display in 3-D within a retail atmosphere. Thus, the collection, ‘Flat-wear’, shatters this conservative notion of footwear displays and presents the entire shoe as a flat object confined in its packaging, which can essentially be hung on walls of placed on product shelves. In converging the disciplines of architecture, modular furniture design as well as the interfaces of varioustechnological software, the flat wear line creates a new context for itself. It engages the user in the creation of the final product, essentially the user/ consumer is the final element to complete the conceptual demarcation from a flat concept into a 3-D functional product. The concept was to develop visually extraordinary pieces, both flat and 3-D, that were physically able to transform into functional consumer products. As innovative footwear products the from the product is presented in its raw flat form is a direct challenge of the existing notion of physically and visually functional footwear. It is highly unusual to use this technology to laser cut a entire shoe that can be assembled on the foot in it flat form, developed from various pieces. It requires a highly specialized knowledge in vector converting software/optimization, development of vector geometry, knowledge of laser capacity, power, speed, velocity in relation to material weight and thickness, and the tacit knowledge of RGB configuration, bespoke depth optimization and maintenance. Through the research and development of this collection we have developed customized methods of manufacture which has lead us into the development of a truly unique outcome within the realm of footwear as well as product design and development. The greatest challenge of materialising the original question stated in the MFP was to push the precision and digital geometry to develop form fitting functional pieces and involve the consumer with the final assembly and creation of this product. A visual and tangible piece that engages the consumer , as well as challenges them to become part of the production process. The concept of developing the entire pattern of the shoe on one flat sheet, which can be assembled by the user, minimising waste of product and packaging. In addition, no chemical additives, glues or dyes, minimise laser cutting process that is used for both the leather piece as well as the packaging is new in the footwear industry and in the Flat_Wear application is to make finished pieces ready for retail.

#06 Conceot Development


Retail _ Gallery Environments

Gallery Environment The display needs to include visual symbolism and technical data, pertaining to the aesthetic values pertaining to the technical factors and vector data, numeric precision and control the symbolic messages to different audiences through the minimalistic style display.The display might include a I pad or motion graphic visual showing the opening and assembly of the flat pack into a 3-D shoe. One pair in it’s 3-d form and the other in its flat pack from in a product design strategic style, all white background. The product is a shape shifter, a double sided unit with acrylic shelves with no abstraction. A sterile space to show the concept. The work can be presented in 2 ways, as it is a object of display (Flat-pack & 3-D Form), it can convey 2 completely different meanings depending on how it is presented to the audience. I would want to display the footwear in a extremely unconventional visual display with the flat packs hanging along the walls, or use other types of wall displays. I would keep the display minimilastic, white in colour, “Apple Inc” style, to allow the vibrant colour ways of the footwear to show through. I would display one finished product along side in its 3-d form.

The historical context of developing modular style flat pack format is drawn from particularly sustained from theories drawn within the realm of architecture as well as furniture design. Dating back to the 1950s, proceeding a number of isolated experiments in ModulArt, the customizable and flexible nature of this form of art has inspired exploration of modularity in various other co creative forms of development (Harvard Business Publishing 1996) During the mid 1950’s a school of Modular Constructivism developed featuring a era of sculptors who defined modularity though the building of architecturally sculpted repetitive units from casts of concrete. A decade later modularity become an autonomous artistic concern of its own, as several important Minimalist artists adopt it as their central theme. Modular building as both an industrial production model and an object of advanced architectural investigation develops from this same period. Shortly after, in 1951,Notions of historical modular design from the field of architectural design spawned the beginnings of Ready-to-assemble furniture was first invented by Erie J. Sauder (The Economist 2006). Taking inspiration from the creations of Sauder, a Swedish draughtsman Gillis Lundgren, later developed from a personal furniture shopping trip, idea when he needed to fit a table into his car. As history was recorded, Lundgren, needed to fit this table in his car, thus he unscrewed the legs off his table to fit the product in his car, then reassembled the table at home. He then proposed this simple idea to the head employers at IKEA, hence the entire business concept of IKEA shifted in regards to manufacturing launching the first flat pack piece in 1956 (Ikea History 2013).


Historical Context

Additionally, I stated that during the manufacturing process, the collection could evolve into 5 pairs and one product. This was dependent upon the variables regarding the development and manufacturing process. In particular, the industry contact regarding the photonics and working laser bed specifications would alter the vector color mapping points, thus changing the preconceived dimensions or design of the line ups.The evolution of prototypes allowed me to develop a responsive system where physical patterns were developed into numerical data and later manipulated by digital software to create vector profiles, thus transitioning from physical to digital parameters. Evidence your community of makers the context of where and who your peers are? My community of makers developed though my search and development of my industry contacts. I performed part of the introductory work of my collection in the UK and moved onto my contacts that developed within a variety of industries, ranging from footwear consulting firms to a photonics company. Within each of these companies, I discovered a variety of makers and engineers, who became my network, or rather my community of makers to assist and guide me though-out this collection. Utilising k, training and hardware I acquired in London and merging it with a network of fabricators in Los Angeles, USA truly diversified the scope of my collection. Boarding my understanding of manufacturing methodologies in both the UK and USA allowed me to better understand a more diversified fashion aesthetic, cultural similarities, international markets and fiscal opportunities regarding my potential target consumers. The development of this knowledge and research was accumulated though the industry contacts, who ultimately became my community of professional peers.

Project Cost Breakdown Components

Cost Per 2 Pairs (Including Flat Pack

Manufacturing Last

£15.00 £75.00



Finishing / Detail








Computing (Partially Sponsored)


Total Cost Per Pair (Including Flat Pack) (1 Flat Pair & 1 3-D)

Cost Per Element

Elements 1 Manufacturing (80 % Sponsored) Last Wood Compressed Hide Leather / Fabric Leather [Paint / Dye / Polishes] 2 Laser Cutting (Partially sponsored) Laces Hardware Shanks Linings Sole-Material Graphic Printing [Paper, Ink & Related Materials] UV Printing Stamps Chroma-tec 3D Patern Development [Packaging & Product]

£15.00 £75.00 £25.50 £66.45 £54.56 £15.00 £35.00 £25.00 £18.45 £13.65 £21.00 £10.31 £22.35


Total Cost Full Project (6 Pairs) + Software


1 Sponsored by New Sole 2 Partially sponsored by Sophisticated Primitive - Unit 2 sponsors. No additional cost.

Additional Cost Digital Software Programs

Manufacturing Last Materials Finishing / Detail Reinforcement Packaging Branding Computing

In Design


Cost Per Pair Breakdown

Cost for Full Project (6 Pairs)

£15.00 £75.00 £70.00 £50.00 £25.00 £32.10 £31.31 £11.45

£90.00 £450.00 £420.00 £300.00 £150.00 £192.60 £187.86 £68.70



£68.70 £187.86 £75.00





£11.45 £31.31


Manufacturing Last Materials Finishing / Detail Reinforcement Packaging Branding Computing






Manufacturing Last Materials Finishing / Detail Reinforcement Packaging Branding Computing

Material_ Labor Cost

This section will look at how you analyse and theoretically give a balanced account of your costing of your products. Materials cost per product.

Labour cost per product.

I have developed a spec sheet of all of the costs incurred during the making process, however I would like to reinstate that these costs are extremely variable to high levels of fluctuation, depending upon the type of materials used, hardware, as well as quantity produced. The method of laser cutting, fabrication methodology will switch to a method of manufacture called ‘die cutting’. which in high volumes is highly cost effective in comparison to laser cutting. For creating the collection, since it required a minimum production of each pair, we used laser cutting configuration and fabrication, which is more costly. In addition, if our materials were purchased bulk, the prices would be much lower. The materials used in this final collection were the most premium and if a secondary, non -profit line was conceived based on the Ma collection patterns, it would be constructed with the most cost effective/ durable material in its price range. Meaning it could be made of purely synthetic rubbers, organic fibrous materials or, discounted natural later and synthetic blends. The costing reflects the true nature of the product on a small scale, if produced on a larger scale the product pricing structure as well as manufacturing costs will shift. This is primarily due to the switch from ‘laser cutting’ to ‘Die Cutting’ for mass quantity of production. In addition- the overall cost for the charitable “refugee” line will be significantly lower, due to the switch from luxury materials and hardware to cost effective materials with high level of durability. Thus, the materials/ hardware cost is a distinct variable and has the pre-designed ability to dramatically fluctuate in accordance with our choice of materials.This concept was a primary factor when designing the product, hence allowing us to keep our iconic designs, yet fluctuate with the preferred monetary demographic and target market. Thus, the level of commercialism varies in accordance with the materials we choose to utilise.

Work Cited Baldwin, C.Y., Clark, K.B, 2002, "The Option Value of Modularity in Design" Harvard Business School. Bromberg, Joan, 1991, The Laser in America, 1950-1970. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Caristan, Charles L , 2004, Laser cutting guide for manufacturing, SME. Clark, K.B. and Baldwin, C.Y , 2000, Design Rules. Vol. 1: The Power of Modularity, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Erixon, O.G. and Ericsson, A , 1999, Controlling Design Variants, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, USA. Gower, Alexander Styhre (August 1, 2011), Knowledge Sharing in Professions, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. IKEA Group Sustainability Report FY12, 2012, IKEA Group. [5 October 2013]. IKEA, 2013, IKEA History Company Profile, 2013, [15 November 2013]. IKEA Group, Company Profile 2013, Modularity in Design Formal Modeling & Automated Analysis. [5 December 2013]. Ingvar Kamprad and IKEA, 1996, Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, Massachusstes. Oberg, Erik; Franklin D. Jones, Holbrook L. Horton, Henry H. Ryffel , 2004, Machinery’s Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY. Jennings, Jason (2002)., A Furniture Dealers Testament. Portfolio Books. Perrottet, D et al, 2005, Heat damage-free Laser-Microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength, Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics IV, Vol. 5713, Bellingham, Washington. Miroslav Radovanovic and Predrag Dašić, 2012, Surface Roughness by Laser cut, IKEASW, IKEA UPPLEVA. [9 November 2013] Rothacher, Albrecht, 2004, Corporate cultures and global brands, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore. Todd, Robert H.; Allen, Dell K.; Alting, Leo, 1994, Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide, Industrial Press Inc. The Economist, (2006), IKEA: Flat Pack Accounting, (5874) p. 46, EBSCOhost: Business Source Premier [Online]. Available at:<> The Economist, (2011), The secret of IKEA's success, pp. 67–68, EBSCOhost: Business Source Premier [Online]. Available at: < id=18229400 >



Malcf2013 meline katchi nike innovation 1  
Malcf2013 meline katchi nike innovation 1  

flat pack , innovation