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Sophie Mattacott-Cousins Jasmine Lancaster Merran Mills Lauren Millar

FASH20028 Fashion Marketing and Branding Year Two


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• intro King of Shaves is an English brand making its impression in the global market (www.shave.com/history/). The UK has no new adopters within the male grooming market, therefore brands have to seek out new ones (www. academic.mintel.com). We have come together to develop a research and communication marketing strategy report that launches King of Shaves into the Asian market. Asia is becoming particularly influenced by western culture (www.portal.euromonitor.com)presenting a sound opportunity for King of Shaves to develop a larger global presence. We will be analyzing the UK and Asian markets through extensive research of our chosen country to create a successful launch strategy.


• Aims and obj

•Carry out primary and secondary research to provide evidence behind our claims. •Research King of Shaves in the UK market.

•Research King of Shaves brand image including history, essence, progression and presence. •Define the UK male grooming market and King of Shaves UK consumer. •Determine UK and Asian competitors.


• Aims and obs •Research our country of choice: Why China? •Define Asian King of Shaves consumer.

•Research the Asian market: will King of Shaves’ products translate well? Does the brand have to be aware of any

cultural sensitivities? What are the key trends? •Develop a successful and innovative communication

strategy for the launch of King of Shaves into an Asian market.


• contents 1:1 1:2

Methodology Results

2:1

The Brand 2:1:1 King of Shaves Mission Statement 2:1:2 King of Shaves Vision Statement Brand Aims and Objectives Brand Essence The Progression Store Presence

2:2 2:3 2:4 2:5 3:1 3:2 3:3 3:4

3:5

UK Market and Competitor Analysis UK SWOT Analysis UK PEST Analysis UK Competitors 3:4:1 Hardware Perceptual Map 3:4:2 Software Perceptual Map UK Consumer Analysis

4:1

Asian as a Whole

5:1 5:2 5:3 5:4

China Overview Culture Sensitivities Chinas Market Overview Consumer Segmentation 5:4:1 Target Market One 5:4:2 Target Market Two Chinese Consumer Pen Profile one Chinese Consumer Pen Profile two

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• conts

5:8

Competitors within the Chinese market 5:7:1 Gatsby 5:7:2 Gillette 5:7:3 L’Oreal Nivea 5:7:4 Nivea Gaps in the Market 5:8:1 Opportunities 5:8:2 Lessons to be Learnt

6:1 6:2

Chinas SWOT Analysis Chinese PESTLE Analysis

7:1 7:2 7:3

7:4

Joint Venture Strategy Source Chinese Manufacturer Market Entry Strategy 7:3:1 Price 7:3:2 Place 7:3:3 Product 7:3:3:1 Charcoal Product 7:3:3:2 Our New Product Promotion

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Summary & Recommendations

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Appendix

10.1 11:1 11:2 11:3

Literature Review List of References Bibliography Image References


1:1

Upon collating primary research for the following report several methods were chosen. Amongst these were questionnaires, online questionnaires and focus groups. Secondary research was also used to collect quantitative and further qualitative research. These methods of research are analysed below.

Questionnaire A questionnaire was designed to gain primary research. By approaching Chinese males, a detailed response was gained whilst expansion and control was ensured. Furthermore, it allowed us to explain the questions if language was a barrier. A pilot survey was firstly produced which highlighted questions that did not give the answers needed, for example we found the question ‘what facial products do you use’ to be too vague. We therefore revised the questionnaire to ensure final answers gave sufficient information.

Focus Group On Monday 14th November a focus group was held with male Chinese students studying at the University of Nottingham. We asked participants the questionnaire discussed above and the informal group atmosphere allowed further questions to be asked. One of these was ‘would purchase a charcoal based product’ to provide evidence for our decisions.


Online surveys Online surveys were produced on surveymonkey.com. We experienced a low response rate as we needed to target a specific group, which meant we were unable to gather a significant amount of candidates. This research method was not as reliable as we predicted, as language barriers and the impersonal approach made participants reluctant to reply. Journals Online Journals were used for secondary research. The use of GMID and Mintel enabled us to collect key figures alongside market history and forecasts for the UK and Chinese male grooming markets. The use of these respected online journals ensured high quality quantitative and qualitative data.

Books Books were used as a source of quality secondary research. The Boots library provided many books on Chinese laws, traditions and cultures however could not be relied upon to provide up to date market data.

Internet The internet provided us with many websites, such as chinadaily.com, to help us gain a greater understanding of China, their cultures and traditions and the way in which they advertise. However, we focused on taking note of reputable sources as the internet is not always reliable.


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The primary research we have discussed previously is analysed below. We targeted a broad age range with a similar number of respondents falling into each age category. This provided us with knowledge spanning King of Shaves’ Chinese target markets. Secondly, the majority of participants told us they shaved once a week, differing from the UK consumer survey we conducted which stated the majority of participants shaved 2-4 times a week. This highlights the differences in culture and amount of facial hair, allowing King of Shaves to consider what products should be launched. Furthermore, most participants stated they use gel products and razors whilst all stated they use moisturiser, face washes or both. This provides solid evidence that the products King of Shaves has chosen to launch, discussed later, provides the target market with what they want. Quality, price and promotional offers were the three main answers respondents gave when asked what they looked for and why they would change brands. This highlights the fundamental reasons for purchase and offers King of Shaves with an insight into their consumers minds. Finally, after confirming our thoughts that Gillette was the main competitor we asked whether participants would be interested in a charcoal based product whilst explaining the benefits. The majority answered ‘yes’, providing King of Shaves with evidence that a product like this would be welcomed in the Chinese market.


2:1

Will King suffered from shaving rash and razor burn but could not find a shaving product which prevented these problems. “I suspected a lot of guys suffered in the same way I did, so I decided to solve the problem myself” (www.shave.com/history). Being made redundant presented Will King with the opportunity to develop an oil which soothed and eased the pain and in 1993 King of Shaves was born (www.basenotes.net/company/100482). After Mohammed Al-Fayed agreed to stock the product in his prestigious Knightsbridge department store Harrods, Will King hand filled 9,600 bottles over his kitchen sink (www.basenotes.net/company/100482). The brand initially experienced slow growth, only selling one bottle of oil every two weeks (www.growingbusiness.co.uk) but products are now sold in 30,000 stores worldwide in countries such as Japan, Brazil and Australia (www.shave.com/history). They see themselves as a challenger brand and are the ‘second largest brand of shaving software in the UK’ (www.shave.com/history). King of shaves strives to produce affordable, clean and strong products (www.shave.com/history). Years of engineering and research ensure they produce ‘the king of all products’ (www.shave.com/history) and their prime-shave-protect regime offers the best results. The brand’s strong USP has helped differentiate the brand in a highly competitive market and gain high market share. The product portfolio now extends into other markets offering the Queen of Shaves and Kings Since 1965 brands (www.shave.com). These brands target the female and teenage markets whilst ensuring the British identity is maintained.


2:1:1

“Shaving the world "closer, for longer, for less". (blogs.shave.com/king/kingofshaves)

2:1:2

“To conquer markets with innovative and new ideas”. (services.edp24.co.uk)


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•‘Beautify the male masses’ (www.shave.com/history/) •‘Beat Gillette on price and performance’ (www.telegraph.co.uk) •‘Knock Wilkinson Sword off the number two spot’ (www.growingbusiness.co.uk) •To make between £75 million and £100 million in the next three years (www.growingbusiness.co.uk) •“To keep focussed on delivering the world's best shave, day in - day out”. (blogs.shave.com/king/kingofshaves) •“To change the face of shaving”. (www.facebook.com/kingofshaves)


image


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King of Shaves delivers…

“ (www.shave.com/history/)

(www.shave.com/history/)


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High Market Share The Boston Matrix to the right shows the King of Shaves’ product portfolio and how they translate in the current UK market. The brand has successfully produced cash cow products which, even though they have a low market growth, maintain high market share (Baines, Fill, Page. 2008.p79/80) , therefore generating a steady income. However, the star category, consisting of products with high market share alongside high market growth (Baines, Fill, Page. 2008.p79/80), holds no King of Shaves products as the UK market is flat. King of Shaves constantly looks for ways to enter new markets (www.shave.com/history/). It has gained a deep understanding of the UK shaving industry (www.shave.com) but, as you can see on the product life cycle, the brand has reached a point of saturation. Therefore, they need to devise an extension strategy to ensure a continuation of image, sales and revenue.


http://blogs.shave.com/azor/CIMG1572-thumb-450x324.jpg


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King of shaves has developed a huge presence in the shaving market due to its stock in major retailers. The likes of Boots, Harrods, Lloyds Pharmacy, Morrisons, Sainsbury’s, Superdrug, Tesco and Waitrose (www.shave.com/history/) all stock their products enabling King of Shaves to gain a large brand presence. They now stock in major retailers such as Foodtown, New World, Hallensteins, Walmart, and Matsumoto Kiyoshi stores (www.shave.com/history/), seen in leading economies. King of Shaves does not have any stand alone stores, instead relying on leading retailers to boost their image.


3:1

(www.academic.mintel.com) The UK male grooming market is currently valued at ÂŁ850 million with the shaving market estimated at ÂŁ330 million alone (www.academic.mintel.com). This sector of the market remains flat, unlike the overall market which has experienced a 5% decline due to the effects of recession and inflation (www.academic.mintel.com). Heavy promotional activity and changing attitudes have also contributed to this negative impact. Men between 15 and 34 are the core users in the male grooming market, however 55% of these believe they do not have to be clean shaven to look well groomed (www.academic.mintel.com). This is therefore slowing down the total volume sales of shaving products. Moreover, research identified men did not know how to shave, forcing brands to focus on teaching rather than promoting (www.academic.mintel.com). Unfortunately, unemployment is set to rise by 9% to 1.4 million (www.academic.mintel.com) leading to an increase in consumers searching for the best deals. This in turn makes it difficult for companies to rely on brand loyalty resulting in further promotions and discounts. Aside from the declining market there are opportunities for brands. The male population is set to grow by 20% between 2011 and 2016 (www.academic.mintel.com). 16% of this growth is in the 65+ category creating a high demand for anti- ageing products (www.academic.mintel.com).


Ricky Lakhani from Personal Care Analyst states ‘with the ageing of the UK’s population more men need to be encouraged to maintain their grooming routines’ (www.academic.mintel.com) and with Mintel stating there is a greater need to stay looking young in modern society (www.academic.mintel.com) brands can concentrate on promoting antiageing products.

Overall, the UK male grooming market is declining. King of shaves do not offer anti-ageing products and without research and development cannot launch a new product targeting the growing but ageing male population. This, therefore presents them with the perfect opportunity to target new global markets.


3:2

Strengths •King of Shaves is the ‘second largest brand of shaving software in the UK’(www.shave.com/history) resulting in a large market share and presence. •King of Shaves has developed a unique selling point by offering oil based products rather than foam, therefore differentiating themselves from competition. •The brand ensures a high level of quality control throughout all stages of production(www.shave.com) resulting in brand loyalty. •Technology based products keep the brand ahead of competition, providing consumers with the latest advancements. •Innovative communication strategies ensure consumers are constantly interested resulting in repeat sales and profit. •Products are widely distributed in the UK (www.shave.com) meaning easy access and heightened brand awareness. •A strong online presence ensures further sales and awareness through a popular medium.

Weaknesses •King of Shaves has a confused self image. They see themselves as a luxury brand whereas our research says differently. We found the average price of products to be £3.80 whereas Gillette is priced at £5 (www.boots.com). This unclear image contributes to lack of sale growth in the UK. •The brand is alienating consumers who want a foaming product. This results in decreased sales and loss of market share. •King of Shaves does not advertise through traditional forms of media, instead preferring to solely rely on the internet. This form of advertising does not fully promote their products and does not target all sectors of the market.


Opportunities •The UK male grooming market is now saturated and there are no new opportunities for brands. Therefore, King of Shaves has made the decision to expand into further global markets. •Anti-ageing products are becoming more popular (www.academic.mintel.com) providing King of Shaves with an opportunity to extend their product portfolio. However, we understand the high cost implications and risk of launching in a saturated market.

Threats •The male grooming market has grown by 12% in recent years (www.academic.mintel.com). Many brands have developed their product portfolios to include male grooming resulting in strong competition. •Competitor brands ,such as Gillette, have large marketing budgets and can therefore promote on a higher level than King of Shaves. This high influx of TV and magazine adverts means challenger brands, such as King of Shaves, are not at the forefront of the consumers mind. •King of Shaves offers a limited razor portfolio meaning they lose market share and sales to competitors who offer a more diverse range.


3:3

Political •The government aim to “strengthen consumer protections, especially for the most vulnerable, and promote more responsible corporate and consumer behaviour through greater transparency and by harnessing the insights from behavioural economics and social psychology” ( www.number10.gov.uk ). King of Shaves pride themselves on being an honest and transparent company, meaning they would only benefit from this introduction. •The government also aim to “facilitate sustainable growth in the tourism, media, leisure, creative, communications and cultural industries, by reforming the media regulatory regime” (www.number10.gov.uk ). King of Shaves will benefit from improved media and communications as this is their mains source of promotion.

•Following a meeting between the British Prime Minister and Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao , David Cameron said ‘China represented a “huge opportunity” for the UK’. This amicable relationship will work in favour for British companies planning on expansion into China, for example, King of Shaves ( www.number10.gov.uk ).


Economical •The UK is currently in recession. Consumer confidence is low resulting in them saving rather than spending. This disadvantages brands such as King of Shaves as their products are not necessities and they will experience a decrease in sales. •‘The standard rate of VAT increased from 17.5 per cent to 20 per cent on 4 January 2011’ (www.hmrc.gov.uk/vat). This discourages consumer spending as they are paying increased prices for the same products. As King of Shaves provides products that consumers want rather than need they may experience a decrease in sales and profit. •Interest rates have been kept at a record low of 0.5% since May 2009 (www.bbc.co.uk/news/business). This is due to worries about the strength of the economy and encourages consumers to spend or borrow money. This results in a stronger economy and increased consumer confidence. •‘Falls in the price of food, air transport and fuel helped to push the inflation rate lower’ (www.bbc.co.uk/news/business). It has fallen to 5% resulting in consumers spending more as prices have decreased. This therefore helps boost the economy. •UK unemployment rose to 2.62 million in 2011 (www.bbc.co.uk/news/business). This increases benefits paid out by the government, resulting in a decrease of money in the economy and disposable income. King of Shaves may experience a decrease in sales due to these figures.


Social

•The UK male population currently stands at 28.6 million (www.woodlandsjunior./population.html). This presents King of Shaves with a large research sample and target market. Once they understand their consumer wants, they can strive to offer the best suited products. •Increase in awareness of appearance in males leads to an increase in sales of grooming products that ensure performance. •Modern society has lead to a heightened awareness of ethical issues, for example the minimum wage was increased on the 1st October 2011 (www.direct.gov.uk/ /TheNationalMinimumWage) leading to an increase of disposable income and therefore sales.


Technological

•13.6 million males use social networking sites (www.prmoment.com/socialmedia-census). King of Shaves target their audience through online marketing and will greatly benefit from this figure. •Shaving products focus on technological advancements and performance rather than skin types as they ‘describe their hair and skin as normal’ (academic.mintel.com). Therefore, King of Shaves have to tailor their product portfolio and communication strategy to appeal to this market.


3:4

A perceptual map is a visual representation of a market. It determines how brands are perceived and how concentrated the competition is. For example, the further apart the competition on the map, the greater the opportunity for other brands to enter and compete (Baines,Fill,Page,2008,p253). Two UK competitor maps have been produced. The first highlights competition in hardware products and the second highlights competition in software products. The first perceptual map shows how King of Shaves offer a limited range of razors but beat all competition on price. Our primary research shows consumers are influenced by price, so lower prices will increase sales, revenue and profit. The same can be said for the second perceptual map. However, this time King of Shaves offers a diverse product range whilst keeping prices low. This provides evidence to match our primary research and shows how King of Shaves have continued their success as a challenger brand.


3:1 3:4:1

www.boots.com


3:4:2

www.boots.com


3:5

‘A consumer is an individual with the power to purchase a product for personal usage’(investorwords.com). The two pen profiles present both segments of the market. One being the mature, loyal consumer, the other being a young consumer wanting to stand out in the crowd.


4:1

When exploring Asia we looked into the culture, religion, lifestyle and demographical differences of each country to get a well rounded view of where would be most appropriate to launch King of Shaves.

5:1

Capital City: Beijing (www.chinatravel.com). Population: (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile) 1,342,993,000 in 2011. This is the largest globally. Population Density (persons per square kilometre): 143.7 in 2011 (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile). Average Income This is increasing Under 45s earn the most money (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile). Annual Disposable Income (US Dollars): 3,546,071.7 in 2011 (www.euromonitor.com/china/countryfactfile).


Minimum Wage (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile) Shanghai: raised from 920 Yuan (89.81 GBP) to 1,070 Yuan (104.45 GBP). Beijing: announced 20.8% rise for later this year. Jiangsu: announced 15% rise for later this year. Guangdong: announced 19% rise for later this year. Real Gross Domestic Product Growth: 9.5% in 2011 (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile). Inflation Growth: 5.5% in 2011 (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile). Policies I Child Policy: birth rate and population growth is slowing therefore there are discussions over allowing urban couples to have one more child (www.euromonitor.com/china/country-factfile). Tax(worldwide-tax.com) Individual tax is progressive- 2011 5%-45%. 2011 corporate tax rate for domestic and foreign companies is 25%. Small companies pay 20% corporate tax in some cases. Lifestyle (www.portal.euromonitor.com) Shopping has become a major part of Chinese lifestyle, mainly for families, couples and groups of friends. Rise of multi-format retail spaces in cities has provided year round shopping that caters to every need. The Chinese are looking beyond the basic functionality of a product and are now concerned with other appeals. For example: aesthetics and status. This is usually found in greatly developed economies. There is a wide income disparity, consumers are either very rich or very poor. This is due to massive growth in concentrated areas. The rise of e-commerce: buying and selling using the internet but also trying to connect all Chinese cities. Internet Users: 453 million in 2011 (articles.cnn.com)


5:2

China holds over 5000 years of history, traditions, value and cultures (www.historyof-china.com). It is now part of the BRIC thesis, an acronym for Brazil, Russia, India and China. This term was first used in a 2003 Goldman Sachs report which predicted that by 2050 these four economies ‘would be wealthier than most of the current major economic powers’ (www.investopedia.com/terms/b/bric) and many global brands strive to be seen in these economies. When advertising there are many documents guiding companies through the laws of responsible advertising. For example the China Marketing Code states ‘marketing communication should be distinguishable as such, legal, honest, truthful and decent’ and ‘language in marketing communications should be clear and easy to understand for the average consumer’ (www.iccwbo.org.pdf). This strongly applies to advertising in China as the language barrier is great and if brands, such as King of shaves, do not follow these regulations they risk punishment from Chinese governments whilst alienating potential consumers. These guidelines are similar to the Advertising Standards Agency (ASA) and the Committee of Advertising Practice (BCAP) which state, for example ‘subjective claims must not mislead the audience; advertisements must not imply that expressions of opinion are objective claims’ (www.cap.org.uk/The-Codes/BCAP-Code). King of Shaves’ UK advertising can be controversial, so they will have to ensure their advertising suits the Chinese culture.


Furthermore, colour symbolism differs in China. Some King of Shaves products incorporate the colour green, however studies indicate this is not a good colour to use on packaging as it symbolises exorcism (www.myuniversalfacts.com). An alternative colour to use may be yellow as this symbolises nourishment (www.myuniversalfacts.com) allowing consumers to understand the benefits of the products. Overall, King of Shaves will have to increase their awareness of the many laws, regulations, superstitions and sensitivities that are present in Chinese culture and tailor their brand image appropriately to avoid offence and, ultimately, failure


5:3

It was estimated in 2010 that the Chinese men’s skincare market was worth $269.6 million and only set to grow (portal.euromonitor.com). The current economy saw a 19% current value growth, whilst men’s skincare saw a dramatic 34% value growth (portal.euromonitor.com). This not only shows the Chinese male grooming market is increasing at an impressive rate, but that the current market presents an unmissable opportunity for brands to launch into a global market place. Strong sales are present in all tiers of the country but brands have to be aware of their different wants, needs and attributes. Tier one consists of the cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzen (portal.euromonitor.com). These are the most affluent, advanced and competitive cities in the country and where many brands are launched (portal.euromonitor.com). Chengdu and Wuhan, amongst others, make up tier two but they do not benefit from the affluence seen in tier one (portal.euromonitor.com). Tiers three and four follow and are less developed towns and cities which present a more rural landscape (portal.euromonitor.com). However, surprisingly strong sales for grooming products were seen in lower tier cities due to a change from women to men purchasers (portal.euromonitor.com). Furthermore, being clean shaven and groomed is a sign of status and success (portal.euromonitor.com). Shaun Rein, Managing Director of China Market Research Group states "Chinese men are now more concerned with appearances, in the last three years there has been a real upsurge in male cosmetics" (www.bloomberg.com/news). The evolution and innovation of products attracts and intrigues males. They want more than functionality from products and are happy to purchase with no embarrassment (portal.euromonitor.com). This has led to a wider range and higher volume of products being purchased and presents King of Shaves with an opportunity to target this market and increase sales.


From forecast research conducted by Global Market Information Database an annual growth rate of almost 30% has been predicted(portal.euromonitor.com). China is set to see a higher growth rate in the male grooming market than Europe (7.9%) and North America (5.7%) (portal.euromonitor.com). This growth will be driven by even stronger sales in lower tier cities whilst men’s grooming is expected to see a ‘constant compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19%’ (portal.euromonitor.com). This will provide companies with an even broader target market, therefore allowing grooming brands to maximise sales and therefore profit. Furthermore, men are likely to trade up to leading brands, such as Gillette ProSeries, due to strong advertising and claims, presenting a problem for small national brands that cannot compete. Finally, strong price competition between all male shaving and grooming brands will slow overall growth due to a competitive pricing strategy that sees many similar prices throughout the market leading to no particular brand gaining market share. However, global companies may experience problems when trying to expand their target market as older men continue to be sceptical about the claims made by major brands, alongside the problem of rural areas struggling to access or afford the products (portal.euromonitor.com). In conclusion, as in any global market, there is competition, strengths and weaknesses. Brands have to choose their markets carefully in order to gain market share, plan and implement a successful launch strategy and overall, maximize sales and profit.


5:4


To help us understand our target market further we have segmented it into two categories according to social class. Firstly, we have analysed males living in mostly tier one and two cities, such as Beijing. These are more affluent and aspirational consumers. This is compared to males living in tier three or four cities which present a more rural landscape and lower income lifestyle. Segmenting the Chinese market will allow King of Shaves to fully understand the wants and needs of different target markets and help them decide how to approach and sell specific products to them.


5:4:1 Target Market One- Tier One & Two Consumers Who? Young, urban, affluent, aspirational and career driven. They live in tier one and two cities such as Shanghai or Changsha Increasingly convinced of the benefits of grooming due to advertising by global companies such as Procter & Gamble (portal.euromonitor.com). What? They want a product that helps them look well groomed, as this is a symbol of higher status. This consumer needs products that combat problems brought about by a change to a more westernised diet, for example, acne.

Where? Chinese consumers will be able to purchase King of Shaves products from Watsons and Tesco’s and Chinese department stores, for example Parkson (www.parksongroup.com.cn). Male consumers can purchase and search for information, reviews, recommendations and deals online (portal.euromonitor.com). When? From primary research we found the majority of Chinese males shaved their face once a week with only one respondent stating they shaved their face daily. This research shows Chinese males do not shave regularly therefore need a product that protects skin. Why? Consumers purchase male grooming products, as being well groomed is a symbol of status and success (portal.euromonitor.com). These consumers are focused on career and feel looking well groomed will secure them a job (portal.euromonitor.com). A change to more westernised cultures has resulted in the need for problem solving skincare (portal.euromonitor.com).


5:4:2 Target Market Two- Tier Three & Four Consumers Who? Rural, lower-income consumers. Live in tiers three and four. What? Want a functional product that they have chosen, rather than a product that has been picked up as part of the weekly shop (portal.euromonitor.com). Where? They purchase from specialist shops, such as Watsons. This is due to an increase in males buying products themselves. Online- men can search for greater information, reviews, recommendations and deals, greater focus on the functionality of a product (portal.euromonitor.com). Consumers can purchase products via Watsons, Tesco and Walmart. When? Same as tier one and two consumers. Why? Grooming products are a luxury rather than a necessity. Lower income and rural consumers may not be able to stay brand loyal or access the products.


5:5


5:6


5:7

Brands have to analyse the competitive atmosphere when deciding whether to launch into a global market (Baines, Fill, Page. 2008. P183). Global Market International Database has identified three main competitors within the Chinese market. Firstly, Olay Men is a market leader due to the strong links with the Olay for Women brand and the multifunctional and combating properties they offer (portal.euromonitor.com). Secondly, L’Oreal’s Garnier Men offers low prices and entry level products compared to the Men Expert range, allowing consumers with a lower income to access the brand (portal.euromonitor.com). Finally, Gatsby, a product not offered to the UK market have gained market share with their strong advertising and fashionable image (portal.euromonitor.com). We have gone on to identify further competitors, seen below.

5:7:1

Gatsby was founded in 1978 but is not available for purchase on the UK market. It was the first brand to introduce a foam based product in 1985 after introducing fourteen products solely aimed at males. Packaging is ‘simple and clear’ (www.gatsby.sg/producthistory) helping to increase the brands sales to 1 billion RMB (www.gatsby.sg/producthistory). Gatsby constantly evolve according to China’s rapidly changing society and conducts thorough research to ensure unique products. Gatsby is a clear King of Shaves competitor as they have been present in the market for many years allowing growth of loyalty and market share. Furthermore, consumers may be reluctant to change from a national brand as they ensure consumer understanding.


5:7:2

Proctor and Gamble currently own 23% of the market share in male grooming within China (www.professionalbeauty.co.uk/). This is largely down to its dominance in the pre-shave market, which accounts for 68% market share, and its 72% share in men’s razors and blades (www.professionalbeauty.co.uk/). The products and packaging do not differ from what is available on the UK market, giving Gillette a strong global image . However, they have to be aware of the differering wants and needs of global consumers. Gillette’s success within China is largely down to its strong advertising and product presence, which reach all tiers of the country (daveibsen.typepad.com). Furthermore, they make a conscious effort to co-inside with major events such as Chinese New Year (daveibsen.typepad.com). This ensures consumers that the brand understands their culture and is willing to adapt to appeal to them. This results in a successful product launch and increased market share and profit.


5:7:3 In 1996 L’Oreal entered the Chinese market and has gained brand awareness through a phased product launch strategy (www.icmrindia.org). Paolo Gasparrini, General Manager of L'Oreal China, commented, "We've invested huge amounts of capital into marketing to strengthen our brand awareness and followed up with more innovations in products. Our performance in China proves our strategies are good" (www.icmrindia.org). This shows L’Oreal ensured they had enough market knowledge to adapt and enhance their products to suit the Chinese market. They went as far as building a research centre in Shanghai to conduct further market research and specially designed products for the Chinese consumer (www.icmrindia.org). The brands male grooming range launched four years ago and accounts for 23% of the income for L'Oréal China. Their male skincare range is experiencing a 40% annual growth rate, which is considerably faster than women’s (www.icmrindia.org).


5:7:4

After its founding, Nivea was quick to launch and is therefore a huge contender in the global male grooming market (www.nivea.co.uk). In 1939 Nivea moved into China (www.nivea.co.uk) enabling them to gain market share and brand loyalty over many years. A specified advertising strategy was formed for China (www.nivea.co.uk) and the brand was one of the first to develop a male grooming regime for the mass market in 1994 (www.nivea.co.uk). Nivea prides itself on supporting the rise in male grooming and has continued to develop specified products for the Asian market (www.nivea.co.uk). However, Nivea and L’Oreal do not currently produce hardware shaving products, presenting King of shaves with a competitive advantage.


5:82

Through research, discussed previously, we have found the current Chinese male grooming market does not offer an oil based product. This presents King of Shaves with an opportunity to develop their USP and competitive advantage, resulting in increased brand awareness, sales and, ultimately, profit.

5:8:1

The use of shaving oils and gels is growing in popularity, largely due to the greater moisturising and comfort properties (portal.euromonitor.com). The oils can be made without the addition of potentially toxic chemical ingredients which has become highly recognised within the shaving industry (www.shave.com/know-how/). King of Shaves’ oil allows consumers to advantage from fewer cuts due to easy glide technology, there is little or no chemical content resulting in clearer softer skin and the oil prevents razor burn whilst moisturising (www.shave.com/know-how/). These opportunities allow King of Shaves to differentiate themselves from competitors whilst increasing awareness, sales and profit.


5:8:2

As previously mentioned, the UK and China differ greatly. King of Shaves has to fully understand their culture and language as launches can fail. For example, Coca-Cola launched in China in 1928 but found there was no direct brand name translation (www.i18nguy.com/translations).To combat this problem Chinese symbols with the same phonetics were used resulting in ‘Ke-Ke-Ken-La’ (www.i18nguy.com/translations). However, this translated as ‘bite the wax tadpole’ (www.i18nguy.com/translations) leaving Chinese consumers understandably confused. Coca-Cola then researched 40,000 Chinese symbols and produced the name ‘Ko-Kou-Ko-Le’ which translates as ‘happiness in the mouth’ (www.i18nguy.com/translations). This proves even major global brands do not always succeed presenting an important lesson for King of Shaves. If they do not consider and act upon differences they could experience loss of revenue and brand image.


6:1

Strengths

• conts

•King of Shaves have developed a unique selling point by offering oil based products rather than foam, therefore differentiating themselves from Chinese competition. •The brand ensures a high level of quality control throughout all stages of production (www.shave.com/history) resulting in brand loyalty. •Technology based products appeal to Chinese consumers (portal.euromonitor.com) and provides them with the latest enhancements. This ensures the brand stays ahead of competition. •Innovative communication strategies ensure consumers are constantly interested resulting in repeat sales and profit. •King of Shaves are offering a product Chinese consumers have not had previous access to. This will create interest, therefore increasing market share and overall profit. •China, being a technologically advanced economy (portal.euromonitor.com), will appreciate the strong online presence King of Shaves offers.

Weaknesses •The brand is alienating consumers who want a foaming product. This results in decreased sales and loss of market share. •King of Shaves does not advertise through traditional forms of media, instead preferring to solely rely on the internet. Even though there are 453 million internet users in China (articles.cnn.com) this form of advertising does not target all sectors of the market. •Brand loyalty will be harder to achieve in China as there are many brands already present in the market. Chinese consumers may be reluctant to invest in a foreign brand. •As King of Shaves is a challenger brand they may not have the internal resources to expand to a global market.


Opportunities •To increase awareness, sales and profit. •Expanding into further global markets will help King of Shaves target a fresh consumer allowing them to boost sales, revamp their image and increase profit.

• conts

•King of Shaves can provide Chinese consumers with a clear brand image which they are currently lacking in the UK. •A new market provides the brand with an opportunity to expand their product portfolio to include products that are suitable for the Chinese consumer. For example, we have discussed a charcoal based product which is analysed in the communication strategy. •By expanding into China, King of Shaves can offer jobs helping to boost the economy and improve living standards. •King of Shaves can develop new promotions and advertising campaigns to adapt to the Chinese market, ensuring they target the right consumer and heighten their brand awareness.

Threats •Chinese male grooming brands have a competitive advantage as they understand their consumers’ needs and can target them directly. King of Shaves will find it difficult to compete again these long establish brands. •Western competitors, such as Gillette , have a strong presence and large budgets (www.marketingcrossing.com) that a challenger brand will struggle to compete against.

•Barriers to entry mean foreign brands have to go through a joint venture to access new markets and profits (auilr.org/pdf). This leads to loss of control and dilution of brand essence or image. •Language and cultural differences limits the ability to communicate to consumers resulting in a loss of trust and potential sales.


6:2 Political •China is a communist country meaning the government controls what can be viewed by the population through censorship (portal.euromonitor.com). Media and internet censorship may cause problems for King of Shaves by limiting what can and cannot be advertised. This restriction may mean that King of Shaves cannot fully communicate their message. • “A strictly controlled political environment has forced foreign businesses to carefully adjust their business models to "fit" China's political objectives and policies.”(auilr.org/pdf/19/19-4-4.pdf). King of Shaves have to ensure they abide by the countries regulations to avoid persecution resulting in a unsuccessful brand launch.

Economical •China’s economy is currently experiencing a current value growth of 19% (portal.euromonitor.com). This confirms their place in the BRIC thesis which represents the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China (portal.euromonitor.com). Global brands, such as King of Shaves, will experience benefits such as increased awareness, sales and profit. •Chinas inflation rate has slowed to 5.5% (portal.euromonitor.com) in comparison to October 2010 in which the inflation rate was 6.1% (portal.euromonitor.com).. This benefits the Chinese consumer and economy as they can purchase more products for less, resulting in more money for the economy. •Minimum wage has risen from 920 Yuan (£89.81) to 1,070 Yuan (£104.45) in Shanghai; other major cities within china have announced rises of up to 20% (portal.euromonitor.com). This shows the expansion of China whilst increasing consumers’ disposable income. This means they can purchase more products and spend more on leisure pursuits. This presents King of Shaves with an opportunity to launch into a growing economy where consumers are willing to spend.


There is a wide income discrepancy due to areas of concentrated growth (portal.euromonitor.com). This results in some areas of China being extremely wealthy whilst other areas experience severe poverty. From our research, strong sales have been seen in lower tier cities (portal.euromonitor.com) but brands like King of Shaves have to be aware of this income discrepancy so they do not solely target areas with little wealth.

Social •China and westernised cultures vary greatly (www.chinadaily.com). Brands launching into this market place have to be fully aware of these differences so to not offend local citizens and experience failure. •In order to understand the social structure, King of Shaves must first research the history. For example it is estimated that around ‘63 percent of China’s’ population is subject to the one-policy rule’ (factsanddetails.com/china). It is this type of regimented behavior from the government that will act as barrier against King of Shaves entry to market. • It is also important to take into consideration the difference in religious values. In China the main religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism (chineseculture.about.com). Having such a diverse amalgamation of faiths and believes means that King of Shaves must be especially conscious to avoid offending potential consumers.

Technological •The Chinese population is looking for advancements which go beyond basic functionality (chineseculture.about.com). King of Shaves need to offer a product that satisfies the technological needs of the Chinese consumer and keeps them ahead of competition to ensure market share and consumer sales. •The growth of online interaction and e-commerce has changed the way in which China shop (portal.euromonitor.com). The ease of online shopping has enabled those in more rural areas to gain access to the same as those in the city (portal.euromonitor.com). This helps breach the gap between the different tiers (portal.euromonitor.com).


• China is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, accounting for high-speed rail, renewable energy sources and supercomputers to name but a few (portal.euromonitor.com). This offers King of Shaves an exciting and diverse market to in which to launch and develop their brand.

Legal • Chinese law states that any foreign company must enter the market through joint venture (auilr.org/pdf). This will cause problems as joint ownership can lead to disagreements between and loss of full control. However, a joint venture has the potential to produce synergy by combining local knowledge and funding.

Environmental • Poor thermal insulation in Chinese buildings means that twice the amount of energy is needed to heat or cool buildings, compared to those in European or American climates (portal.euromonitor.com). Wang Tiehong, chief engineer of the Ministry of Construction claims that “30% of China’s total energy consumption is used for building infrastructure.” This is a factor that King of Shaves needs to take into consideration whether it is in their factories or in-store environments (matadornetwork.com/change/). • China’s carbon emissions have exceeded expectations and accelerated at such a rate as to overtake the US (portal.euromonitor.com). High emission levels within the city may require different properties within King of Shaves products. Measures may also be considered in the future to prevent high rates of production and distribution (portal.euromonitor.com). • Due to the nature of King of Shaves products less packaging is often needed. Not only will this help to reduce energy costs, it will also be less environmentally detrimental.


7:1

As Chinese law states any company entering the Chinese market needs to do so by joint venture (auilr.org/pdf). It is from here that we devised a business strategy laying out how we were to proceed with this. We researched several different companies who could be potential investors; these included KAI Corporation, Watsons Pharmaceuticals, JP Morgan and Li & Fung. After extensive research we decided to go into a joint venture with Li & Fung. Li & Fung Limited engage in trading, logistics, distribution and retailing (www.lifung.com/company). It not only designs, develops and sources consumer products for retailers but operates ‘extensive logistics and distribution networks’ for Major brands, for example Beyonce’s ‘House of Dereon’ (www.lifung.com/company) Since opening in the tier one city of Guangzhou in 1906 it has grown from ‘humble beginnings’ (www.lifung.com/company)‘one of the world’s foremost trading regions’ (www.lifung.com/company). Their extensive history and knowledge of the Chinese market makes them a sound company for King of Shaves to trust.

Joint ventures minimise the risk of setting up in an unknown market place and King of Shaves will gain Li & Fung’s valuable knowledge and expertise, alongside resources that are not available in the UK, for example extensive Chinese market history and forecasts . Furthermore, in order to successfully promote the brand, funding will be vital as costs will be high. Investment from a national organisation will not only provide funding but will also ensure potential consumers that King of Shaves can be trusted.


However, King of Shaves will not have full rights to the company and will therefore lose some control. As with every partnership there is a chance of disagreements which can lead to the failure of the venture.

Overall, not only is it regulation for King of Shaves to enter the market via joint venture, the opportunity presents many more advantages than drawbacks. Li & Fung are a valued organisation within Asia and therefore provide King of Shaves with a respected launch platform


7:2

King of Shaves ensure they manufacture goods for the UK within the UK as they have ‘a strong commitment to work with local manufacturers as much as possible (www.shave.com/kos/environment). Their suppliers are ‘within a 30 mile radius of King of Shaves' HQ in Chesham’(www.shave.com/kos/environment) helping to lower the costs of distribution whilst supporting the UK economy. King of shaves should continue this ethos when launching in China as its distribution costs are low and the brand is supporting the economy. Furthermore, manufacturing costs are low in China (portal.euromonitor.com) resulting in King of Shaves concentrating revenue on their communication and marketing strategy. After extensive research King of Shaves should use Athena Cosmetics Manufacturer Co. Ltd. As a subsidiary company of the Grand way International Health & Beauty Group they specialise in the research and manufacture of skincare, hair care and body care (athena.en.alibaba.com/aboutus). They commit themselves to ‘manufacturing good quality skin care, body care and hair care products, including cream, gel, lotion, toner, mask and essence oil’ (athena.en.alibaba.com/aboutus) and have been appointed as the manufacturer of ten famous Chinese brands (athena.en.alibaba.com/aboutus). This company fits King of Shaves’ Chinese product portfolio and, as the reasons state above, would be a sound choice of manufacturer.


7:3

7:3:1 Pricing is a vital component to the marketing strategy as not only do King of Shaves have to price their product right to gain consumer interest, they have to ensure they stay within their budget to avoid overspend leading to losses on revenue and profit. There are two types of pricing strategy used when launching a new product or service. The first is skimming. This is where the brand charges an initial high price to target a consumer who is willing to spend more (Baines,Fill,Page,2008,p416). The second strategy is penetration pricing. This is where the brand charges a lower price to gain brand awareness and consumer interest (Baines, Fill, Page, 2008, p416). King of Shaves should adopt the first pricing strategy as they currently market themselves as a superior brand, therefore their prices need to reflect this. One target market has been identified as affluent and aspirational Chinese males who relate grooming to the status and success (portal.euromonitor.com). A high price would appeal to this market whilst setting King of Shaves above competitors. After the brand has gained interest and market share they can lower the prices to target lower tier cities. Overall, this strategy allows King of Shaves to create an image through price, whilst gaining market share and revenue. Furthermore, lowering the initial price will attract further markets resulting in King of Shaves building their brand reputation, sales and, ultimately, profit.


7:3:2

Having already decided to partner with Li & Fung in our joint venture it made sense to also use them as our main distributer. Li & Fung, amongst other accolades, is widely recognized as a global leader in sourcing and distribution, as well as being known for their performance, they practice “with an emphasis on transparency and accountability”(www.lifung.com/eng/company/), qualities which King of Shaves holds highly. When looking at where to retail King of Shaves products we segmented it into tiers. For the lower tiers three and four we decided to sell out of supermarkets including Walmart and Tesco. Walmart has a huge presence in China and since 2010 has 189 units in 101 cities across the country. Alongside this large number of stores, Walmart hold the award for Top Multinational Company in Asia (www.wal-martchina.com/english). The fact that Walmart is so widely recognised across China will increase awareness of King of Shaves products. Tesco’s is also commonly known throughout China, holding “more than 94 stores with over 7 million square foot of retail space” (www.tesco-graduates.com/internationalgraduates/china-programme). By selling out of such large supermarkets the King of Shaves brand will spread, whilst making the products accessible to a large spectrum of society. In terms of the higher tiers, including cities such as Shanghai and Fuzhou we decided it best to also sell out of department stores. One of these is to be Parkson who have positioned themselves at the “middle and middle-upper end of the retail market of the People’s Republic of China” (www.parksongroup.com.cn). Today Parkson operate out of 31 major cities including Beijing and is a renowned foreign brand with strong brand recognition. This will help heighten awareness for King of Shaves.


7:3:3 Communication and Marketing Strategy Place After further research into what the Chinese market is looking for we came to the conclusion that King of Shaves should maintain their product portfolio and translate them directly into China through straight extension. Whilst conducting primary research into what the Asian male wants out of a shaving product, a recurring theme was a close and comfortable shave. This quality is one in which King of Shaves prides itself on. Whether European or Asian, men will still be looking to receive the most comfortable shave possible. Within the product offering are several different items that achieve this. King of Shaves offer to prime, shave and protect (www.shave.com/history) and do so through a varied product portfolio. One of the ‘primers’ being a face scrub with “a gentle antibacterial formulation that helps prevent spot causing bacteria whilst clearing the face of excess oil, dirt, blackheads and dead skin” (www.kingofshavesdirect.com). On researching men’s skin types in China we came across an article which outlined how men should look after their face. Included in this routine was the use of an exfoliator, the reasoning being that men have thicker skin than women and therefore “the oil secretion is more abundant” (www.gq.com.cn/living). GQ was a useful point of reference in our research as it is the same market King of Shaves will be targeting. Another reason behind our decision to translate the product offering directly into China is the appeal for westernised products. During our focus group it became clear that the Asian market strives to adopt more western ideologies, and this has transferred into the male grooming market. Evidence behind this comes in the form of King of Shaves’ main competitors Gillette, Nivea and Garnier who have all maintained their typically British image and have continued their success in China.


After King of Shaves has launched into China’s market we want to adopt a five year strategic plan to roll out the products and generate greater brand awareness. This will allow the brand to expand into new tiers within China and new Asian markets. We decidedand to primarily launch the Azor range, the Communication Marketing Antibacterial range and the new Absorber (charcoal) range. We chose all of Strategy Place these due to their sensitive skin systems, their skin enhancement and shave qualities that would entice potential consumers. We then devised a plan to launch the other products over a two year period. The Azor 5 and Alpha ranges would be the next to launch after a period of between a year to 18 months. This allows King of Shaves to gain a better understanding of the market and consumer needs. Finally the Super and Kinexium ranges will be launched after two years of King of Shaves being in the market. Depending on how well these products perform within tier one and two of Chinas market we will then look at expanding out to tiers three and four after two years. By moving into these areas we will be able to spread brand awareness and continue to challenge Gillette. Once King of Shaves knows it has been successful in the Chinese market and has a clear knowledge of what products are best received, they can then look to further Asian expansion. When first conducting our research into which Asian market to enter we were aware that Hong Kong and Singapore have similar cultures and lifestyles to China, and therefore believe these countries would be the next place to expand the brand. Although we feel the King of Shaves portfolio is diverse and responsive, we also felt the need to launch a new product. As previously mentioned this will be the new “Absorber� charcoal based range.


7:3:3:1

Charcoal based skin products are steadily on the rise due to the vitamins and minerals that help to combat numerous skin problems (www.ehow.com). Charcoal is known to prevent the problem of oily skin, something that the Chinese population suffers with due to change in lifestyles (www.ehow.com), and sebum, the substance that causes oily skin, is directly targeted by charcoal (www.herbs2000.com). The charcoal used in such products is a specially processed activated charcoal which comes from bamboo (www.squidoo.com/japanese-charcoal-soap). It is able to lift and absorb impurities within the skin, such as blackheads and dead skin (www.squidoo.com/japanese-charcoal-soap). To create activated charcoal, bamboo needs to be burnt at 800 degrees and is then filtered down to a fine powder (www.ehow.com). There are products promoting such substanceson the Chinese market. Below are examples that would appear as competitors;

Sumi Haigou Settuken Charcoal Bar Soap A soap that is easy to use on the face and body and made for all ages, it promotes itself as being an exfoliater and moisturizer as well as tackling and preventing acne and oily skin (www.squidoo.com/japanese-charcoal-soap).


Mentholatum Icy Charcoal Face Wash This product is part of Mentholatum Men line, available and especially designed for the Asian market. It is a blend of charcoal and a menthol to create a refreshing sensation for mind and body (www.mentholatum.com). It also has extracts of olive oil and seaweed to keep skin hydrated (www.mentholatum.com).

Origins Clear Improvement The activated charcoal in this product draws out dirt and the White China Clay within the product absorbs environmental pollutants (www.origins.co.uk/product).


7:3:3:2

After exploring charcoal based products and looking at the chinese male grooming market it is clear that such products are on the rise. For this reason we suggest that King of Shaves invest in creating a charcoal based product for the Chineses market which can then be channeled out to other Asian countries. The Chinese have used charcoal for many health and beauty reasons for decades (www.ehow.com)and therefore offering a product that has a substance that they understand and would be a strong selling point.


7:4

King of Shaves use many different methods to speak to their consumer. However, their marketing presence is solely online. Included in this is their use of virals via their website. This is a technique which would translate well into the Asian market due to the high influence of technology and ecommerce (portal.euromonitor.com). However, for this concept to be successful the content of the virals would need to be carefully thought out in order to appeal to the different market. For example their ‘sexy shave’ viral shows attractive, American celebrity Barbarella shaving a man in a sexualised manner (www.shave.com/kos/barbarella). This style of advertisement would not be successful due to cultural differences. As stated earlier in the report, King of Shaves will need to consider cultural sensitivities, if their advertising is too risqué it could alienate their potential consumer. King of Shaves however took this viral one step further and turned it into an online, interactive competition. By inviting people to rival Barbarella’s sexy shave and post their videos online they were able to create interest and hype. Although their tone may change to a more discreet voice in China, the same playfulness should be kept. Another current viral features the tennis players Andy Murray and Roger Federer, who play a game of tennis with oversized razors instead of rackets (www.shave.com/kos/murray). Murray, who is representing King of Shaves wins the match and Federer, sponsored by Gillette, is seen ‘the loser’. This concept is witty and light-heartedly belittles their main competitor. It is these qualities that need to be translated into China, allowing King of Shaves to make an impact and portray their products as superior.


When devising their campaign in Asia, King of Shaves needs to remember that “language is obviously a major component of culture� (Uniser.L. 2009. P342). What may be received well in Europe could simply be lost in translation in China. Due to this, King of Shaves need to ensure their slogans and play on words are understood. The same concept applies when selecting celebrities for their campaigns. If the wrong celebrity is chosen it could lead to failure, as consumers buy into their lifestyles.


Our initial idea for the China communication strategy was playing on the word shave. After looking at current UK virals and researching Chinese adverts, we devised the slogan, ‘That Was a Close Shave’. It would be based on popular Chinese sporting activities such as football, swimming, ping-pong or badminton and would feature a ‘close shave’, for example, a football star scraping a goal. We also devised a plan of setting up a competition on Facebook, where consumers can upload videos of their own ‘close shave’ moments. This would encourage word of mouth advertising whilst interacting with the Chinese consumer.


Secondly, we came up with ‘Get your Queen with King of Shaves’. This takes a similar approach to the “sexy shave” viral for the UK yet will not contain the same level of sexualisation. We would use a celebrity such as Faye Wong, who is known for her career in singing, acting is called a ‘diva’, which directly translates as ‘heavenly queen’. She portrays an image of ‘coolness’ which is the direction King of Shaves want to go when entering Asia. By using a celebrity who is so widely recognised it increases the appeal to the mass market.


Although King of Shaves currently only uses online promotion, we feel that they would benefit from implementing other methods of advertising. In such an evolving market, companies struggle to maintain brand loyalty, soKing of Shaves need to further differentiate themselves. This is why we feel a guerrilla marketing strategy should also be employed in the form of an interactive board. The poster sized board will feature an integrated camera and will allow the potential consumer to shape and shave a virtual beard. There will also be the option to select from several King of Shaves products, completing the routine of prime, shave, protect. Furthermore, the strap line ’We understand traditions, we understand your skin, be the king of your own existence…King of Shaves' allows the brand to reiterate the point of understanding. The interactive nature of the advertisement will keep King of Shaves at the forefront of peoples minds and the added extra of selecting King of Shaves products will allow to further showcase the range. For example, a consumer could select “prone to dry skin” from the menu and the correct items would be left to choose from.


We then thought of how brands use pop up stores to create buzz and excitement around a launch. Technology and instant messaging continue to create a sense of urgency in people's lives and companies try to grab consumers' attention(www.trendwatching.com). Consumers don’t know how long the shop will stand for and therefore the shop becomes limited edition (www.trendwatching.com). Furthermore, pop up shops cost considerably less than television adverts, whilst creating a quirky and fun hype for the brand. King of Shaves could adopt this technique by creating a store in the shape of the new King of Shaves product, the Absorber. Consumers can purchase the charcoal based product within a new environment and gain helpful information on product benefits.

Finally, in store magazines will allow King of Shaves to create an identity in the new market. It is a visually pleasing way for consumers to understand the brand identity, values and most importantly, what products are on offer. An anonymous blogger says “it is this balance between presenting your merchandise and making a quality magazine that in-store magazines should really strive to achieve� (fashionmoriarty.blogspot.com). In store magazines present the perfect opportunity to develop a low cost but highly effective form of advertising. Overall, the communication strategy will allow King of Shaves to successfully launch their product into the Chinese male grooming market whilst developing their products portfolio, image and sales.


8:1

Thus to conclude, our key recommendation to King of Shaves is to launch into the Chinese male grooming market whilst maintaining their distinctive brand image and values. Through our research and analysis King of Shaves can see a substantial growth in the next five years whilst being seen as a main competitor against rival brands such as Gillette. However, King of Shaves must be fully aware of the cultural sensitivities and language differences they will face and must not underestimate the barriers to entry. Overall, we feel King of Shaves will be a viable business in the Chinese male grooming market and the expansion will greatly benefit the company as a whole.


APPENDIX UK Consumer

From the research carried out we found two segments to the UK male grooming and shaving market. This consisted of 16-35 year olds and 40 plus, as seen in the comparisons below. These two segments have different wants and needs and therefore need to be targeted as two separate markets. Firstly, attitudes towards appearance have changed in society as 55% of under 35s feel being clean shaven does not mean looking well groomed leading to 6 in 10 of these males using as little grooming and shaving products as possible (academic.mintel.com). ‘Around 1.6 million men in the UK do not shave, primarily 16-24-year-olds’ (academic.mintel.com). This has therefore led to an increase in the purchase of trimmers that keep stubble, moustaches and beards neat rather than razors. On the other hand, two thirds of men in the 40 plus age demographic prefer to be clean shaven (academic.mintel.com). This is due to the greater need to look and feel younger in society. ‘Among all male grooming products, razors, blades and electrical shavers have the biggest consumer base, however the over-55s stand out as core users of razors, razor blades and electrical shavers’ (academic.mintel.com). Companies are now trying to change the ways of this age demographic as they currently use alternatives to shaving foams and gels , for example soap. They are trying to boost the confidence these consumers have in foams and gels by showing how it is kinder to their skin and can therefore decrease the visible signs of ageing (academic.mintel.com).When it comes to factors prompting men to buy grooming and shaving products, younger men, aged 16-24 years, are the most likely to try new grooming products following recommendations from others (academic.mintel.com). This market segment has less experience about grooming and shaving compared to older consumers and therefore seeks guidance older adults about which products to use. This age demographic also experiences soreness, redness and breakouts after shaving therefore uses products such as shaving foams, gels and moisturisers that combat these problem areas (academic.mintel.com). There are also other factors, beside recommendations, which prompt males to purchase grooming and shaving products. Males in both the age demographics shown here would try grooming and shaving products if they were given as a free sample or as a gift. However, the younger demographic are more likely to be persuaded by celebrity endorsed brands, whereas consumers over 55 are least likely to respond to advertising, preferring to stick to what they know (academic.mintel.com). This leads on to the final point about brand loyalty. The younger age demographic are most brand loyal when purchasing products such as refillable razors, shaving gels/foams and moisturising lotions. As this age group is a core user of these products it has been found they are more likely to stick to the brands they know work for them and their skin type. However, research has also showed that male students are less brand loyal as they want to save money so therefore opt for the cheapest deal, no matter what brand it is. This changes when considering the older age demographic below as, even though they remain brand loyal, it is for very different reasons. This age demographic is more likely to stay brand loyal to products such as shampoo that combats hair loss and dry hair rather than staying brand loyal to a shaving brand.


UK King of Shaves consumer King of Shaves promotes their brand as quirky, different and unique. Promoting themselves by comparing their products to current competitors implies their brand is superior evoking King of Shaves as a competitive and strong brand, standing above their competitors within the market. Emerging from a recession UK consumers have been faced with a period of uncertainty therefore having a strong brand presence makes potential consumers believe in the brand, giving them reassurance when buying into the brand experience. King of shaves appeals right across the age range in the male grooming market however actively working on targeting the younger male consumer aged between the ages of 16-25. By actively targeting young consumers they are persuading them to try the products King of Shaves currently has on the market in hope they become regular buyers of the brand, a habit King of Shaves hopes they continue with staying loyal to the brand as they age. The way in which King of Shaves merchandises their products is strongly suggested through social media campaign‘s. By using social media campaigns they are able to target their consumers in their busy technological based lifestyles. Consumers of products from King of Shaves are technology savvy. Living a young free lifestyle they are open to trying new products and technologies within the market. Being open to trying new products within a market they often listen and read reviews and take in information fed to them through multimedia but also word of mouth; this therefore plays a vital role in the way in which they perceive a product, a crucial way of therefore selling King of Shaves products to them. The consumer of King of Shaves are still studying in college or university, or in their first few years of a full time job, all however having a small disposable income in which they buy products that are more than just a basic product. They live in either a city or a town. Living in a city they are surrounded by interactive viral’s and promotions therefore making them aware of the mediums. Their look is very important to a typical King of Shaves consumer, in a way they want to stand out in a crowd and be different from everyone else. A fashion cautious brand aware male would be a typical consumer, socializing on a daily basis encourages them to interact with others. Interacting with others may involve tweeting, face booking and verbal communication in which they discuss what they have seen having a strong point of view, listening to close piers of a similar age “Following recommendations from others” (academic.mintel.com).


Asian Consumer As we have said above, foreign markets need to be addressed separately as they have many different values and cultures. Firstly, the consumers purchasing grooming and shaving products in China are young and affluent (portal.euromonitor.com). They are career driven and see being well groomed as a symbol of higher status (portal.euromonitor.com). Schick and Procter & Gamble’s Gillette aim their products at low to mid income consumers (portal.euromonitor.com) so King of Shaves may have found a mass market that isn’t currently being heavily targeted. The Chinese male grooming market has also seen a shift from female to male consumers purchasing male grooming products (portal.euromonitor.com). Due to this shift, there is a functionality focus on products as these men know what they need for their skin type. It has also brought about a shift to online retailing as men want to know more information about the products they are purchasing, read reviews and search for deals, whereas women would pick up grooming products whilst shopping for daily essentials. Through research we found that the UK market prefers disposable or refillable razors whereas the Chinese market, according to Global Market International Database, prefers systems. They say, ‘within systems, razors dominate, accounting for 50% of overall value in men’s razors and blades’ (portal.euromonitor.com). This may present an opportunity for King of Shaves to develop their product base to suit the new consumers. Finally, older men are likely to remain sceptical about grooming and shaving products due to traditional beliefs and low-income or rural consumers will either be unable to afford a wide range of products or find it difficult to access them. This may mean King of Shaves will target to an age specific market to maximise sales and therefore profit.


Country Fact files

Thailand

Thailand is home to 63,389,730. Known as the golden land, not for its wealth but beautiful lifestyle and land. The country makes most of its money through tourism and has capitalized on this by promoting tourist led events. Bangkok is Thailand’s capital, housing 6 million people and where many people from the villages come to work. Thailand is a farming-dependant country however it is currently making a transition from agricultural to an industrial-based economy. However Thailand has always been known for its rice fields of the central plains, Thailand is the worlds largest exporter of rice. The main religion within Thailand is Buddhism, with Theravada Buddhism being the religious practice 94.6% of the population follow. Muslim religion takes up 4.6% of the population and Christianity 0.7% of the population. The current work force has reached 37.8 million people and the literacy rate is close to 92.6%.

Singapore Singapore, neighbours of Malaysia is a small country it is highly urbanised however half of the country is covered in green vegetation. Nearly 5 million people live in Singapore in which 2.9 where born in the country, however others living in the country emigrated from India or China.

There are many languages spoken within Singapore. These include: English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil. The currency taken in Singapore is called the Singapore Dollar. Trends within Singapore regarding shaving have considerably increased with men becoming very image conscious and therefore buying into brands to maintain their groomed look. Competitors within the market in Singapore include Procter and gamble having a lead of 40% sales in the market with Gillet shaving products. Other brands include Garnier and L'Oreal having the greatest increase in value.


Bordered by Indonesia and Thailand, Malaysia has an estimated population of 28,728,607. This is made up of : Malay 50.4%, Chinese 23.7%, indigenous 11%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% Within Malaysia there are several different religions , included as follows Muslim (or Islam - official) 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%, Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 2.6%, other or unknown 1.5%, none 0.8%. This shows that the country is one of faith. •Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.6% (male 4,374,495/female 4,132,009) 15-64 years: 65.4% (male 9,539,972/female 9,253,574) 65 years and over: 5% (male 672,581/female 755,976) (2011 est.)

• Median age: total: 26.8 years male: 26.7 years female: 27 years (2011 est.) •Population growth rate: 1.576% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 74 •Birth rate: 21.08 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 83 • Death rate: 4.93 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 188 •Net migration rate: -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 133 note: does not reflect net flow of an unknown number of illegal immigrants from other countries in the region (2011 est.) •Urbanization: urban population: 72% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) •Major cities - population: KUALA LUMPUR (capital) 1.493 million; Klang 1.071 million; Johor Bahru 958,000 (2009) •Sex ratio: at birth: 1.069 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.) female: 11.8% (2008)

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/my.html


India Factfile Capital City Delhi Population density 376.7 people/km2 Currency Indian rupee Location India occupies the central northern coast of the Indian Ocean, It is bounded in the west by Pakistan, in the north by Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal, and in the east by Myanmar and Bangladesh. Ruling party The Indian National Congress Party and its allies lead the government. Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) Languages: Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9% Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census) Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 187,450,635/female 165,415,758) 15-64 years: 64.9% (male 398,757,331/female 372,719,379) 65 years and over: 5.5% (male 30,831,190/female 33,998,613) (2011 est.) Population growth rate: 1.344% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 86 Birth rate: 20.97 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 Death rate: 7.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 116


Competition Figure 40: Satisfaction with various men’s grooming brands, July 2011 Base: male internet users aged 16+ who have ever used the brand

FIGURE 41: Consideration of men’s grooming brands, July 2011 Base: male internet users aged 16+ who have heard of the brand and expressed a view


Product Usage FIGURE 50: Toiletries used by men once a day or more, by product, 2011 Base: men aged 15+


Questionnaire results to Chinese Male Consumers

How old are you? 18 - 25 26 - 35 46- 55 55 +

1111111 1111 11

7 4 2 0


UK Survey Results


Literature Review

10.1

Many companies, previous to King of Shaves, have felt the need to expand globally, specifically into Asian markets. There has been a wide range of literature researching this topic, providing many resources. This literature review will consist of five analysed elements of the report. These include: marketing models, globalisation, luxury, cultural sensitivities and why we chose to launch in China. Cultural Sensitivities When researching global markets, in particular Asia, one of the main factors we needed to consider when adjusting King of Shaves’ marketing strategy and product portfolio was cultural sensitivities. Due to differences in language, culture, beliefs and traditions, King of Shaves’ image may not translate. This is described by Lee Uniser, in the book, ‘Marketing Across Cultures’. He states ‘language is obviously a major component of culture’ (Uniser.L. 2009. P342), whilst myuniversalfacts.com furthers this notion by highlighting the importance of colour. Even though this literature was published in 2009, reliability may have lessened due to recent changes in Asia to a more westernised culture. Further research highlighted similarities in UK and Asian marketing laws. The China Responsible Marketing Code, from the website www.iccwbo.org.pdf, stated marketing communication should be distinguishable as such, legal, honest, truthful and decent’ (www.iccwbo.org.pdf) and ‘language in marketing communications should be clear and easy to understand for the average consumer’ (www.iccwbo.org.pdf). The Advertising Standards Agency and Committee of Advertising Practice agree with these laws by quoting, ‘subjective claims must not mislead the audience; advertisements must not imply that expressions of opinion are objective claims’ (www.cap.org.uk/The-Codes/BCAP-Code). These are both reliable sources as both organisations are highly regarded within the marketing and business industry.

Marketing Models The first marketing model we considered using was the 4P’s. The book, Marketing by Baines, Fill and Page, states ‘the intention [of the 4P’s model] was to create a simpler framework around which managers could develop their planning’ (Baines, Fill, Page. 2008. P183). However, this literature goes on to state ‘some commentators have argued that the 4P’s framework is of limited use’ Baines, Fill, Page. 2008. P183). Never the less, we still felt it necessary to use this model as it clarified our ideas whilst allowing us to develop them further. Throughout out course a strong dependence has been placed on PESTLE and SWOT analyses. We therefore felt it highly important to use these models to analyse the internal and external environments whilst referring to Marketing by Baines, Fill and Page for information. It was for this same reason we used the Boston Matrix and product life-cycle models. The latter two were of particular importance due to the nature of the brief due to the current UK male grooming market being flat. Finally, we felt Marketing by Baines, Fill and Page to be reliable as they reference highly regarded databases, for example Mintel. Why We Chose China Set out in our brief was that the UK male grooming market was flat. To provide us with further evidence to this claim we used the database, Mintel. We found this to be a trusted source as many major organisations, such as Nottingham Trent University, and the book, Marketing, by Baines, Fill and Page both use and quote the database. We were then left with the decision of what Asian country to target, and through the use of Global Marketing International Database


(GMID) chose China. GMID estimated that the Chinese men’s skincare market was worth $269.6 million and only set to grow (portal.euromonitor.com), whilst the men’s skincare market saw a dramatic 34% value growth (portal.euromonitor.com). Alongside GMID, the literatures, China’s Emerging Global Business, written by Yongjin and Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, written by Chevalier, supported this notion of China’s growing market. Furthermore, these resources stated how China is welcoming a more westernised culture. The sources mentioned provide validity of our decision to launch into China as they all draw to the same conclusion. Luxury: King of Shaves’ website (www.shave.com/history/) and our project brief perceive the brand to be in the luxury sector. However, through our primary research of Chinese males we further investigated this claim, believing it to be incorrect. By the definition outlined in (Luxury China: Market Opportunities in China) written by Chevalier, which says that a luxury item is “an inessential, desirable item which is expensive or difficult to obtain” it contradicts the brands selfimage. Although we agreed that King Of Shaves’ products can be seen as both inessential and desirable, the accessibility and price point disagree with this quote. Alongside this, the website (www.kpmg.com.cn/en/virtual_library/Consumer_markets/CM_Luxury_brand.pdf ) lists luxury brands in China, all which provide on a different level to King of Shaves. This source however, may be deemed as unreliable due to the fact it was written in 2007. Perceptions may have changed since 2007 which disagree with this website. Nevertheless, we still believe we are correct due to our extensive primary research and the use of other, more recent resources which back up our claims, such as (http://www.china.org.cn/top10/2011-10/13/content_23610650_2.htm). It is for this reason that we advice King of Shaves to not launch as a luxury product into the Chinese market due to differing perceptions of what luxury is. Conclusion: Whilst writing this literature report we set out with the intention to gather information conducted by researchers in our field of interest. It allowed us to identify, evaluate and interpret existing bodies of work, while forming a framework for our report. One key consideration we made when collating research was the reliability of sources, as this would greatly impact the quality of our research. We found this review invaluable to our report writing as it allowed us to structure our points efficiently.

Word Count: 935


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11:3 Image References

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Shen . (2009 ). Beauty Radar: L'oreal MEN EXPERT LINE . Available: http://www.shensaddiction.com/2009/03/beautyradar-loreal-men-expert-line.html. Last accessed 2.12.11. Siao Men. (2011). It’s RAINtholatum time.. Available: http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?q=Man+washing+face&um=1&hl=en&rlz=1T4SVEC_enGB397GB397&biw=943&bih=35 2&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=bVXF41_e-1MNOM:&imgrefurl=http://cloudusa.wordpress.com/2011/06/27/posts-. Last accessed 2.12.11. Will King. (2008). King of Shaves Razor Archives. Available: http://blogs.shave.com/king/KMI%20KOS%20Shortlist%20DP%2315A29D.jpg. Last accessed 2/12/2011.

King of Shaves Expansion and Implementation Strategy  

Second year report into moving King of Shaves into the Asian market and creating product diversification to suit new consumer needs.

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