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Test Bank for Implementing Organizational Change Theory Into Practice 2nd Edition by Bert Spector Link full download: https://digitalcontentmarket.org/download/test-bank-for-implementingorganizational-change-theory-into-practice-2nd-edition-by-bert-spector/ Chapter 2 – Theories of Effective Change Implementation MULTIPLE CHOICE Which of the following is NOT a part of Kurt Lewin’s formula for change? a. behavior b. person c. context d. norms (d: Difficult; p. 27) 1.

2.

Effective change involves: a. content. b. process. c. what is being changed. d. how are the changes being implemented. e. all of the above (e: Difficult; p. 26) 3.

Which of the following statements is correct based on key concepts proposed by Kurt Lewin? a. An individual’s behavior is a function both of that person’s psychology and his or her environmental context; therefore, the most effective way to create lasting behavioral change is to change that environmental context. b. After behavioral change can occur, forces must be exerted to create disequilibrium in the status quo. c. An individual’s behavior is a function of only the person’s environmental context; therefore, the most effective way to create lasting behavioral change is to change that environmental context. d. both B and C e. none of the above (a: Moderate; p. 27) 4.

Behavior (B) is a function of the person himself (P) and the environmental context (E) in which that person operates. Therefore: a. B * ƒ (P, E) b. B + ƒ (P, E) c. B = ƒ (P, E) d. ƒ (P, E) = B e. both C and D (e: Moderate; p. 27)


5.

To understand or to predict behavior, the person and his/her environment have to be considered as one constellation of ____________ factors. The person and his context, in that view, are ____________ variables shaping behavior. a. interdependent; dependence b. dependence; interdependent c. incremental; interdependent d. interacting; interdependent e. none of the above (d: Difficult; p. 27) 6.

A business owner, with 25 employees, tells employees that they need to be more responsive to customers, coordinate better with international operations, bring new products to market more quickly, work more effectively across functions and so forth. The likelihood of change is: a. right away since the employees will be afraid of losing their jobs. b. quite high since employees have been told to change. c. quite small. d. It could never happen. e. none of the above (c: Moderate; p. 27) 7.

The group ____________ is(are) the shared expectations of how group members ought to behave. a. standards b. changes c. norms d. policy e. association (c: Difficult; p. 27) In Lewin’s view, getting group members to change their behaviors, and having those new behaviors become lasting rather than fleeting, involves breaking a(n) “____________.” a. social habit b. social status c. organizational culture d. group culture e. none of the above (a: Difficult; p. 28) 8.

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9.

Based on Lewin, which of the following statements is correct? a. The smaller the social value of a group standard, the greater is the resistance of the individual group member to move away from this level. b. The greater the social value of a group standard, the smaller is the resistance of the individual group member to move away from this level. c. The greater the social value of a group standard, the greater is the resistance of the individual group member to move away from this level. d. The smaller the social value of a group standard, the smaller is the resistance of the individual group member to move away from this level. e. none of the above (c: Difficult; p. 27) ____________ refer(s) to a powerful intervention designed to “open the shell of complacency” and “unfreeze” the existent equilibrium. a. Change management b. Leadership style c. Social habits d. Emotional stir-up e. Social change (d: Difficult; p. 28) 10.

To be effective, a change leader’s initial task is to create ____________. a. behavior b. characteristics c. business processes d. relationship e. unfreezing (e: Moderate; p. 29) 11.

12.

____________ refers to members of the group that move from one behavior to another. a. Freezing b. Relocating c. Moving d. Unfreezing e. none of the above (c: Moderate; p. 29) Based on Lewin’s Change Model, moving is found in which stage? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 e. Stage 5 (b: Easy; p. 29) 13.

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Based on Lewin’s Change Model, the order of stages are: a. unfreezing, moving, refreezing. b. moving, refreezing, unfreezing. c. unfreezing, freezing, moving. d. moving, unfreezing, refreezing. e. none of the above (a: Difficult; p. 29) 14.

15.

Company X recently went through a process of major and shared diagnoses of their internal barriers in order to improve performance. Based on Lewin’s Change Model, this is in ____________. a. Stage 1: unfreezing b. Stage 1: refreezing c. Stage 2: moving d. all of the above e. none of the above (a: Moderate; p. 29) 16.

Jake Inc. recently trained employees for newly required skills. This is an example of Lewin’s Change Model, in ____________. a. Stage 1:unfreezing b. Stage 1: refreezing c. Stage 2: moving d. all of the above e. none of the above (c: Moderate; p. 29)

17.

Company X recently merged with Company Y. After extensive discussions with employees from both companies, a new direction was identified. The executives decided to create a new structure to reinforce this move. This is an example of Lewin’s Change Model, in which stage? a. Stage 1: unfreezing b. Stage 3: refreezing c. Stage 2: moving d. all of the above e. none of the above (b: Moderate; p. 30)

18.

____________ offers a complex and systemic perspective on how and why people behave and organizations operate. a. Organizational behavior b. Organizational development c. Organizational change d. Organizational policy e. none of the above (b: Moderate; p. 30)

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19.

Which of the following is correct? a. Organizational development provides particular insight into the process of changing people’s behavior and the organization’s operations. b. Organizational behavior provides particular insight into the process of changing people’s behavior and the organization’s operations. c. Organizational processes provide particular insight into the process of changing people’s behavior and the organization’s operations. d. Organizational culture provides particular insight into the process of changing people’s behavior and the organization’s operations. e. none of the above (a: Difficult; p. 31) 20.

Organizational development sees the organization as an open system. This means: a. all policies, practices, or actions can be understood alone. b. all policies, practices, or actions cannot be understood alone. c. no individual policy, practice, or action can be understood alone. d. individual policy, practice, or action cannot be understood alone. e. both C and D (c: Difficult; p. 30) 21.

The effectiveness of organizations will be determined by a state of congruence between people, process, structure, values, and environment. Such underlying assumption is based on which organizational development perspectives? a. system perspective b. alignment perceptive c. participation perspective d. teamwork perspective e. problem-solving perspective (a: Moderate; p. 32) 22.

Which of the following is NOT a part of the stakeholder perspective? a. Outstanding performance requires that organizational leaders commit time, energy and resources to balancing the expectations of multiple stakeholders. b. Stakeholders have a legitimate claim to the performance of the organization. c. Organizations do not sit apart from stakeholders – they must play a citizenship role. d. A and B only e. B and C only f. A, B, and C (f: Moderate; p. 33)

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23.

____________ is a state of congruence between organizational subelements and their environment. a. Freezing b. Alignment c. Evolution d. Process development e. none of the above (b: Moderate; p. 32) 24.

____________ take(s) as a starting point for change the work that needs to be undertaken in order for a unit to achieve outstanding performance. a. Task assignment b. Shifts in organizational effectiveness c. Performance perspective d. Task alignment e. none of the above (d: Difficult; p. 35) 25.

Which of the following is NOT considered to be a part of the external environment based on the Congruence Model of Effectiveness? a. company’s financial position b. labor market c. government regulations d. customer trends e. none of the above (a: Difficult; p. 32) 26.

In the Congruence Model of Effectiveness, the Internal Context refers to: a. organizational purpose. b. strategy. c. business model. d. organizational design. e. all of the above (e: Moderate; p. 32) 27.

Based on the Congruence Model of Effectiveness, for an organization to be effective, the three elements that need to be congruent are: a. internal context, organizational processes and understanding leaders. b. internal context, external environment and patterns of employee behavior. c. external environment, organizational development and understanding employees. d. patterns of employee behavior, internal context and internal environment. e. none of the above (b: Difficult; p. 32)

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28. According to Lewin, the ____________ way to motivate an individual to change is to create a sense of ____________ with the ____________. a. best; satisfaction; organization b. worst; satisfaction; organization c. optimum; equilibrium; status quo d. only; disequilibrium; status quo (d: Moderate; p. 26) 29. As the new manager of the sales department, you know full well the urgency of the need to adjust and respond to the challenges of these economic times. You prepare an outstanding PowerPoint presentation for your department that includes sales trends, market figures and a persuasive speech designed to motivate your employees. Which of the following is most likely to happen as a result of your speech? a. Your department performance improves drastically and you receive a promotion. b. Life continues as it always has – nothing changes. c. Your subordinates throw paper balls at each other – one loses track and hits you. d. The bulb in the project burns out. (b: Moderate; p. 27) 30. Which of the following statements is NOT true about organizational change leadership? a. Leaders are often surprised by their employees’ complacency. b. Leaders often forget that telling their employees about the need to change is not sufficient to make change happen. c. Leaders often underestimate the force of inertia acting on group members. d. Leaders realize that employees will change once they are told about the obvious distress and problems in the organization. e. All of the above are correct. (d: Moderate; p. 28) 31. Effective organizational change starts with: a. working to motivate the individual. b. changing the context of individual behavior. c. calling in diagnostic consultants. d. getting funding for the change. (b: Difficult; p. 29) 32. The term “unfreezing” refers to: a. creating a warmer, more personal climate in the organization. b. mutual engagement. c. creating dissatisfaction with the status quo. d. using conflict resolution to resolve longstanding problems in the organization. (c; Moderate; p. 29)

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33. The concept of alignment refers to: a. the degree of congruence or compatibility between and among various elements of a system. b. the lack of connection between personalities and activities of various employees. c. the link between strategy and environment only. d. the link between culture and tasks only. (a: Difficult; p. 32) 34. In managing change, conflict: a. is always a positive force. b. is never a positive force. c. should be avoided at all cost. d. should be managed collaboratively. (d: Difficult; p. 34) 35. Which of the following is NOT one of the contributions of Organizational Development to the change implementation process? a. Create an inclusive change process, one that builds ownership and commitment. b. Manage the entire process, in particular, the interface between interdependent factors. c. Make sure to exclude all stakeholders, except executive decision makers. d. Develop a long-term perspective on change. (c: Moderate; p. 34) 36. ____________ is a programmatic change in which specific programs are used as the centerpiece of implementation. a. Content-driven change b. Organization development c. Process-driven change d. Task alignment (a: Moderate; p. 35) 37. ____________ is an approach to change that emphasizes the methods of conceiving, introducing and institutionalizing new behaviors. a. Content-driven change b. Organization development c. Process-driven change d. Task alignment (c: Moderate; p. 35)

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38. In process-driven change, ____________ is used as a ____________ rather than a ____________ of new behaviors. a. content; driver; reinforcer b. process; reinforcer; driver c. content; reinforcer; driver d. driver; content; process

(c: Difficult; p. 35) 39. Following an executive retreat, your company announces the rollout of a comprehensive restructuring of organizational assessment and reward, using a wellknown balanced scorecard package developed by consulting Firm A+. This is an example of: a. process-driven change. b. inoculation-based change. c. organizational development. d. enhanced assessment. e. content-driven change. (e: Difficult ; p. 36) 40. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of content-driven change? a. It is both tangible and measurable. b. It is popular. c. It is standardized. d. It is based on shared diagnosis. (d: Moderate; p. 36) 41. Which of the following best describes the alternative to content-driven change? a. employee involvement b. employee involvement and task alignment c. task alignment d. measurement and assessment (b: Difficult; p. 40) 42. Change implementation should start with shared diagnosis because: a. it is cheaper to have everyone work on it. b. it is faster to do it together. c. it creates agreement about the requirements for change. d. diagnostic processes frequently contain errors. (c: Difficult; p. 41) 43. People alignment is the process of: a. reimbursing employees for visits to the chiropractor. b. matching the attributes of employees with company strategy. c. aligning performance with strategy. d. assisting people with new skills sets. (b: Difficult; p. 45)

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44. Which of the following is NOT a part of people alignment? a. assessment of employees b. recruitment and promotion c. removal and replacement d. retraining (d: Difficult; p. 45) 45. The sequential model of effective change implementation consists of: a. redesign, help, people alignment, systems and structures. b. shared diagnosis and mutual engagement. c. unfreezing, moving, refreezing.

d. A and B e. A, B and C (d: Moderate; p. 43) 46. Mutual engagement at the core requires: a. mutuality b. reciprocity c. advocacy d. inquiry e. all of the above f. none of the above (e: Moderate; p. 47) 47. Mutual engagement is best described as: a. a process of building dialogue and commitment among stakeholders. b. romantic relationships between two or more partners. c. the alignment of all processes and structures in the organization. d. the willingness to question assumptions and ideas. (a: Moderate; p. 46) 48. Which of the following is NOT an implementation trap? a. starting with mutual engagement b. starting without shared diagnosis c. starting with people alignment d. starting with helping people

(a: Difficult; p. 48) 49. Implementation traps are best described as: a. applying the right tools at the wrong time. b. applying the wrong tools at the right time. c. applying the wrong tools at the wrong time. d. not being able to find your tools because you’re trapped. (a: Moderate; p. 48)

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50. Using the model of effective change implementation, beginning a change process with a new structure, such as a balanced scorecard measuring system, would be considered: a. an accurate, content-driven move. b. an implementation trap. c. a process-driven approach. d. an example of task alignment. (b: Difficult; p. 48)

TRUE / FALSE To break the “social habits” that support current patterns of behaviors, effective implementation needs to start with dissatisfaction, disequilibrium and discomfort. (True: Easy; p. 26) 51.

52. To be ineffective is to create unfreezing. (False: Difficult; p. 28) 53.

Schein suggested that to truly unfreeze behavior, we must accept the [disconfirming] information and connect it to something we care about. (True: Easy; p. 29) 54.

Moving refers to members of a group who move from one set of behaviors to another. (True: Moderate; p. 29) 55.

Based on Lewin, to create sustainable behavioral change, organizational leaders need to work both on the individual and the contextual level. (True: Moderate; p. 30) 56.

Open system is a kind of organism that exists in constant interaction with its external environment and between its own internal elements. (True: Moderate; p. 30) 57. The three stages in Lewin’s model are unfreezing, moving and refreezing. (True: Easy; p. 29) 58. Poor organizational performance will create an urgent need to change within a company. (False: Easy; p. 28) 59. To break the social habits that support existing patterns of behavior, start with creating dissatisfaction and discomfort. (True: Moderate; p. 28)

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60. Telling employees why they need to change will not make them change. (True: Easy; p. 27) 61. In order to implement change, focus on individual behaviors first and then on group norms. (False: Moderate; p. 30) 62. The underlying assumption for the systems perspective is that outstanding performance depends on interactions between and among the multiple elements of organization; between the people, processes, structure, and values of the organization; and between the organization and its external environment. (True: Moderate; p. 31) 63. The underlying assumption for the alignment perceptive is that the effectiveness of organizations will be determined by a state of congruence between people, process, structure, values and environment. (True: Moderate; p. 32) 64. Based on the congruence model, organizational effectiveness relies on the alignment between the internal context, the external environment and the patterns of employee behavior. (True: Easy; p. 32) 65. The organization’s internal context refers to patterns of employee behavior. (False: Easy; p. 32) 66. The organization’s external environment refers to the culture and climate of the organization. (False: Easy; p. 32) 67. Because organizational employees get paid, they are not considered to be a part of the stakeholders of the organization. (False: Easy; p. 33) 68. The multiple stakeholder perspective represents in part an ethical view of the role of business organizations in the community. (True: Moderate; p. 33) 69. The underlying assumption for the stakeholder perceptive is that to achieve outstanding performance, organizational leaders seek to create a network of interdependent relationships that provide the basis for trust, cooperation, and collective action. (False: Moderate; p. 33)

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70. Top managers have far greater ability to diagnose business and performance problems than to engage in psychological or therapeutic analysis of individuals. (True: Easy; p. 41) 71. Individuals may view change as a threat, fearing it will adversely affect them in some significant way. (True: Easy; p. 40) 72. Content-driven change creates an organizational climate in which employees will be motivated to adopt new behaviors consistent with the strategic direction of the organization. (False: Moderate; p. 39) 73. Task alignment combines the insights of OD with a bottom-line focus on performance. (True: Easy; p. 39) 74. Content-driven change is both tangible and measurable. (True: Easy; p. 38) 75. Schein said that disconfirming information is irrelevant to change. Ignoring such information will decrease resistance. (False: Moderate; p. 29) 76. A task-aligned approach to change implementation motivates people to change their behaviors by focusing on the big picture and feelings of connectedness. (False: Moderate; p. 40) 77. Kicking off change implementation with shared diagnosis builds dissatisfaction with the status quo. (True: Moderate; p. 42) 78.

Asking employees to enact new behaviors can be supported by organizational help in learning new skills. (True: Easy; p. 45) 79.

Effective change implementation does not require new skills and competencies on the part of the organization’s employees. (False: Easy; p. 45) 80.

Altering formal organizational systems and structures must come at the back end of a change implementation process to reinforce new behaviors. (True: Moderate; p. 46)

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81.

If there is mutual engagement, people will trust each other which means they will not question the other person’s position. (False: Difficult; p. 47)

ESSAY QUESTIONS 82.

What are the two key concepts proposed by Lewin? Because an individual’s behavior is a function both of that person’s psychology and his environmental context, the most effective way to create lasting behavioral change is to change that environmental context. Before behavioral change can occur, let alone become institutionalized, forces must be exerted to create disequilibrium in the status quo. (p. 29)

83.

Discuss Lewin’s approach to behavior (including the formula). Lewin’s approach to behavior explained the influence of context with a simple formula: B = ƒ (P, E). Behavior (B) is a function of the person herself (P) and the environmental context (E) in which that person operates. “In this equation,” wrote Lewin, “the person (P) and his environment (E) have to be viewed as variables which are mutually dependent upon each other. To understand or to predict behavior, the person and his environment have to be considered as one constellation of interdependent factors.” The person and his context, in that view, are interdependent variables shaping behavior. (p. 28)

84.

Explain the concept of unfreezing, moving and refreezing. To be effective, a change leader’s initial task is to create what Lewin called unfreezing—that is all forms for learning and change start with some form of dissatisfaction or frustration. The second stage of Lewin’s model involves moving, whereby members of the group move from one set of behaviors to another. Those new behaviors must become permanent, for at least a desired period of time. That is the refreezing stage where a newly created equilibrium “is made relatively secure against change. Refreezing is the stage, where social system components become congruent with, and thus support, intended change in one or more components.” (p. 30)

85.

Explain the field of organizational development. The field of organizational development (OD) soon coalesced around emergent learnings from behavioral and social sciences to inform approaches to planned organizational change. There are 10 key perspectives and assumptions that underlie the field. OD offers a complex and systemic perspective on how and why people behave and organizations operate. For that reason, OD provides particular insight into the process of changing people’s behavior and organizations’ operations. Three insights in particular help advance an understanding of effective change implementation: organizations as open systems, multiple stakeholders, and effective management of conflict. (p. 30-34)

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86.

Identify the 10 perspectives identified in organizational development and the relevant underlying assumptions. Systems perspective

Outstanding performance depends on interactions between and among the multiple elements of the organization; between the people, processes, structure, and values of the organization; and between the organization and its external environment.

Alignment perceptive

The effectiveness of organizations will be determined by a state of congruence between people, process, structure, values, and environment.

Participation perspective

People will become more committed to implementing solutions if they have been involved in the problemsolving process.

Social capital perspective To achieve outstanding performance, organizational leaders seek to create a network of interdependent relationships that provides the basis for trust, cooperation, and collective action. Teamwork perspective

Accepting shared purpose and responsibility for interdependent tasks enhances coordination, commitment, and creativity and supports outstanding performance. Multiple stakeholder perspective Outstanding performance requires that organizational leaders balance the expectations of multiple stakeholders: shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, host community, labor unions, trade associations, governments, etc. Problem-solving perspective Conflicts over task issues can increase the quality of decisions if they occur in an environment of collaboration and trust. Open communications perspective Open and candid communication, especially upward in the hierarchy, creates the opportunity for learning and development while building trust and collaboration. Evolution/ revolution perspective Organizations must develop competencies to engage in both incremental (evolutionary) and fundamental

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(revolutionary) change. Process facilitation perspective Individuals who reside outside of the organizational hierarchy can become both facilitators and teachers of effective implementation processes in partnership with organizational members. (p. 31) 87. Describe the Congruence Model of Effectiveness. This model suggests that effective organizations work on aligning 3 key elements: the internal context of the organization (purpose, strategy, business model, organizational design), the external environment (stakeholder expectations, labor market, technology shifts, government, etc.) and patterns of employee behavior (roles, responsibilities, interactions). (p. 32) 88. Explain why content-driven change is popular yet often fails. Content-driven change is very popular because it is quick, easy, standardized and imposed by top management. It often fails, however, because it gives inadequate attention to the process of change and fails to build commitment, involvement and alignment. (p. 37) 89. Describe Spector’s sequential model of effective change implementation. This model begins by advocating for process-driven change which argues that change will be more effective if it is built on involvement and commitment, and if it focuses on aligning employee tasks with the strategic direction of the organization. To build commitment, the model advocates beginning with shared diagnosis so that all parties will agree on the need to change and the direction for change. Also, the model advocates mutual engagement in all stages, which in turn requires mutuality, reciprocity, advocacy and inquiry. The model itself has 4 steps: 1. Redesigning roles, responsibilities and relationships and key in this step is the idea of task alignment. 2. Help which involves offering training and mentoring to employees in order to assist in the process of learning new behaviors. 3. People alignment which deals with assessment, promotion, replacement and recruitment as ways to make sure the people are in the proper place to support the changes. 4. Systems and structures which deals with aligning reporting relationships, compensation, information and measurement and control to ensure that all of these elements effectively reinforce the new behaviors and activities. The model is a sequential model and cautions against implementation traps, which include switching the steps in the model and skipping the essential requirements of shared diagnosis and mutual engagement (p.43). Scenario-Based Questions You are the CEO in a large and trendy interior design firm, servicing both corporate and

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wealthy individual clients. Your organization’s excellent reputation is built on the edgy design offered by your talented and creative designers. Recently, however, you have started to lose clients due to complaints about customer service. It seems that the designers of late have become more interested in their own individual reputation and fame than in the clients’ needs. Also, your firm has received negative press for its unwillingness to embrace green and sustainable design standards. Your top executive team has decided to make client service the new corporate priority and it has called a meeting to announce this new strategy. 90. Using Spector’s model, this meeting should focus on: a. clearly outlining the new strategy and its implications for people and structures. b. developing a step-by-step process for measuring client service. c. aligning the internal, external and employee environment. d. involving everybody in shared diagnosis first. (d: Difficult; p. 41) 91. Your employees are not happy with your announcement about the new strategy. While they realize that there are issues with customer service, they question the top executives’ decision to make service the new priority, arguing that a focus on service will hurt the quality of their design. Your response is: a. to explain that the firm has lost many clients and immediate action is vital. b. to engage in discussion and dialogue because motivation and commitment is essential. c. to observe the most vocal opponents and plan a firing strategy. d. to move along as planned, keeping focused on the end goal. (b: Difficult; p. 46) 92. One of the options for your new strategy is a program in customer service training. You have seen this program in action at one of your competitors and it worked beautifully there. You decide: a. to purchase this program because it is ready to go and it will give you some focus and structure in the change process. b. to purchase this program because it worked well for your competitor and you must keep up with changes in the environment. c. to work within the company to develop your own program for customer service recognizing that there are no ready-made solutions. d. none of the above (c: Moderate; p. 48)

Test bank for implementing organizational change theory into practice 2nd edition by bert spector  

Product details Language: English ISBN-10: 0136074286 ISBN-13: 978-0136074281 9780136074281...

Test bank for implementing organizational change theory into practice 2nd edition by bert spector  

Product details Language: English ISBN-10: 0136074286 ISBN-13: 978-0136074281 9780136074281...

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