China’s Accession to WTO The Analysis based on Power Transition Theory Abstract This paper examines China’s accession to WTO (World Trade Organization) through power transition theory. According to the power transition theory, some states that belong to the category of great powers are dissatisfied with the current international order as their national power is increased through industrialization. These states challenge the dominant nation, which leads the international order. Keeping world peace or the stability of the current order depends on whether the tension between a challenger and a supreme power is controlled or not. This theory explains the conflicts between a challenger, China, and a dominant nation, the United States, in the issue of China’s accession to WTO. Since the Republic of China had developed rapidly through ‘reform and open policy’, the tension in the U.S.China trade had increased. Thus, China was dissatisfied with the fact that it was excluded from the WTO system. The United States decided to deal with China’s dissatisfaction; hence, 15 years of negotiation for China’s accession to the WTO was launched. During the negotiation, the tension between two nations arose over the surface, but finally, China was able to participate in the WTO in 2001. This paper is significant for two reasons. Firstly, China’s accession to the WTO was a symbolic event in the U.SChina trade, which is the most important issue in the power relationship between the two nations. Secondly, it proves the tool of the ‘power transition theory’ that enhances the understanding of the political implication of China’s accession to the WTO. Although power transition theory has its own theoretical limitations, it explains that embedding China in the international trade order controlled by the United States is the question of not only economic gain and loss but also power politics. This is the main argument of this paper. The paper consists of three parts: 1) the summary of power transition theory; 2) its application and analysis for the case of China’s accession to WTO; 3) argument; and 4) conclusion.