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Computers Are Your Future

Š 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Computers Are Your Future

Chapter 1 Computers & You

Š 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

What You Will Learn . . .  Define the word computer and name the four basic operations  Describe the main components of a computer  Hardware  Software

 Provide examples of hardware devices  Explore the information-processing cycle

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

What You Will Learn . . .  Major categories of computers and various types of computers  Advantages and disadvantages of computer use  Risks of using hardware and software  Ethical and societal impact of using computers  How computers affect employment  Be a responsible computer user

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Computers & You

Workers with computer and Internet skills tend to make more money and have more satisfying careers than workers without such skills. Š 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Understanding the Computer: Basic Definitions Computer – A machine that performs the four basic operations of the information-processing cycle:  input  processing  output  storage

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Understanding the Computer: Basic Definitions

Hardware

Software

Computer system – A collection of related components that are designed to work together  A system includes hardware and software.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Understanding the Computer: Basic Definitions

Program – A list of instructions that tell the computer how to perform the four basic operations to accomplish a task Š 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Understanding the Computer: Basic Definitions Software – All the programs that give the computer its instructions Two categories of software: System software

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Application software

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Input: Getting Data into the Computer

 Data – Unorganized raw materials made up of words, numbers, images, or sounds  The first operation: input • Input devices enable the user to enter data into the computer. • The computer accepts data. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Input Devices Keyboard

Microphone – speech-recognition

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Mouse – pointing device

Digital Cameras

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Processing: Transforming Data into Information DATA IN

INFORMATION OUT

The second operation: processing

 Computers transform data into information.  Processing circuitry:  Central processing unit (CPU)  Random access memory (RAM)

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Processing Devices Motherboard Expansion Card

Central Processing Unit – CPU

Random Access Memory– RAM

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Memory Hierarchy

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Computer (Old Days)

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Plugboards

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Output: Displaying Information

The third operation: output  The computer shows the results of the processing operation in a way people can understand.  Output devices show the results of processing operations.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Output Devices Monitor Printer

Speakers

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Storage: Holding Programs and Data for Future Use

The fourth operation: storage ďƒ˜ The computer saves the data or output so that it can be used again later. ďƒ˜ Storage devices hold all programs and data that the computer uses. Š 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

CD/DVD Drive

Storage Devices

Hard Drive

Floppy Disk Drive Zip Drive

Jaz Drive

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Micro Drive

Tape Drive

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Communications: Moving Data between Computers A fifth operation: communications  Moving data within the computer or between computers  Communications devices – Enable computers to connect to a computer network  Network – Two or more computer systems that are connected  Modem – A device that enables the computer to access other computers

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Communications Devices Modem Network Interface Card – NIC

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

The Information Processing Cycle In Action  Input – You enter text in a word processing program. • You run the program’s spell checker program.

 Processing – The computer checks and compares all words entered with a list of correctly spelled words.  Output – The computer provides a list of apparent misspellings.

Compoters A computer is a machine that perfirms four basic operations: input, processing, output, and storage. Together, these four operations are called the information proceesing cycle.

• You correct the spelling in your document.

 Storage – You save the revised document to a disk.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Other Examples?  Work in group

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Ethical Debates Digital piracy is using unlicensed software or illegally sharing music or movies.  When you purchase software, you purchase a license, not the actual software.  Installing it on another computer is illegal and unethical.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Digital Piracy  How do we stop it?

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Types of Computers Computers for Individuals Desktop – PC, iMac

Notebook – Laptop

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Personal Digital Assistant

All-in-One

Workstation

Internet Appliance

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Types of Computers Computers for Organizations  Servers are not designed for individuals. They make programs available for network users.  Minicomputers handle the computing for small corporations.

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 Mainframes handle gigantic processing jobs for large corporations or agencies.  Supercomputers are ultra-fast and handle huge amounts of scientific data. Slide 28


Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Computers, Society, & You Computers can work with all types of data. With a computer you can:  Purchase CDs from an online store  Organize music collections  Research music reviews  Send e-mail to friends and family

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Computers, Society, & You Computers help us be more productive and creative:  Use a word processor to create a term paper  Facilitate collaboration  Facilitate learning with computer-based study guides  Internet research

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Advantages

Disadvantages

Speed

Information overload

Memory

Expensive

Storage

Slower than RAM

Reliability and accuracy

Only applies to hardware, not software

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Don’t Be Intimidated by Hardware

 People feel threatened by computers because they fear computers are too complicated.  Computers should be treated in the same way as any other electrical device.

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Maintain a Safe Working Environment  Do not overload electrical outlets.  Do not position hardware where it can fall.  Leave space for proper ventilation.  Check that cords are fastened securely.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Ergonomics Science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers

Repetitive strain injuries ďƒ  long-term disability

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Ergonomics Help to prevent injuries from computer use:  Special keyboards can prevent carpal tunnel syndrome.  Chairs can help improve your posture.  Anti-glare screens can be used on computer monitors.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Recognize the Risks of Using Flawed Software

 All programs contain errors.  All computer use entails a certain level of risk. • Bug – An error or defect in software or hardware that causes a program to malfunction © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

ATMs

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Software Bugs • ATM: 90,000 lines of code • IRS program: 100 million lines of code • Average 14 to 17 errors per thousand lines of code • Effect on • Mission-critical systems • Safety-critical systems

• Example • 1985-1987 -- Therac-25 medical accelerator: at least 5 died © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Take Ethics Seriously  Ethics is the behavior associated with moral beliefs.  Computer ethics deals with computer-related moral dilemmas and principles for computer professionals.  Responsible computing requires an understanding of both the benefits of computer use and the potential harm of computer misuse.

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Examples of Computer Misuse?  Work in group

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Societal Impacts of Computer Use The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires schools to provide computer access for people with disabilities.  Speech recognition software for visually impaired  Special input devices for motor impaired  Stroke victims: independent lives

Inexpensive training and learning opportunities © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

The Effect of Computers on Employment  Skilled workers earn more wages, but . . .  Computer guided robots take over many manufacturing and repetitive jobs  automation  Structural unemployment results when advancing technology makes an entire job category obsolete.  Outsourcing

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Being a Responsible Computer User  Be considerate of others sharing the same connection.  Dispose of old computers properly.  Internet overuse may promote unhealthy behavior?

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Summary

 A computer is a machine that performs the operations of input, processing, output, and storage.  A computer system is a collection of related components.  The information processing cycle consists of the input (keyboard, mouse), processing (microprocessor), output (printer, monitor), and storage operations (hard disk, floppy disk). © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Summary (continued)  Spell checking is an example of information processing.  Two types of computers: • Computers for individuals • Computers for organizations

 Responsible computing requires an understanding of advantages and disadvantages of using the computer.  Using hardware and software involves some risk.

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers Are Your Future Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Summary (continued)  Computers can be misused or used to benefit individuals and society.  Computers create new job opportunities, but also shift the labor demand toward skilled workers.  Being a responsible computer user means knowing how your computer and Internet usage affects you and others.

© 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Chapter 01