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Art is not what you see, But what you make others see. - Edgar degas


1 RESEARCH 12

5 ACKNOWLEDGE -MENT 39

PROJECT DESCRIPTION 1

3 EXPLORATION 22

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2 ANALYSIS 16

6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 40

INTRODUCTION 4

4 FINAL EXECUTION 26

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How Your Eyes Trick Your Mind? Look closer at optical illusions, says Melissa Hogeboom, and they can reveal how you truly perceive reality.


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Look closer at optical illusions, says Melissa Hogeboom, and they can reveal how you truly perceive reality.


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WHAT IS ILLUSION ? Nothing is as it seems.Something that deceives by producing a false or misleading impression of reality. Something which is not real, but looks real. Visual, or optical, illusions show us that our minds tend to make assumptions about the world – and what you think you see is often not the truth. Throughout history, curious minds have questioned why our eyes are so easily fooled by these simple drawings. Illusions, we have found, can reveal everything from how we process time and space to our experience of consciousness. Something that deceives by producing a false or misleading impression of reality.

EARLY ILLUSIONS Illusions have a long history, going as far back as the ancient Greeks. In 350BC, Aristotle noted that “our senses can be trusted but they can be easily fooled”. He noticed that if you watch a waterfall and shift your gaze to static rocks, the rocks appear to move in the opposite direction of the flow of water, an effect we now call “motion aftereffect” or the waterfall illusion.

Tracking the flow of the water seems to “wear out” certain neurons in the brain as they adapt to the motion. When you then shift your gaze to the rocks, other competing neurons over-compensate, causing the illusion of movement in the other direction. In the 1960-70s illusions inspired a style called optical art, or “Op-Art”. Victor Vasarely is widely regarded as the father of this movement, and some of his work is studied by scientists today. For example, research using his “nested squares illusion”, similar to the image below, suggests that the brain identifies shapes using corners rather than lines. All of this research points to one thing: our visual system remains too limited to tackle all of the information our eyes take in. “For that our brain would need to be bigger than a building, and still then it wouldn’t be enough,” says Martinez-Conde.


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May be you have seen something that puzzled you so much that you had to rub your eyes and look again? Chances are you may have been tricked by an Illusion.


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HISTORY OF ILLUSIONS

THE RISE OF OP ART

Illusions have a long history, going as far back as the ancient Greeks.In 350BC, Aristotle noted that “our senses can be trusted but they can be easily fooled”. He noticed that if you watch a waterfall and shift your gaze to static rocks, the rocks appear to move in the opposite direction of the flow of water, an effect we now call “motion aftereffect” or the waterfall illusion.Tracking the flow of the water seems to “wear out” certain neurons in the brain as they adapt to the motion. When you then shift your gaze to the rocks, other competing neurons over-compensate, causing the illusion of movement in the other direction.

In the 60s, artists such as Vasarely and Bridget Riley developed an interest in Op Art, painting abstract images. They painted vibrations, hidden images, flashing, and other abstract patterns. Optical illusions have an illustrious history that begun with the Greek philosophers and made a lasting impression on painters, psychologists, illustrators, researchers, and us.

The real boom in studying illusions began in the 19th Century. A school of scientists who studied perception – among many other things – created simple illusions to shed light on how the brain perceives patterns and shapes, which kick-started the early theories on how our eyes can play tricks on our mind.

Aristotle was just as confused as everyone else, as he believed that both philosophers were right, but to a certain degree. He agreed with Protagoras’s assumption that people need to rely on their senses to receive a correct image of reality. Later, he added that people’s five senses could easily be fooled into believing something that wasn’t there.Still, the concept of optical illusions wasn’t clear and the debate on them continued. Several different researchers and philosophers began to ponder over the answer to the mystery of optical illusions. One of the philosophers that became fascinated with optical illusion was Plato. Plato, a Greek philosopher, said that the trickery and the reality of the optical illusions were due to both the mind and the senses.


ART IS NOT WHAT YOU SEE, BUT WHAT YOU MAKE OTHERS SEE. - EDGAR DEGAS


WHAT WE SEE DEPENDS MAINLY ON WHAT WE LOOK FOR. - JOHN LUBBOCK


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RESEARCH Primary Audience - KIDS (10-18 YRS) Secondary Audience - AMATEUR DESIGNERS PLACE - NATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER, DELHI

WHY DO THEY NEED IT? - For better learning of science and also for entertainment purpose. - It will introduce kids to science in many interesting ways. - Kids love trying out all the different demonstrational displays.

THE MAIN AIM OF THIS SPACE : This gallery seeks to escape from the trap of text bookish appproach of learning by the method of keep it simple – make it fun. A whole world of wonder and amazement which waits the visitors with interactive space Look closer at optical illusions, says Melissa Hogenboom, and they can reveal how you truly perceive reality.

Visual, or optical, illusions show us that our minds tend to make assumptions about the world – and what you think you see is often not the truth. Throughout history, curious minds have questioned why our eyes are so easily fooled by these simple drawings. Illusions, we have found, can reveal everything from how we process time and space to our experience of consciousness. The real boom in studying illusions began in the 19th Century. A school of scientists who studied perception – among many other things – created simple illusions to shed light on how the brain perceives patterns and shapes, which kick-started the early theories on how our eyes can play tricks on our mind. The Ebbinghaus illusion, for example, revealed that our brain makes judgements about size using adjacent objects – and this can be manipulated. The orange circles here are actually the same size.


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THE HERMAN GRID ILLUSION We’re often told that seeing is believing, but when it comes to matters of vision, our eyes have a habit of deceiving us. For centuries, people have been fascinated with optical illusions and eye trick, and with good reason: While they’re fun to look at — often challenging us to see things in new ways — they also reveal a great deal about how the brain interprets what we see and shapes our perception of reality. Research on optical illusions highlights one major point: that our visual system is too limited to accurately process all of the information that our eyes take in, so it works on the basis of the most likely interpretation. On rare occasions, the brain interprets wrongly, causing us to perceive something inaccurately — an optical illusion. From straight lines appearing crooked to still images moving on the screen, here are some of the most well-known optical illusions, along with scientific explanations of why they occur.

THE IMPOSSIBLE PENROSE TRIANGLE

The idea of the impossible triangle is based on a drawing originally created by physicist Roger Penrose in 1954. As we view the image, we flip back and forth between the equally possible perspectives of the object, which, when considered together, simply couldn’t exist.

Optical illusion. (Circles sometimes seem to be black) The Herman Grid illusion was first reported by German physiologist Ludimar Hermann in 1870. As you look at the image, you’ll notice that dark dots quickly appear and disappear at the intersections between the grids. However, when you look directly at an intersection, the dot seems to vanish. The explanation behind this illusion has been the subject of debate for years, with many claiming it’s the result of “lateral inhibition“— the complex way the cells at the back of the retina respond to black and white.


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THE ZÖLLNER ILLUSION

Optical illusion – parallel lines made from black and white pillows The Zöllner illusion, discovered by German astrophysicist Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner in 1860, contains a series of horizontal lines crossed with either overlapping short lines or black and white cubes. As you look at the image, the horizontal lines appear to slope, as if they will eventually collide. In reality, the lines are perfectly parallel to each other.

Optical illusion – parallel lines

There are a number of possible explanations for this illusion. One is that the angles between the short and long lines create an impression of depth, with one line appearing closer and the other further away. Another explanation is that the brain tries to increase the angle between the short and long lines, which makes it appear as if the lines are bending toward and away from each other.

MOTION ILLUSIONS

Chaotic

Although our brain processes these movements as a smooth succession, sometimes they can fool us into thinking that still objects are moving. The rotating snakes illusion above does just that. The image is full of contrasting shapes and colors, composed in such a way that it switches on our motion sensors and tricks our mind.

The optical illusion of movement in the form of fluctuating pink and lilac polygons

Motion illusions rely on the rapid movements called “saccades” that our eyes make as we view something. To experience them, gently place your finger on your eyelid and look around the room. You should feel your eye making dart-like movements, as if if taking a series of snapshots.


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EXISTING ILLUSIONS AT SCIENCE MUSEUM, NEW DELHI


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ANALYSIS

(Based on survey)

Do you know what an Illusion is? If yes, according to you what is it?

28 %

72 %

No Yes

Do your eyes ever play tricks on you?

20 %

No Yes 80 %


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Have you ever seen something that puzzled you so much that you had to rub your eyes and look again?

20 %

80 %

Never Sometimes

Do you enjoy watching optical illusions?

25 %

75%

No Yes


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Do you enjoy being fooled by these illusions?

10 %

90 %

No Yes

Would you like to visit an interactive space at a science museum for a better and interesting way of learning science?

30 %

70 %

No Yes


Our Perceptions Are Fallible. We Sometimes See What Isn’t There. We Are Prey To Optical Illusions. Occasionally We Hallucinate. - Carl Sagan


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EXPLORATIONS


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FINAL EXECUTION I have created a walk through and a maze in Delhi Science Museum which has moving illusions on its walls with lights and music, which will attract the target audience to interact and know more about illusions. This gallery seeks to escape from the trap of text bookish appproach of learning by the method of keep it simple – make it fun. A whole world of wonder and amazement which waits the visitors with interactive space.


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DANCING SQUARES

ILLUSION ON WALLS (WALK THROUGH)


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ILLUSIONS ON FLOORING OF THE WALK THROUGH


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WALL GRAPHICS FOR MAZE


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VIEW OFTHE MAZE


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ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE MAZE


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TOP VIEW OF THE MAZE


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Acknowledgement The final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and support from many people. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I am highly grateful to my college; Pearl Academy, Delhi, and my mentors; Mr. Manas Barua, Mr.Tajinder Singh for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and also for their support. Also, I would like to thank Ms. JyotsanaRaghunathan, Ms. Riddhi Manna and Ms. Urvi Khanna for giving feedbacks in all the reviews. I would like to express my special gratitude towards my parents for their co-operation, motivation and encouragement which helped me during this project. My thanks and apprecitions also go to my colleagues in developing the project and people who have happily helped me out with their various skills.


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Bibliography Museum of illusions. 2016. Museum of illusions. [ONLINE] Available at: https://bestmuseum.ru/en. [Accessed 29 November 2016]. This Optical Illusion Art Will Expand Your Mind | Reader’s Digest. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.rd.com/culture/optical-illusion-art/. [Accessed 29 November 2016]. Google Search. 2016. ILLUSIONS - Google Search. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.google.co.in/search?newwindow=1&biw= 1517&bih=681&tbm=isch&sa=1&q= ILLUSIONS&oq=ILLUSIONS&gs_l=i mg.3...4006647.4008102.0.4008222.9.7.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0....0...1.1.64. img..9.0.0.YgSJPKO3EY8#imgrc=L5VaZGW0EzICdM%3A. [Accessed 29 November 2016]. These Optical Illusions Trick Your Brain With Science | WIRED. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.wired.com/2014/11/optical-illusion-science/. [Accessed 29 November 2016].Add to My References How your eyes trick your mind. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bbc.com/future/bespoke/story/ 20150130-how-your-eyes-trick-your-mind/. [Accessed 29 November 2016].


Reflective Note The Brief given to us for the project 4 semester was to choose something which interests us the most or that we want to bring a change regarding a particular issue in our society. This made me do the research on the various issues and topics across various fields. During this whole project, I came across to various areas of learning in detail : research methodology , basic knowledge of a space, what graphics will go, how to build a brand, how to think of different collaterals. And the most important part of this project is that i came to learn new softwares; autodesk autocad and autocad 3ds max. This made my project look more practical and industry acceptable.


Sonakshi Mittal Project 4 Level 3 Communication Design


Illusion  
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