Bureaucracy Wednesday, November 09, 2011 9:34 PM
Bureaucracy – 15, 17, 18 - a complex division of power in hierarchical departments (i.e. schools +universities + business +government)
advantages logical for organizing complex society - chain of command: top to bottom (departments) - divide labor among specialists: more productive. - clear line of authority - common goal defining structure, rules, authority - impersonal: ability base; treat clients (aka citizens) equally - productive b/c all work is evaluated modern bureaucracy - fed bureau: career government people - 15 cabinet departments - 60+ independent agencies - about 2000 bureau, division, branch, office, service, gov’t subunits - about 2.1 million people employed by the fed who? - conservationists, other tree huggers - police, accountants, computer engineers, legal secretaries, teachers, attorneys, security, postal, surgeons…anything in private sector how it’s organized - department: big admin unit with lots responsibility o 15 cabinet departments - gov’t corporations: business run by gov’t, not private sector o postal, Tennessee valley authority - independent agencies – narrow focus. o NASA, EPA, CIA - independent regulatory commissions: agency, not big depts. – focus on economy problems o Fed Reserve Board, Security + exchange commissions problems! Congress, Judicial, and prez want to streamline gov’t: get rid of agencies - red tape: too many confuzzled rules before action - waste, inefficient: more often, same assignment to 2+ agencies - lack of evaluation - decentralized authority – fed. vs state, different ideas - vague objectives, different interpretations - lack of funding.
why should we consider the bureaucracy a 4th branch of gov’t if it is flawed?... …because of the power it has.
interest groups to congress info New Section 1 Page 1
interest groups to bureaucracy budget support
interest groups to congress - info - electoral votes - campaign $
interest groups to bureaucracy - budget support - info - research - reinforcement support
congress to interest groups - positive legislation - access - info
bureaucracy to interest groups - info - access - research - enforcing positive legislation
congress to bureaucracy - budget $ - positive legislation - info - access
bureaucracy to congress - info - reinforcement of positive legislation
ISSUE NETWORK spider web of everything.
â€Ś social welfare policy - programs through which the government provides assistance to specific groups o entitlement programs: benefits provided by law regardless of need (Social Security and Medicare) o means-tested programs: benefits qualify through lack of income (Medicaid, Food Stamps, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families/TANF)
what Americans believe - people should take responsibility for themselves - hard work + good luck = most important things for success - government gives more social welfare to the poor* (SS part of welfare) o deserving poor and undeserving poor - majority of welfare recipients are black* (actually mostly white) - social security is a good thing! social security - originally designed to get older people out of workforce during Depression - people think itâ€™s getting out what you put in o that has never been the case - within next 10 years, SS and Medicare will take up half US budget - government take 6.2% of wages, plus matching funds from your employer - money is placed in SS Trust Fund and paid to eligible people - exists cost of living adjustment (aka COLA) - # recipients grow quick, contributors grow slow ($ will run out) o solution: cut benefits or divert funds
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expenditures - payments governments makes to people, aka transfer payments, b/c take from you and transfer to others o SS checks o government pensions o Medicare and Medicaid o food stamps o low interest college loans other social issues - income distribution: how national income is divided among various groups - poverty line: what family of three must earn to have an average standard of living - taxes o progressive: make more pay more o proportional: everyone pay same percentage o regressive: make less pay more (i.e. sales tax) Economic policy…government and money - capitalism: economic system where individuals and corporation own means of production (aka English political culture) - mixed economy: system where government does not control the economy, but is deeply involved in economic decisions (i.e. United States) - communism: an economic system where means of production are commonly owned
2 ways to regulate economy… monetary policy - control amount of money in system – impacts “economic health” - how? o regulate money supply o control inflation o adjust interest rates o adjusting bank reserve requirements - all done by board of governors of federal reserved system (aka the Fed) fiscal policy - monitoring impact of federal budget on the economy - this includes taxes, spending, and borrowing - “champions” of fiscal policy - FDR: democrat, Keynesian economic theory: government should intervene in economy - Reagon: republican, supply-side economic theory: tommuch regulation and taxes hurt economic growth
how the executive influences fiscal policy - president o prepares federal budget o signs/vetoes appropriations and borrowing legislation - Office of Management and Budget/OMB recommends budgetary action how congress influences fiscal policy - passes budget - creates tax and spending legislation - Congressional Budget Office advises on economic policy
government involvement – general economic policy - business and public policy: business lobbies work to keep taxes and regulation low - corporate corruption: antitrust legislation and federal fraud investigation business regulation: patents, copyrights, exports, natural resource usage, transportation New Section 1 Page 3
business regulation: patents, copyrights, exports, natural resource usage, transportation regulation, electronics and computer regulation consumer policy: protecting buyers from unsafe products and false advertisement labor: workersâ€™ rights
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