: TS N O EN TI C C SE ET L N IA E EC C SP OR
The Voice of Military Communications and Computing
Information Warfighter Lt. Gen. William T. Lord Chief of Warfighting Integration Chief Information Officer Air Force
C4ISR August 2009 Volume 13, Issue 7
View From the Hill Rep. Bobby Bright (D-Ala.) PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE PAID ROCKVILLE, MD PERMIT # 2669
Combat Information Transport System ✯ IT Energy Saving Host-Based Security ✯ Information Assurance Technology Assistance Center
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MILITARY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
AUGUST 2009 VOLUME 13 • ISSUE 7
COVER / Q&A View From the Hill Though we have yet to see the digital Pearl Harbor that some have predicted, cyber-attacks on military and civilian networks have shown increasing sophistication in the past decade. By Rep. Bobby Bright
NETCENTS The NETCENTS Record MIT magazine recently reached out to companies serving as prime contractors for the Air Force Network Centric Solutions (NETCENTS) program.
Conglomerate of IT Capabilities
As part of an effort to fundamentally change the ways in which it manages and operates networks, the Air Force is implementing a restructuring of its Combat Information Transport System. By Tom Marlowe
Lieutenant General William T. Lord Chief of Warfighting Integration Chief Information Officer Air Force
DEPARTMENTS 2 Editor’s Perspective 4 Program Notes 5 People
Security from End-point to Enterprise
An initiative originally focused on improving the security of individual computers and other equipment is being transformed into an enterprise-level campaign to strengthen command and control over networks throughout the department. By Harrison Donnelly
19 JTRS Update 22 Data Bytes 42 COTSacopia 43 Calendar, Directory
Powering Down IT
Amid the federal push to cut energy consumption, including of electricity for information technology-related needs, industry is stepping forward with a host of green IT solutions designed to reduce both costs and DoD’s carbon footprint. By Karen E. Thuermer
State of the IA Art The Department of Defense’s Information Assurance Technology Analysis Center is a “super library” of expertise on IA and defensive information operations. By Harrison Donnelly
44 Steven Cooper ForeScout
MILITARY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 13, ISSUE 7
The Voice of Military Communications and Computing EDITORIAL Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly email@example.com Copy Editors Regina Kerrigan firstname.lastname@example.org Diana McGonigle email@example.com Correspondents Adam Baddeley • Peter Buxbaum • Scott Gourley Tom Marlowe • Karen E. Thuermer
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The recent opening of a research and technology application facility near the Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, Kan., is highlighting the growth of an important new model for bringing industry, academia and government together to speed delivery of new capabilities to warfighters through intense collaboration. Sponsored by General Dynamics C4 Systems, the Leavenworth Edge Innovation Center is part of the Edge Innovation Network, which comprises more than 85 members representing a wide range of industries, colleges and universities worldwide. Its goal is to provide a collaborative, open environment that enables members from industry, academia and the government to work together in quickly developing new technologies to meet requirements identified through customers’ direct field experiences. Edge Innovation Centers are also located in Scottsdale, Ariz.; Orlando, Fla.; and Oakdale, U.K. In September, the Vehicle C4ISR Edge Innovation Center is slated to open in Taunton, Mass. Product and technology developments resulting from collaboration at other Edge facilities have included the Soldier Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Receiver, which delivers real-time streaming video directly from multiple unmanned assets into the hands of soldiers on the ground; the Primordial Route Planning Application, a route planning application that automatically determines the fastest or most concealed route; and the Boomerang Shooter Detection and Location System, which enables soldiers to identify and respond to a sniper’s shot within seconds. When Edge members find a gap between a user requirement and members’ products and capabilities, the network issues a call for innovation (CFI). The most recent CFI, for example, seeks high-accuracy keyword speech recognition of approximately 20 different keywords, or combination of keywords, received in Harrison Donnelly broadcasts from commercial and military grade VHF and UHF email@example.com radios. (301) 670-5700
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APPTIS IS DEFENSE For over 18 years Apptis has worked side by side with the DoD to make the networks that sXpport oXr Moint IorFes rXn more eIIeFtiveOy and eIĂ€FientOy 3rovidinJ innovative netFentriF enJineerinJ Ior voiFe video and data serviFes to D,6A the 3entaJon and &2&20s oXr team keeps the DoD stronJ FonneFted and seFXre APPTIS IS DEFENSE. APPTIS IS SERVICES.
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Flagship Exercise Breaks New Ground Combined Endeavor (CE) 09, the world’s largest communication interoperability exercise, will be held in September featuring several firsts for the annual event. CE 09 is a flagship communications exercise highlighting EUCOM’s Strategy of Active Security. This year, 40 nations crossing two unified commands—EUCOM and CENTCOM—and three continents with more than 1,200 participants will conduct approximately 1,000 communication information systems interoperability tests during a two-week period. This will mark the first time that three separate locations have been used for the multinational communications event. It is also the first time that a Partnership for Peace (PfP) nation, Bosnia-Herzegovina, will be used as the main site. At Banja Luca, there will be approximately 600 personnel participating during the exercise period. Other exercise sites this year include Suz Base, Netherlands, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The interoperability test locations and participation by NATO and PfP nations are unique. Combined Endeavor sets conditions for multinational C4 network success and eliminates “discovery learning” upon deployment for military and humanitarian operations. The test documentation gained from these series of exercises has been utilized in multinational deployments. Tests this year will focus on net-centric capabilities, user-defined common operational pictures, ISAF and NATO Response Force pre-deployment testing, and cyberdefense. The results of the tests will be compiled and added to the integrated interoperability guide that has been maintained since the first Combined Endeavor. The guide is used as a tool to assist in the rapid deployment of coalition networks for NATO and coalition mission and crisis response.
Soldiers from participating nations installed a communications antenna during last year’s Combined Endeavor. [Photo courtesy of U.S. European Command]
“This year’s Combined Endeavor is especially important, exciting and challenging,” said U.S. Air Force Brigadier General David A. Cotton, director, command, control, communications and war fighting integration and chief information officer (J6/CIO) for HQ U.S. European Command. “The national planners agreed to try something new this year and ‘break the mold’ to accomplish what has not been attempted in Combined Endeavor’s 14-year history. In past years, all of the participating nations and organizations would deploy their personnel and equipment to a familiar site in Germany to test the interoperability of their communications, save one year when the exercise was in Austria. Last year, the national communication leaders agreed to conduct deployable
communications operations from three locations, all of which have their unique logistical and operational requirements that have to be met in order for Combined Endeavor 2009 to succeed,” Cotton explained. “One of the more obvious challenges is to successfully plan, coordinate and attain national clearances to transport all personnel and equipment to these three locations, each in a different country,” he continued. “Once the personnel arrive, they must quickly and effectively establish a stable multinational network to conduct communications interoperability testing and integration. In some cases, such as Denmark, they will have equipment at each of the Combined Endeavor sites to provide the backbone for satellite connectivity and the hubs for the coalition network. “The main operating base will be in BosniaHerzegovina, and the two regional operating sites will be in Denmark and the Netherlands. Each of these nations has stepped up to prepare their sites for hosting over 1,100 communicators and 400 support personnel for Combined Endeavor 2009. All participating nations will have representatives working in the Combined Joint Communications Coordination Center in Bosnia-Herzegovina, to coordinate and oversee the exercise,” Cotton said. The most innovative and significant approaches being tried this year involve communications standards, including the Tactical Communications Standard (TACOMS), which is a commercial interface standard that integrates communications systems, allowing them to pass data to one another. The Netherlands has taken the lead in developing TACOMS as a NATO standard and will lead several Combined Endeavor nations through testing and integration of their TACOMScompliant systems. TACOMS has been submitted to NATO and is undergoing the approval process to become a NATO standard.
DISA, GSA Combine on COMSAT Acquisition In a move that will bring major changes to the way the military and other federal organizations acquire commercial satellite communications resources, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) and the General Services Administration (GSA) have agreed to create a common marketplace for such services. Under an agreement signed in late July by DISA Director Lieutenant General Carroll F. Pollett and James A. Williams, commissioner of GSA’s 4 | MIT 13.7
Federal Acquisition Service, the two agencies will cooperate to create the Future COMSAT Services Acquisition (FCSA) program. The new program, which is slated to go into operation in 2011, will have a total value of more than $5 billion over 10 years. After exploring the possibility of merging acquisitions, DISA and GSA ultimately sealed the deal to ensure a common marketplace for satisfying the majority of the federal government’s future commercial satellite www.MIT-kmi.com
communication requirements. DISA and GSA are committed to President Obama’s agenda for cooperation among federal organizations. “Why manage separate contract vehicles that offer essentially the same services when we can combine forces?” said Tony Montemarano, DISA’s component acquisition executive. In unveiling the program in early August at a meeting with industry and a teleconference with reporters, agency officials predicted that the new program would lead to cost savings and a leveling out of government spending for commercial SATCOM, which has grown rapidly in recent years. The savings will come from elimination of redundant administrative costs both by the two agencies, which will no longer have to manage separate programs, as well as by companies, which will reduce overhead involved in bidding on multiple contracts. In addition, the federal government can expect to save through combined buying power, which will reduce bandwidth expenses by an estimated 10 percent to 15 percent through economies of scale. FSCA will replace three existing programs: DISA’s Defense Information Systems Network Satellite Transmission Services-Global (DSTS-G) and Inmarsat contracts, and GSA’s SATCOM-2 contract. The DISA programs acquire about $350 million a year, while GSA currently manages $47 million in annual acquisitions. The DSTS-G program, which expires in 2011, involves three initially small businesses—Artel, Spacelink (now DRS Technologies) and Arrowhead (now
CapRock Communications—acting as prime contractors combining offerings from other satellite companies. The program has attracted both strong defenders, who say it fosters an integrated approach to delivering services to warfighters, and critics, who argue that it unnecessarily limits market access. (See Military Information Technology, June 2009, page 9.) FSCA will have three components: dedicated transponder capacity; subscription services, including terminals; and end-to-end solutions, including bandwidth, access, terminals and network management. Vendors will compete for master contracts in any service area and, if selected, then compete for specific task orders. Two indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contact vehicles will be established for end-to-end services, with one of the vehicles reserved for small businesses. “I see nothing but better things ahead for all of our customers,” said Bruce T. Bennett, DISA’s director of satellite communications, teleport and services.
Correction: In the article, “X-band Advantage,” in the July 2009 issue of MIT, the name of the Spanish company that co-owns XTAR appeared incorrectly. It is HISDESAT.
p eop le Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Brig. Gen. Gregory L. Brundidge
Air Force Brigadier General Gregory L. Brundidge has been assigned as director, command, control, communications and war fighting integration, Headquarters U.S. European Command. He has been serving as deputy chief of staff, communications and information systems, Multi-National ForceIraq.
Navy Captain Gretchen S. Herbert, who has been selected for promotion to rear admiral (lower half), will be assigned as director, Navy Networks, N6N, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.
assigned as director for command control systems, J6, Headquarters North American Aerospace Defense Command/director, architectures and integration, J6, U.S. Northern Command.
Air Force Brigadier General John E. Hyten has been assigned as director, Space and Cyber Operations, Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations, Plans and Requirements, Headquarters U.S. Air Force.
Navy Captain Diane E. H. Webber, who has been selected for promotion to rear admiral (lower half), will be
Laura Larson has joined Citrix Government Systems as director of sales and business development on the company’s
federal systems integrators team.
Skot Butler has been named director of strategic initiatives of Intelsat General, where he will initially lead a team working to win the Pentagon’s $8 billion Future Commercial Satellite Communications Architecture contract, to be awarded by the Defense Information
Service Agency in 2010. The contract will replace the decade-old DSTS-G contract vehicle now used by the military to lease commercial satellite capacity and services.
Ericsson Federal Inc. has announced a number of new executive hires to serve its expanding government customer base, including Bob Dunn, senior vice president, business development, sales and marketing; Dave Baciocco, vice president, business development, defense and intelligence; and John Klopacz, vice president, sales, DoD/ commercial SATCOM providers.
MIT 13.7 | 5
Pre-empting a Digital Pearl Harbor BY REP. BOBBY BRIGHT Nobody likes surprises, especially when they affect your country’s national security posture. Getting caught by surprise, as we were in 1941 at Pearl Harbor and again in 1957 by Sputnik, has serious consequences. Americans are accustomed to having the luxury of distance or time—the Pacific Ocean or the prolonged race to space in these two instances—as shock absorbers. Even though we were initially caught by surprise in each case, American ingenuity and grit carried us to victory on both fronts and in turn improved our national security position. We cannot count on the same literal and figurative “oceans” in the future because our reaction time has been reduced by the pace of information technology. Though we have yet to see the “digital Pearl Harbor” that some have predicted, cyber-attacks on military and civilian networks have shown increasing sophistication in the past decade. What began as uncoordinated threats from individuals or small groups has morphed into a much more dangerous group of hacker clubs and cyberaggressors that are tolerated, and in some cases aided, by unfriendly governments. For example, public reports suggest that North Korea has sponsored a cyberwarfare unit, while hackers in Russia have claimed credit for attacks that have impacted American interests. Recent coordinated attacks disrupted the U.S. State Department, the Department of Homeland Security and even The Washington Post, but bounced off basement servers at the White House. But what happens when our enemies can make the Ground Based Missile Defense system think it’s a laundromat? Now we are talking about a serious, technological “Pearl Harbor” surprise. These recent attacks remind us that the attackers on that fateful Sunday morning in 1941 were actually picked up by what was then new technology in the form of Army SCR 270 radar, but misclassified as six American B-17s scheduled to arrive at the islands at the same time as the Japanese attackers. The government has begun to recognize and respond to these threats. Recently, the House Armed Services Committee held a 6 | MIT 13.7
subcommittee hearing on “Cyberspace as a Warfighting Domain.” My colleagues and I heard from a spectrum of military IT experts, including the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The agency was formed in the immediate aftermath of Sputnik, and to this day its mission remains “to prevent technological surprise.” At the hearing, Bob Leheny, DARPA’s acting director, stated that “cybersecurity threats will continue to increase in scope and sophistication. Rapid experimentation of new defensive capabilities is needed to stay ahead of cyberthreat advances.” He went on to describe how the National Cyber Range will allow “realistic, quantifiable tests and assessments of cyberscenarios and defensive technologies.” One of DARPA’s main goals is to develop what Leheny described as “robust, secure, self-forming networks ... with the promise of turning information superiority into combat power ... to dramatically speed up our OODA [observe-orient-decide-act] cycle.” Leheny sees network-centric operations that can “form, manage, defend and heal themselves ... at enormously high speeds ... which mean that people may no longer be central to establishing, managing or administering them.” While to some this may sound like science fiction, we should remember that the moon landing and the Internet also seemed implausible not too long ago. The concern, of course, is that our enemies are working to meet the same goals. The good news is that we are moving forward. President Obama is establishing a new cybersecurity office within the White House, and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has tasked General Kevin P. Chilton, commander of USSTRATCOM, to deliver a plan to establish a “Cyber Command” by September. There is much happening on the tactical level, too. At Maxwell Air Force Base, which I am fortunate to represent, the Air University has just held a “Future Operators” symposium to help determine ways to develop crossdomain integration for all warriors, including cyberwarriors. The 754th Electronic Systems Group at Maxwell AFB Gunter Annex is host-
ing the 22nd annual Air Force Information Technology Conference (AFITC) this month in Montgomery, Ala. AFITC is the premier information technology conference in the Air Force. This year’s theme is particularly prescient: “Air Force Information Technology: the Warfighter’s Edge in Battlespace.” How does this help us lead turn our cyberadversaries and help pre-empt a digital Pearl Harbor? It was the cooperation, planning and execution of the plans by American military and industry that earned us victory in World War II and put Americans on the moon a dozen years after Sputnik. The nature of cyberwarfare means that conflict dwell times have shortened, the OODA loop has tightened, and that combat in the cyberbattles pace now is measured not by miles or kilometers but by nanoseconds. Recognition of these realities will keep us alert, agile and flexible in cyberdefense, and secure in the future. But we must keep our eye on the target. As the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu correctly observed, “In conflict, direct confrontation will lead to engagement, and surprise will lead to victory. Those who are skilled in producing surprises will win.” We would be well-served, especially in the cyber-age, to remember those words. ✯
Rep. Bobby Bright (D-Ala.) is a member of the House Armed Services Committee. The 754th Electronic Systems Group is headquartered at Maxwell AFB, Gunter Annex, in Alabama’s 2nd Congressional District, which he represents. www.MIT-kmi.com
PRIME CONTRACTORS REVIEW ACHIEVEMENTS OF KEY
AIR FORCE IT CONTRACT.
(Editorâ€™s Note: MIT magazine recently reached out to the eight companies serving as prime contractors for the Air Force Network Centric Solutions (NETCENTS) program. Following are the statements of those that chose to respond.)
MIT 13.7 | 7
1,300 awards has been its relationship with a core team of large and small business service providers and equipment manufacturers. As it has provided services and products THE CENTECH GROUP aforteam, projects as diverse as site survey and BETTER PRICING AND BETTER installation of a radome in Croughton, U.K., to software life cycle support at Maxwell AFBINFORMATION FLOW Gunter Annex, Montgomery, Ala., located just BY ELLEN HILL a couple of miles from the companyâ€™s NETThe NETCENTS contract has been very CENTS Program Management Office. successful for THE CENTECH Another innovative soluGROUP. The company has had tion example is a site survey significant success during its and installation of a â€œnewfive-year history with NETto-the-Air Forceâ€? Internet CENTS, providing over $400 Protocol Television for all 12 million in information techHeadquarters Air Mobility nology and communications Command bases throughservices and products through out the United States. The June 2009. innovative solution has more The customer base has capabilities at a lower cost expanded from a presence in than the solutions previously four states to 42 states and 12 used by many Air Force orgaEllen Hill international locations, includnizations. The company also firstname.lastname@example.org ing infrastructure support for provides the content services. the Iraqi Air Base Information At one AMC base, President Technology Infrastructure Program adminisBushâ€™s speech to the troops was broadcast tered by Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass. Other live on computers throughout the base and to NETCENTS customers include the Air Force, all those who could not attend once the local Army, Navy, Air Force Reserves, Air Force Air hangar was filled to capacity. National Guard and Federal Aviation Agency. The companyâ€™s NETCENTS mantra has But CENTECHâ€™s success has not been been, â€œFirst we must win, then we must achieved alone. A key aspect in winning over satisfy,â€? and the entire team is focused on
customer satisfaction. To support customers, CENTECH developed a Web portal application to immediately post customer requirements for review by our team. This has allowed it to be agile and responsive to a challenging decentralized ordering system. Contracting officers around the world have requirements ranging from simple task order requests to â€œmodel contractâ€? requests. The time for response is short, so quick dissemination of information and team composition is critical. Although NETCENTS 2 will be structured differently, CENTECH knows how to build a team and respond in this type environment. Company executives are confident that they have an excellent opportunity to continue serving customers under the new contract vehicle. CENTECHâ€™s senior vice president for Department of Defense operations, James Tindell, also noted that the NETCENTS vehicle has been about getting the most from teaming partners. As a result, CENTECH has made sure that every partner has an opportunity to get involved with winning or registering potential NETCENTS work. The CENTECH NETCENTS team does this by giving all partners access to their portal and pushing solicitations out to partners as soon as they are available. CENTECH has also developed and implemented a mutual purpose and vision for the team through the program, and ensures that they have committed leadership that takes an
THE CENTECH NETCENTS Teamâ€Ś Today and Tomorrow Priming todayâ€™s NETCENTS tasks and looking forward to the future of NETCENTS, S CENTE CE CENTECH NTT C pprovide provides: id : t/FUXPSL*OGSBTUSVDUVSF4FSWJDFT t4PGUXBSF%FWFMPQNFOU.BJOUFOBODF t4ZTUFNT&OHJOFFSJOH5FDIOJDBM"TTJTUBODF tt5SBJOJOH,OPXMFEHF5SBOTGFS4ZTUFNT4FSWJDFT t5SBJOJ 5SBJOJOH,OPXMFEHF5SBOTGFS4ZTUFN 5SBJOJOH,OPX 5SBJOJOH,OPXMFEHF OH,OPXMFEHF H ,OPXMFEHF5 EHF5SBOTGFS4Z H 5SBOTGFS OTGFS4ZTUFNT4 4ZTUFNT 4ZTUFNT NT 4F 4FS 4FSWJDFT FSWJDFT J T t5FTU&WBMVBUJPO4FSWJDFT 5FTU&W 5 TU &WBMVBUJPO BMVBUJPO BUJPO 4FSWJDFT 4FS t-PHJTUJDT4VQQPSU4ZTUFNT4FSWJDFT t-P JTUJDT4VQQPSU4Z UFNT4 4FSWJDFT FSWJDFTT t)FMQ%FTL4ZTUFNT4FSWJDFT t) Q%FTL TUFNT 4FSWJDF tt&OHJOFFSJOH4FSWJDFT &OHJO OHJOFF OFFSJOH H4FSW 4F FSWJDFT t$PNQVUFS%BUB$FOUFS0QFSBUJPOT $PN FS%BU OUFS0 BUJPO t#VTJOFTT0QFSBUJPOT4VQQPSU t#VTJOFTT0QFSBUJPOT4VQQP t #VTJOFTT0QFSBUJPO OFTT0 BUJPOT QPSU PSU t8FC4PMVUJPOT4FSWJDFT 8FC POT WJDFT t4FDVSJUZ4ZTUFNT4FSWJDFT t JUZ4Z T4 FT t1SPHSBN"DRVJTJUJPO.BOBHFNFOU4VQQPSU4FSWJDFT 1SPH "DR O.B BOBHFN NFOU 4 QPSU NFO DFT
8 | MIT 13.7
CENTECH Prime Contract Vehicles Alliant IT Schedule MOBIS
For Fo or mo more orre iinformation information, io on conta contact: tact: ctt: t: NETC S Program gra Manager, ger Ellen Hill illl NETCENTS 0 Interstate Interstate Park Drive, ive, e, Suite S 400 401 Mo gom y, AL 36109 36109 Montgomery, 877.3 .334.9 3 .E.Fix.Now 877.334.9669 (877.E.Fix.Now)
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interest and invests in the team’s staff in order to build trust and commitment. “Our company’s brand identity is just as important as the products and services we provide,” said Tindell. “Using the NETCENTS contract, CENTECH has continued to build on a solid brand identity, and the effort we put
GENERAL DYNAMICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY VITAL ROLE IN ENTERPRISEWIDE TRANSFORMATION MANAGEMENT BY DAN AYER NETCENTS I has helped to usher enterprisewide transformation into the Air Force and facilitate the service’s information management initiatives. Delivery orders under the contract have assisted the Air Force in achieving its goal of true net-centricity and a more secure cyberposture. NETCENTS I possesses a rigorous source selection process, a long-term IDIQ contract (which allowed for “lessons learned to be applied”), an enforcement of standards and policies, and a continuous competitive process for each delivery order. The contract was intended to support the Air Force’s transformation to Air Force Network Operations (AFNETOPS), which consolidates operations under one command. Through the contract, the Air Force has been able to draw expertise from key “vetted” contractors to support the entire life cycle of the Air Force IT mission. The NETCENTS prime contractors, which include General Dynamics Information Technology, felt like true industry partners, learning and adapting alongside the Air Force as the mission has evolved. NETCENTS I has helped the Air Force accomplish several key initiatives. For example, through delivery orders issued by the Combat Information Transport System (CITS) Program Office, 12 bases, www.MIT-kmi.com
into winning task orders has paid off in the form of loyal customers.” In summary, while competitive pricing and customer service are major goals, CENTECH’s experience has demonstrated that NETCENTS provides the ability to standardize IT systems that meet net-centric standards.
six of which General Dynamics IT directly supported, have received secure, broadband fiber-optic wired networks, under the Information Transport System (ITS) program, the foundation of net-centric operations. In addition, General Dynamics IT has delivered robust Air Force wireless infrastructure with high availability and multi-tiered administration and management, which complies with all Air Force, Department of Defense, federal and Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations security policies, to 29 bases, with 25 additional bases planned. The Air Force also has used the contract to upgrade its fielded telecom switches, incorporating unified capabilities, such as Voice over IP (VoIP), to provide the warfighter with reliable voice communications within the existing telephone system and to support future netbased voice capabilities. General Dynamics IT has also played a key role in evolving the Air Force Voice Switching System (VSS) from circuit to IP-based telephony by engineering, furnishing and installing VoIP solutions at Keesler, Wright-Patterson and Vanderberg Air Force bases. NETCENTS I assisted in the maturity of the Air Force’s enterprise network management and network defense (NM/ ND) capabilities. Delivery orders issued under the contract vehicle have been essential in helping the Air Force migrate toward its AFNETOPS transformational concept, a standards-based, secure, costeffective alternative to some of the legacy systems it has replaced. General Dynamics IT-led NETCENTS initiatives have established the Air Force intranet, consolidated core services at the enterprise level and automated NM/ND tools:
The end result is not only better pricing, but better information flow in an accurate and secure way across the Air Force—and, lest we forget, for the warfighters. Ellen Hill is NETCENTS team program manager for THE CENTECH GROUP.
AFNET Increment I (NOIA Block 30) product acquisition and stand-up of the 16 Air Force intranet gateways; Integrated Network Operations and Security Centers (I-NOSC) design and implementation, which migrated management of each base network boundary from its local Network Control Center to the I-NOSCs at Peterson AFB and Langley AFB, enabling true enterprise network management; and AFNOC Network Operations Division, providing operational support to the Air Force enterprise network.
NM/ND solutions provided by other NETCENTS prime contractors include automated, minimally managed enterprise-level system security process for establishing IT policy, scanning for vulnerabilities, reporting compliance and status via the Vulnerability Lifecycle Management System, and enterprise-level network, application and device monitoring via NetCop, NetIQ and SMARTS enterprise licensing agreements. In addition to being a key enabler for deploying net-centric solutions systems, NETCENTS I is also the vehicle under which sustainment of these mission-critical Air Force enterprise infostructure systems and assets have been accomplished. General Dynamics IT’s sustainment efforts include: •
Field assistance service with sustainment responsibilities for all Air Force combat support standard systems; MIT 13.7 | 9
repair and replacement in support of the Air Force telecommunications network.
contractors’ increased ability to support the program after understanding the mission needs.
These accomplishments have been critical in helping the Air Force transform its network operations. The initiatives have benefited from NETCENTS’ strong source-selection process and the
Dan Ayer is NETCENTS program manager for General Dynamics Information Technology. He can be contacted at daniel. firstname.lastname@example.org.
provides independent test and evaluation and IT security services for the Electronics Systems Center (ESC) 754th Electronic Systems Group (ELSG) at Maxwell-Gunter AFB. The ESC ELSG has been convertHARRIS IT SERVICES ing its business applications—including PATHFINDER FOR NETWORK-CENTRIC software for managing critical personnel, logistics, medical and civil engineering COMMUNICATIONS information systems—to Web-based appliBY JOHN HELLER cations. According to John Weimer, Harris’ NETCENTS continues to be a very NETCENTS program director, the Harris successful vehicle for Harris IT Services, team ensures that system security requireaccording to John Heller, vice president ments of those Web-based applications and general manager, meet DoD regulations and Department of Defense mission requirements. programs. “We’ve captured “In addition to scanning and performed on over 600 for security vulnerabilities services and solutions task and monitoring network orders, which we manage penetration activities, our from our highly responsive team performs source code NETCENTS program office analysis to identify vulnerin Montgomery, Ala. In ability within code execution fact, Harris IT Services has as well as working side by side been awarded more total with developers to secure the task orders than any of the applications at the highest of John Heller other seven NETCENTS DoD and industry standards,” email@example.com primes, and we rank third said Weimer. in terms of cumulative In addition to services sales,” he said. and solutions, Harris IT Services is by far Harris serves Air Force, Army and Navy the leading NETCENTS product vendor customers via NETCENTS at locations in terms of dollars and number of orders. across the U.S. as well as in Iraq, AfghaniWhen including products, Harris has delivstan, Japan, Guam, the United Kingdom, ered on more than 2,700 tasks. Germany, Italy and Korea. The company’s When Harris was awarded the contract, NETCENTS engagements span the life Heller thought it was logical to divide the cycle, from IT transformation through company’s NETCENTS services/solutions operations and maintenance and informaand products teams into two groups. Now, tion assurance. it’s likely that NETCENTS 2 will also sepaFor example, under a $42.9 million rate services/solutions and products into IDIQ task order, the Harris IT Services team different contracts.
“I attribute our products success to several factors. First, our products group collaborates closely and frequently with our program management office (PMO) on each request for proposal (RFP) and request for quote (RFQ) to determine the best means of maximizing customer value. Secondly, we are extremely responsive and have built strong relationships with many of the largest product purchasing organizations. And, lastly, we’re on time with 98 percent of our product deliveries and can deliver anywhere in the world in less than 30 days,” Heller continued. Harris IT Services partners with more than 150 subcontractors on NETCENTS, and more than 75 percent of them are small businesses. “Our PMO excels at assembling, structuring, adjusting and managing teams to ensure we effectively meet customers’ needs. Our partners offer exceedingly relevant past performance and competitive rates, have proven processes and certifications, and cover all small business categories,” Heller said. Heller views NETCENTS as a highly effective vehicle for quickly providing standardized and interoperable products, services and solutions to warfighters. “We’ve seen 2,400 RFPs for solutions and service in four and a half years, along with 15,000 product RFQs. In addition, a growing number of DoD organizations rely on NETCENTS as a primary vehicle. That depth and breadth indicate that vendors are meeting customers’ mission needs within the cost and time constraints,” he commented. Furthermore, NETCENTS has led the way in terms of incorporating increasingly
CITS hardware/software support, which supports and sustains all fielded NM/ND systems; KZ engineering support, which acts as a bridge for all newly fielded CITS tools and capabilities; and VSS sustainment, which provides help desk support and emergency
10 | MIT 13.7
Enabling Air Force Enterprise IT Transformation
G eneral Dynamics Information Technology is helping
the U.S. Air Force transform their IT enterprise and better manage information by providing: t/&5014BOE*OGSBTUSVDUVSF4PMVUJPOT t"QQMJDBUJPO4FSWJDFT t/FU$FOUSJD1SPEVDUT t5FMFQIPOZ1SPEVDUTBOE4PMVUJPOT t*51SPGFTTJPOBM4VQQPSUBOE&OHJOFFSJOH4FSWJDFT t&OUFSQSJTF*OUFHSBUJPOBOE4FSWJDF.BOBHFNFOU "TBQSJNFDPOUSBDUPSVOEFSUIF/&5$&/54*%*2DPOUSBDU General Dynamics Information Technology provides JOUFHSBUFE*5TPMVUJPOT PQFSBUJPOT TVTUBJONFOUBOE NBOBHFNFOUQSPDFTTFTJOTVQQPSUPGUIFGPMMPXJOH programs: t$PNCBU*OGPSNBUJPO5SBOTQPSU4ZTUFN $*54 t*OUFHSBUFE/FUXPSL0QFSBUJPOTBOE4FDVSJUZ */04$ t&OUFSQSJTF%FTJHO(VJEBODFBOE&WBMVBUJPO 4DPQF&%(& t4FDPOE(FOFSBUJPO8JSFMFTT-"/ (8-"/ t$*54)BSEXBSF4ZTUFNT*OUFHSBUPS $)4* t7PJDF4XJUDIJOH4ZTUFNT 744
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stringent cybersecurity requirements. “NETCENTS standards recognize the network as a weapons system. It’s a pathfinder in terms of network-centric communications for military and national security. I believe we’ll see more trendsetting with NETCENTS 2,” Heller continued. Heller attributes much of Harris IT Services’ NETCENTS success to the standardization the contract requires. “Because of the volume of NETCENTS business we’ve done, Harris knows how to help all the various DoD entities across the globe comply with policy. We can quickly deliver
services, solutions and products that meet dynamic needs and evolving standards,” he said. Indeed, because of the nature of NETCENTS, customers have faster access to more interoperable and secure solutions. “With many ex-military and National Guard members on our staff—along with more than 30 years serving the Air Force— Harris fully appreciates the value NETCENTS delivers to customers and to us,” Weimer added. Heller and Weimer agree that Harris offers extensive experience relevant to
NETCENTS 2 customers, including delivering expert network operations that better enable mission performance, rapidly responding to the needs of customers across the globe, and helping consolidate legacy contracts to achieve dramatic cost savings. “We look forward to building upon our successes with NETCENTS 2,” Heller concluded.
ture, and a significant amount of enterprise engineering. For example, through NETCENTS, the LOCKHEED MARTIN company was selected to operate and maintain the message routing infrastrucAN EXTREMELY EFFICIENT ture for the Pentagon’s command messagCONTRACT VEHICLE ing systems in support of the Pentagon BY JOHN SLOTA Telecommunications Center, an organizaThe NETCENTS program was intended tion of the Army Information Technology to provide a flexible contracting vehicle to Agency. The Pentagon Telecommunicaobtain net-centric technologies, networktions Center’s mission is critical, providing equipment and services, and voice, ing Defense Messaging System services video and data communicato DoD, and any disruption tions hardware and softof service to the decisionware. Lockheed Martin was makers in the Pentagon has selected to share in task the potential to impact misorders under NETCENTS sion operations worldwide. in 2004. In addition to providing Since that time, the messaging services at the NETCENTS contract vehiUnclassified, Secret and Top cle has proved to be a valSecret levels, the Lockheed ued and vital component Martin team also provided of delivery organizations. virus and spam protection John Slota The broad range of contract as well as directory, security users across the Air Force and configuration firstname.lastname@example.org and other Department of ment support. Defense agencies allows Lockheed Martin Also under NETCENTS, Lockheed to continue to provide new capabilities to Martin was selected to upgrade the Air a wider customer base. Force flying unit command and conTask orders that Lockheed Martin has trol capability, formerly under the Thereceived under NETCENTS have greatly ater Battle Management Control System varied. These tasks have ranged from (TBMCS) contract. Lockheed Martin was enterprise service work for the Air Force, tasked to provide users at more than many telephony modernizations as the 46 fixed and expeditionary bases with services are preparing for Voice over an improved suite of tools at the wing Internet Protocol, upgrades to medical and squadron level. Resident around the treatment facilities and base infrastrucglobe, the TBMCS unit command and
control component allows staffs at airbases to coordinate air order taskings with the Air Operations Center and create a flying schedule. By interfacing with a number of external systems, it provides wing and base commanders with decision-quality information in near real-time, such as the status of their installation’s vital capabilities and the tools to conduct command and control activities on their installation. The effort included design, development, test, certification, installation, integration and sustainment. Another key aspect of NETCENTS is its emphasis on small business. As a large supporter of small business; more than 50 percent of Lockheed Martin’s contracted effort on NETCENTS has been performed by small businesses. When establishing a team, Lockheed Martin determines the specific industry leaders and small businesses that will help provide the customer with a best-value solution. This is where subcontracting comes into play—with a focus on small business. NETCENTS recognizes innovations from small businesses, which can range from IT hardware and software product fulfillment to on-site critical application and IT support requirements. NETCENTS has proved to be an efficient vehicle to quickly field a wide range of capabilities to a diverse customer set.
12 | MIT 13.7
John Heller is vice president, general manager Department of Defense programs at Harris IT.
John Slota is director of C2 Solutions for Lockheed Martin’s IS&GS-Defense. www.MIT-kmi.com
NCI DELIVERING ON AFNETOPS TRANSFORMATIONAL GOALS BY NORRIS CONNELLY The NETCENTS contract provides the Air Force, Department of Defense, and other federal agencies a broad array of integrated solutions, COTS products, engineering services, and life cycle management support. NETCENTS plays a key role in significantly enhancing the Air Force and the entire DoD’s capability in the era of net-centric warfare and operations by providing a “standardsbased” vehicle for provisioning the network and net-centric services. NETCENTS has been one of the Air Force’s primary delivery mechanisms for operational and architectural initiatives to achieve both improved operational effectiveness (improved security and availability), as well as increased efficiency (reduced personnel requirements and cost of operations). In particular, the key AFNET operations concepts to consolidate network and security management at major commands and then regional centers have required that Air Force IT infrastructure architectures and technical solutions implemented under the NETCENTS contract be done consistently at every Air Force location. NETCENTS is an integral part of an enterprise strategy for delivering transmission and net-enabled services to the Air Force. There is less variability when it comes to messaging protocols, security and boundary protection issues, and data storage/management under NETCENTS. NETCENTS is one of the largest, most diverse multiple-award IDIQ contracts in existence today. Its breadth of scope, efficient ordering mechanisms, and mission-oriented capabilities make it one of the pre-eminent product and service contracts in the federal government. As such, NETCENTS is an important element of NCI’s corporate strategy. It enables us to build a solid platform for growth while delivering value to www.MIT-kmi.com
significant lessons learned that have and will our customers, stockholders and employees. continue to benefit the entire Air Force ERP NETCENTS provides us an advantage as we community. seek to expand the level of services we provide At AMC, NCI provides Secure Voice over IP to our customers. (SVoIP), integrated secure wireless, and MAJWe aggressively pursue task orders under COM C2 network support. NCI also provides NETCENTS to add important new customUSSTRATCOM/JIOWC/GCCS fully integrated ers and expand our service offerings. NCI Google enterprise search and geospatial visuoffers a broad array of services, products and alization, supporting near-real-time informaintegrated solutions through NETCENTS to tion operations warfare planning, assessment help our customers meet their critical misand analysis. sions and objectives. NCI is extending our Looking forward, NETCENTS-2 should core capabilities provided under NETCENTS continue to play an integral role in the Air in line with key market drivers and investing Force’s achieving its transformational initiain a robust set of business solutions and offertives. The vision for NETCENTS-2 includes a ings, including IT consolidation/modernizafamily of full and open and set-aside procuretion; geospatial search and visualization; ments covering net-centric products, teleinformation operations/warfare; information phony products and solutions, NetOps and assurance and cybersecurity; program maninfrastructure solutions, application services, agement, acquisition and life cycle support; enterprise integration and service managesustainment engineering and obsolescence ment, and IT professional support and engimanagement; medical transformation/health neering services. IT; and full-spectrum training. NETCENTS-2 will support the full IT life Over the past five years, NCI has been cycle, including legacy operational and sustrusted by numerous major commands, tainment activities, re-engineering of legacy program offices and combatant commands, capabilities into target architectures and enviincluding Air Education and Training Comronments, and future service-oriented capamand, Air Force Materiel Command, Air bilities. The NETCENTS-2 model should allow Force Space Command, Air Mobility Comfor increased innovation and the ability to mand (AMC), Combat Information Transport more rapidly provision and field capabilities. System, Air National Guard, NORAD/NORTHAchieving the Air Force’s COM and USSTRATCOM. transformational goals in an There are a number of key incremental and evolutionary programs that demonstrate manner requires that it have the breadth and depth of the a set of contractors under a NETCENTS contract and our common set of standards and ability to deliver mission-critarchitecture within a single ical services and products to contract vehicle, ensuring our customers. For example, consistency across the actions NCI provides the Air Force of the multiple contractors. Research Laboratory Rome NCI believes NETCENTS-2 Research Site complete IT supwill play an instrumental role port for the information and Norris Connelly in achieving these objectives. finance directorates located NCI has been a trusted partin Rome, N.Y., including help email@example.com ner of the Air Force and NETdesk, CSA, FSA, infrastructure CENTS, and we look forward to continuing support, telephony and information assurour trusted relationship with the Air Force ance. In addition, NCI supports AFWAY II, a and delivering mission-critical services and robust, scalable, flexible enterprise resource solutions to customers worldwide. planning (ERP) system using the Oracle eBusiness suite to meet future strategic Norris Connelly is senior vice president enterprisewide purchasing needs for all comof Air Force programs for NCI Information modities and services. NCI provides effective Systems, Inc. solutions and workarounds and produces MIT 13.7 | 13
NORTHROP GRUMMAN FOUNDATION FOR C4I SUPPORT TO THE WARFIGHTER BY ED MOORE The bottom-line goal of the NETCENTS contract is to provide standardized network infrastructure required to get the right information to the warfighter at the right time to ensure mission success. For five years, NETCENTS has provided the Air Force, Department of Defense and other federal agencies with a primary source for network-centric infrastructure equipment and systems, to include the requisite system engineering, installation, integration, deployment, operational support, and life cycle maintenance. A key objective is to migrate toward a family of DoD standardized networking solutions, which are based on commercial standards but are also interoperable with Air Force, joint and DoD standardized networking technical architectures, including support of the Global Information Grid (GIG). While there were some initial growing pains, the overall NETCENTS process to post opportunities, accept proposals, evaluate responses, make awards and properly execute task orders has developed into a streamlined and efficient methodology for both products and services. Most products are now delivered within 30 days of an award—frequently sooner—and most services are initiated immediately following an award. The NETCENTS contract has provided its customers with the benefit of competitive pricing with an overall reduction in the amount of labor and time involved to award an individual contract. Northrop Grumman has had numerous successes on the NETCENTS contract and currently leads all other primes with more than $1 billion in NETCENTS awards to date, out of a total of $5 billion that has been awarded on the entire NETCENTS contract. Northrop Grumman has been most successful on the services side of the contract. Approximately 93 percent of our 14 | MIT 13.7
awarded value has been as a result of service awards. Key Northrop Grumman service task order awards include: Vulnerability Lifecycle Management System (VLMS); Defense Knowledge Online; Defense Travel Services; Air Force Equipment Management System; Commander Navy Installations Command IT and telecom support; and Host-Based Security System (HBSS). Each of these task orders was achieved by the proper utilization of both large and small business partners, as well as multiple business sectors within Northrop Grumman. Getting the right combination of players for each task order was and is critical to winning and the proper execution of each task order. This was an early focus of our program management office, and continues to be very successful. Northrop Grumman believes that network-centric communications plays a critical role for both military and national security. The current world situation (both in terms of threat and funding) requires that all services operate jointly to meet emergent threats in a timely and costeffective manner. This requires not only joint interoperability between the services but also with other DoD and intelligence agencies. The only real way to achieve the required commonality and interoperability is best expressed by the Combat Information Transport System motto: “single architecture, with standardized products.” The days of stovepiped solutions with differing standards across multiple commands need to finally come to an end. However, as our dependency on common centralized data repositories grows, the need to ensure that data is adequately protected, to ensure availability at the critical moment, becomes even more paramount. The use of contracts such as NETCENTS and the follow-on NETCENTS-2 provide the means to achieve that end. Northrop Grumman maintains the “pulse” of our NETCENTS customers. We have taken the lead in our customer’s evolution of critical cyberdefense initiatives by providing more than $75 million worth of
security services, including the installation and support of the Air Force network defense initiatives of VLMS and HBSS. LMS is an automated and centralized network vulnerability management of classified and unclassified networks, and deploys the Joint Task Force-Global Network Operations mandated tools that provide the Air Force with tools and processes for real-time vulnerability scanning, remediation, quarantine, reporting and information sharing. Additionally, we’ve provided HBSS, used to provide local computer defense of critical systems and devices on the GIG. HBSS provides DoD with a significant capability to defend all computers across the department’s unclassified networks and enables system administrators improved situational awareness in the fight against cyber-attacks. These tools ensure vital network capabilities are available at all times to warfighters. Furthermore, Northrop Grumman’s work under NETCENTS has contributed to DoD’s transformation of existing operational capabilities. In order to realize a seamless joint network of information and engagement grids that link sensors, command and control cells, and tactical units to support future war fighting capabilities through the GIG, the company has partnered on critical joint initiatives, including Defense Knowledge Online and Defense Travel Service, to provide an enterprise capability across DoD to our service men and women. The HQ 754th ELSG has been an exceptionally good partner to work with on NETCENTS. They essentially serve as an additional partner for each of the prime contractors and greatly facilitate the use of the NETCENTS contract across DoD. Northrop Grumman found this relationship to be important enough to add a dedicated deputy program manager to work with them on a daily basis in Montgomery, Ala. We look forward to continuing our strong partnership for the remainder of NETCENTS and into NETCENTS-2. Ed Moore is NETCENTS program manager for Northrop Grumman Information Systems. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org. www.MIT-kmi.com
mission-critical operations with innovative technology. NETCENTS changed this and enables the government to put in place the best networking technology and the latest IT security solutions.” TELOS An example of a valuable development to come from NETCENTS is the IMPROVED NETWORKING AND IT establishment of the Air Force Application SECURITY Software Assurance Center of Excellence (ASACoE), located at Gunter Annex, MaxBY CHARISSE STOKES well Air Force Base, Ala. ASACoE ensures Since the Air Force awarded the origithat application security best practices nal NETCENTS contract in September are incorporated across the Air Force and 2004, the contract vehicle has provided a enables the Air Force to identify critical competitive edge for the federal governvulnerabilities and secure its applications. ment by reducing the time to market for With the additional security provided by critical networking and communications ASACoE, the Air Force is better able to equipment and services. The five-year, $9 defend against application-level attacks, billion Air Force IDIQ contract enables protecting sensitive information that in government agencies to purchase missionturn helps protect the nation. critical hardware and software, networkTelos was awarded an initial task centric voice, video and data products and order, which has a ceiling of $75 million, services, and telephony solutions from a to establish the ASACoE in September group of prime contractors. 2007. To date, the center has conducted “NETCENTS has trans260 software assurance formed the government proassessments and identicurement process by offering fied numerous vulneraa single source for secure, bilities. The assessments high-performance, cost-comwere conducted jointly petitive solutions for networkwith Air Force program centric applications to support developers in an effort and enable government and to make the assessment Department of Defense misprocess part of the softsions, functions and operaware development life tions,” said Charisse Stokes, cycle. Charisse Stokes senior director, Southeast In addition to operations and NETCENTS improving application email@example.com program manager for Telos, software assurance for which serves as a small busicustomers within the ness prime on the contract. Air Force, last year, ASACoE performed Prior to NETCENTS, no standard concode analysis and training for a variety tract existed in which the government of other government agencies, including could order integrated network solutions. the Department of Veterans Affairs and The Air Force, for example, used a Navy the Judge Advocate General, reducing the contract vehicle for its IT and telecom risk and cost associated with application requirements, and in some cases, it used vulnerabilities. piecemeal software and hardware for its This year, Telos received a NETCENTS networks. task order modification of $6.7 million to “This practice was not in the best further support ASACoE. The task order interest of national security; it did not includes training classes and services to help protect the nation’s IT and commuprovide software licenses. The modificanications resources,” said Stokes. “Furtion brings the total value of the ASACoE thermore, this practice did not support task order to more than $16 million. www.MIT-kmi.com
“Via NETCENTS, Telos is supporting new technologies that can be employed to help the government enhance its communications capabilities and protect the nation from IT security threats,” Stokes added. “Some of these new technologies that the government can access under NETCENTS had not been previously available to government agencies.” Telos posted more than $230 million in new sales from the Air Force’s NETCENTS program in fiscal year 2008, which is more than any of the contract’s eight primes. Among the many NETCENTS wins for Telos are a $13 million task order for the Defense Message System at the Pentagon Telecommunications Center, and a $6.3 million order for Air Force Defense Message System program management. NETCENTS has promoted networkcentric communications, which is critical to ensure the speed, accuracy and quality of decision-making information that is available to federal and civilian agencies, according to Telos. The firm is leading the way to provide the enterpriseclass network infrastructure backbone for secure voice and data communications for customers in support of their operations. Telos’ offerings under NETCENTS are voice, video and data communications; secure wireless networking; information assurance; application software assurance; vulnerability and penetration testing; enterprise messaging; secure credentialing; telephony including VoIP; COTS products; system solutions and engineering services; inside/outside plant engineering systems hardware and software; systems management, operations and maintenance support; configuration management; training; centralized logistics and inventory management support; worldwide depot support, spares and supplies; outsourcing and services support; and engineering/IT/specialty experts. ✯ Charisse Stokes is senior director, Southeast, and NETCENTS program manager for Telos. MIT 13.7 | 15
BY TOM MARLOWE MIT CORRESPONDENT firstname.lastname@example.org
AIR FORCE RESTRUCTURES COMBAT INFORMATION TRANSPORT SYSTEM TO IMPROVE NETWORKS AND INCREASE SECURITY.
As part of an effort to fundamentally out into the field in the next year,” he added. change the ways in which it manages and The various initiatives are ambitious and operates networks, the Air Force is implecritical to maintaining Air Force cyberfuncmenting a restructuring of its Combat Infortionality and security, Fellers noted. CITS will mation Transport System (CITS). continue its Information Transport System The CITS, which incorporates various (ITS) program as an acquisition category projects to provide upgraded and secure Air (ACAT) 1 program to redesign the entire Force network systems, began as a single network infrastructure at every Air Force major defense acquisition program operating base. The ITS program has been going on with the federal government as a systems for a number of years and will continue for integrator. another eight years at presBut as of 2009, CITS has ent, Fellers said. been restructured into several A separate ACAT I promajor programs (acquisition gram will install secure wirecategory I) and multiple lesser less capabilities across all Air programs (acquisition catForce bases as well, while a egory III) to become “a conthird ACAT I contract will glomerate of capabilities being take the ITS network infradelivered through various prostructure upgrades to the Air grams,” according to Colonel National Guard bases. Russ Fellers, CITS program The CITS program office manager. also supports contracts for Col. Russ Fellers The CITS program office another set of ACAT 1 promay award those contracts as grams under the banner of task orders through the Air Force Networkthe Air Force Network (AFNET). The AFNET Centric Solutions (NETCENTS) consolidated Increment 1 program has been working for purchasing vehicle, but it also may explore several years toward the goal of creating other options due to the anticipated timing of gateways for the Air Force intranet. Those the awards, Fellers explained. 16 gateways are designed to protect the Air “Right now, NETCENTS is the contract Force from external threats to its networks that we have been directed to use for acquisifrom over the Internet. That effort goes into tion of CITS products and capabilities. The operational test this fall with full operational current contract is about to run out of its capability projected for the middle of 2010. ordering period,” Fellers stated. AFNET Increment 2 also will begin next “There is a follow-on contract, NETyear, Fellers revealed. The program, another CENTS 2, won’t be in place until next sumACAT 1, centers on the re-architecture of all mer, so we have to look at multiple vehicles to base boundaries to protect networks from procure the capabilities we are trying to put internal threats from base to base. 16 | MIT 13.7
The CITS program office will kick off yet another large acquisition program next year to rebuild network control centers at all Air Force bases. “We will continue to embrace server virtualization to reduce our logistics footprint, our life cycle costs, and our energy consumption across the Air Force for our networks,” Fellers said. A host of smaller programs also will bring additional benefits to networks. For example, the CITS program office will start up a program called the Cyber Control System within the next few months. It will be a command and control system used for situational awareness of the AFNET. “The Cyber Control System is the first step toward giving the operator the ability to have real-time knowledge of the operational state of the network,” Fellers said.
SECURITY MENTALITY The restructuring of the CITS program office and its portfolio is a significant effort requiring the office to double in size over the next year to adequately deliver the capabilities it has been tasked to implement. “There has been a mentality in the past that our networks need to be fast, responsive, convenient and as open as possible to get our job done,” Fellers commented. “The Air Force is in the process of changing that mentality. The first priority now is that our networks need to be secure. That is trumping the availability and ease of use of the network. We can’t afford to have a compromise. Much of our operational activity now takes place on www.MIT-kmi.com
the network, and we can’t afford to have that taken away from us.” The flurry of activity now occurring is a result of the CITS program office clearing an audit by the inspector general of the Department of Defense as well as a program support review from the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Fellers said. Once CITS resources were freed from those obligations, the office began to turn its attention to fielding new cybercapabilities. Recent events have underscored the need for the Air Force to rapidly deploy new ways of deploying and securing its networks, Fellers remarked. A sustained cyber-attack against government networks in June, suspected to have originated from North Korea, reminded network managers that DoD is a prominent target for malicious actors. “So we have to be very secure—more secure than the public sector. There is a lot of activity going on now and over the next several years to improve the security of our networks, to improve the security of our network devices, and to improve the security of the desktops, laptops and mobile devices that our military members use to carry out their missions. This amounts to a defense-indepth activity to try to protect ourselves from cyberthreats,” Fellers commented. There has been a growing focus within DoD on cybersecurity, including such departmentwide initiatives as the recently announced establishment of U.S. Cyber Command. But Fellers said the timing of the CITS initiatives to upgrade Air Force networks has sprung from a predictable and necessary technology refresh. “For the purposes of CITS, we are not in the business of developing the network infrastructure, the network management or network defense tools. We are purchasing COTS products. We are following the industry lead and purchasing best of breed to defend our networks,” Fellers stated. The Air Force, meanwhile, is establishing the 24th Air Force to oversee its cyber-activity and moving its cyber-operations to Air Force Space Command. These moves are part of a significant change to how the Air Force previously conducted its cyberbusiness, Fellers emphasized. Previously, the Air Force established networks and maintained them at every base, and the major commands were responsible for managing their networks. “Now we are moving toward an Air Force enterprise concept for managing and defending our networks. All of the tools that we are 18 | MIT 13.7
engineering, furnishing and installing Voice over IP solutions at Keesler, Wright-Patterson and Vandenberg Air Force bases.” Among its major contributions to CITS, General Dynamics IT has supported the move from decentralized management of networks at the Air Force major commands to the new INDUSTRY RELIANCE Air Force Network Operations (AFNETOPS) construct, Besson continued. Under AFNET Fellers highlighted the importance of Increment 1, the company assisted with prodfollowing the lead of industry in standing up uct acquisition and standing up the 16 Air new network connectivity and security. Given Force intranet gateways. It also designed and the reliance on industry for this expertise implemented integrated network operations and the host of projects coming from the and security and provided operational supCITS program office, it was no surprise that port for the Air Force enterprise network at an industry day held this spring drew attenthe Air Force Network Operations Center dance from more than 100 contractors, large Network Operations Division. and small, interested in providing support to It’s a critical time for the CITS program CITS. office as the Air Force makes key strategic Among the companies represented at the decisions, Besson noted. “The CITS program industry day was General Dynamics Informais being restructured to provide the most tion Technology, which has worked with the effective means to quickly tackle such issues CITS program office in the past. using standardized, proven processes and “A large number of our delivery orders sources to acquire, deploy and sustain the have directly contributed to ground-based data and voice the Air Force making great elements of the cyberspace strides toward achieving true domain,” he stated. net-centricity and a more That restructuring secure cyberposture,” said Paul comes with challenges. BesBesson, staff vice president of son anticipated that openbusiness development for Air ing multiple, complex ACAT Force IT solutions at General programs concurrently will Dynamics IT. involve oversight challenges While supporting the ITS for both the Air Force and for program, General Dynamics industry. IT delivered turnkey survey, “However, it’s those Paul Besson design, installation, training, changes that will also allow integrated system testing and for the more efficient, rapid warranty support for the backbone IT infraand flexible acquisition agility,” he said. “Fosstructure at more than 75 sites worldwide— tering a continued environment of partnerincluding Vandenberg, Petersen, F.E. Warren, ship with industry will serve as key enablers Eglin, Edwards, Beale and Ellsworth Air Force to meeting those challenges.” bases, Besson said. Looking ahead to the future of CITS, BesGeneral Dynamics IT also provided the Air son emphasized the need for all involved to Force with robust, standardized, secure wirebring innovative and forward-thinking soluless infrastructure with multi-tiered administions to meet mission requirements. “The tration and management for 29 bases, with 25 restructured program may require indusmore in process, as the prime contractor for try to be more proactive in the future by the Second Generation Wireless LAN delivery aggressively assisting in the development of order for CITS. technology roadmaps, consolidation initia“We fielded and sustained Air Force teletives, innovative lab environments, flexible communication switches across the Air Force sustainment options and assured compliance for many years, providing reliable voice comwith mandated security standards and procemunication within the existing telephone dures,” he said. ✯ system, and supporting future net-based voice capabilities,” Besson recounted. “GenContact Editor Harrison Donnelly at eral Dynamics IT has also played a key role in email@example.com. For more information related to this subject, evolving the Air Force’s voice switching syssearch our archives at www.MIT-kmi.com. tems from circuit- to IP-based telephony by
putting in place now from the CITS program office are focused on enabling the Air Force to manage the Air Force intranet at the enterprise level. That is a departure from the way our networks were managed previously,” Fellers said.
JTRS Advances Acquisition Reform PROGRAM SHOWS PROGRESS IN TACKLING ISSUES FROM TECHNOLOGICAL IMMATURITY TO CREEPING AND GOLD-PLATED REQUIREMENTS.
Editor’s Note: This is another in a regular series of updates on the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), as provided by the program’s Joint Program Executive Office (JPEO).
As the Defense Science Board has observed, a transformed acquisition system is essential to military transformation for a number of reasons. “In today’s environment, a responsive, rapid and agile acquisition system is a necessity—the current model is not up to the task,” according to a 2005 board report. Many distinguished panels and individuals over the decades have aimed at reforming the defense acquisition process, and observers have already identified most of the problems and have proposed solutions for them. There appears to be remarkable agreement as to the problems that need to be addressed but, so far, not enough ability or agility to address them, according to a 2008 assessment of defense acquisition performance. The JTRS program faces many of the same problems that trip up other acquisition programs, especially the problems that www.MIT-kmi.com
arise from being a joint program in a service-centric environment. The Department of Defense has attempted to deal with JTRS problems in unique ways. They include: Technology Immaturity. AMF JTRS competitively awarded development contracts to two industry teams that each took their competing designs to preliminary design review well before Milestone B. Industry also built prototypes. The government then required each team’s proposals for the follow-on system development and demonstration work to show that the technology readiness level (TRL) for critical technologies were at TRL 6—defined as “system/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment”—or better. This allowed the under secretary of defense for acquisition, technology and logistics (USD (AT&L)) to certify to Congress that AMF JTRS MIT 13.7 | 19
was one of the first programs to comply with the provisions of 10 U.S.C. 2366b, which represented an attempt by Congress to raise the bar for Milestone B. The new Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009 further enhances the importance of technology maturity and competitive prototyping. Lethargic Acquisition Process. In 2007, USD (AT&L) approved a streamlined process for JTRS to decrease the time and cost to staff documents, thus facilitating faster decisions without sacrificing OSD or service insight or program rigor. The under secretary also delegated final approval of some documents to the JPEO JTRS to facilitate the JPEO’s ability to apply midcourse corrections and more quickly institutionalize lessons learned in acquisition and systems engineering, as needed. After a year in use, an OSD joint analysis team endorsed this process by recommending that JTRS’ “current streamlined procedures be retained.” Slow Technology Insertion to Meet Urgent Operational Requirements. JTRS produces software defined radios, and much of its capability resides in software. After JTRS delivers a baseline software package, it plans to then develop, integrate, and test enhancements to the baseline software every two to three years via its software in service support (SwISS) process. As recommended by the January 2006 Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment report and other analyses, these enhancements can be heavily influenced by input from users, such as combatant commanders, via the JTRS Tactical Requirements Group, which is part of the SwISS process. Emergency code revisions could be fielded in two to six months. JTRS has an opportunity to take another step to build a powerful new model—an annual operating plan (to supplement the acquisition program baseline) fed by level RDT&E funding to respond to an annual list of COCOM-generated enhancements approved outside the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS). Creeping Requirements. From program initiation in 2002 through 2005, JTRS had more than 3,000 requirements. Several were extremely challenging and even beyond available technical capability. Others were too vague, and requirements never stabilized. JTRS was not executable, and the success of the 2006 restructuring hinged on deferring many requirements to future JTRS increments and clarifying other requirements. Today, JPEO JTRS and JTRS program managers remain vigilant on both informal (that is, outside the JCIDS process) and formal requirements creep. Several JTRS contracts tie industry’s award fee to its ability to resist disruptive tasking and any growth in contract scope not formally approved by the government procuring contracting officer and program manager. Additionally, the DoDI 5000.02 policy to emphasize key performance parameters, while pushing other requirements to trade space, will embolden JTRS PMs to request requirements relief. A JTRS Configuration Steering Board can facilitate this relief. Gold-Plated Requirements. JTRS cost estimators are playing a key role in developing the capabilities document for JTRS Increment II; after cost estimators placed a price tag on each iteration of the draft capabilities development document (CDD), another group of “requirements” suddenly disappeared due to their high price. For the draft CDD, this drove the requirements community to realize how difficult/expensive some requirements would be to meet. The result was a distilled list 20 | MIT 13.7
of cheaper, easier-to-develop capabilities that are based on more mature technologies—that is, the 75 percent solution advocated by the secretary of defense in Senate testimony earlier this year. JTRS programs will continue striving for realistic cost estimates on draft requirements, making it easier to predict the cost, schedule and performance outcomes of each round of development, resulting in more stable budgets. These detailed cost estimates will also help the government recognize overly aggressive bidding in industry proposals. Competition Ends When Development Starts. The radio industry has been a closed, proprietary model: Industry typically retained most software and hardware intellectual property rights, requiring the services to continuously invest with an individual vendor for each capability upgrade. Different radio vendors diluted interoperability and DoD’s ability to leverage economies of scale. Through the JTRS enterprise business model, JTRS increases software reuse and portability because JTRS vendors provide government purpose rights for their historically proprietary software, and standards ensure that JTRS software is consistently applied across several hardware platforms. This increases competition for software upgrades and maintenance, avoids costs, improves and increases interoperability across multiple radio platforms, and allows easier technology insertion and product refresh. In addition, JTRS qualifies at least two production sources for radio sets and competes buys in aggregated lots. (For example, individual components combined their purchases of handheld tactical radios, and in less than 18 months avoided $425 million in costs while buying more than 110,000 JTRS single channel handheld radios.) JTRS encourages radio vendors that do not currently have development contracts to join the competition for future production orders by showing, via government testing, that their radios meet JTRS requirements. Competition has been and continues to be a key tenet of the JTRS enterprise business model. Joint Acquisition Programs Are Typically Not Well Managed. Shortfalls of the existing joint acquisition process typically include: • • • •
the joint requirements generation process is too slow, and there is often a lack of consensus on requirements; joint programs often take longer and cost more than single-service acquisitions; single-component programs often have more seniorleader advocacy than do joint programs; and OSD oversight of joint programs is strained due to other commitments and lack of staffing.
JTRS was initially established as a direct report to USD (AT&L), which provided joint oversight and guidance to the program and to the services. This approach addressed several of these shortfalls, but with the JPEO JTRS returning to an SAE acquisition structure, many of these will need to again be resolved, unless a new set of rules of engagement can be agreed upon initially. An approach for JTRS and other joint programs to have an advocate of a true joint nature would be to create a joint acquisition executive (JAE), as a peer to current component acquisition executives, reporting to USD (AT&L) and that manages only joint programs. The JAE would be the joint technical authority for those joint programs. www.MIT-kmi.com
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