Page 1


Carlos raguay estudiante 11/11/2011

INTRODUCTION This book is the experiecia and some learning methods and concepts of electronics so the same as was used electronics inour special lives and learn about types of semiconductors also use various types of projects in the school and severalpractical and simple and cheap and with components that can bepurchased at any electronics.

INDEX History of electronic………………………… pag 1 Electronic content over………………pag 2 to 37 Conclusion………………………................pag 38 References…………………………………pag …………………………………pag 39

HISTORY OF ELECTRONICS The history of electronics, like many other sciences, is marked by small and large discoveries. Some random and others, the result of visionary minds of researchers and scientists The electronics did not assume the connotations that characterize technology until the early twentieth century with the invention of the first components and in particular in 1904, with the creation of the thermionic valve, or diode, by the British physicist John Ambrose Fleming. The diode consists essentially of two electrodes contained in a hollow tube, one of which (the cathode) is heated by a filament.Because of this heating, the cathode emits electrons (thermioniceffect), which are accelerated towards the other electrode (the anode) when the latter remains positive to the cathode. So that, inserted in a circuit, the

diode shows the important property of conducting current only when the voltage applied to it has a certain sense. In this way,, allows the rectification of an alternating current. The current is obtained by connecting an appliance to one of theshots on the walls of the houses (AC AC power), has the feature of continuous investment in the sense that flows through a circuit,and hence is called alternating current (the alternating currentnetwork is due to the technique of production, which is not up tothe electronics.. Anyway, in many cases, you must have a current,, ie, never invest their sense of movement. to this is used a certain devices which rectify the current, transforming AC to continue

THE HISTORY OF SEMICONDUCTORS goes back to the days of Faraday (1833) and Becquerel (1839). Faraday discovered that silver sulfate has a coefficient of Becquerel negative temperature and studying the properties ofsome electrolytes. Ambrose Fleming (1905), in search of an electrical signal detector, develops the vacuum diode, the first electronic device (valve)known. almost simultaneously, and Elstel Gertel (1905) are based on the photoelectric effect and produce the first photodetector, which will not be used for commercial purposes until 1920, when research starts talking movies and television. Soon after, Lee Foret (1907) invents the triode. This device, apart from detecting electrical signals, is now able to amplify signals (arises when a third electrode to the valve). By 1915 he begins using the galenacrystal as a detector

of signals. In the early 20's you begin to use rectifiers selenium and copper oxide and radio valves replace the crystal detector detector. Between 1920 and 1940, first develops the tetrode and pentode,and the other the elaborate physical theories that explain some of the phenomenadiscovered so time. In 1923 he published the theory of Schottky rectifiers dry, is the first theoretical contribution to the study of semiconductors. In this theory shows that the use of quantum mechanics reveals indispensable.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A third part of the evolution of electronics opened in the late fifties with the introduction of the integrated circuit by Kilby at TexasInstruments, and Noyce and Moore of Fairchild SemiconductorCompany. The idea was to include a complete circuit on a singlesemiconductor chip: the chip,, and make connections between the devices part of the production process, process, thus reducing size, weightand cost relative to the number of active act elements. The development of microelectronics, as it is called the electronicintegrated circuits is impressive.


TRANSISTORS The bipolar transistor The invention and development of bipolar transistor broadcasttook place at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where a group of electronics engineers and metallurgists (W. Schockley, J. Bardeen, W. Brattain) proposed the realization ofan amplifier the solid state. The term bipolar transistor is due to the existence of two types carriers-electrons and holes, and the fact of the change inimpedance between the emitter circuit (low) and collector (highest), which generates the word transistor (transfer-resistor). W. Schockley, J. Bardeen, W. Brattainreceived the Nobel Prize Physics in 1956. Unipolar JFET Transistor In subsequent years the bipolar transistor is improved and developed new solid state devices. These may include base transistor doped gradually, the power transistors, the transistor effectunipolar

field (JFET Junction FieldEffect = Transistor) built by Shockley in 1952, four-layer layer diode (also due to Shockley), the control elements power (thyristors and triacs) and the effect of tunneling in Esakijoints (1958).

Unipolar MOS Transistor It J.E. Lilienfield ienfield (1926) imagined a device similar to the currenttransistor metal-oxide-semiconductor semiconductor field effect (MOSFET transistor or simply MOS). But for obvious technological limitations of the time could not be built. in Atalla and Kalng 1960 suggest that on a base or substratesemiconductor silicon produce a thin layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2). And in 1963, andHeiman Holfstein

CAPACITORS are polarized electrolytic containers plus and minus current that can store DepEd have MFD and voltage handling and can also beuseful in AC but it handles more direct current these containers are needed for a project but there are several types of training is glass paper plastic electrolyte. electrolyte

DIODES are based semiconductor rectify alternating voltage current to direct current they are in any type of appliance up because without diodes cars can not pass the alternating current to direct current, but not all diodes are as much the most widely usedtypes rectifier is also a regulator and protecion DIODE ZENER this diode is responsible for regulating the input voltage this diode is reverse biased acts of protection against high voltagesand very practical IDEAL DIODE this diode is used for full-wave rectifier for greater output voltagein which many appliances use these diodes but life does not work because depending on usage and time and the applied voltageand the diode acts on

DIODE BRIDGE these diodes are encapsulated for further manifestation of the same voltage and current that travels in the e diode bridge but this only serves to draw the alternating voltage dc voltage LED DIODE this diode emits light however there are many colors and types and protons are burned inside the container but they are notharmful because its light consumes little power but also voltage and are effective in all components used

TRANSFORMER one of the most used components as without transformer can not you use various types of voltage The invention of the transformer, dating from 1884, for application in transmission systems were at that time and had direct current technical and economic constraints. The first commercial AC purposes of distribution of electric power transformers used, was put into operation in the United States of America. In the year 1886 in Great Barington, Mass., in the same year, the peak voltage was transmitted at 2000 volts for alternating current at a distance of 30 kilometers, on a line built in Cerchi, Italy. From this small initial applications, the electrical industry in the world, has come in such a way that is now a factor in development of peoples is an important part in this industry the transformer.

The transformer is a device that has no moving parts, which transfers electrical energy from one circuit or another under the principle of electromagnetic induction. The transfer of energy usually makes changes in the values of voltages and currents. A transformer receives electrical power to a voltage value and surrender to a higher value, while a power transformer receives a high voltage value and commitment to a low value. Principles of electromagnetic induction. Electricity magnetism in an electromagnet, which is different from a permanent magnet and the magnetic field occurs only when the coils of wire wound around the core, carrying electric current. To determine the polarity of an electromagnet you can use the so-called lefthand rule. Principle of operation of the transformer.

The operating principle of the transformer, can be explained by the so-called single-phase ideal transformer, ie a machine that is powered by a single phase alternating current. Subject to further studies, the construction of the transformer, essentially we can say that a transformer consists of a core of magnetic material forming a closed magnetic circuit, and upon whose columns or legs localizandos windings, one called "primary "receiving power and the other side, which closes on a circuit which use energy delivery. The two windings are electrically asylum together.

The voltage induces an electric generator, either when a coil moves through a magnetic field or when the field produced at the poles cut a stationary coil movement. In both cases, the total flow is substantially Contant, but there is a change in the amount of flux linking the coil. This same principle applies to the transformer, but in this case the coils and magnetic circuit are

stationary (no movement), while continuously changing the magnetic flux. The change in the flow can be obtained by applying an alternating current in the coil. The current through the coil, varies in magnitude with time, and therefore, the flux produced by this current also varies in magnitude with time. The flow changing with the time into one of the windings E1 induces a voltage (in the primary). If contempt for ease, the voltage drop across the primary winding resistance, the value of E1 is equal and opposite to the applied voltage V1. From the law of electromagnetic induction, we know that E1 induced voltage in the primary winding and the rate of change of flow in the coil. We have two important relationships. V1 = - E1 N1 E1 (0 / T) The flow while changes in the primary coil,

it changes in the secondary coil, since the two coils are located within the magnetic media, and then the rate of change of magnetic flux in both coils is exactly the same. This change in flow E2 induce a flow in the secondary coil that is proportional to the number of turns in the secondary winding N2. If one considers that there is no load connected to the secondary circuit, the induced voltage E2 is the voltage appearing at the terminals of the secondary, so you have two additional relationships. E2 N2 (0 / T) E2 = V2 Given that weapons are coils wound on the same magnetic circuit, the proportionality factors for the voltage equations are equal, so if you divide the equations for E1 and E2 have: E1 = N1 E2 N2

Furthermore, as numbers must be equal E1 and V2 or V2 - A above equation can be written as: V1 = Ng V2 N2 Current ratio. If a load is connected to the secondary of the transformer, the induced voltage Eg making a current I2 in the secondary winding. Due to the current circulation is taken into the secondary winding magnetomotive force (MMF) I2 N2 opposite the primary N1 I1. It should be recalled that the voltage induced in the primary E1 is always directly proportional to flow 0 and is equal to the applied voltage V1, considering as before, all these values as effective. Since the applied voltage does not change in the core flow must be constant, any increase in the secondary current will be balanced by an increase in primary

current, so that the flow produced by the current energizing the primary will constant real value during the operation of the transformer. Power transformers in the relatively small value, one can say that almost flux linking the primary winding is the same which links to the secondary and hence the load current or energizing represents only 2% or 3%the full load primary current can already say that the primary ampere-turns are equal to the secondary ampere-turns, ie: N1 N2 I = I2

THE WIRE this driver in all the years and also used throughout this project and appliances drive much copper wire voltage or low voltage either as current without Alabre we could not use the electronic circuits The wire has been used for many centuries before our era. The manufacturing process consisted in beating oldest metal sheets to give the required thickness and cut into narrow strips and then to be rounded to hammer wire to make them. This procedure was applied to the midfourteenth century. However, archaeological excavations have found brass wires of more than 2000 years, which when examined showed signs that its production could be attributed to the procedure of the row. Row is a metal plate, with several holes of different diameters. The metal to be converted into wire is first given the form of a bar, and then thins and sharpens one of the ends of the bar to pass successively through the various holes in the row, from highest to lowest until the bar wire metal is converted into

the desired thickness. In England, began to produce wires with the help of machines in the mid-nineteenth nineteenth century. In this class of machines, highly developed later, based on the principle of the row, all operations are mechanical and replaced with admirable speed and performance the old manual labor.

SUPPORT MATERIALS career SIGEN electronica electronica everyone m ust carry and maintain many materials as they are universally and also should have their maintenance most widely used materials UNARMED these are conponentes varying sizes and types as they arecastigadera cross of pentagonal star and trian gle-and there arealso many sizes are measured in mm and inches CAUTIN this is the best friend of the electronic and semiconductor used todesolder electronic cards with tin and tin wires

TIN ESTRACTOR this is useful and you can not substitute for tin in a card strategyfor removing a semiconductor or whether to change TIN used to connect any electronic device on a card or wires

WATER LEVEL METER This circuit is composed essentially three equal steps each consists of an NPN transistor configured as a switch at the base connect the signal from a sensor THROUGH a 1k resistor and its The collector output is connected a LED a level indicator LED THROUGH a resistance of 220 ohms AWhen when the water carries the current the sensors is directly polarized base of the transistors making these lead and therefore turns on the corresponding LED to save power and prevent possible water electrolis this circuit opens or closes valves either filled with water to a container or for a tank that no one has Supervision of the


VARIABLE SOURCE A voltage source is one of the instruments or equipment more useful for all amateur or professional student in electronics the circuit presented in this occasion contains a variable voltage source and three fixed-voltage sources with voltages can be obtained first from 1.2V to 20V the others have a fixed +5 V output, 12 + and-12V each can handle loads 1A to use it to feed and test all the circuits in this course and the others you can esamble


LIGHT SEQUENCE this simple circuit is a light controlled sequential but which in turn can handle a considerable number of lights which can selected by means of tiny switches the circuit is composed of three blocks the clock circuit is responsible for establishing speed circuit operation is sets the speed at which the lamps escenderan one after another in sequence the counter circuit is formed by the

4017b which integrated with every clock pulse activates one of its outlets this IC offers a maximum of ten starts but besides provides the ability to select few of the want to turn ten outputs to select how many outlets you want to activate is added a selector circuit consists of a series of miniature switches allow you to select from one to ten outputs


CONCLUSION This was a very nice project and we put into practice everythinglearned during our race as we use many things with it and usegood materials and learn different circuits The electronics are gradually incorporated in our daily life applications ranging from simple laboratory tests to the quantification process control and even those who do not have no relation with the electronic

REFERENCES cekit book notebooks of the year Electronic course

my book  

How it is seen in the URL web address.