Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed, comprising insightful essays and the views of a diverse group of contributors, uniquely features the work of a select number of contemporary artists whose interventions both contrast and complement the essays. The publication honours Wolfgang Petritsch, the eminent Austrian diplomat, international Balkans ‘trouble shooter’ and author, on the occasion of his 60th birthday, offering fresh reflections and thought-provoking opinions on some of the most urgent policy issues facing the European Union at the start of the 21st century.
Tribute Swoboda | Solioz (eds.)
Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed brings together the views of policymakers, leading scholars, and practitioners in post-conflict management from Europe and the United States – many of them active in the historic process underway in South-Eastern Europe and beyond. Reviewed here are pertinent issues of the continent’s fundamental transformation fifty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome. The results of post-conflict recovery are critically assessed, with consideration given to transitional justice and reconciliation issues, complemented by a detailed examination of broad political and economic questions including human and minority rights in war-torn societies. With this volume, Europe is viewed as an emerging global player against the backdrop of challenges posed by the delayed transition in the Western Balkans. In appraising the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the status conflict between Serbia and Kosovo, contours of a long overdue regional vision for the Balkans in the New Europe emerge.
About the editors: Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed. Essays in Honour of Wolfgang Petritsch is edited by Hannes Swoboda, Vice Chair of the PSE Group in the European Parliament, and Christophe Solioz, Secretary General of the Center for European Integration Strategies The authors: Madeleine Albright | Franz-Lothar Altmann | Carl Bildt | Sonja Biserko | Dunja Blaževic´ | Bertram D. Braun Erhard Busek | Helfried Carl | Carla Del Ponte | Slavenka Drakulic´ | Freimut Duve | Vedran Džihic´ | Brigitte Ederer | Elisabeth Ellison | Jakob Finci | Joschka Fischer | Paolo Garonna | Vladimir Gligorov | `S´ejla Kameric´ Nata`s´a Kandic´ | Chris Keulemans | Christine von Kohl | Željko Kom`s´ic´ | Gregor Kössler | Milan Kuc`´an | Almir Kurt | Gabriel Lansky | Paul Lowe | Tihomir Loza | Thomas Markert | Predrag Matvejevic´ | Stjepan Mesic´ Boris Nem`s´ic´ | Peter Neussl | Manfred Nowak | James C. O’Brien | Tanja Ostojic´ | Zoran Pajic´ | Žarko Papic´ Alexander Petritz | Robert Pichler | Samir Plasto | Aaron Rhodes | Lord Robertson | Dimitrij Rupel | Javier Solana | Christophe Solioz | Cornelio Sommaruga | Herbert Stepic | Paul Stubbs | Goran Svilanovic´ Hannes Swoboda | T.K. Vogel | Patrick-Paul Volf | Gottfried Wagner | Lojze Wieser | Jody Williams | Jean Ziegler
Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed
Hannes Swoboda | Christophe Solioz (eds.)
Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed Essays in Honour of Wolfgang Petritsch
Nomos BUC-Swoboda_2843-8.indd 1
05.07.2007 10:10:34 Uhr
Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed Essays in Honour of Wolfgang Petritsch edited by Hannes Swoboda, Vice Chair of the PSE Group in the European Parliament Christophe Solioz, Secretary General of the Center for European Integration Strategies
Hannes Swoboda | Christophe Solioz (eds.)
Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed Essays in Honour of Wolfgang Petritsch
Madeleine Albright | Franz-Lothar Altmann | Carl Bildt | Sonja Biserko | Dunja Blaževic´ | Bertram D. Braun | Erhard Busek | Helfried Carl | Carla Del Ponte Slavenka Drakulic´ | Freimut Duve | Vedran Džihic´ | Brigitte Ederer | Elisabeth Ellison | Jakob Finci | Joschka Fischer | Paolo Garonna | Vladimir Gligorov | `S´ejla Kameric´ | Nata`s´a Kandic´ | Chris Keulemans | Christine von Kohl | Željko Kom`s´ic´ Gregor Kössler | Milan Kuc´an | Almir Kurt | Gabriel Lansky | Paul Lowe | Tihomir Loza | Thomas Markert | Predrag Matvejevic´ | Stjepan Mesic´ | Boris Nem`s´ic´ Peter Neussl | Manfred Nowak | James C. O’Brien | Tanja Ostojic´ | Zoran Pajic´ Žarko Papic´ | Alexander Petritz | Robert Pichler | Samir Plasto | Aaron Rhodes | Lord Robertson | Dimitrij Rupel | Javier Solana | Christophe Solioz | Cornelio Sommaruga Herbert Stepic | Paul Stubbs | Goran Svilanovic´ | Hannes Swoboda | T.K. Vogel Patrick-Paul Volf | Gottfried Wagner | Lojze Wieser | Jody Williams | Jean Ziegler.
Sponsored by mobilkom austria Hypo Group Alpe Adria Lansky, Ganzger, + partner Adriatic Luxury Hotels Ville de Genève
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://www.d-nb.de abrufbar. Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://www.d-nb.de . ISBN 978-3-8329-2843-8
1. Auflage 2007 © Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2007. Printed in Germany. Alle Rechte, auch die des Nachdrucks von Auszügen, der fotomechanischen Wiedergabe und der Übersetzung, vorbehalten. Gedruckt auf alterungsbeständigem Papier. This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machine or similar means, and storage in data banks. Under § 54 of the German Copyright Law where copies are made for other than private use a fee is payable to »Verwertungsgesellschaft Wort«, Munich.
List of Acronyms
Opening Christophe Solioz Enter the Labyrinth
Hannes Swoboda Zoon Politikon — A Unique Leader, Right for His Time
Jakob Finci A Real Friend for a New Bosnia
Europe as a Global Player Javier Solana Handling New Conflicts in a New Way
Joschka Fischer Beyond Europe Re-Divided: A Europe of Common Interests
Dimitrij Rupel The Balkans: A Litmus Test of the Union’s Transformation Power
Lord Robertson of Port Ellen A Mission Shared: EU and NATO Security Challenges
Erhard Busek Europe Needs Some Shock Therapies: Leadership Challenges in Europe
Franz-Lothar Altmann Europe as a Global Partner: South East Europe as the Test Case
Post-Conflict Challenges Kurt+Plasto Greetings from Europe
Madeleine Albright and James C. O’Brien The Balkans: A Normal Part of Europe?
Carl Bildt Europe’s Soft Power: A Force for Change
Bertram D. Braun The Balkan Aquarium: Crisis Prevention and Post-Crisis Stabilisation
T.K. Vogel The International Community in Bosnia: Failed State Building?
Helfried Carl Thinking Inside the Box
Transitional Justice for Reconciliation Slavenka Drakulić Execution Was Not Enough
Carla Del Ponte Transitional Justice: The Role of the Prosecution
Cornelio Sommaruga Justice and Reconciliation: Condition for a Sustained Peace
Nataša Kandić Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Societies of Former Yugoslavia
Gabriel Lansky Human Rights and the Fight Against Terrorism
Human Rights — Acting Makes the Difference Šejla Kamerić Instill
Jody Williams Without Political Will, Mere Words on Paper
Manfred Nowak Is Europe Ready to Take the Lead from the United States?
Aaron Rhodes The Challenge of Partnership, Civil Society and Human Rights
Elisabeth Ellison Why the UN Mandate of Independent Expert on Minority Issues Matters 162
Diversity of Europe Gottfried Wagner Europe Needs New Cultural Policies
Predrag Matvejević Europe Seen from the Other Europe
Brigitte Ederer Europe’s Door Must Be Opened for the Western Balkans
Lojze Wieser The Coexistence of Future and Past
Peter Neussl Overcome Euroskepticism
Vladimir Gligorov A Kantian Idea of Sovereignty
A New Regional Approach for South East Europe Dunja Blažević What Do We Have in Common?
Stjepan Mesić A New Policy for South East Europe
Milan Kučan A New View for the Balkans
Gregor Kössler Regional Cooperation in South East Europe: Opportunities and Risks
Robert Pichler Migration and the Politics of Identity
Vedran Džihić Flipping the Coin: Views on Democratisation and Europeanisation
Bosnia and Herzegovina Beyond Dayton Chris Keulemans Sarajevo, 24 June 2014
Željko Komšić Time to Tackle the National Question
Zoran Pajić Witnessing Transition and State-Building in Western Balkans
Thomas Markert The Impossible Reform?
Tihomir Loza Overcoming Fixations
Re-examining Kosovo’s and Serbia’s Future Tanja Ostojić Crossing Borders: Development of Different Artistic Strategies
Sonja Biserko Serbia: A Continued Source of Instability in the Balkans?
Christophe Solioz Kosovo: the Moment of Truth
Goran Svilanović Moving Beyond the Status Quo
Christine von Kohl Kosovo is Independent from Serbia, but the Conflict is Not Resolved
Media and Communication in a Globalised World Paul Lowe The Economy of Images
Paul Stubbs Revisiting Computer-mediated Anti-war Activism
Freimut Duve It Is Not Just the Letter that Counts, but the Spirit of the Law
Patrik-Paul Volf Why We Need a Global Karl Kraus and John Stewart
Boris Nemšić Bridging Frontiers in an Expanding Europe
Politics and Economy Dunja Blažević Who Owns Public Spaces? The Ownership of Monuments
Paolo Garonna New Europe’s View on the Future of Europe
Herbert Stepic Where Will the CEE Economies Stand in 2020?
Žarko Papić Social Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina and EU Integration
Jean Ziegler The Failure of Human Rights
Alexander Petritz Building Euro-Regions in South East Europe
Annexes Wolfgang Petritsch: Biography
Wolfgang Petritsch: Selected Bibliography
In August 2007, Wolfgang Petritsch turns sixty. In recognition of his lifelong dedication to the cause of human rights, post-conflict reconciliation, intercultural dialogue, and the importance of individual civic commitment as well as the need for a sense of social responsibility and participation in the political process — this book honours the diplomat, homme politique, colleague and friend, Wolfgang Petritsch. This book would not have been possible without the help of many. Special thanks are due to Philip Ellison who, as copy editor, helped the editors fulfil their task. Thanks as well to T.K. Vogel — this book would not have appeared without his efforts in seeing the contributions through to publication — and Taina Evans who reviewed the final version. We also want to express our gratitude to Ambassador Petritsch’s personal assistant in Geneva, Manuela Sarkissian-Kleb, who managed to make complex issues appear simple. Christian Ebner, now Director of the Austrian Culture Forum in Zagreb, was extremely helpful in providing regular updates and to-the-point analyses of the country’s situation during his ‘Bosnian years’. Thanks are also due to Sadik Tufekcija, who facilitated so many trips Wolfgang Petritsch and Christophe Solioz made to Bosnia and elsewhere since 2002. We are of course grateful to all the contributors to this collective effort. For many years, we have been in regular contact with most of them. This book may also be considered as a contribution to the public debate on pertinent topics ranging from broad political and economic issues to transitional justice and reconciliation, as well as human and minority rights in war-torn societies, to name just a few. We would like to especially highlight the contributions of artists whose interventions both contrast and complement the essays in thought-provoking ways. This publication benefited from funding provided by mobilkom austria; Hypo Group Alpe Adria; Adriatic Luxury Hotels; Lansky, Ganzger + partner; the Renner Institute and Ville de Genève. The views and opinions contained in this volume are of course entirely those of the respective authors; none of the funding organisations are in any way responsible for or necessarily in agreement with them. We are deeply thankful for the support of our sponsors and for their largesse to encourage discussion. We would also like to express 11
our gratitude to our publisher, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, for its dedication and support of this and related publications since 2003. We must, finally, acknowledge the inspiration for this volume, found in the work of Wolfgang Petritsch, his service to his government, the European Union and the United Nations, his contribution to improve the lives of the people of South East Europe. His part in building a united Europe stands as an inspiration to those of us who pay homage to him with this book.
Vienna and Geneva, 9 June 2007 Christophe Solioz / Hannes Swoboda
List of Acronyms ADSL ARF ASEAN ASEAN/ARF CEE CEEC CEFTA CEIS CERD CFSP CIA CMEA CoE CoM CRC CRPC CSCE CSW DFID EBRD EC ECF ECHR EFTA ENP ESDP ESDI ESI ETA EU EUFOR EUMM EUPM EUSR FBH FDI FRY FTA FYROM GDP GFAP
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Alliance of Reform Forces Association of Southeast Asian Nations Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern European Countries Central European Free Trade Agreement Center for European Integration Strategies Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Common Foreign and Security Policy Central Intelligence Agency Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Council of Europe Council of Ministers Convention on the Rights of the Child Commission on Real Property Claims Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe Centres for Social Work Department for International Development European Bank for Reconstruction and Development European Commission European Cultural Foundation European Court of Human Rights European Free Trade Association European Neighbourhood Policy European Security and Defence Policy European Security and Defence Identity European Stability Initiative Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Basque Homeland and Freedom) European Union European Union Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina European Union Monitoring Mission European Union Police Mission European Union Special Representative Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Foreign Direct Investment Federal Republic of Yugoslavia free trade agreement Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Gross Domestic Product General Framework Agreement for Peace 13
GMF GNP HLC HDZ HSEI IBHI ICC ICG ICJ ICO ICR ICRC ICT ICTY ICTR IDP IFI IFOR ILO IMF IO IPA IPTF IRA ISB IWPR JIM JNA KDOM KM KSIP MDG MUP NATO NAPs/incl NGO NHI OIC OECD OHR OSCE PDP PfP PIC
German Marshall Fund of the United States Gross National Product Humanitarian Law Centre Croatian Democratic Union Human Social Exclusion Index Independent Bureau for Humanitarian Issues International Criminal Court International Crisis Group International Court of Justice International Civilian Office International Civilian Representative International Committee of the Red Cross Information and Communication Technologies International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda internally displaced person International Financial Institution Implementation Force International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund international organisation Instrument of Pre-Accession Assistance International Police Task Force Irish Republican Army International Steering Board Institute for War and Peace Reporting Joint Inclusion Memorandum Yugoslav Peopleâ€™s Army Kosovo Diplomatic Observers Mission Convertible Mark â€“ currency in Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo Standard Implementation Plan Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Internal Affairs of Serbia North Atlantic Treaty Organisation National Action Plans on Social Inclusion non-governmental organisation New Croatian Initiative Organisation of the Islamic Conference Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Office of the High Representative Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe Party for Democratic Progress Partnership for Peace Peace Implementation Council
PLIP PPP RCC R&D RTR PRSP RS SAA SAp SzBiH SCCA SDA SDS SEE SEEC SEECP SECI SFOR SFRY SIS SME SNSD SP SPU SRSG UJDI UN UNDDSMS UNDP UNECE UNESCO UNICEF UNHCR UNMIBH UNMIK UNSC UNSCR UNTAES UNV USD USIP VAT
Property Law Implementation Plan purchasing power parity Regional Cooperation Council research and development Rundfunk und Telekom Regulierungs GmbH Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Republika Srpska Stabilisation and Association Agreement Stabilisation and Association Process Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Centre for Contemporary Art Party of Democratic Action Serb Democratic Party South East Europe South East European Countries South East European Cooperation Process Southeast European Cooperation Initiative Stabilisation Force Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Schengen Information System small- and medium-sized enterprise Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe Special Police Unit Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General Union for a Democratic Yugoslav Initiative United Nations United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation United Nations Childrenâ€™s Fund United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina United Nations Mission in Kosovo United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia United Nations Volunteers United States Dollar United States Institute of Peace value added tax
VRS WB WHO WIIW WTO WWII
Army of the Republika Srpska World Bank World Health Organization Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies World Trade Organisation World War II
Enter the Labyrinth
Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed should be approached as a supplementary reader to Wolfgang Petritsch’s own publications1 and, possibly, as a stimulus for his next works. In much the same way as Petritsch himself would prepare an article or a keynote speech, drawing upon in-depth knowledge of the issue and intensive discussions with policymakers, experts, colleagues and citoyens engagés, many at the same time his trusted friends, this work is designed to augment and deepen discussion. His circle is thus more than a mere network. To think with Wolfgang Petritsch is to enter a Labyrinth. As Cornelius Castoriadis put it, reversing the domination of Platonic theorising: “To think is not to get out of the cave; it is not to replace the uncertainty of shadows by the clear-cut outlines of things themselves, the flame’s thickening glow by the light of the true Sun. To think is to enter the Labyrinth; more exactly, to make be and appear a labyrinth when we might have stayed ‘lying among the flowers, facing the sky’”.2 Of course — entering a labyrinth in search of a way! Reviewed here are pertinent issues of the continent’s fundamental transformation fifty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome. The results of post-conflict recovery are critically assessed and due consideration is given to transitional justice and reconciliation. The essays present a detailed examination of political and economic questions, including human and minority rights in war-torn societies. Most authors assembled in this volume consider Europe as an emerging global player critically viewed against the backdrop of challenges posed by the delayed transition in the Western Balkans. In appraising the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the status conflict between Serbia and Kosovo, contours of a long-overdue regional vision for the Balkans in this New Europe emerge. All these issues encompass the extraordinary breadth of Wolfgang Petritsch’s interests, thoughts, and political and diplomatic activities. Conflict and Renewal: Europe Transformed brings together the views of leading policymakers, scholars, and practitioners of post-conflict manage1 2
See the annexed select bibliography. Cornelius Castoriadis, Crossroads in the Labyrinth (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1984), pp. ix–x.
ment from Europe and the United States — many of them active in the historic process underway in South East Europe and beyond. The rich variety of authors and approaches is reflected in the diversity of styles. Academic contributions and policy papers stand next to stimulating essays and examples of artistic provocation: poems (Šejla Kamerić), a utopian text (Chris Keulemans), satirical cartoons (Kurt & Plasto), and insights into artistic production (Tanja Ostojić, Dunja Blažević). This kind of assortment of very diverse texts and artistic creations is unusual. The juxtaposition of academia and art undertakes to restore the necessary tension between the sayable and the unsayable, and thus tries to overcome the prevailing indifference between politics and the arts. Because true art is neither ornament nor a trendy public-relations instrument, the art-related contributions are placed at the beginning of separate chapters of our tribute to Wolfgang Petritsch, mirroring his personal understanding of arts and culture (especially contemporary art), which sets him apart from so many of his peers in public service. The purpose is to stimulate the reader to practise this back-and-forth between arts and politics. Among other things, they share the same experience of confronting and overcoming chaos. As in Dante’s Divina Commedia, we have to cross several circles and we need various ‘guides’ to successfully complete our journey. The reconfigured structure of international politics stemming from the end of Cold War, is a thread running through most of the contributions to this volume. Nowhere did the quest for new arrangements following the demise of Communism manifest itself more dramatically than in the Western Balkans, the region whose fate is closest to Wolfgang Petritsch’s heart. Not to put too fine a point on it: Europe, both as a loose collection of individual nation states that find themselves on the same continent and as an organised group with increasing depth and scope, failed miserably in the region — first in preventing the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and then in stopping it. The crisis over Kosovo of 1998–1999 suggested, however, that while U.S. leadership was still a necessary ingredient to any stable solution, European diplomacy was coming into its own. Today, much of the reform currently underway in the region, as halting and tentative as it may be at times, is driven by the wish of these countries and their citizens to become, one day, full-fledged members of a transformed European Union. It is this development that lends the various chapters of this book a certain poignancy and a relevance that goes far beyond the current difficulties in trans-Atlantic relations. These issues are of great concern to some of the most distinguished contributors to this collection. Madeleine K. Albright and James C. O’Brien, Carl Bildt, Lord Robertson and Javier Solana all address the need for an international compact to deal with conflict and crisis of the type that engulfed the Western Balkans during the years of Slobodan Milošević. Carla Del Ponte writes about the centrality of dealing with a legacy of war crimes for any future reconciliation. Three former and current presidents — Milan Kučan of Slovenia, Stjepan Mesić of Croatia, and Željko Komšić of Bosnia
and Herzegovina — highlight the challenges of regional cooperation and domestic politics. These current or former policymakers are joined by a group of distinguished experts writing on constitutional matters (Markert, Pajić); on the theoretical underpinnings of sovereignty (Gligorov); on the ‘Other Europe’ (Matvejević, Garonna); on justice and reconciliation (Biserko, Kandić, Sommaruga); and on state-building and European integration (Džihić, Vogel), to name but a few topics. The numerous other contributions — too many to be listed here — all give evidence of Wolfgang Petritsch’s breadth of interests. They have come together in this volume to pay homage to a man who is unusual for this time of ever-narrower specialisation, a diplomat whose vision more befits a statesman than a mere executor of policy. In that spirit, we present this collection to Wolfgang Petritsch and the reader: with a pragmatic sense that a way through the labyrinth can be found, and with the determination that this challenge should be overcome with dedication and creativity.
Zoon Politikon — A Unique Leader, Right for His Times
It is a privilege for me to edit, together with Christophe Solioz, these essays in honour of Wolfgang Petritsch. As is the case with every human being, Wolfgang Petritsch’s personality was formed and influenced by various factors and conditions of his early life. But very rarely do these factors form such an outstanding personality or, perhaps better put, are they taken up and transformed by a personality in such a productive and inspiring way. I just want to mention Wolfgang’s origins from a Slovene-minority family from Carinthia and his work with Bruno Kreisky. Kreisky, the former Chancellor of Austria, was himself a very inspiring personality. Not that he was without faults, but his ingenuity far surpassed his failings. He was a very complex personality who combined historical knowledge and sensitivity with diplomatic skills. His attraction to culture, and especially to literature, was hard to miss. He was a true Social Democrat who nevertheless greatly impressed the established class with his manners and his charisma. All these attitudes and characteristics you can just find in Wolfgang Petritsch. Surely he was much influenced by Bruno Kreisky, but Kreisky’s influence would only have enhanced existing potentials and abilities. Going back to his family roots, their crucial impact on Wolfgang’s political attitudes and career is obvious. He deliberately did not choose the nationalist path, coming from a minority group, but rather chose to overcome narrow-minded nationalism and ethnic particularism, which allowed him to contribute to a multi-ethnic Europe. His strong commitment to South East Europe left a deep impression in the region, especially in Serbia, in Kosovo and in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The nationalists of course did not like him that much, but still had to respect him. Those who had an interest in building multi-ethnic societies deeply admired and supported him and even today would still like to have him back in the region, to help them in realising a concrete vision of a multi-ethnic society. Time and again, I have noticed his popularity in the region and the demand for his opinion and advice. Conflicts for Wolfgang Petritsch are no reason to despair. They are always part of historic developments. Sometimes they are suppressed, sometimes they are dealt with openly and sometimes they lead to war. It is good if 22
you have people and especially politicians who appeal to rationality and who preach peace and understanding. But it is much more important to have politicians and diplomats who, with the knowledge of the historical roots of these conflicts, can talk to all parties and mediate. Even as a mediator, however, one must not forget one’s principles and ideas. Rather, one must concentrate on the prevention and resolution of conflicts. This is an important step in setting one’s visions in motion. Wolfgang is such a personality, one who knows how to make history and who continues doing just that. Based on his — continuing — engagement in the region, Wolfgang is a true European. He realised and still understands, not in an abstract way but in a very real sense, how weak Europe is and how far away it is from realising its possibilities and potentialities. He foresees for Europe a balanced strategy — bridging the chasm between deepening and widening — that aims to create a constitutional basis and enlarge the Union at the same time. In his activities on and for the states of the Balkans, he saw also the strength of the United States and how its strategies were often better defined than those of the EU. Again, this was and is not an argument against the U.S. but a motivation to strengthen the European Union. In the coming years the region of South East Europe has to be integrated step by step into the European Union. No black hole can be left in this region. Much sensibility and detailed work is needed to prepare the countries of the Balkans for membership. Enlargement is seen more and more critically and sceptically by the Union’s population. Basic conditions are not yet fulfilled by some of the potential candidate countries. Bosnia and Herzegovina has still not got viable constitutional structures and Serbia is still failing to fully cooperate with the ICTY in The Hague. In the meantime, many young, dynamic people emigrate from the region. The existing visa regime is an additional incentive to leave the region permanently. Worse still, many people, and especially politicians, have not accepted one principle that was and is clear to Wolfgang Petritsch: they have not grasped that they have to take ownership of their own country. The EU and especially personalities like Wolfgang Petritsch can and will help them. But the main job has to be done by the countries and their people themselves. In all his diplomatic and political activities, Wolfgang Petritsch never forgot the cultural side of human life. His humanistic orientation and his cultural interests were not a victim of his political life. He has always found time and engagement for this dimension which characterises human life. He is a zoon politikon in its true sense. Perhaps it is primarily nostalgia, but I miss very much those politicians who are neither technocrats nor populists. We need ‘political animals’ who combine knowledge of history and society, sensibility and the clear will to change political structures and attitudes. We need them in Europe in general and in particular in the Balkans.
Other conflicts, including the enduring crises in the Middle East, need such politicians, diplomats and other experts able to combine vision with pragmatism and knowledge with courage. I hope that the spirit of Wolfgang Petritsch and his work will continue to bear fruit in the coming years.
A Real Friend for a New Bosnia
The first time I ever heard the name of Wolfgang Petritsch was at a meeting of the Open Society Institute–Soros Foundation in mid-1998. At that time, I was Executive Director of the Open Society Institute in Sarajevo and there I learned, to my surprise and delight, that the activities of our Foundation in Belgrade were fully supported by Austria’s influential ambassador there, Wolfgang Petritsch. Back then, it was not easy to support the idea of an open society, but Ambassador Petritsch was brave enough to do precisely that — in the middle of Milošević’s ‘empire’. Just one year later, Wolfgang Petritsch became High Representative of the international community in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Again, I was delighted, knowing his qualities, above all his openness and willingness to work even in the most complicated situations. We met personally for the first time at a diplomatic reception in the wonderful gardens of Sarajevo’s National Museum, and struck an immediate rapport. I was proud to discover a real friend amongst the ‘internationals’ who, though they had worked for years in the country, somehow tended to treat ‘locals’ as second-class human beings. This pleasant encounter later developed into serious cooperation and a joint project — how to implement the decision of the Constitutional Court on the constituent peoples’ issue. As this called for changes in the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, I was asked by the High Representative whether I was willing to chair the Federal Constitutional Commission. Being a lawyer by training, this was a real challenge for me, but who could walk away from such a request? I am not sure that anyone has ever managed to say no to Wolfgang Petritsch, but this was also a special case for me, because I am Jewish — which meant that I do not belong to one of the three ‘constituent peoples’ in my country. We began to work hard; it was a Commission of no fewer than 16 people, four from each of the three ‘constituent peoples’ and four representing the ‘others’. The Constitutions of the Bosnian Entities are legally complicated and go back to the time of the war: one is a copy of the Serbian Constitution, the other the result of the American-led negotiations of 1994 between Muslims and Croats. This difficult task was eased thanks to Wolfgang Petritsch’s policy of ‘ownership’ — which meant handing over step-by-step the responsibility for the future of the country into the hands of Bosnians. 25
The idea of ownership was wise and brave,1 taking also into account the history and culture of my country — notably the relations between national groups, who lived together peacefully for 500 years. But ownership was not welcomed by some international stakeholders, who considered Bosnians neither ready nor able to take responsibility for the destiny of their country, believing they would need foreign guidance and patronage for the next several centuries. For the intellectual circles in Sarajevo ownership was good news, but at the same time, almost unbelievable to see such a strange change in the behaviour of the international community toward ‘locals’ — and issue that is still of some topicality even today. This was one of best inputs of the Office of High Representative: for the first time, Bosnians began to believe that they indeed had to take the future of this country into their own hands. It only took a few meetings with Wolfgang Petritsch to prove that authentic partnership between Bosnians and the High Representative could help in finding solutions for almost any question the country faces. The spirit, even among ordinary people, changed, and one could almost touch the optimism in the air. Such an approach, with the personal charm of Wolfgang Petritsch, his wife Nora and his son Nikola, appearing on the streets and in the parks of Sarajevo, without a throng of bodyguards, was also a significant sign that something was changing for the better. Thanks to this approach and the efforts of Wolfgang Petritsch, Bosnia and Herzegovina finally became a member of the Council of Europe on 24 April 2002. Unfortunately, as things turned out, this honeymoon was all too brief. A new election in 2002 put an end to it, and that same year, a new High Representative arrived. But at least somebody had tried to encourage Bosnians to decide their own future, opening windows of opportunities and pushing us in the right direction. His departure from Bosnia did not mean, however, that he no longer cared. Quite the opposite: together, we established the Association Bosnia and Herzegovina 2005. Our intent was not commemorate the upcoming tenth anniversary of the General Framework Agreement for Peace, nor to focus on the obvious wrongdoings and mistakes of the international community or of Bosnian politicians, but on the contrary, to work out new perspectives for the future, with the main goal of showing the way into the European Union.2 I consider one of the key results of this conference to be Olli Rehn’s keynote address at the opening session, at which he anticipated the official declaration — published the following day — that it was now time for Bosnia and Herzegovina to start the negotiations on a Stabilisation and Association Agree1 2
See Wolfgang Petritsch, Bosnien und Herzegowina 5 Jahre nach Dayton: Hat der Friede eine Chance? (Klagenfurt: Wieser Verlag, 2001). The International Conference “Ten Years of Dayton and Beyond” was organised by the Association in Geneva, on 20-21 October 2005; conference program and documents are available at http://www.ceis-eu.org/seminars/bos2005/welcome.html.
ment with the European Union. In a way, the International Conference in Geneva, under the leadership of Wolfgang Petritsch, contributed to enhancing Bosnia’s entry strategy into the EU.3 Bosnia is a country with many different definitions. One is that Bosnia is one country, with two entities, three constituent peoples, four traditional religions, and hundreds of problems. No single person — not even someone of Wolfgang Petritsch’s calibre — can solve all of these problems, but at least he started to involve us ordinary citizens of this beautiful country. Bosnia and Herzegovina is also a country with just a few genuine friends. One of them is Wolfgang Petritsch. In Jewish tradition, at each birthday celebration, we always wish the person whose birthday we celebrate that he should live to the age of 120, an age achieved only by Moses. Wolfgang Petritsch is then just at the halfway point — maybe this is what we Jews call ‘middle-aged’ — and I wish him every success in the next half.4
See Christophe Solioz, “Moving toward the Turning Point,” Turning Points in Post-War Bosnia (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2007 ), pp. 107–43. Jakob Finci is President of the Center for European Integration Strategies (CEIS).