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Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing and disposal • April / May 2016

The Truth About Waste Management GHGs This issue: Surrey’s Organic Biogas Facility RNG Focus: Municipalities Start to Close the Loop Glass Recycling Comes to Quebec Textile Recycling - Tip of the Iceburg

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Contents APRIL / MAY 2016 | VOLUME 21 | NUMBER 1


Truth About Waste Management GHGs 12 The Breakthrough study concludes Ontario waste

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal

management sector is a net reducer of GHG emissions.


Climate Change 15 Surrey’s Organic Biogas Facility

North America’s first biogas facility of its kind supplies biogas to the municipal fleet.

17 RNG Focus: Municipalities Starting to Close the Loop

RNG: a cost-effective and environmentally sound choice for municipalities.

Recycling 18 Spring into Battery Recycling

Take batteries in for recycling at retailers everywhere.

20 Glass Recycling Comes to Quebec

Cutting edge facility brings innovative program to Quebec.


22 Textile Diversion - The Tip of the Iceburg

Clean closet, clean conscience, clean earth.

Vehicle Recycling 24 Co-operation Eases the Commodity Crunch

Auto recyclers are resilient, business savvy, and know how to make positive change.

25 Rubber Devulcanization a Game Changer

New process makes tire recycling efficient and effective.


26 Battery Recycling on the Rise

Lead-acid battery recycler Terrapure VSC says battery recycling numbers are on the rise.

Departments & Columns 04 From the Editor 06 Letter to the Editor 07 Waste Watch 10 WasteExpo 27 Industry Research

29 Regulatory Developments 30 Organic Matters 31 Technology 32 Around the World 34 Advertiser Index


FROM THE EDITOR Jessica Kirby, Editor Solid Waste & Recycling Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing, and disposal

The SW&R team

Dawn of a new day. Welcome to the first issue of Solid Waste & Recycling published by Point One Media, Inc. When I started with the company back in 2007, I was invigorated by the challenge of delving into new industries full of enthusiastic, committed individuals who keep the construction, powersport, and forest industries in Canada rolling along smoothly. Taking on SW&R has been a similar experience, with an exciting, dynamic new industry to learn and reams of dedicated people eager to assist as we embark on this new and exciting project. Thank you to everyone who has reached out so far, and if we haven’t yet met I encourage you to drop me a line and let me know why the solid waste and recycling industry is so important to you. This issue of SW&R is chock full of interesting features and columns covering a myriad topics from climate change to what to do with spent batteries and the economics of food waste. The cover story features a comprehensive study of Ontario’s waste management operations and their environmental impact and contributions. The study proves efficient, conscientious municipal plans can be positive environmental contributors with the capacity to be GHG neutral or better. The Ontario study results come on the heels of December’s Climate Change Conference in Paris, which illustrated on many levels the role the waste sector has to play in a carbon neutral economy and the overall reduction of greenhouse gases. In fact, contributions by Zero Waste Europe, the International 4 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Solid Waste Association, and other stakeholders brought the conference results – which, in the past have had mixed reviews on their efficacy and the degree of their long-term relevance – into a new and achievable context most people can sink their teeth into. These contributions indicated the true impact of waste management on climate change has been far and wide understated, and that top of the chart waste management strategies – waste prevention, reuse, recycle, and repurpose – have farreaching capacity to reduce carbon. But the work is far from over. Waste management policy provisions and budgetary allocations need work, especially while contending with a fluctuating global commodity market. Like all things, the cycle will revolve and innovation will continue to drive progress, but more than anything, the emphasis on waste management’s contribution to climate change brings the issue home to people who may not otherwise understand the issues. The biosolids facility in Surrey, on page 15, is Canada’s largest of its kind feeding a municipal fleet and demonstrates innovative odour abatement technology, while the section on vehicle recycling covers the struggles and opportunities of the Canadian market in a global context. Many of the SW&R columnists you know and love return with meaningful contributions, and several more are on the docket for June / July. Until then, enjoy the issue and please drop me a line with feedback. I would love to hear from you: ●●

Lara Perraton, Group Publisher Jessica Kirby, Editor 877.755.2762 • Christina Tranberg, Advertising Sales 877.755.2762 •

contributing writers Timothy Byrne Rosalind H. Cooper Blake Desaulniers Rick Findlay Darren Jamison Stephanie Thorson Ralph Torrie Paul van der Werf Sam Visaisouk Sabine Weber

cover photo Charles Jaffe

Published bi-monthly by Point One Media, Inc. Solid Waste & Recycling P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 CANADA t: 877.755.2762 • Solid Waste & Recycling provides strategic information and perspectives on all aspects of Canadian solid waste collection, hauling, processing, and disposal to waste managers, haulers, recycling co-ordinators, landfill and compost facility operators, and other waste industry professionals. While information contained in this publication has been compiled from sources deemed to be reliable, the publisher may not be held liable for omissions or errors. Contents ©2016 by Point One Media Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or duplicated without prior written permission from the publisher. Printed in Canada. Postage paid at Simcoe, ON. Return postage guaranteed. Canada Post Canadian Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement #40719512. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Solid Waste & Recycling Circulation Department P.O. Box 11, Station A Nanaimo, BC V9R 5K4 e: From time to time we make our subscription list available to select companies and organizations whose product or service may interest you. If you do not wish your contact information to be made available, please contact us by email at or by phone at 1.877.755.2762 Solid Waste & Recycling is a registered trademark of Point One Media Inc.


WORK HAS A NEW WAY TO WORK. The Freightliner Trucks 108SD is built to be tough and efficient. For starters, it offers up to 325 horsepower and 750 lb-ft of torque. It also has a steel reinforced aluminum day cab, which provides plenty of durability without excess weight. Combine that with outstanding visibility, and your fleet can easily handle the tightest routes. Freightliner trucks aren’t just tough, they’re smart. Find out more at Competitive financing available through Daimler Truck Financial. For the Freightliner Trucks dealer nearest you, call 1-800-FTL-HELP. FTL/MC-A-1090. Specifications are subject to change without notice. Copyright © 2016. Daimler Trucks North America LLC. All rights reserved. Freightliner Trucks is a division of Daimler Trucks North America LLC, a Daimler company.


Waste to Energy a Winner

Canada’s magazine on collection, hauling, processing and disposal • April / May 2016

The Truth About Waste Management GHGs

Dear Editor,

This issue:

In “Peeling Away the Layers of Waste to Energy,” Mr. Rod Muir appears to have discovered a multitude of false perceptions that have, for decades, delayed the application of technology to convert Canadian residual waste to renewable energy. But we have to be realistic and not expect anything better from the Sierra Club who have opposed the conversion of waste to energy for many years. The majority of well informed SW&R readers will have a vastly different and constructive view of the significant environmental and economic benefits being achieved by modern waste conversion to energy facilities around the world. Readers are invited to compare a small sample of significant international waste to energy developments against Mr. Muir’s false perceptions. The City of New York recently entered into a 20-year contract with Covanta Energy to convert 16 million tons of residual waste to renewable energy. The contract includes options for an extended contract at an increased volume of waste. In Amsterdam, planning for the largest waste to energy facility in the world received 100 per cent project approval from the community of this great city. Annually, the waste to energy plant converts 1,400,000 metric tonnes of residual waste to electrical and thermal energy, recovers and recycles trapped metals, and processes all ash residue into high quality construction products. The facility also converts sewage plant by-products into renewable energy. The combined energy output (electrical and thermal) approaches 300 megawatts. Holland is currently served by eight waste to energy facilities. Norway’s Oslo, with a population of over 650,000, has declared it is now fossil fuel-free thanks to the conversion 6 » Solid Waste & Recycling

of post-recycled waste to renewable energy. Norway claims the entire country will be fossil fuel-free in five years. The huge Brescia waste to energy plant in Italy provides almost all of the electrical and thermal needs of the inner city. The Brescia facility was recently honoured by Columbia University’s Waste to Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) as the finest waste to energy plant in the world. A recent study of the waste to energy industry in China, published by The Economist in May 2015, identifies 180 waste to energy facilities online and over 70 new facilities under construction. For example, the city of Laogang has sufficient waste to energy capacity to process 9000 metric tonnes of residual waste per day. The combined renewable energy (electrical and thermal) output of their waste to energy plants approaches 750 megawatts. Rest assured that Peel Region will return to their well researched, excellent long range waste to energy plan when the cost and complexity of achieving a 75 per cent diversion target is objectively analyzed. The waste management professionals in Peel Region are well aware that the post closure contaminating lifecycle of a landfill exceeds 200 years with ongoing financial liabilities. Hats off to Mr. John Nicholson when he concluded his excellent SW&R article under the title, “A WTE Tale of Two Cities” with, “If you do not like the waste to energy process, what do you like?”

Surrey’s Organic Biogas Facility RNG Focus: Municipalities Start to Close the Loop Glass Recycling Comes to Quebec Textile Recycling - Tip of the Iceburg

Publications Mail / Agreement # 40719512

Next Issue Features: • Construction Waste • Hazardous Materials Product Showcase: • Bags, Bins, Carts, Recycling Compactors • Landfill Liners • Compactor Technology Ad booking: May 19 Artwork due: May 24

Meet our Team

Christina Tranberg

Jessica Kirby

Yours truly Ed. K. McLellan Peterborough, Ontario Lara Perraton


EcoVision Environmental Launches a SmartSolar Powered Compacting Bin for North America Since its start nearly two years ago, EcoVision Environmental has stayed true to its goal of helping communities and businesses reach their waste diversion goals by partnering with them to develop successful programs. One area that is growing is public space bins and so we are excited to launch a new product called the EcoClean Cube manufactured by Ecube Labs. It is a solar-powered waste compacting bin ideal for communities looking for a smart clean way to handle its public space waste and recycling bins that compacts up to eight times the volume. It comes with all the features needed

including fill detection and reporting, routing software, and a host of safety features.

Maren ProPAK Balers Available in Canada

They also use standard wheeled carts that can be emptied with a cart tipper eliminating the concern about injuries and strains from manual lifting. http:// ecocleancube/. EcoVision Environmental has a vast network of consultants and industry experts available when needed to help its customers. EcoVision is committed to achieving the triple bottom line and has strategically set-up distribution points in Canada and the US. EcoVision Environmental is the trade name for Impact EcoVision Environmental Inc. For more information please call Doug Hill at 289.987.4567, email at doug@, or visit ●●

Kernic Systems a distributor of Maren Balers in Canada for over 30 years now offers the full line of Maren ProPAK Series Balers to the Recycling Community. For more than 50 years Maren continues to set the pace for baling both commercial by-products and post-consumer recyclables. The ProPAK line of closed door full-eject and two-ram balers are ideally suited for Used Beverage Containers and PET bottles, but also provide perfect solutions for baling many plastics, fiber, non-ferrous, steel cans and more. The ProPAK Series Balers where developed

Kernic Systems is your Canadian Representative for Maren Balers and BOA Recycling Equipment, with over 35 years servicing the Canadian Market for Baling Systems. No matter what your baling equipment needs … Kernic Systems has you covered!

KERNIC SYSTEMS OFFERS YOU: Turn Key Baling Systems, Engineering Design, Installation, Service & Parts

Air Systems • Dust Collectors • Balers • Shredders • Wire Sales • Parts & Service • 800-678-9516 • » April / May 2016 » 7

WASTE WATCH specifically with post-consumer recycling in mind and offer the highest material throughput in their class. The operator friendly touch screen control system (French & English) available on most models, provides feedback about key factors including amount of bale left before tie-off, and instructs the user in the steps to tie off the bale, eject it and ready the machine for the next bale or material. ●●

BHS Grows Sales Team & Invests in Test Facilities Bulk Handling Systems (BHS) has announced a new organizational structure to its North American sales team, adding three new hires and promoting a veteran employee. The company’s new Separation Technology Specialists (STS) will focus on applications of core solutions including BHS Tri-Disc™ screens, Nihot air

density products, and NRT In-Flight Sorting® optical sorters. “Despite 2015’s headwind of declining commodity prices, demand for proven and well-supported products helped BHS achieve our strongest sales in company history,” said BHS director of sales, Ted Pierpont. “We’re investing to ensure this continues.” In support of this initiative, BHS is making capital investments in sample material testing and demonstration systems at two US locations: BHS headquarters in Eugene, OR and NRT headquarters in Nashville, TN. The all-new STS Team consists of Travis Curtis, Randy Roy, and Richard

Sweet. Curtis, having been at BHS subsidiary NRT since 2014, joins BHS to cover the Southeast & Central US. Roy, newly hired to BHS, will cover the Northeastern US and Eastern Canada. Richard Sweet, promoted from within to the position of senior applications engineer, will cover the Northwestern US and Western Canada and be responsible for continuous technical training for the entire BHS salesforce. For more information please visit ●●

Get your Idea in Gear The Automotive Recyclers of Canada (ARC) has partnered with Scout Environmental (formerly Summerhill Impact) to offer granting initiative, Grants in Gear, for a third year. The nation-wide program will provide funding worth up to $100,000 to Canadian environmental non-profit and entrepreneurial groups and municipal/ regional governmental bodies.


Rosen Goldberg Inc., in its capacity as Court-appointed receiver of the assets, undertaking, and property of Northwood Recycling & Energy Limited et al. (the “Assets”), invites written offers for the purchase of certain of the Assets as described below: • A waste transfer station operating under a valid Environmental Compliance Approval issued by the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change; • A source-separated organic composting facility operating under a valid Environmental Compliance Approval issued by the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change; • Approximately 16 acres of land in Oshawa, Ontario upon which the waste transfer station and source-separated organic composting facility operate; and, • Approximately 50 acres of agricultural land abutting the waste transfer and composting facilities. The deadline for written offers to purchase the Assets is 3:00 pm EST on Friday, May 20, 2016. The highest or any offer need not be accepted by the Receiver. The Receiver retains the right to sell the Assets prior to this date. Interested parties should contact Joel Ross at (416) 224-4220 or by email at to obtain additional information and/or to make an appointment to view the sites. For additional information on the proceedings, please visit Rosen Goldberg Inc. • 5255 Yonge Street, Suite 804 Toronto, ON M2N 6P4 8 » Solid Waste & Recycling

WASTE WATCH To date, Grants in Gear has funded eight organizations across Canada working to achieve measurable impact for the environment through their winning ideas. ARC is excited to extend this opportunity to four more organizations whose project ideas seek tangible results in emissions reduction or pollution prevention in the transportation sector or automotive recycling or reuse excellence. We welcome eligible organizations of all sizes who seek to make a positive environmental impact on the automotive industry. This year, ARC will disburse up to four grants worth a maximum of $25,000 each with one grant being offered as an optional legacy grant. This will allow previous winners to apply for additional funding to increase the capacity of their existing program.

New SWANA Safety Resource Gives 5 Tips to Stay Alive Among the Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA)’s goals for the future is making sure the waste industry moves off the federal government’s list of the top dangerous jobs in the United States. With this mission in mind, SWANA developed a new safety campaign that gives waste

collection employees five tips to stay safe and alive on the job. Five Tips to Stay Alive provides a useful set of guidelines – including a reference to an ANSI Safety Standard that states collection workers should not ride on the step of a garbage truck if the truck is backing or going more than 10 miles per hour – which waste collection workers should follow to reduce accidents and injuries on the job. continued on page 34

Applications will be accepted from March 25 to May 6, 2016. For more information or to download an application form, please visit http:// ●●

Van Dyk Recycling Solutions Welcomes Adam Lovewell as Midwest Sales Engineer Adam has an engineering degree from Virginia Tech and he comes to Van Dyk from RRT Design and Construction.   He spent four years at RRT as a processing engineer and project manager for multiple recycling sorting system projects. Please feel free to contact Adam immediately for all of your recycling equipment needs.  Adam can be reached at (312)543-6998 or alovewell@vdrs. com. ●● » April / May 2016 » 9


Are you ready to learn from (and network with) the top minds in the waste, recycling, and organics industry? Everyone’s talking about WasteExpo 2016, June 6-9, Las Vegas, NV WasteExpo is the largest waste, recycling, and organics tradeshow/ conference in North America—and it’s been going strong for 48 years. The event brings together all the top players and experts in the field, from the public and private sectors as well as academia. Featuring robust educational sessions and an environment that fosters business, it’s your best opportunity of the year for professional growth.

Come and visit the Solid Waste & Recycling team at Waste Expo in June. Booth # 5605 10 » Solid Waste & Recycling

We’re happy to give you a sneak peek of this year’s top-notch educational program, built in conjunction with the National Waste & Recycling Association (NWRA) and Dr. Stuart Buckner, former director of the US Composting Council—it’s going to be more robust and interactive than ever before. This conference program will give you the tools you need to do your job better and insights to last long after the event. Learning tracks include: • Composting & Organics—bigger and better than ever • Fleet and Equipment Technology • Food Recovery Forum—new this year • Hauling • Leadership /Business Development/ Finance • Legislative/Regulatory • Landfill Technologies • Recycling/Resource Recovery • Safety

You’ll hear from speakers from the following organizations: • Heil, Mack Trucks, Winter Brothers Waste Systems, Marin Sanitary Service, Comerica Bank; UC Davis Policy Institute for Energy, Environment and the Economy; Wegmans Food Markets, Impact Bioenergy, Waste Pro USA, the Cleveland Browns, the Grocery Manufacturers Association, Nestle USA, the US EPA, and many more. • WasteExpo is a veritable solid waste, recycling, and organics industry reunion; you’ll make new connections and reconnect with peers. Also, you’ll want to check out the special events including: the EREF Charitable Auction, NWRA Awards breakfast, Welcome Reception, a site tour, and much more. Finally, visit the industry’s largest exhibit hall and meet 600 of today’s top solution providers. • In other words—WasteExpo 2016 is worth talking about! So, set yourself up for success, and get ready to join 13,000 of your industry peers and experts in Las Vegas from June 6-9, 2016. Plus, Solid Waste & Recycling readers save. Simply use code VP26 when registering. See the full conference agenda and register today at ●●

FACT: 96% of attendees would recommend WasteExpo to a colleague!


Solid Waste & Recycling Readers Save! Register at with code VP26 today!

PEOPLE ARE TALKING MANUFACTURING Big product launches need a big stage in order to be successful. And there’s none bigger than WasteExpo. It’s why savvy marketers and waste professionals make it their business to be here. With nearly 600 exhibitors, a comprehensive education program and a venue ideal for doing business—you can see why exhibitors and attendees come back year after year. That says it all. For more information go to

Conferences & Special Events: June 6-9, 2016 • Exhibits: June 7-9, 2016 Las Vegas Convention Center Las Vegas, NV USA Associated with:

Produced by:

In Collaboration wIth:

General Manager Industrial & Waste Group Caterpillar


The Truth About

Waste Management GHGs

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / hroephoto

By / Ralph Torrie

THINGS ARE NOT ALWAYS WHAT THEY SEEM, and this old saying is certainly true when it comes to the impact of the waste management industry on greenhouse gas emissions. The official inventory of Canada’s 726 Mt of greenhouse gas emissions in 2013 leaves the impression that the waste management industry contributes a modest 3.4 per cent, almost all in the form of landfill methane emissions, but with small contributions from the tailpipe emissions of the industry’s truck fleet, the stack emissions from the Energy from Waste (EfW) plants, and the industry’s other uses of fuel and electricity. What the “emissions inventory perspective” does not show are the much greater emissions that are eliminated when wastes are diverted from landfills to composting, anaerobic digesters, recycling, and yes, even to EfW facilities.

12 » Solid Waste & Recycling

At the request of the Ontario Waste Management Association, we conducted a quantitative analysis of these emission-reducing activities for the case of Ontario1, but the bottom-line conclusion would be the same in any part of Canada: the waste management industry is a net reducer of greenhouse emissions. Here is how the numbers break down for Ontario: • In 2013, Ontario landfills generated over 12.25 Mt CO2eq of methane,2 but 4 Mt CO2eq was collected and either flared at the landfill or burned in a nearby power plant, leaving net emissions at 8.25 Mt CO2eq. • Refuse collection trucks are among the most energy intensive vehicles on the road, but total emissions from the thousands of collection and long haul waste transport trucks operated by the Ontario waste management industry totals less than half a Mt CO2eq, 20 times smaller than the landfill methane emissions.

• Greenhouse gas emissions from the other fuel and electricity consumed by the industry’s facilities and equipment are 10 times smaller than the emissions from the truck fleet, totalling less than 0.04 Mt CO2eq. • Emissions from the plastics and other synthetic carbon-based materials processed in EfW facilities were only 0.05 Mt CO2eq, but these emissions are more than offset by the landfill methane emissions that are foregone by diverting material to EfW. This brings us to the other side of the ledger, the ways in which the waste management industry reduces greenhouse gas emissions: • By the far the largest emission reduction impact of the waste management industry results from recycling. A number of key materials (steel, aluminum, metals, glass, plastic, paper products) can be manufactured from recycled inputs with much less


Diagram courtesy of Ralph Torrie.

energy than it takes to make them from virgin raw material, and these energy savings translate directly into greenhouse gas reductions. For paper products, recycling yields additional emission reductions at the landfill (less methane from decaying paper) and in the forest (fewer trees need to be cut to provide raw material to the paper mills). In Ontario in 2013, it all adds up to 14.6 Mt CO2eq. • Landfills are not only sources of methane gas; they are also carbon sinks. A portion of the paper products and yard wastes buried in landfills does not decay and the carbon remains sequestered for decades—carbon that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere as methane or carbon dioxide. Of the Ontario wastes landfilled in 2013, we estimate 2.15 Mt CO2eq of carbon will remain sequestered. • Diverting food wastes and yard wastes from landfills reduces the future

stream of methane emissions that these materials would have generated. Even after allowing for the fact that a portion of this diverted material would have remained sequestered in the landfill, organics diversion in Ontario in 2013 (to composters, digesters, EfW facilities) eliminated 1.6 Mt CO2eq of future landfill methane emissions. The bottom line? The waste management industry is a major contributor to curbing greenhouse gas emissions; its annual contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions is at least 20 times larger than the emissions from the trucks and other equipment it uses to achieve this result. Every year, the Ontario waste management industry reduces current and future greenhouse gas emissions by 22 million tonnes CO2eq, 14 Mt CO2eq more than the 8 Mt CO2eq of landfill gas emissions from the legacy waste-in-place in all Ontario landfills. Even so, landfill gas capture, recycling, and organic waste

“The waste management industry is a major contributor to curbing greenhouse gas emissions; its annual contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions is at least 20 times larger than the emissions from the trucks and other equipment it uses to achieve this result.” diversion rates are still relatively low, suggesting significant growth potential still exists for the industry to support the province’s ambitious greenhouse gas emission targets, a finding that will be equally true in other provinces. In Ontario, with its proposed capand-trade approach, priorities include the creation of offset protocols that facilitate growth in landfill gas capture » April / May 2016 » 13


Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks from Waste Management Alternatives. Image courtesy of ICF International, “Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks, 3rd Edition,” for the US EPA, 2006.

and organics diversion, partnerships with capped emitters who will value the carbon-free energy generated at waste management facilities, investment in efficiency and low carbon alternatives in internal operations, and creative partnerships with government for the direct investment of allowance auction revenue in building the foundation for the circular economy. As climate change moves up the policy priority list everywhere, innovative approaches will be needed to ensure key outcomes from the waste management industry include: • broader coverage and more efficient technology for landfill gas capture; • increased rates of recycling of organic diversion to composting, digestion, and EfW facilities (see box for Alberta’s innovative approach for including recycling in their carbon offset system);

14 » Solid Waste & Recycling

• capture and cleaning of gases from landfills, digesters, and EfW facilities for injection in to the natural gas pipeline system; and, • increased value for direct use of gases from landfills, digesters, and EfW facilities. There is a strong complementarity between the aspirations of the waste management industry and government goals for climate change mitigation, a circular economy and sustainable economic development. With forward looking and innovative strategies, the waste management industry will find ample opportunity for growth and development in the transition that lies ahead. ●● Ralph Torrie is an energy systems expert with a longstanding interest in the connections between waste management and climate change. Contact at

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / bosphorus

ALBERTA PROTOCOL SUMMARY The Recycling Council of Alberta has developed a GHG Protocol for Recycling under the Alberta Specified Gas Emitters Regulation. The protocol methodology quantifies GHG emission reductions resulting from the substitution of recycled feedstock for virgin feedstock, using defined emission factors that represent the difference in lifecycle GHG emissions. For more information, contact Christina Seidel, Alberta Recycling Council, at


Surrey’s Organic

Biogas Facility By / Jessica Kirby images courtesy of Orgaworld The 154,171-square-foot Organic Biogas Facility using dry anaerobic digestion in Surrey is currently under construction on its 6.6-acre site adjacent to the Surrey transfer station in Port Kells. A P3 project between the City of Surrey and developer Orgaworld, the Surrey facility will process approximately 115,000 tonnes of organic waste each year, which is almost double the current city’s annual green-waste output of 62,000 tonnes. It will collect and turn food scraps and yard waste into as many as 160,000 gigajoules of natural gas and up to 40,000 tonnes of compost annually. Biogas created at the facility will be used to run the City of Surrey’s vehicle fleet, making it the largest in North America to power a municipal fleet. “The facility will process separated organics—it collects them, and converts them into biogas, which is then upgraded into biomethane and injected into the Fortis grid,” said project manager with Orgaworld, Ryan Lauzon.

“The gas is injected in to the Fortis grid and they off-take a similar amount to run the trucks. They run it to multiple places and use a representative amount based on what it produces.” The facility’s functionality is divided – half is designed for anaerobic digestion and half for composting – with the ultimate goal of producing biomethane for the City of Surrey. Biomethane produced at the facility is considered carbon neutral because it is generated by food waste, rather than extracted from the ground. A key feature is the facility’s odor abatement system, which keeps the » April / May 2016 » 15


Treated Air

Ammonium Sulphate (fertilizer)

A powerful air filtration system ensures the facility remains under constant negative pressure.

Water Solution

An ammonia scrubber is used to treat the facility air prior to being passed to the biofilter. Odour rich ammonia is removed and the product, ammonium sulphate, can be used as a fertilizer.

Discharge Air

Internal air is then passed through biofilters. Each biofilter contains wood material which is sprayed with water to optimize natural biological processes scrubbing the air prior to disperson.


Organic Waste Processing

entire building under negative pressure, and is very comprehensive. “Unlike other facilities, odour abatement forms the core of the process,” he said. “It is a multistage system which reduces odours so everything that leaves the 70-meter stack is without offensive odour.” The facility’s technology comes from Europe which has challenged the crews in terms of co-ordination and ensuring North American standards are met. A key challenge was integrating the building’s ventilation system into the facility’s complex processes. Everything was tied in with process engineering as the build continued to evolve to better promote each process. The composting process, for instance, modulates the amount of airflow through the building, ensuring the building is kept under suction.  With the building in constant negative pressure, the composting system uses internal air to flow oxygen into tunnels, which use fresh and internal air to supply the ventilation.

16 » Solid Waste & Recycling

The filtered air is released through the stack at 70 metres to ensure optimal natural dispersion.

Driving Aisle / Screening Area

Ammonia Scrubber

Receiving Area

70 metres

Percolating Water

Air + Ammonia (Nh3)



Every step requires careful consideration of the inside environment and how wastes and liquids move throughout the building. The building’s construction re quires a number of interesting techniques including ground improvement work using rapid impact compaction (RIC) to prepare for footings. An impact plate is struck repeatedly with a hydraulic hammer to densify loose, granular soils. This improves density and stability on the site and minimizes settlement. The structure’s frame uses hot dipped galvanized or stainless steel trusses to achieve the wide spans required by the large footprint. The exterior of the building is made of tilt-up panels and have been cast in beds on site—a faster and more efficient method that can significantly reduce the overall schedule. Our General Contractor Smith Bros & Wilson has a long history using this style of construction.

The City broke the mold on conventional exterior aesthetics, moving away from minimized, neutral tones to a bright, welcoming colour scheme intended to make the building a landmark. “Usually these buildings are minimized, but the City wanted to make this a showpiece,” said Lauzon. Currently, organic waste is shipped to a smaller facility in Richmond with approximately one quarter the Surrey facility’s planned digestion capacity. When complete, the facility will reduce Co2 emissions in Surrey by 40,000 tonnes a year—the equivalent of taking 8,500 cars off the road each year. It will produce over 3,000,000 cubic meters of renewable biomethane—sufficient to supply roughly 1,500 homes. This type of project is scalable, and a real possibility in any major North American centre, said Lauzon. “This is absolutely the way of the future for organic waste facilities,” he says. “This facility is just the tip of the iceberg for North America. We are seeing lots of tenders and RFPs in the organic waste industry.” ●●


RNG Focus: Municipalities Starting to Close the Loop

By / Stephanie Thorson Canadian Biogas Association

AS MUNICIPALITIES LOOK AT RECYCLING their organic materials from source separated organics and wastewater treatment, increasingly, renewable natural gas (RNG) is the end product they choose to generate—and with good reason. RNG can be used to fuel fleets, including waste trucks and transit vehicles, and dramatically slash greenhouse gas emissions, which is particularly challenging in the transportation sector. Hamilton, London, Toronto, Peel, and Niagara are all well down the path of implementing or examining this option. In fact, 10 per cent of our natural gas supply could come from RNG by 2030 if supportive policies were put in place. The Canadian Gas Association’s RNG Technology Roadmap contains data on the potential, and recommendations for policy makers and industry. Closing the Loop, a collaborative initiative of the Biogas Association, can help municipalities in two ways. First, organic waste can be sent to existing biogas facilities or municipally-owned biogas systems. This enables food waste to be recycled back to the soil, while extracting the energy content of the material first, and turning it into clean, renewable energy. This simple and cost-effective action results in impressive greenhouse gas reductions. Second, fleet operators can consider using a blend of conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) and renewable natural gas – which comes from food recycling – for their trucking needs. A 90/10 per cent blend of CNG and RNG provides a reduction of over 31 per cent of greenhouse gases, and financial savings over diesel fuel. RNG Facts to Consider • Transportation is the largest contributor of GHGs in Ontario, at 34%

Image courtesy of Canadian Biogas Association

• From 1990 to 2012, transportation GHGs increased by 24% • Switching to CNG from diesel reduces GHGs by up to 30% • RNG can be a carbon negative fuel, reducing GHGs by up to 170%, according to the California Air Resources Board Across the country, progressive municipalities are taking important sustainability steps by generating and using RNG. Surrey, British Columbia, is a recognized leader in reducing emissions from waste generated within the municipality, and has created a closed-loop waste solution. Surrey will generate RNG at its anaerobic digestion facility and use it to fuel waste trucks picking up the organic waste. The business case was built comparing RNG to diesel prices and the facility is a public-private partnership. In Niagara, Ontario, the region is planning to upgrade the biogas from its wastewater treatment plant to RNG, and fuel city vehicles. The City of London, Ontario, is looking at collecting green bin waste and using it to fuel vehicles.

The City of Hamilton already uses RNG from its wastewater treatment facility to fuel transit vehicles, and uses the natural gas pipeline to transport the fuel from the plant to the vehicle fueling site. South of the border, Redeem is a branded RNG fuel by Clean Energy Fuels that is available across the US to natural gas vehicle fleets including heavy-duty trucks, refuse trucks, airport shuttles, taxis, and buses. The RNG comes from waste streams such as landfills, large dairies, and sewage plants. Thousands of cars, taxis, shuttles, and industrial fleets in California are now using Redeem, which is up to 90 per cent cleaner than diesel and 100% renewable. A southwest Ontario farmbased RNG project is in development that will supply several truck fleets, including milk trucks, and could supply several more. For more information, and to learn how to close the loop, contact sthorson@ ●● » April / May 2016 » 17



Springing into Battery Recycling Spring is here, and many Canadians will soon start the annual cleaning process that sees rooms decluttered, dusty corners cleaned out, and old items discarded for new. One common household item that should not be overlooked during the spring cleaning ritual is used batteries. Batteries power our cellphones, laptops, cameras, power tools, children’s toys, and even start our cars and boats! Yet many Canadians are unsure of what to do with those batteries when they reach the end of their usefulness. The answer—and process—is simple: Recycle them. Call2Recycle ( and the Canadian Battery Association ( operate National Stewardship programs for the recycling of single use, rechargeable, and leadacid batteries. Both programs will recycle your used batteries to federal and provincial standards. Thousands of Canadians will soon head to retailers to get spring cleaning items, tools, and ideas for summer projects. When they do so, they can also drop off any used household batteries that weigh less than 5 kg in a Call2Recycle box at most retailers or at their local municipal depot. Many of these organizations partner with Call2Recycle, Canada’s oldest and largest battery and cellphone recycling organization, to offer free

battery and cellphone recycling for their customers, visitors, and staff. Used lead-acid batteries from cars, boats, and lawnmowers can be dropped at a mechanical repair shop like Canadian Tire or Kal Tire. The retailers’ battery recycling programs are part of their commitment to reduce pollutants entering our environment. These organizations offer a simple yet robust recycling program, in which people simply drop off their used batteries and cellphones in the recycling boxes and Call2Recycle takes care of the rest. Batteries collected through the program are diverted from landfills – where they could pose a danger to the environment – and reclaimed for use in new batteries, cookware, appliances, and hardware. “Our partners’ environmental programs prove that they are fully committed to sustainability,” says Joe Zenobio, executive director, Call2Recycle Canada, Inc. “We are proud to partner with organizations that share our vision for safer, cleaner communities.” As more partners join the free Call2Recycle and CBA battery recycling programs, Canadians will be able to divert more and more batteries from landfills—and our homes won’t be the only thing cleaner each spring. ●●

About Call2Recycle Canada, Inc.  Call2Recycle Canada, Inc. (Call2Recycle) is a premier product stewardship organization dedicated to minimizing the environmental impact of products in the marketplace. Operating across Canada and the U.S., its marquee battery recycling program, Call2Recycle®, is the oldest and largest consumer battery stewardship program, collecting and recycling batteries from retailers, municipalities, businesses, and consumers through its network of 8,000 collection sites in Canada. Since 1996, more than 45 million kilograms of household batteries and cellphones have been diverted from the solid waste stream in North America. Learn more or find a drop-off site for household batteries under 5 kg near you at or by calling 1.888.224.9764. Recycle and win this Spring:

About the Canadian Battery Association The CBA is the national voice for the leadacid battery industry. Its mission is to provide information and programs that support the safe storage, transportation, and recycling of lead-acid batteries from coast to coast to coast. The CBA operates formal stewardship programs in PEI, New Brunswick, Manitoba, and BC, as well as informal stewardship programs in the remaining provinces. With this reach, CBA members turn more than 110 million kilograms of lead-acid batteries every year into new lead-acid batteries. For more information about the stewardship of lead-acid batteries in Canada or to find a depot near you that will responsibly recycle lead-acid batteries go to

CBA Stewardship Program The Canadian Battery Association (CBA) has operated a Stewardship Program in Canada since 2011. Every year, there are over 140 million kg of leadacid batteries (LABs) sold in Canada and CBA’s members account for more than 90% of them. The CBA’s Stewardship Program provides for a returnto-retail recovery program for consumer (ie; automotive) batteries and a business-to-business recovery program for motive and stationary batteries. Recovered batteries will be transported to warehouse locations operated by CBA members using a reverse-distribution system and then the waste batteries will be bulk transported to smelters for recycling and manufacturing into new batteries. For more information about the CBA and its members, go to

18 » Solid Waste & Recycling

SPRING INTO BATTERY RECYCLING! Get ready for Spring Cleaning. It’s time to get rid of the winter cobwebs! As shopping begins for spring cleaning products and home items, it’s a nice time to remind all to properly dispose of old or unused items and to recycle spent batteries to help protect the budding environment.

Fresh Tips Get furnaces and other natural gas appliances inspected Check batteries in carbon monoxide detectors and smoke alarms Recycle batteries* from appliances and products with Call2Recycle Enter Call2Recycle’s Spring Cleaning contest to win prizes from March 20th to May 20th * Always cover terminals of used Lithium and Small Sealed Lead Acid (SSLA) batteries with tape

Leap into Action! Visit to download contest posters, digital ads and social media posts to help spread the word.

Call2Recycle® has been providing battery recycling solutions since 1997. Enroll in our program today.

Visit | Call 1-877-2-RECYCLE Recharging the planet. Recycling your batteries.™

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / kostatriton


Glass Recycling

Comes to Quebec by Blake Desaulniers

QUEBEC’S NEWEST RECYCLING INITIATIVE will strengthen and expand the province’s curbside glass program and provide a stream of high quality recycled glass for secondary processing and for use in a growing range of commercial products. The new program, announced in 2015, will ensure 100 per cent of the glass in Quebec goes to recycling.

Under the auspices of Éco Enterprises Quebec, the Innovative Glass Works Plan will direct an initial $6.7 million to modernize sorting centres and develop new market outlets for recycled glass. As part of the plan implementation, ÉEQ established a partnership with British Manufacturer Krysteline Technologies and with Quebecbased equipment provider Machinex, the North American distributor for Krysteline. ÉEQ is now in the process of reviewing applications from 24 sorting centres in the province, and will select several locations to conduct initial demonstration projects. “We think five or six locations will be ideal,” said Karine Moreau, marketing manager for Machinex. “We need to look at a number of factors, including proximity to downstream markets and new buyers,” she said. The new program evolved from a 2013 crisis in glass recycling in Quebec, brought about when demand for mineral wool dropped, the main glass

20 » Solid Waste & Recycling

conditioner Klareco shut down, and a period of under-investment in recycling facilities and glass processing all coincided. In response, in January 2015, ÉEQ conducted a forum on curbside recycling optimization, and developed a vision for the creation of the best performing curbside recycling program in North America. Over the course of the spring and into early summer last year, ÉEQ carried out extensive analysis before announcing its intention to invest up to $40 million to achieve the goal. During the last three months of 2015, ÉEQ evaluated a range of technology solutions and eventually selected the Krysteline system. The Krysteline Technologies system uses an innovative implosion method to transform glass into small fragments. The instantaneous implosion happens without shredding labels or capsules, making sorting easier. The method costs less to maintain and uses less energy than the conventional grinding process. Additionally, the edges of the


“To optimize its investment in the Glass Works Plan, ÉEQ is also looking to develop downstream markets for the recycled product.”

imploded glass particles are rounded, not sharp. “The technology that we have developed specifically addresses the challenges of curbside recycling in Quebec, which are similar to those in Great Britain and Australia, where the same technology has been used successfully for several years,” said Steve Whettingsteel, managing director of Krysteline Technologies. To optimize its investment in the Glass Works Plan, ÉEQ is also looking to develop downstream markets for the recycled product. At present, recycled glass finds a home in a range of uses including as an additive to cement products used in sidewalks, roads, flooring, acoustic walls, and street furniture.

Superior water filtration materials, bituminous mixtures or asphalt, mineral wool, abrasives, fillers, mulch, glass bottles, and a FIFA accredited sport turf are other products than can be made from high quality recycled glass.

Saul Polo, parliamentary assistant to the Minister of the Economy, Innovation and Exports. “These initiatives will without a doubt contribute to Quebec businesses’ reputation of excellence beyond our borders.”

As part of its plan, ÉEQ intends to provide $1.2 million in financial support for development and diversification of market outlets for recycled glass.

Both Machinex and Krsyteline bring considerable experience to the table.

An initial demonstration period is expected to last 15 months. The process will involve testing new glass sorting and cleaning equipment to complement the proven technologies of Krysteline Technologies and Machinex already selected for the demonstration projects. ÉEQ is now accepting applications from sorting centres. Interested parties may apply online at the ÉEQ website at “In the battle against climate change, the implementation of government strategies to develop a green economy in Quebec and the pursuit of environmental innovation, the Government of Quebec salutes the contributing companies involved in the implementation of the Innovative Glass Works Plan,” said

In the1980s Machinex became the first company in Canada to design machinery for material recycling facilities. The company has designed and installed more than 250 turnkey projects in Canada, the United States, and Northern Europe. Krysteline, based in Great Britain, has more than two decades of experience building implosion systems to handle a wide range a materials including glass, ceramics, minerals, ore, and slags. Krysteline systems can recover and refine 100 percent of feedstock to meet the specific needs of downstream customers. More information can be found on the ÉEQ website at www.ecoentreprises. ●●

Glass can be integrated with ecological flagstones made from 100 per cent recycled materials. Gaudreau Environnement, a Quebec-based company, sells tile product under the name Regeneration. The tiles comprise 75 per cent glass, 20 per cent plastic bags, and 5 per cent porcelain. Recycled glass can be used to make cellular glass, a pumice-like material used in construction. It offers fireretardant and insulation properties in a lightweight form. It’s also a high valueadded product.

This is a 3Dlayout of a medium system type for glass recycling in a MRF. Image courtesy of Machinex. » April / May 2016 » 21


Textile Diversion -

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / NomadSoul1

The Tip of the Iceberg

by / Sabine Weber WHILE PERFORMING THE ANNUAL SPRING CLEANUP of our family’s overstuffed closets, sorting clothes into piles – to keep, to donate – I notice the biggest pile includes all those garments that will go to the garbage disposal because they aren’t good enough for donations and nobody would want to wear them. Those too-ripped jeans, that cheap sweater, which lost its colour after a few washes, the T-shirt with stains, my husband’s jacket with the broken zipper, socks that are more holes than material, underwear. I already have more material than I need for my cleaning rags but I’m horrified by the size of the garbage pile. I feel guilty for all the money I spent. I want the relief of an empty closet—if only so I can begin to fill it again. I want to be done with this horrible work. While I’m freaking out, my ten-year-old son reminds me, “Mum, we are normal people!” He may be right. This consumption and waste may be comparable to the average Canadian, who does not see donation as a means of recycling unwanted textiles, but looking at that huge pile 22 » Solid Waste & Recycling

“...estimates put the collecting, reusing and recycling of all unwanted garments at 15 per cent, the tip of a colossal iceberg that sees the remaining 85 per cent ending up in landfill.” I tell myself that even if it’s normal, it doesn’t make it right. Over the last 40 years, clothing consumption has steadily increased while clothing prices continue to decrease. According to the Council for Textile Recycling, it can be estimated that annual textile waste per person amounts to 37.2 kg or 82 pounds. Similar to an iceberg, where only the tip is visible, estimates put the collection, reuse, and recycle of all unwanted garments at 15 per cent, the tip of a colossal iceberg that sees the remaining 85 per cent ending up in landfill. Although the exact percentage of textiles in each landfill is different, it can be estimated that textile waste accounts for 5–10 percent of Canada’s landfills. This is based on data from the United States Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA), which reports 5.2 per cent of textile waste in US landfills as of 2013, as well as a waste audit conducted by the Resource Recovery Fund Board (RRFB) in 2012 in Nova Scotia, where textile waste accounted for 10 per cent of the waste stream. While textiles made of synthetic fibres will not biodegrade and expand the volume of landfill space, natural fibres (which are similar to other organic materials) cause aggressive leachate to the groundwater and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. A recent study of the University of Waterloo examined how consumers manage their unwanted textiles, and based on more than 400 participants in Ontario with varying demographic characteristics, the study shows that 37 per cent of respondents frequently

RECYCLING reuse and repurpose their clothes, and nearly 90 per cent, regardless of gender and age, share a willingness to donate their unwanted clothes and know where to donate them. Only 10 per cent admit they have never thought of doing anything with their garments other than throwing them into the waste. However, when given a set of hypothetical garments in various states of use, respondents planned to donate on average 50 per cent of these garments. All consumers demonstrate a lack of awareness about what can be donated. Considering additional barriers respondents have to overcome, such as the accessibility and convenience of donation spots, the amount and type of unwanted garments will influence the willingness to donate. If consumers have only a few garments to donate, for example, the time it requires to bring them to a donation box will determine whether they donate or discard them as waste. Furthermore, consumers often forget or don’t even realize that towels, curtains, and bedding can also be donated. As a result, disposal is widely practised among all consumers. The good news is, “every ounce of household clothing and textile items can be recycled in some way,” say researchers Stall-Meadows and Goudeau, leaving solutions within our grasp. That giant pile of my family’s unwanted clothes need not go to the garbage after all. Some ground–breaking initiatives include the proposed ban of textiles in landfills in Nova Scotia, the municipality of Markham’s mission to begin collecting textiles, Goodwill’s newly implemented collection boxes in multi-apartment houses in San Francisco, and the takeback program offered by retailer Hennes & Maurice. However, the issue needs to be addressed on a broader level that includes all stakeholders. The upcoming Tip of the Iceberg Textile Diversion Strategies and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Symposium in Markham, Ontario, at the Hilton Hotel,

Textile Diversion Strategies and EPR Symposium

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / AnikaSalsera

on Wednesday, May 4, 2016 aims to bridge the gap between government legislators, regulators, policy advisors, and the private world of clothing manufacturing, distribution, and endof-life management professionals to establish collaborations and costeffective, environmentally sustainable solutions. It’s time to address textile waste in Canada. Further information is available at event-registration/event-details ●● Sources: COUNCIL FOR TEXTILE RECYCLING. 2014. Abingdon. Available: html [Accessed February, 17 2014]. JENSEN, J. 2012. Waste Audit Services Project Final Summary Report. In: RESOURCE RECOVERY FUND BOARD, I. N. S. (ed.). Halifax.

Have you got some skeletons in your closet—in the form of past shopping binges? We are pleased to announce the Tip of the Iceberg Textile Diversion Strategies and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Symposium - Markham (Ontario), at the Hilton Suites Conference Centre & Spa Hotel, on Wednesday, May 4, 2016. This event bridges the gap between the government legislators, regulators, and policy advisors and the private world of clothing manufacturing, distribution, and end-of-life management professionals. Our goal is to establish cost effective and environmentally sustainable solutions.

STALL-MEADOWS, C. & GOUDEAU, C. 2012. An Unexplored Direction in Solid Waste Reduction: Household Textiles and Clothing Recycling. Journal of Extension, 50, 5RIB3.

You are invited to join, listen, network, and discuss the issue of textile waste diversion with government and private sector speakers from across North America.

UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. 2013. Textiles [Online]. Washington, D.C. Available: msw99.htm [Accessed February 18 2014].

Register now before the event sells out. /www.visionquestenvironmental. com/event-registration.

WEBER, S. 2015. How Consumers Manage Textile Waste. A thesis presented to University of Waterloo. Waterloo.

A limited number of Hilton hotel rooms have also been blocked at a special discount rate. Anyone interested in getting involved as a sponsor, email or phone 416-570-4379. Follow us on Twitter at @sustfashion. » April / May 2016 » 23


Eases the Commondidty

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / hroephoto


h c n u r C

Over the past year, 50 metal scrapyards in North America have ceased operations and hundreds of others are stockpiling their inventories under the pretence of waiting out the downswing in prices for steel, iron ore, and other commodities, and for the demand slowdown and oversupply in China. By / Jessica Kirby IN THE US, this means a stall in the $105-billion industry, which includes many small businesses associated with the scrap sector. US scrap steel exports fell to $4.1 billion in 2015, down 34% from $6.2 billion in 2014, and index prices say scrap steel prices have fallen 29% to $203 a ton from $261 per ton a year ago in the US. Canadian recyclers are also feeling the pinch, but for them it is a two-sided coin. Low prices, dips in the mining sector, and global demand – items affecting the auto recycling economy in general – are global issues, but Canadians have an unsurprising advantage—their cooperative nature. The actual business of auto recycling in Canada is North American in nature says Steve Fletcher, managing director for the Automotive Recyclers of Canada (ARC). Fletcher says the economy is very much integrated with the US when it comes to suppliers, buyers, participants, and how they approach business. “We share a lot in common, but Canada is often times more progressive than the US in terms of how the industry is evolving,” he says. “Canadians have a strong ability to co-operate. We have common problems and approach it as, ‘So, how do I solve this’ rather than looking for blame.” Important progress towards levelling the playing field and professionalizing the industry has been mostly positive, but progress can be a drawback for some smaller operations not in the 24 » Solid Waste & Recycling

position to make sweeping regulatory changes to comply.

inclinations for minimum standards and best practices.

Auto recycling regulation hasn’t seen a significant overhaul since the 70s at which time minimal requirements were put in place to obtain a licence. Over the past five years, ARC has been encouraging the provincial governments to modernize their legislation and adopt its voluntary Canadian Auto Recyclers’ Environmental Code (CAREC)-essentially, a road map of how auto recyclers should improve compliance and demonstrate best practices.

“Our industry is unique in that the inventory required comes from endof-life vehicles,” says Fletcher. “We can’t order them; we have to find the vehicles, store them, and do the sales activity needed to make profit. When there are no standards, the person with the lowest operating standards can bid the most and we think 50 to 60 per cent of vehicles are not going to legitimate auto recyclers.”

“We are telling them there is a problem with the way vehicles are being depolluted,” says Fletcher. “People always want the metals, but the difficulty lies in how the vehicles are prepared for shredding and how the metallic recovery is done. There are many things in a car that need to be stewarded.” British Columbia was the first to implement a requirement to have an environmental management system in place about eight years ago. In March, Ontario passed a requirement for a processing standard for anyone in vehicle recycling, making it against the law to shred a car that has not been depolluted. PEI has a similar regulation in place requiring recyclers to meet updated environmental rules and regulations, and with three provinces on board the momentum is gaining. Other provinces are beginning to ramp up their

While the regulation is overwhelmingly positive, equalizing the standard and outlining environmental and legal responsibilities, for some smaller recyclers this may mean they close their doors, reduce their operating time, or sell their operations. There are approximately 1600 auto recyclers in Canada – an estimate, given there is no definition at the provincial level – and approximately 400 of them are ARC members, processing 40 per cent of the volume in Canada. The number or recyclers in general is down—five years ago ARC had 140 members in Ontario, for example, and now the number rests around 120. “The biannual CAREC audit weaned out seven or eight and we lose about four a year while gaining one or two,” says Fletcher. “Most of those who don’t renew have sold and are not operating or closed, or maybe only operating a day a week. Overall we are seeing

VEHICLE RECYCLING about a five per cent decline in sited facility counts.” Despite challenges, there has never been a better time to professionalize the industry. Cars are becoming more complex and their components are becoming more valuable—they are basically computers on wheels, says Fletcher. Cars have been light-weighted with plastic and carbon fibre – both with no recycling value – as well as more aluminum, which is suffering less price-wise than ferrous metals. But the newest and more influential change in technology is the increasing prevalence of hybrid batteries, which are not always profitable and can actually carry a cost for disposal. Interestingly, hybrid batteries are being repurposed for energy grid storage because at 70 per cent of their lives they cannot power a car but, connected in a group, can store energy. “There is a lot of research in that area,” says Fletcher, “and a lot of potential for alternative energy sources like wind or solar.” Luckily the nature of the auto recycling industry is such that once new technologies arrive on the markets, recyclers can have eight or nine years to monitor trends and decide how they will deal with them.

“When unibody vehicles came out everybody thought it would be the end of industry,” says Fletcher. “We will be processing 2016 cars eight, nine, ten years from now so there is lots of time to see the recalls, analyze requests, and search out vehicles for certain parts.”

“Whether you consider the changes good, bad, or indifferent, you have to be aware of them and if you want an exit strategy you have to run a regulated, clean facility,” says Fletcher. “You just need to know the trends and prepare yourself accordingly.” ●●

Cars are expected to become more complex over the next two to three years and as a result there is a huge outcry for data from manufacturers, who are often resistant to provide it.

International Roundtable on Auto Recycling

“We need the data required for us to sell more parts and compete,” he says. “This is primarily a North American issue. Around the world where there are EPR laws making manufacturers responsible for the product at the end of its life, manufacturers tend to supply more data and tell what is in the cars. That said, the rest of the world would love to be in North America’s position when it comes to part sales volume and progress. “We sell more parts off of a vehicle,” says Fletcher. “This is where they want to be in terms of profitability and developing the industry.” The Canadian industry will continue the push for standardization and work with the US with the understanding that that country is better equipped to lobby for significant change.

New in auto recycling is a growing effort to share information on a global scale. The International Roundtable on Auto Recycling meets every 18 months to discuss global and regional challenges and solutions and to collaborate on industry changes. Steve Fletcher, managing director of the Automotive Recyclers of Canada, acts as administrator of the project, which has met eight times in different locations around the world. “It brings the US, Canada, Europe, Japan, Malaysia, India, China, and other countries together over two days,” says Fletcher. “It has been an interesting process to find out what is going on in rest of world. “Sometimes when people get together and share ideas it is very clear there is a global industry. It is a really neat process we can extract from.” The next meeting in May 2016 is in Malaysia and the group is considering Canada next in 2017. For more information please visit

Managing Scrap Tire Waste through Rubber Devulcanization ON AVERAGE, each one of us generates nearly one scrap tire per year—and according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), there were more than 300 million scrap tires generated in North America in 2015, which is really quite staggering when you think about it. By Sam Visaisouk, CEO, Tyromer Inc.

Scrap tires are difficult to recycle and generally have limited reuse applications. As a consequence of limited recycling options, many

jurisdictions across North America continue to burn tires (using scrap tires as TDF or Tire-Derived Fuel). Ultimately, the burning process only recovers about 25 per cent of the energy that originally went into producing the tire. In fact, in order to promote the development of greener practices, the province of Ontario has banned the use of TDF. Devulcanization process When rubber is formed into a tire, » April / May 2016 » 25

VEHICLE RECYCLING it is vulcanized. This is a process in which rubber is mixed with sulfur and exposed to heat. The result is a hard, durable rubber product—perfect for tires. However, vulcanized rubber is difficult to recycle because it cannot be easily reformulated into raw materials. The problem of effectively and efficiently recycling tires has been explored for a long time. It wasn’t until Dr. Costas Tzoganakis, a chemical engineering professor from the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Ontario, discovered a rubber devulcanization process that unlocks the underlying performance characteristics of scrap tire rubber, that a major breakthrough was made.

Tyromer as a commercial product. Tyromer uses a supercritical carbon dioxide assisted thermal-mechanical extrusion process to convert rubber recovered from recycled scrap tires into Tire-Derived Polymer, or TDP. The conversion is 99 per cent efficient and no devulcanizing chemicals or solvents are used in the process. This is the only known costeffective and environmentally-friendly devulcanization technology that can reverse the effect of vulcanization. The ground-breaking process produces a highly versatile material that can be used to create a wide variety of end-use products.

Tyromer technology

Tyromer today

Tyromer technology, which is based on rubber devulcanization, was developed with the help of research funding provided by Ontario Tire Stewardship, the not for profit corporation that ensures scrap tires are responsibly recycled in the province of Ontario, and Ontario Centres of Excellence, an organization that connects entrepreneurs, start-ups, industry, academia, and investors to commercialize innovation and compete globally. Tyromer also formed a strategic collaboration with Kitchenerbased AirBoss, one of North America’s largest custom rubber compounders, who provided valuable technical assistance in the development of

In September 2015, Tyromer announced the opening of its new production line, housed inside the AirBoss Rubber Compounding facility on Glasgow Street in Kitchener/Waterloo, Ontario. Tyromer Waterloo Inc. represents the successful collaboration with the University of Waterloo, public (Ontario Tire Stewardship), and industry (AirBoss Rubber Compounding) sectors in transforming an academic invention into a global innovation in scrap tire rubber reuse and resource utilization. Tyromer has a very simple vision. Try to do something that creates a lasting and meaningful impact on the environment,

Battery Recycling on the Rise Terrapure VSC receives spent leadacid batteries and other lead-bearing materials into its lead recycling process. It also processes a wide variety of industrial wastes that are indigenous to the lead smelting process including materials high in carbon, calorific value, iron, or high pH material. The inherent chemical or residual heat values in these wastes are used as substitutes for materials such as natural gas, oil, metallurgical coke, or soda ash. 26 » Solid Waste & Recycling

The company utilizes the residual heat value in materials that are already considered waste to feed its kiln so as to substitute non-renewable resources. This benefits the environment by diverting hazardous waste from landfills or incineration and recovering the value of the wastes. “As part of Terrapure’s continuous improvement program, our VSC Facility is currently applying Six

and at the same time bring forward an opportunity to the local and global tire recycling communities at large. In the shorter term, Tyromer is looking to open a second factory in Windsor, Ontario, which could serve as its gateway to the United States, where Tyromer would use its own financing or work with partners to establish new locations. New tire option Managing scrap tire waste is still a problem for North America and it will be for China and India in the future. Governments have used grants, subsidies, and incentives to reduce scrap tire stockpiles. To prevent further stockpiling across North America, 50 per cent of all scrap tires are burned, which is more than 500 million tires globally. Just imagine the impact this has on air quality. With Tyromer, for the first time, massive quantities of rubber from scrap tires can be recovered without resorting to government subsidies and incentives or environmental compromise. Tyromer offers the rubber industry an opportunity to meet sustainability mandates while getting access to a cheaper rubber supply. The bottom line is, Tyromer offers a painless way to deal with a major environmental problem that will only get bigger as more tires hit the road. ●●

Sigma to improve processes and therefore the value we provide to our customers, including improvements to our environmental performance,” said Teresa Corsato of Terrapure. “As part of the battery recycling industry, Terrapure VSC is helping to divert 150 million automotive batteries from landfills.” About 99% of all spent lead batteries are recycled, and they can be recycled continued on page 34

Recycling Performance Measurement is Broken Ever notice the never-ending changes to packages on the grocery shelves? Are you amazed that you need a new electronic gadget every 12 months? Packaging, products, and their materials are changing at an astounding rate. For those of you managing recycling and waste operations, you are well aware of the rapid changes coming from producers. The key changes are lightweighting, material changes, and merging functionality. The impact of lightweighting is huge. For example, PET water bottle density has decreased 33 per cent to 50 per cent since 20021.

© Can Stock Photo Inc. / woodoo

The weight of 50” TVs has decreased a significant 33 per cent since 20102. As well, TVs have experienced changes in their material/technology from CRT and LCD, to plasma and LED. Two other major changes are the new material packages and their sizes, e.g., muli-laminant pouches and single servings. Reasons for this were outlined in the Morawski, et al report on “The Evolving Tonne” (May 2015). For printed paper and packaging there has been a 10 to 40 per cent decrease in density of materials since 20053. The range depends on where the measurements were taken (e.g., on truck, MRF tipping floor, bales). That means, for the same volume, the weight is 10 to 40 per cent less. Conversely, to recover one tonne of material takes

industry research ●● by / Rick Findlay, RFCL Innovations Inc. more units, space, and effort—for collection and MRFs. Functional design changes, particularly in electronics, is making it challenging to consistently define the product, e.g., what is a smartphone? Is it now a phone, camera, video player, music player, computer, health monitor? The downsizing and functional merging have changed the WEEE programs dramatically in the last five years. How we measure has not changed. Changing Waste Streams People in the waste and recycling industry have known about this for a few years now. We knew the way we measured and reported on the system was not providing accurate measures of what was happening. But we did not know why, by how much, its implications, or how to fix it. We started to become aware of our measurement follies around 2012/13 when Ontario data from WDO on the Blue Box and the Waste Electronics programs were indicating stagnant or dropping diversion tonnage, yet the costs were continuing to increase at rates that could not be explained by new contracts, labour rates, etc., and operators were telling us that they were processing more. From various analyses, e.g., sales units, densities, functionality, it has been clear that the amount of material being collected and processed has been increasing. So clearly the metrics and reporting have not done a good job of reflecting the changes and system performance. Our singular focus on reporting tonnes diverted has provided us with the wrong picture, including:

• Incomplete data for planning and managing MRFs and collection capacity – design is driven predominantly by volume – not weight. • Misguided or incomplete discussions about costs – cost per tonne will increase with lower densities, but does it mean cost per sales unit is going up? • Incorrect estimates of remaining landfill life – landfills fill up by volume, not weight. • Lack of understanding environmental impacts of waste streams. Performance Metrics Need Changing Not only does the singular focus on tonnes – tonnes diverted, cost per tonne – not meet the needs of our changing landscape, we have changing objectives. We also have multiple objectives— which do not align neatly. But that is ok. The objective of diverting waste from landfills or incineration has been clear. But we also need to minimize the environmental impacts, e.g., minimize toxic waste or reduce GHGs, and minimize costs. We are getting more data. This needs to be analyzed and turned into more accurate reporting that is aligned with the objectives. There have been a few recent studies in this area improving the data and metrics. Examples include the OWMA initiatives on Recycling Audit Guidelines and Waste Facilities, the previously mentioned Morawski study, » April / May 2016 » 27

●● industry research How Do We Go Forward? A good performance measurement system can be mapped out, and has been used in many industries by:

Image courtesy of RFCL Innovations.

and the CCME EPR study (including metrics). Getting better metrics and data on an ongoing basis, and then understanding the implications is critical to the industry’s players. This issue must be included when setting goals, planning equipment/facilities, managing operations, and of course, costing. Whether you are a municipality, recycling collector and/or MRF operator, landfill operator, hauler, or steward, the changes in the material


streams are happening. You are seeing it, and the way we measure and report on quantities and performance will indicate whether we are succeeding or not. The provincial and municipal governments need to consider this issue when developing the regulations, strategies, and waste management plans. Continuation of our old, limited data and method of reporting performance would guarantee we will not meet the policy objectives.

1. Identifying the multiple objectives. 2. Defining the goals per objective. 3.  Identifying the strategic, then operational metrics. 4.  Identifying Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) – don’t need to measure everything 5. Setting targets. 6. Assigning roles and responsibilities – who measures and reports what. Reporting with a balanced scorecard approach is a common method for systems with multiple objectives and will be more effective for all stakeholders as we move forward with the constantly changing environment. ●● Rick Findlay, CMC, president, RFCL Innovations Inc. Rick has provided expert consulting advice to the recycling and other sectors on operation design and performance management, across Canada and internationally for over 20 years.

Automotive recyclers call for federal action to eliminate import and use of asbestos brake pads in Canada Asbestos brake pads pose a health risk to recyclers managing end-of-life vehicles

To eliminate the asbestos related health risks associated with recycling endof-life vehicles (ELV) the Automotive Recyclers of Canada (ARC) is adding its voice in support of a call for federal policies to effectively eliminate the import and use of asbestos in Canada. Every year approximately 1.6 million vehicles reach their end of life in Canada. These vehicles require proper end-of-life management including “depollution,” dismantling for parts salvage and metals recycling.  Amongst materials such as fuels, oils, mercury switches, 28 » Solid Waste & Recycling

and air-conditioning refrigerants (such as chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) automotive recyclers must also contend with brake pads that may contain asbestos. While vehicle manufacturers do not install asbestos brake pads, one of the largest categories of asbestos containing products imported into Canada is aftermarket brake pads. Canada imported more than $100-million in asbestos brake pads and linings between 2005 and 2015. Imports of asbestos containing brake pads into Canada continue to increase unabated.

On April 5, 2016 the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change promulgated regulations requiring automotive recyclers to recycle ELV to set environmental standards. These standards include the removal of asbestos brake pads prior to compaction of vehicle hulks in preparation for shipment to metals recyclers. Steve Fletcher, managing director of the Automotive Recyclers of Canada notes, “For an auto recycler there is no way to know whether a brake pad contains asbestos or not. In Ontario, every pad continued on page 34

regulatory developments ●●

New Brunswick Establishes Electronics Recycling Program The Minister of the Environment and local government in New Brunswick has established a waste management program for electronics that is based on the same extended producer responsibility principles as the paint and used oil recycling programs in the province. New Brunswick is the last province in Canada to establish an electronics recycling program. The new program will be managed by brand owners and overseen by Recycle New Brunswick and is expected to be in operation by the fall of 2016. The program will permit residents to dispose of unwanted electronics (including televisions, tablets, computers, and digital cameras) at retail outlets. Once returned, brand owners will be responsible for sending the electronics for recycling. The Minister in New Brunswick has publicly stated that the objective is to ensure consumers don’t face unexpected costs when they purchase an item, and has mandated that recycling costs be included in product price. New Brunswick already has integrated fees in its programs for paint and oil, and Quebec integrates fees in its e-waste program. Under established recycling programs elsewhere, however, industry runs the programs and consumers are charged a fee at the time of purchase to cover the cost of recycling when the product reaches the end of its life. However, retailers are objecting to the electronics recycling program on the basis that they view it as hiding the recycling fee from the consumer by including it in the cost of an item. In response, the Minister has said retailers are free to make consumers aware of the cost. Retailers also argue that New Brunswick’s program forces them to advertise a different price

by / Rosland H. Cooper, LLB

in New Brunswick for in-store and online electronics purchases compared with other provinces. This results in the advertised price for an electronic product in New Brunswick being higher than the advertised price for the same product from the same retailer in another province. Prince Edward Island Modifies Formula for Beverage Container Deposits Prince Edward Island’s Minister of Communities, Land and Environment has, through Bill 21, amended the Beverage Containers Act and introduced a new formula to determine the amount of beverage container deposits that are required. The new formula combines a fixed deposit amount that is refundable to the consumer (either 5 or 10 cents, depending on the size and contents of the container) with a new prescribed container recycling fee. Federal tax will no longer be included in these calculations. CCME Studies Extended Producer Responsibility Programs The Canadian Counsel of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) is in the process of compiling information regarding extended producer responsibility and product stewardship programs, and considering common and consistent approaches across Canada. In 2009, CCME approved a Canada-wide Action Plan for Extended Producer Responsibility, which governments are now implementing. Since the adoption of the Plan, nine out of ten provinces have legislated extended producer responsibility programs or requirements, and the number of product categories covered by legislated extended producer responsibility programs or requirements has almost tripled with almost half of

the product categories identified in the Plan being covered. CCME has a Waste Management Task Group that is undertaking work with stakeholders to achieve greater consistency on key elements of extended producer responsibility and product stewardship programs. Some of these elements include product lists for extended producer responsibility materials, definitions, program monitoring and reporting metrics, and auditing protocols. CCME is also looking to identify opportunities and share best practices for implementing extended producer responsibility programs in northern and remote areas. CCME is also gathering information on the management of construction, renovation, and demolition waste. A report is expected from CCME on March 4, 2016. Manitoba Designates Hazardous Wastes Regulation 195/2015, the Hazardous Waste Regulation in Manitoba, will come into force on May 25, 2016. The Regulation states that a product, substance, or organism is designated as a “hazardous waste” for the purposes of the Dangerous Goods Handling and Transportation Act, if the person who owns or has care or control of the product, substance, or organism intends to store, treat, recycle, or dispose of it and it falls within one of the categories listed in the Regulation. continued on page 34 » April / May 2016 » 29

●● organic matters

A Taxing Proposition that Bites The New Year brought the usual trail of resolutions whose resolve is severely tested and usually melted by the time we hit Shrove Tuesday. A common resolution is to eat less and exercise more. Another common resolution is to manage our money better. Latte economics would have it that avoiding that daily $5 drink would keep a lot more of our money in our pockets. A cool hybrid resolution would be to eat better and throw out less. It could save each of us at least $10/week. There are many culprits when it comes to throwing out food. Ultimately the key responsibility is personal through buying too much, not knowing how to cook, and hating leftovers. However, we can look upstream behind the happy facades of food retailers and see (and often not see) a lot of food being wasted. The practice of food retailers wasting food is so institutionalized that most don’t even realize it. It is largely done under the auspices of public health but this thinking is so warped it appears retailers think cosmetic issues with food can be fit under that umbrella as well. Just last week I was trolling around the produce section at a grocery store in Saskatoon (part of my resolution to eat better) and saw the produce man pulling shiny apples off the display pile and into a garbage box and replacing them with new shiny apples. The Zero Waste Council recently came out with a study titled, “Tax Incentive Options for Charitable Food Donations:

by / Paul vander Werf

Making the Business Case,” and have been advocating that food retailers get an (additional) tax break to donate leftover edible food to various charities. It should be pointed out that they already get a tax break for their donations. However, a key argument made is that businesses, “often pay more to donate food than to throw it out” and on that basis need some additional tax relief. Their argument serves to highlight a significant food retailing structural issue that somehow there is choice between feeding hungry people and throwing food into a landfill to feed hungry bacteria. A second issue is that, on this basis, food retailers have created two classes of food: one they can sell to fortunate citizens, and a second class they can feed to hungry people or hungry bacteria. It raises the significant ethical question, do hungry people deserve to be fed second-class food? As it stands now, the only thing missing is a program whereby food retailers send leftover food home with their employees to be fed to their pets. I don’t know how the Council got hoodwinked and co-opted by food retailers (I presume) into developing and promoting this idea. By definition zero waste is “a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused.” For food products to meet this ethos it is clear significant work is required. Firstly, a re-design of food retailing is required so it better matches the food it sells with customer demands. Secondly, consumer food appearance expectations

need to be dialed down from the idealistic (not to mention unsustainable and unrealistic) way food is currently sold. It’s straight out of Disney. Thirdly, best before date labelling needs a tear down and rebuild so it applies only to relevant products and is understandable by consumers. All this additional tax incentive does is allow food retailers to perpetuate their bad habits and get paid to do it. As consumers we already pay for both food disposal and donation. All that tax relief for food retailers would accomplish is to make consumers pay twice: once for donating the food and then again to make up the tax shortfall. Somehow it needs to become unacceptable for edible food to be directed to the garbage (not to mention composting). That unacceptability, if not taken up voluntarily, may need to work its way into regulation. That’s much more in line with zero waste and as well as being in the spirit of “you are your brother’s keeper.” It would force a change in the food retailer’s bottom line so the stupid choice between landfilling food and using it to fill an empty (human) stomach do not have to be made. Is it too much to ask for a little more stick and a little less carrot? ●● Paul is the owner of the environmental consultancy 2cg. He is also a PhD candidate at Western University and developing strategies to prevent food from becoming food waste.

30 » Solid Waste & Recycling

Microturbines: A Clean Energy Option for Landfills Landfill methane is produced when organic materials such as paper, yard, household, and food waste are decomposed by bacteria under anaerobic conditions. When left to escape into the air, this methane becomes a powerful greenhouse gas. Microturbines are an innovative technology that can harness the gas to fuel power plants, manufacturing facilities, and even the equipment at the landfill itself. How is this feasible? Microturbines are small combustion turbines approximately the size of a refrigerator. They are comprised of a compressor, combustor, turbine, recuperator (a device that captures waste heat to improve the efficiency of the compressor stage), and a generator. They work as follows: fuel enters a combustion chamber; the turbine can run on natural gas, propane, biogas, diesel, or kerosene—really almost anything with a BTU content that burns. The hot combustion gases expand and spin a turbine, which is connected to the shaft of an electrical generator. The exhaust transfers heat to incoming air via a recuperator. Air then passes through a compressor and is warmed by the exhaust gases before entering the combustion chamber, preheating the combustion process and increasing simple cycle efficiency. Providing unique advantages over other technologies for landfills, microturbines are especially valuable in cases where landfill gas flow is low or has low methane content. They are modular and available in incremental capacities for multiple-unit stacks, so that single or multiple microturbines can be configured to adapt to gas flow and satisfy onsite power requirements. They may be a more viable option at smaller and older landfills where landfill gas quality and quantity would

technology ●● by / Darren Jamison

not support more traditional power generation technologies. They may also be feasible at larger landfill gas sites that have excess gas that would otherwise be flared. Additionally, microturbines achieve low emissions without a need for exhaust aftertreatment. For example, NOx emission levels from microturbines are lower than those from a landfill gas flare. The technology can operate on landfill gas with up to 35 per cent methane content. Furthermore, the utilization of microturbine waste heat in a combined heat and power (CHP) application can significantly increase efficiency levels and enhance project economics. For more than a decade and a half, microturbines have been proving their value at numerous landfill project sites around the world. In 2002, some of the first landfill microturbines were installed at the 416-acre Calabasas Landfill in Agoura, CA and served to generate enough electricity to operate the onsite landfill gas collection system blowers. Notably, the gas extracted from this landfill had a methane content of only 25 per cent, highlighting the utility of this technology for use on gas that would otherwise be flared. Though the site was decommissioned in early 2015 to accommodate a larger plant, the cost-effective microturbine power plant was very successful and the solution paid for itself in just a few years. In 2007, the La Ciotat Landfill in La Ciotat, France installed 18 microturbines that collectively generate approximately 1MW of electricity daily, enough power for 1,000 French homes. At this site, the landfill gas was previously flared, as its methane content was as low as 30 per cent; but once again, this is no roadblock for

La Ciotat Landfill. Photo courtesy of Capstone Turbine Corporation.

microturbines. Based on the success of this project, similar microturbine applications have been installed at 12 other landfills in France and Belgium. In 2012, the Shoreline Landfill in Mountain View, CA installed a pair of microturbines that jointly generate 130 kW of power. This is used to operate the landfill’s irrigation and sewage pump stations and allows the landfill to export power to the grid. And in 2014, a Finnish energy company installed microturbine technology at a landfill project in Jyvaskyla, Finland, providing a CHP solution that generates electricity and utilizes thermal energy from the exhaust to provide district heating. With their proven abilities for electricity and CHP generation, microturbines will likely continue to serve as an attractive option for landfill owners and operators. ●● Darren Jamison is president and CEO of Capstone Turbine Corporation, the world’s leading producer of low-emission microturbine systems and the first to market commercially viable microturbine energy products. » April / May 2016 » 31

●● around the world

Sustainable Waste Management System in Athens, Greece Athens, the capital of Greece, has a population of 667,000 people which doubles in the summer from tourism. Waste management, therefore, is a very important task. The municipality provides a waste management system to collect 311,000 tonnes of annual waste 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, using a fleet of 45 waste collection vehicles driven by 245 drivers. The vehicles and staff are based at the central depot and offices on Iera Odos Street in the Egaleo district of Athens. This is near all the central road networks aiding an efficient and productive delivery of waste management services across the city. The municipality has two waste collection rounds for non-recyclable waste and two rounds for recyclable waste. These rounds are based on a collection frequency of 167 waste collection programmes, so waste may be collected in certain districts in the night, the early morning, or mid-morning. In some areas, such as Syntagma Square and Omonia Square, waste is collected three times a day because of the large quantities produced by hotels, restaurants, and shops. Waste is also

collected in the afternoon from markets held daily across the various districts once they close. The municipality has provided green coloured 1100 litre containers for the non-recyclable waste fraction, positioned at communal collection points along the street. Blue coloured 1100 litre containers are provided for the commingled collection of dry mixed recyclables. The non-recyclable and recyclable waste fractions are collected using rearloading type waste collection vehicles. The bulk of the waste collection fleet are 16m3 rear loaders fitted with trunnion / bin lifting equipment mounted onto Mercedes Econic 1828 4x2 two-axle chassis powered by liquified natural gas to reduce emissions and the carbon footprint. The remainder of the fleet are 16m3 rear loader equipment complete with trunnion / bin lifting equipment mounted onto a conventional diesel powered Iveco Eurocargo 190EL28 4x2 two-axle chassis. These waste collection vehicles feature a bin washing device in the rear tailgate canopy. The municipality also uses smaller type waste collection vehicles of 7m3 capacity mounted onto Iveco Eurocargo 4x2 two-

Photo submitted by Timothy Byrne.

32 » Solid Waste & Recycling

by / Timothy Byrne

axle chassis. These collect waste from the streets with narrow access or which have many apartment buildings where cars are double parked thus restricting the access of a larger waste collection vehicle. The waste collection crew comprises a driver and two loaders for the larger waste collection vehicles and, in some cases, for the smaller satellite waste collection vehicles, a driver and one loader. The waste collection operatives position the 1100 litre containers containing either the non-recyclable or recyclable waste fraction at the rear of the waste collection vehicle to be emptied by the vehicles’ lifting equipment. Once emptied by the lifting equipment, the containers are positioned at the communal collection point to be refilled. Any excess waste next to the full 1100 litre waste collection containers is also cleared, leaving the area clean and tidy. At night the driver takes the fully loaded waste collection vehicle to either the Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plant at Ano Liosia to the north of Athens or to the Schistou waste transfer station to discharge the vehicle’s load. Both of these facilities are operated by ESDNA, the intermunicipally owned waste management company responsible for treating municipal waste across the region of Attica. The Ano Liosia MBT plant is one of the largest in Europe, helping Greece to meet its EU landfill diversion targets, and provides a sustainable waste treatment system for Athens and Attica. The Schistou waste transfer station has a daily processing

around the world ●●

“The landfill site complies fully with the EU Landfill Directive and flares methane off site and treats leachate on site in its own desalination plant.” capacity of 600 tonnes and the waste delivered to this facility is transported daily by a fleet of ESDNA Scania 8x4 Multilift LHT320.56 hook loaders to the Fyli sanitary landfill site at Ano Liosia or to the MBT plant at Ano Liosia for processing / treatment. In the day, the waste collection vehicles deliver their waste directly to the Fyli sanitary landfill site at Ano Liosia, also operated by ESDNA and the largest in Greece. This disposes of all municipal waste which cannot be processed in the MBT plant, produced across Athens as well as from the sixty six municipalities across Attica. The landfill site complies fully with the requirements of the EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) and flares methane off site and treats leachate on site in its own desalination plant. The smaller type waste collection vehicles of 7m3 capacity mounted onto Iveco Eurocargo 4x2 two axle chassis collect two loads of waste per programme. To provide a more logistical solution to these smaller vehicles travelling to the MBT plant, waste transfer station, or sanitary landfill site, once full they return to the main depot and offices in Iera Odos Street in Egaleo. Upon arrival, they discharge their loads into one of four 46m3 rear loading semi trailers. These are powered by an auxiliary engine so

Photo submitted by Timothy Byrne.

the tractor unit which hauls the rear loading semi trailer to the MBT plant, waste transfer station, or sanitary landfill site can be used on other duties e.g. taking one of the sister trailers to be emptied. The 46m3 rear loading semi trailers hold 25 – 27 tonnes of waste. Once these are fully loaded, an Iveco Trakker two-axle tractor unit hauls the trailer to either the MBT plant at Ano Loisia, or the Schistou waste transfer station to be discharged during the night or to the Fyli sanitary landfill site for discharge in the daytime. The municipality also operates a mobile waste container service for larger waste producers with a variety of waste containers available to suit larger establishments such as hospitals and industry. These containers can be delivered and collected from site using a conventional Scania P94 4x2 twoaxle skip loader vehicle, a Scania P94 4x2 two-axle hook loader vehicle, or an Iveco Trakker 6x4 three-axle hook loader vehicle.

There is also a facility at Iera Odos – Egaleo for the discharge of bulky waste like waste furniture, which is collected by smaller sized non-compaction vehicles. The furniture is reloaded at Iera Odos – Egaleo for bulk hauling to the Fyli sanitary landfill site. In conclusion, the municipality provides a sustainable waste management system for Athens, which will be further developed in the near future with the construction of a purpose built waste transfer station, where municipal waste will be discharged by waste collection vehicles and reloaded into top loading 56m3 waste transfer trailers. It will be bulk hauled to the MBT plant at Ano Loisia or to the Fyli sanitary landfill site, thus optimizing and achieving higher levels of productivity from the waste collection service as well as reducing damage to the conventional fleet of larger waste collection vehicles from having to drive off road at the landfill site. ●●

The CompuWeigh System: Software that Outweighs the Competition


The Standard in Weighing and Routing Software 410.329.1300 • » April / May 2016 » 33

●● advertiser index Waste Watch

Continued from page 9

Five Tips to Stay Alive is available for download on the SWANA website in flyer, poster, and social media banner formats for easy sharing in promoting safety to colleagues and other industry professionals. For more information on SWANA and its Safety Matters program, please visit ●●

Regulatory Developments Continued from page 29

The Regulation also addresses the registration of generators of hazardous waste and hazardous waste storage requirements, as well as container requirements and storage deadlines for hazardous waste. There are also provisions dealing with licences to transport hazardous waste, including insurance requirements and the duties of licence carriers and consignees to refuse to accept waste in cases of discrepancy. Ontario Increases Fees on Hazardous Waste Ontario’s Minister of the Environment and Climate Change has posted a notice amending the General Waste

Management Regulation, Ontario Regulation 347. The revisions include a significant increase in the tonnage component of the hazardous waste fee from $10 per tonne to $20 per tonne as of January 1, 2016, and from $20 to $30 per tonne as of January 1, 2017. The notice also announces the updating of the Registration Guidance Manual for Generators of Liquid Industrial and Hazardous Waste to reflect these amendments. ●●

Battery Recycling on the Rise

Continued from page 26

over and over again without degrading the quality Unlike auto recyclers, which suffer in volatile commodity markets, Terrapure VSC is somewhat insulated from these values as a secondary processor of spent lead acid batteries and not a primary smelter. “Basically, we will continue to receive and process spent batteries as long as there are vehicles on the road and the battery’s lifespan remains limited,” said Corsato. “Similarly on the commercial side, after we’ve transformed the spent batteries into lead, demand for the like-new material remains steady due

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to the multitude of lead-consuming industries, new applications, and new technologies, making lead a fairly market-resilient base metal. ●●

Did you Know? • Up to 99% of spent batteries get recycled annually. • 150 million auto batteries get recycled every year • Recycling keeps 2.6 million tons of batteries containing lead out of the landfills

News Clip

Continued from page 28

will need to be removed and where the recycler encounters an asbestos brake pad there is inevitably going to be some release of asbestos particulate into the air.” adding, “This is an unacceptable and wholly unnecessary risk. Asbestos brake pads should simply not exist in Canada. We are calling for the federal Ministers of Health and Environment and Climate Change to act now.” The Automotive Recyclers of Canada represents over 400 vehicle recyclers and dismantlers from across Canada. ARC members collectively recycle an average of 400,000 vehicles each year thereby avoiding over 1 million metric tonnes of greenhouse gases associated with producing metals from raw materials. For more information, visit●●


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