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How has  the  computers  changed  how  graphic  design  is  produced     In  this  essay  I  will  be  discussing  ‘how  has  the  computers  changed  how  graphic  design  is  produced’.  I   will  hope  to  see  different  ways  that  people  have  used  graphic  design  across  time.  I  want  to  know  the   people  that  were  involved  in  creating  computer  graphic  design.  So  hopefully  I  will  be  able  to  answer   these  questions  and  also  link  it  to  my  work.   In  the  modern  day  world,  it  is  hard  to  deny  the  presence  of  Graphic  design  in  our  daily  lives.  Graphic   design  is  everywhere,  in  every  package  and  product  of  the  modern  world.  It  fills  every  walking   moment  of  our  day.  Although  the  graphic  design  discipline  was  introduced  less  than  a  century  ago,   the  world  has  since  come  to  rely  upon  it.  The  introduction  of  new  technologies  and  software’s  in  the   field  of  Graphic  Design  has  made  life  easier  for  Graphic  Designers;  however,  it  wasn’t  the  case  some   decades  ago.  The  lack  of  computer  technologies  inspired  to  creativity  and  resulted  in  some  of  the   most  remarkable  designs  and  innovations.  Therefore,  it  is  important  to  acknowledge  the  people  who   played  an  important  role  in  setting  the  principles  of  modern  day  Graphic  Design.  Here  is  a  list  of   people  who  are  considered  as  the  most  influential;  in  other  words,  true  legends  of  the  Graphic   Design  industry.       Graphics  is  defined  as  the  production  of  visual  statements  on  some  surface,  such  as  a   wall,  canvas,  pottery,  computer  screen,  paper,  stone  or  landscape.  It  includes  everything  that  relates   to  creation  of  signs,  charts,  logos,  graphs,  drawings,  art,  symbols,  and  geometric  designs  and  so   on.  Graphic  design  is  the  art  or  profession  of  combining  text,  pictures,  and  ideas  in  advertisements,   publication,  or  website.  At  its  widest  definition,  it  therefore  includes  the  whole  history  of  art,   although  painting  and  other  aspects  of  the  subject  are  more  usually  treated  as  art  history.     In  the  olden  days  they  used  a  method  called  printing;  this   is  the  process  of  making  artworks  by  printing   on  paper  and  other  materials  or  surfaces.  Except  in  the   case  of  mono-­‐typing,  the  process  is  capable  of  producing   multiples  of  the  same  pieces,  which  is  called  a  print.  Each   piece  is  not  a  copy  but  an  original  since  it  is  not  a   reproduction  of  another  work  of  art  and  is  technically   known  as  an  impression.  Painting  or  drawings,  on  the   other  hand,  create  a  unique  original  piece  of  artwork.   Prints  are  created  from  a  single  original  surface,  known   technically  as  a  matrix.  Common  types  of  matrices   include:  plates  of  metal,  usually  copper  or  zinc  for   engraving  or  etching;  stone,  used  for  lithography;  blocks  of  wood   This image of a horse was for  woodcuts,  linoleum  for  linocuts  and  fabric  plates  for  screen-­‐ taken from the Lascaux printing.  But  there  are  many  other  kinds,  discussed  below.  Works   caves in the stone age times.   printed  from  a  single  plate  create  an  edition,  in  modern  times   usually  each  signed  and  numbered  to  form  a  limited  edition.  Prints   may  also  be  published  in  book  form,  as  artist's  books.  A  single  print  could  be  the  product  of  one  or   multiple  techniques.    Various  methods  are  used  to  create  and  combine  words,  symbols,  and  images  to  create  a  visual   representation  of  ideas  and  messages.  A  graphic  designer  may  use  typography,  visual  arts  and  page   layout  techniques  to  produce  the  final  result.  Graphic  design  often  refers  to  both  the  process   (designing)  by  which  the  communication  is  created  and  the  products  (designs)  which  are  generated.      

In the  mid-­‐80s,  technology  came  together  to  create  the  Corel  PageMaker  computer  application.  This   started  a  revolution  in  graphic  design  by  drastically  changing  the  process.  When  desktop  publishing   (DTP)  was  born,  many  aspects  of  traditional  graphic  design  were  laid  to  rest.  This  change  in  tools   came  with  a  change  in  the  daily  tasks  of  graphic  designers,  as  well  as  a  change  in  the  educational   requirements  and  focus  of  study.   Computers  simplified  the  process  because  more  of  the  work  could  be  completed  in  house.  The   computer  applications  included  fonts,  font  sizes  and  leading  options,  eliminating  the  need  for  a   typesetter.  The  process  also  became  simpler  because  you  could  begin  working  on  the  final  project   immediately.  The  flexibility  of  computer  applications  allows  you  to  easily  make  changes.  The  digital   format  of  the  projects  made  receiving  the  clients’  approval  faster  because  you  could  now  send  it  to   them  electronically.  All  of  these  changes  streamlined  the  process  and  made  it  more  economical.   Computers  allow  one  person  to  do  all  of  the  tasks  that  used  to  require  an  entire  team  of  designers.   Computer  technology  marched  forward,  and  graphic-­‐design  software  improved  along  with  it.   QuarkXPress  replaced  PageMaker,  giving  graphic  designers  more  control  and  flexibility  in  their  work.   More  than  a  decade  after  that,  Adobe  released  InDesign,  which  has  increased  functionality  and  is   now  widely  used  in  the  graphic  design  industry.       Charles  Csuri  was  known  as  the  father  of  computer  graphics.  Also  known  as  Chuck  Csuri,  he  is  a   pioneer  in  the  field  of  computer  art  and  a  former  All  American  college  football  player.  In  1964  he   experimented  with  computer  graphics  technology  and  the  following  year,  he  started  making   computer  graphic  films.  His  research  into  computer  animation  and  graphics  has  won  him   international  reknown.  With  support  from  the  National  Science  Foundation,  the  Navy  and  the  Air   force  Office  Scientific  research,  over  22  years  he  directed  research  into  computer  graphics  with   computer  science  graduates.  The  results  of  this  research  have  been  widely  used  e.g.  in  flight   simulators,  computer-­‐aided  design,  magnetic  resonance  imaging,  architecture  and  special  effects.   Many  well  known  animation  films,  like  Star  Wars  and  Toy  Story,  have  had  graduates  from  his   program  working  on  them.     The  artists  that  I  have  decided  to  look  at  are  Patrick  Boyer  and  Sean   Rodwell.  Patrick  Boyer  was  acknowledged  as  one  of  the  most  influential   designers  by  Web  Design  Magazine,  he  began  his  career  as  a  Designer/   Art  Director  in  1998  through  "Urban  Cowboy",  an  international   acclaimed  creative  design  identity.  With  a  strong  background  in   Marketing  and  Communication,  Patrick  has  used  his  distinct  style  and   knowledge  of  the  industry  to  develop  a  growing  reputation  as  "one  of   the  hottest  designers  around"  (Digital  Creative  Arts).  He  has  been   featured  and  profiled  in  numerous  press  coverage  including  magazine   covers  and  features  on  DVDs  and  books  for  Illustrations,  Branding,  Art   Direction,  Fashion,  Animation  and  Design.  Clients:  Coke,  Coors,  Wines  of   France,  DaimlerChrysler,  Intimissimi,  Ministry  of  Sound,  Mercedes-­‐Benz.       I  chose  to  look  at  Patrick  Boyer  as  one  of  my  graphic  designers  because  I   wanted  to  see  an  artist  that  uses  various  objects  in  a  piece  of  artwork   that  brings  the  image  to  one,  and  also  the  same  object  but  in  different  ways  to   see  different  outcomes  that  I  can  get.   A  piece  of  Patrick     Boyer’s  work.      

Situated where  the  Lincolnshire  countryside  gives  way  to  the   sea,  Aeriform  first  opened  its  doors  in  1997.Founded  by  Sean   Rodwell,  the  studio  works  extensively  in  the  field  of  high   impact  illustration  on  a  range  of  advertising,  fashion,  music  &   editorial  projects.  Constantly  evolving  through  technological   and  aesthetic  advances,  we  aim  to  provide  dynamic  visuals  to   our  base  of  high  profile  clients,  old  &  new.  We  also  love  to  get   involved  with  smaller  independent  companies  that  require  a   visual  boost.    

A piece  of  Sean   Rodwell’s   work.  

I chose  to  look  at  the  work  of  Sean  Rodwell  because  I  wanted   to  study  an  Illustrator  that  works  in  a  modern  style.    I  like  the   way  he  uses  his  imagination  to  create  his  images,  I  also  like  the   wide  range  of  colours  that  he  uses,  it  brings  the  image  to  life.   The  image  has  quiet  a  lot  of  colour  init,  but  because  of  the  way   Sean  Rodwell  designed  this  image,  it  allows  the  image  to  be  able  to  use  all   the  colour  without  making  the  image  look  like  its  over-­‐the-­‐top.    This  type  of   work  could  really  help  me  a  lot  in  my  project.  

In  conclusion  I  have  learnt  how  people  used  to  do  graphic  design  and  different  ways  that  they  have   been  published.  I  have  also  learnt  that  one  of  the  main  people  involved  with  computer  graphic   design  is  Charles  Csuri  and  he  played  a  big  part  in  the  graphical  world.  Computers  have  allowed   people  to  design  more  sophisticated  images  and  outcomes.  With  everything  that  I  have  learnt  and   found  out,  I  can  now  implement  into  my  work.    



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